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Disillusionment in Postmodern American Literature
The latter half of the twentieth century saw a raft of dramatic changes to American culture and society, bringing with them new forms living and thinking about the world. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing onward, the country saw a deep disillusionment with the suburban trappings of contemporary America, as Cold ar anxiety combined with rampant consumerism to instill a sense of moral vacuity, which was reflected in a variety of literature from the time. In particular, John Updike's Rabbit, Run, Richard Yates' Revolutionary Road, Raymond Carver's short story "Neighbors," and Don DeLilo's hite Noise all explore how the ramifications of this widespread disillusionment play out in the lives of their characters. The narratives demonstrate the paradoxical nightmare of postmodern America; just as the trappings of the so-called "American Dream" crop up in the form of the suburb, the overwhelming dread of the Cold ar…
Adams, Rachel. "The Ends of America, the Ends of Postmodernism." Twentieth Century
Literature. 53.3 (2007): 248-272,230. Print.
Carver, Raymond. Will You Please Be Quiet, Please?. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1992.
However, towards the end of the poem, readers were given a glimpse of hope from the Voice, whose awakening from the sleep -- that is, desire to die -- had been interrupted, and his reflections on his disillusionment were once again converted to hope and possibly, continuing perseverance to struggle in life.
In contrast to Frost's dominant theme of disillusionment in life, Bishop's "The Fish" is a poem that centers on one's perseverance to pursue a meaningful life despite its hardships and suffering. Life was depicted in general, and the symbol of the fish was utilized in order to provide more meaningful and effective demonstration of life struggle. Life struggle mirrored through the fish symbol gave power to Bishop's imagery of life as both dangerous and wonderful, in the same manner that the sea becomes an essential yet dangerous environment for a fish.
The first lines of the poem are…
Booth asserts that while Ole's acceptance of death "seems incomprehensible to Nick" (Booth) his "resolve, although leaving too many questions unanswered, is portrayed as admirable and mature" (Booth). In addition to this, Booth maintains that Ole's death and is "in keeping with themes that are recurrent in Hemingway's work" (Booth). If we can accept death in the way that Ole does, we accept the fact that death is simply a part of life and there is essentially nothing we can do about it.
Another character that deserves mention in the story is Nick. Brooks contends that there is more to the story than this, however, in that the story is also a story about Nick. Brooks adds that Nick fits into the story through the process of "discovery of evil and disorder" (Brooks). Hal Blythe agrees with the importance of Nick's inclusion in the story. He asserts, that Hemingway…
Aldrige, John. "The Sun Also Rises: Sixty Years Later." Readings on Earnest Hemingway. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1997.
Beegel, Susan. "Ernest Hemingway." GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 22, 2009. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Blythe, Hal. Hemingway's the Killers. The Explicator. 2003. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 22, 2009.
Disillusionment and the Harlem enaissance and Post-Modernism
Distortion of the American Dream
The American dream has been as old as the American constitution. From the text, there is a highlight of the American dream and its distortion over years. It is presented as an old dream, which is as old as the Constitution of the United States of America. According to the text, those who framed the American dream were engaged the country in a state where everyone will gain the good as from working hard. Through working hard, people will be able to make it possible to attain different levels of their fulfillments. Nonetheless, today many things have changed with the changes in time (Hemingway, 2013). With the aspects of capitalism and materialism taking root in every society, the dream has been distorted. The possible supports for a statement that many of the people live within their required states…
Hemingway, E. (2013). Hills Like White Elephants: Short Story. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada.
Wicks, R. (2003). Modern French Philosophy: From Existentialism to Postmodernism. Oxford: One world Publications.
Coatesville" John Jay Chapman "The Letter Birmingham Jail" Martin Luther
The United States of America has meant a wide variety of things to several different people, particularly to those who have had to call its shores home. The initial promise of this land -- as one of redemption, as a place where the lofty ideas engraved within such documents as the Bill of Rights and the Constitution have never been fully realized by a widening number of people who have never been treated with the degree of parity and ideals within them -- wasted little time in going sour. Virtually any Native American can tell you: there can never be justice on stolen land. In spite of this fact, men such as Martin Luther King, Jr. have written their own documents (such as "Letter From A Birmingham Jail," a discourse about the need for public non-violent protest) attempting…
Chapman, John Jay. "Coatesville." Wake Forest University. 28. Oct. 2011. http://www.wfu.edu/%7Ezulick/index.html
King Jr., Martin Luther. "Letter From A Birmingham Jail." University or Pennsylvania Africana Studies. 28 Oct. 2011. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html
bad it's to say that something is morally ambiguous. Moreover, something which is perceived as morally ambiguous has reasonable grounds and one could say, justifiable means for existing. Let's take, for instance, an individual who although tends to do good deeds usually, is forced by certain circumstances to behave badly: that is morally ambiguous. One such example, however general, is the presence of the courtesans in Higuchi Ichiyo's "Takekurabe" or "Child's Play," as translated in English. Although prostitutes are morally blamed, in Higuchi's story they are somewhat responsible for "how these great establishments prosper" since "the rickshaws pull up night and day. "(Higuchi 1807) Thus, the courtesans deserve certain credit for the economic survival of the Yoshiwara district, making their presence necessary and, as Higuchi acknowledges, "most of the people here, in fact, have some connection with the quarter. The menfolk do odd jobs at the less dignified houses." (Higuchi…
" In more general terms, Conrad uses Marlow to give his tale, neither the full close of the plot of earlier fiction, nor James' more limited completeness in the formal structure, but a radical and continuing exposure to the incompleteness of experience and the impossibility of fully understanding it." (Watt, 1978)
The strength of subjectivity as far as perception was concerned is another modern theme. It is safe to state that Conrad managed to prove the profound importance of the subjective dimension in a very complex manner. The stream of consciousness and first person technique which he applied had as a result a process through which the reader completely identified with the inner life of the character.
Naturally all certainty and objectivity is lost in the process and not only does the reader not know where he is going, but he embraces the upcoming transformations as exciting surprises. From this…
Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Norton Critical Edition. Norton and Company Press. 2006
Levenson, M. "The value of facts in the Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol 40. no. 3. Dec, 1985. pp. 261-280. University of California Press.
Watt, I. "Marlow, Henry James, and "Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol. 33, no.2, sep. 1978, pp.159-174. University of California Press
Watt, I. "Impressionism and symbolism in Heart of Darkness." Conrad in the nineteenth century. Berkeley. University of California Press. 1979
He questions whether he should try to clear the court of corruption or just give up and end his life now. It is this emotional doubt that drives Hamlet to act deranged at times, but he overcomes it, and almost manages to answer the difficult questions posed in his life. In Act V, when calm returns, Hamlet repents his behavior (V, ii, 75-78) (Lidz, 164).
In Lidz's book Freud is quoted as saying "that if anyone holds and expresses to others an opinion of himself such as this [Hamlet's "Use every man after his desert, and who shall escape whipping?"], he is ill, whether he is speaking the truth whether he is being more or less unfair to himself." Though Hamlet has proved his intellectual stability, he is quite obviously emotionally "ill."
This emotional illness and uncertainty is why Hamlet procrastinates in the killing of Claudius. On his way to…
Babcock, Weston. A Tragedy of Errors. Purdue Research Foundation 1961.
Charlton, Lewis. The Genesis of Hamlet. Kenniket Press, Port Washington, NY 1907.
Elliot, T.S. "Hamlet and His Problems." Sacred Woods. 1920.
Leavenworth, Russel E. Interpreting Hamlet: Materials for analysis Chandler Publishing CO, San Francisco 1960.
Pearl Poet's Sir Gawain
The Arthurian Legends are one of the most mysterious of Middle English literature. For many years historians have tried to match King Arthur to one of the Early Kings of Britain, however, all attempts have met without success. It is now generally accepted that King Arthur and the other Knights of the Round table represent a composite of the behaviors and attitudes of people of that time period. The same can be said of the character of Sir Gawain in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." As social attitudes changed, so do the ideal characteristics that exemplify virtue and purity. The character Sir Gawain appears in many versions of the Arthurian Legends. The characteristics and attitudes of Sir Gawain seem to shoe a shift over time. The most widely accepted version of the character of Sir Gawain is the version that is attributed to the poet…
Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1993.
Andrew, Malcolm, and Ronald Waldron, eds. The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. 2d ed.
London: Arnold, 1982; Gordon, E.V., ed. Pearl. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.
Bishop, Ian. Pearl in Its Setting- A Critical Study of the Structure and Meaning of the Middle English Poem. Oxford: Blackwell, 1968
Tim O' rien, Wilfred Owen & "Saving Private Ryan"
The theme of disillusionment in war as reflected in the works of Tim O'rien, Wilfred Owen, and the film "Saving Private Ryan"
More than being a mirror of everyday life, literature has also been a venue for expressing messages that are political in nature. This was evident in literary works that address humanity's experiences in different world wars soon after the 20th century had emerged. With the declaration of the first, then eventually the second, world wars, human, particularly American, society had also been involved in the Cold War. This long history of wars fought by the Americans may have shown the patriotism and courage of its people, but praise and glorification of the war was given in the midst of numerous criticisms from the civil society. Criticisms against war efforts were expressed by the civil society because they were the…
O'Brien, T. (1990). The Things They Carried. NY: Broadway Books.
Owen, W. E-text of "Dulce et decorum est." Available at: http://www.englishverse.com/poems/dulce_et_decorum_est .
"Saving Private Ryan." Directed by Steven Spielberg.
The novels "Catch-22" and "Something Happened" demonstrates the inevitable presence of black humor, irrationality and immorality that prevails in times of war or conflict in human society, as humans pursue power and superiority -- that is, survival (of the fittest).
Outlining of the three major themes discussed in the paper, namely: black humor, irrationality, and immorality in Catch-22, mainly centering on the characters in the novel. Comparison of "Catch-22" against another Heller novel, "Something Happened."
Illustrations of lack Humor in "Catch-22" vis-a-vis "Something Happened"
Demonstrations of irrationality in "Catch-22" vis-a-vis "Something Happened"
Presence of immorality in "Catch-22" vis-a-vis "Something Happened"
Heller's consistent portrayal of humanity as ultimately irrational and immoral portrays humans' innate need to survive regardless of the means by which they achieve it (survival).
Conclusion: Reiteration of the thesis statement
lack Humor, Irrationality and Immorality of Human Society as Portrayed in Joseph Heller's novels (Catch-22…
Cochran, D. (2000). America Noir: Underground Writers and Filmmakers of the Postwar Era. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Coker, C. (2003). Humane Warfare. NY: Taylor & Francis.
Doody, M. (1996). The True Story of the Novel. NJ: Rutgers UP.
Garrett, D. (2001). "Portrait of the Artist, As an Old Man." World Literature Today, Vol. 75, Issue 1.
" Both of these statements are quite arguably true, yet both also smack of the immature self-assuredness that belies the innocence of the speaker, and it is this aspect of the girl -- her very pretensions to adulthood that, in effect, render her a more honest adult than most real adults -- that the narrator of the story seems to find the most interesting and appealing. As the girl is only beginning to glimpse the lack of innocence that accompanies growing up, and appears to be enjoying it, the narrator is able to travel the reverse course and rediscover an innocence thought lost.
This rediscovery happens in a far more direct way at the end of the story, when the narration has switched primarily to a third person, until Sergeant X -- who is obviously embittered, somewhat shattered, and generally disconnected from his life -- receives a letter form Esme.…
Eger, Christopher. "The Military Service of J.D. Salinger." Accessed April 2010. http://ww2history.suite101.com/article.cfm/the-military-service-of-jd-salinger
Salinger, J.D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.
Salinger, J.D. "For Esme -- With Love and Squalor." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.
Salinger, J.D. Franny and Zooey. New York: Back Bay Books, 2001.
Human Suffering in the Midst of Progress in the orks of EE Cummings & Mark Rothko
At the turn of the 20th century, American culture has flourished significantly, especially with the emergence of important fields of discipline that evoke individualism and free expression in works of art created by American artists. This phenomenon is especially evident after orld ar II, where the conflict among the world's nations had affected the psyche of American society and nation, one of the major players in the recently concluded war. After II, different lifestyles have emerged in the American society: consumerism, urbanism, and hedonism. These lifestyles gave birth to individualism and freedom of expression among people, especially now that the mass media made it possible for the society to exchange and extend messages and information to people located in different areas. However, despite these developments in American life, people have initially become disillusioned and…
Rothko, M. "Gethsemane" (painting). National Gallery of Art. Available at http://www.nga.gov .
A cummings, e. e. "pity this monster, manunkind." Available at http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/8454/554.htm.
T.S. Eliot, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, & Ezra Pound
"Preludes" by T.S. Eliot adopts a slant rhyme pattern to convey the state of his thoughts as he writes the poem. The poem basically illustrates the Voice/Poet's thoughts about the seemingly busy, yet tiresome and uninteresting lives of the people in the urban areas (cities). Eliot paints this tiresome and uninteresting picture of human life in the city by slant rhymes, reflecting the continuous stream of unorganized thoughts of the poet. For example, slant rhyming occurs in lines 2 and 4, where "passageways" and "smoky days" are used. However, towards the end of the poem, slant rhyming is instead replaced with end-rhymes (lines 12 and 13, with rhymes used "stamps" and "lamps"), proving once again the presence of 'unstable' and changing thoughts of the poet.
"The pennycandystore beyond the El" by Lawrence Ferlinghetti utilizes symbolism to effectively depict his thoughts about the fleeting…
Reid (78) suggests that Sweetback's sexuality and his "controlled" violence are important elements when it comes to his escape. Prior to this film, Reid (78) points out that black male sexuality was portrayed as being "animalistic and instinctively violent," however, Van Peebles depiction of such a sexual being with "a controlled and motivated violence" was a "heroic idea" that certainly was different than anything the African-American community had seen before in its portrayal of sexual black men.
All three of the "road films" -- Easy Rider, Stroszek, and Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song -- are films about taking to the road in search of something or as a means to escape from something. All of the characters in the collective films -- Billy, yatt, Stroszek, and Sweet Sweetback -- are trying to escape some type of disillusionment, whether it is disillusionment with the government, disillusionment with life, or a disillusionment caused…
Hill, Lee. Easy Rider (BFI Modern Classics). British Film Institute, 1996.
Peuker, Brigitte. "Werner Herzog: In Quest of the Sublime." From Klaus Philips Ed.
New German Filmmakers. NY: Frederick Unger Co., 1984.
Reid, NAME, PUBLISHER, DATE?
Further, the modern novel also focuses on issues of social and historical change and the use of such points-of-view as stream of consciousness. Other typical characteristics of modernism are open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative, juxtaposition, classical allusions, unconventional metaphors and the bringing in of other cultures and languages.
Clearly, the experiences of the Great War had a lasting effect on its generation of writers. Many of them served in the military during the war, such as Ernest Hemingway, and witnessed the atrocities personally. The disillusionment felt by this generation at the notion of so many deaths for no real reason created a mentality of pessisims and questioning of society as it has been. This sense of disillusionment was expressed in their writing, where the great writers shunned the traditions of the Romantic and Victorian eras and instead created works that focused on human misery, suffering and cruelty. They incorporated…
Hemmingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
Hemmingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.
Kasenon, Michael. The Lost Generation. New York: Xlibris Corporation, 2004.
So he invented just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen-year-old boy would be likely to invent, and to this conception he was faithful to the end (Fitzgerald 104).
Nick's description of Gatsby's facade reveals that in Gatsby's attempt to acquire the essence of the American dream, he had to sacrifice himself and create a new identity. As such, an aura of sadness and loneliness lingers about Gatsby's existence as he lets go of his past and his own identity in the hope of finding happiness. In fact, on an individual level, while this represents the Modernist element of the dichotomy between illusion and reality, Gatsby's character is also doing that which Modernism as a genre seeks to do: create a disconnect with the past.
Since Jay Gatsby is not even his real name, one wonders what other elements of this man, whose real name is James Gatz, are…
The soldier is simply unable to live with this corruption. Instead, the narrator continues as his voice by proxy, indicting the society that caused the war and created the atrocity the killed the solder. Likewise, Graves is forever changed by his experience, losing the respect he used to hold for the values and norms of the society that caused the war and failed to understand the effect of the war upon all that was beautiful and young.
In concussion, assoon's and Graves's work compare well as commentaries and criticisms upon what both authors appear to regard as the atrocity of war. assoon's very brief work has its impact in this very brevity, while Graves's detail and individual focus achieves the same effect. Both protagonists are severely traumatized by their experiences. In both works, this trauma does not remain unaddressed. Both authors provide their central characters with a mouthpiece to denote…
Buzzle.com. Siegfried Sassoon -- War Poet. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/7-27-2006-103706.asp
Graves, Robert. Good-bye to All That. Providence: Berghan Books, 1995.
Sassoon, Friedrich. Suicide in the Trenches. Retrieved from http://community.livejournal.com/afoxhuntingman/3587.html
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
The study examined three developmental models of marital stress and divorce -- the enduring dynamics model, the disillusionment model, and the emergent distress model. According to the enduring dynamics model, a couple's courtship experiences accurately predict what their marriage will be like (Huston 304). In this model, marriages show distress from the beginning and typically end quickly in divorce. Huston explains that spouses are less in love and more antagonistic toward each other than happily married couples. Additionally, they are usually quite young when they marry and come from unhappy family environments (317).
The disillusionment model suggests that couples enter a marriage happily, but subsequently the "mundane concerns prevail and the romance begins to fade, particularly when the spouses discover that their mate is not as affectionate and wonderful as they were during courtship" (Huston 305). Under this model, according to Huston, it is the movement away from the romantic…
Amato, Paul R., and Stacy J. Rogers. "A Longitudinal Study of Marital Problems and Subsequent Divorce." Journal of Marriage and Family 59.3 (1997): 612,612-624. ProQuest Psychology Journals. Web. 8 June 2011.
Huston, Ted L. "What's Love Got to Do with It? Why Some Marriages Succeed and Others Fail." Personal Relationships 16 (2009):301-327. SocIndex. Web. 7 June 2011.
The workers for the private firm are compensated at a level that is barely livable and these workers place a greater burden on the communities' social services.
Sclar's arguments comparing the differences between why privatization works in jobs involving low-skilled and high-skilled jobs merit some consideration and are easily understandable but there are some considerations that Sclar overlooks that should raise some concern as to the validity of his approach. As previously noted, Sclar's basic premise is that the goal of privatization is to reduce costs and that unless costs are lowered privatization has been a failure (Sclar p.63). Using this as a premise, Sclar argues that the overall benefits of privatization are largely negligible but what Sclar fails to consider is the benefits accrued due to true free market conditions existing as a result of true privatization.
Sclar's study and theorizing was done on a model where privatization was…
William L. Megginson and Jeffry M. Netter, From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization, Journal of Economic Literature: pp. 321-389 (2001).
Shaker A. Zahra, R. Duane Ireland, Isabel Gutierrez and Michael A. Hitt, Privatization and Entrepreneurial Transformation: Emerging Issues and a Future Research Agenda, The Academy of Management Review: pp. 509-524 (2000).
Critical Book Review
The Subjective over the Objective
Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).
Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…
1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.
2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.
4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
sprinkled with skepticism, but once she is well into the piece she produces a deluge of cynicism -- and readers are thoroughly drenched (nearly drowned) in the tsunami of her pessimism (for good reason). Many of Walton's points have validity because disillusionment can hit a person in the face like an icy snowball thrown by a neighborhood bully if he or she is not prepared to face the world as it really is.
Happiness is not the same as immaturity at all, and this paper will delve into that subject, because happiness is finding pleasure and joy in a world that can be brutally cold and callous. But meanwhile when Walton says she knows adults "…who will never recover from happy childhoods," she is alluding perhaps to people who were lucky to have great, loving parents that raised them in emotionally pristine environments, sheltered from simpletons and tormenters. But those…
umor of War
Vietnam war is one of the most talked about conflicts events in American history. Not only because of the 11-year long conflict that existed between the two countries but mainly because of the bitterness and casualties that it left behind. It is still not easy for many war veterans to talk about the most horrible experience of their lives. While it is true that most war veterans think they were lucky to serve their country but they also admit that they wee not prepared for what they experienced and saw during the war. It has been one of the most terrible examples of war crimes and today most war veterans associate war with bitterness and disillusionment instead of patriotism or service. One such story of disillusionment appeared in Philip Caputo's A umor of War, which a war memoir that depicts Caputo's experience during Vietnam conflict. The most…
Philip Caputo A Rumor of War Owlet; Reprint edition (November 1996)
John Attarian, Rethinking the Vietnam war. Vol. 15, The World & I, 07-01-2000, pp 288.
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Viking Press, 1983), 396.
American National Character (history)
The Ongoing Search for an "American National Character"
This assignment asks the following pertinent and challenging questions: Is it possible to find trends amongst so much diversity? What characteristics are distinctly American, regardless of class, race, and background? What is problematic about making these generalizations and inheriting the culture? What have we inherited exactly? What problems arise with our ideals - and are we being honest with ourselves? Discuss individualism and the "American Dream." Are these goals realized and are they realistic? This paper seeks solid answers to these often elusive questions.
The search for a national character should be never-ending, and the pivotal part of the search that should be enlightening and enriching for the seeker of that knowledge may just be the inspiration from the books and authors springing into the seeker's mind along the way to discovery.
Who is presently engaged in a…
Bellah, Robert. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life.
New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas Childs. Challenges to American Values: Society, Business, and Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
eview On Nurses Shortage
The supply of professional nurses relative to the increase in demand for their services has been on a general decline over the years. As a career choice, nursing has been facing perennial shortage of professionals. Most healthcare organizations will affirm that their daunting tasks were recruiting fresh nurses and retaining the ones already in practice. The 2008 projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics showed that the demand for professional nurses would increase from the then two million to three million, which represents sixty percent increment. In ideal situations, the number of those who have enrolled in nursing will be sufficient to supply the rise in their number. Nevertheless, this would not be the case if nothing were done to salvage the worrying trend of most students not graduating or resorting to other careers. According to Benjamin Isgur of PWHC Health and esearch Institute,…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2009, September, 28). Nursing Shortage Fact Sheet. USA: AACN.
Buerhaus, P.I., Staiger, D., & Auerbach, D.I. (2009). The future of the nursing workforce in the United States: Data, trends, and implications. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Blakeley, J., & Ribeiro, V. (2008). Early Retirement among Registered Nurses: Contributing Factors. Journal of Nursing Management, 16(1), 29 -- 37
Cummings, G., et al. (2008). The Relationship between Nursing Leadership and Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Canadian Oncology Work Environments. Journal of Nursing Management, 16(5), 508 -- 518.
The Mexican Revolution has always been debated upon by historians, some labeling it as a "fiesta de balas" -- a party of bullets, with minimal political aims or ideologies. Others have not disregarded the revolution and noted that although most of the conflicts were centered in the provinces of the Mexican countryside, the revolutions' leaders were politically driven and adopted clear political ideologies. How does the novel The Underdogs treat this issue? Which side does it take?
The historiographical reality of the Mexican revolution of 1910[footnoteRef:1] has been deeply fashioned by novelists like Mariano Azuela. It was novels like the "Underdogs"[footnoteRef:2] that captured the essence of the revolution. The commotion that followed the fall of Porfirio Diaz, defined the Mexican nation in a new light, and although this was not the first time the oppressed Latin American masses rose against the ruling elite, it would definitely be the…
Azuela, M. (2008). The underdogs: A novel of the Mexican revolution. United Kingdom: Penguin Publishers.
Robe, S. L. (1979). Azuela and the Mexican underdogs (Vol. 48). Univ of California Press.
And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the use of certain artificial ingredients in organic foods. Many players in the organic industry today also argue that they are willing to use some synthetics in producing organic food. Joseph Mendelson and other advocates of strict organic standards argue that these provisions will open a "Pandora's box," allowing big organic food producers to lobby for further loosening of the USDA standards (arner).
The downsides of big food producers going organic is well-illustrated by the experience of hole Foods Market. It grew out of a small vegetarian store opened by Mackay and his girlfriend in 1978 in a garage in Austin, Texas. In 1992, the company went nationwide, opening stores in several cities. Now, the company owns more than two hundred stores across…
Cloud, John. "Eating Better Than Organic." Time Magazine. 2 March 2007. Web. 22 March 2011.
"It's Easy Being Green: Organic vs. Conventional Foods -- the Gloves Come Off. Center for American Progress. 10 September 2008. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Foods: Are They Safe? More Nutritious?" MayoClinic. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Food Sales See Healthy Growth: Mainstream Food Companies Promote Natural Brands" MSNBC. 3 December 2004. Web. 22 March 2011.
People on Facebook act more like they have the world wired and can afford anything, and that life is wonderful rather than a challenge (Boyt, 2011). As a result if someone does criticize another's work they are openly criticized or ostracized -- clearly not the behavior that leads to sales being made rapidly (Boyt, 2011). Facebook is actually a pecking order of sorts, kind of like a virtual high school where those who can tell the best stories and work to attain popularity get the most followers or "friends." It is easy to inflate friend figures on Facebook, further accelerating the peak of inflated expectations as well. With a valuation of $50B whetting the appetite of thousands of companies on how to translate the popularity of the site into revenue (O'Leary, 2011).
Why Not in Other Areas of the Hype Cycle
Facebook does not belong in any other area of…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Susie Boyt. (2011, January). Facebook's unfriendly face. FT.com FT Online
O'Leary, N.. (2011, January). First on Facebook. Adweek, 52(2), 9.
Chris Nuttall. (2009, April 13). Real-time updates open a fresh frontier for social network sites. Financial Times,13.
Did she on some subconscious level realize this irony and dichotomy? She does not deal with it in her book, but on some Freudian level it is certainly possible that she did.
To recap, both of the authors Elaine Tyler May and Ann Moody see the institution of the family as something that was a mixture of limiting and liberating influences both for men and women during the 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s, but much less so in the case of Moody's book for blacks. Even the experience of the Civil Rights movement was bittersweet. These limitations were a mixture of good and bad, depending on a person's perspective. As the May book points out, the families that were established by marriages in the 1940s were especially stable.
Moody's family experience was also essentially stable. Religion gave her some succor, but essentially the issues that plagued her due to racial…
May, Elaine Tyler. (1990). Homeward bound: american families in the cold war era. New York City: Basic Books.
Moody, Anne. (1992). Coming of age in Mississippi. New York City: Dell.
Despite all the graphic, inventive detailed descriptions of the physical suffering and the mental anguish Turner has endured, in the end, it is the cliche, metaphoric image of a breaking heart that sends the strongest message. It should break any human being's heart to kill, and those who are not emotionally torn up by taking another human being's life are therefore, essentially heartless.
There is also an indication in Here, Bullet, that it is not only the heart that malfunctions in the throes of death and killing, but the brain as well. hen Turner speaks of "the leap thought makes at the synaptic gap" he is symbolizing the leap a person's mind is forced to make from have a respect for life and compassion for mankind to suddenly believe that it is okay to kill, maim and torture in the name of your country. Thus from Turner's point-of-view, after being…
Turner, Brian, "Here, Bullet" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005
Turner, Brian, "Sadiq" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005
Himes, Andrew, Voices in Wartime Anthology, cited in Alice James Books. Web. 17 June, 2010. http://www.alicejamesbooks.org/pages/book_page.php?bookID=43
Whetstone, David. Culture: A Poet in Tangled Battle Lines of Iraq; Plenty of Poets Described the Horrors of the First World War, but in Modern Combat Zones They Are a Rare Beast. David Whetstone Talks to American Poet Brian Turner, Who Served in Iraq. The Journal (Newcastle, England). March 17, 2008, p. 18.
Sajer, however, cannot reconcile these feelings of tenderness with the violence of his world: "I thought of Ernst, of all the tears of this war, and all the anguish…My happiness was mixed with too much suffering. I couldn't simply accept it and forget all the rest" (Sajer, p. 150). Instead of filling him with giddiness and hope like most teenagers in love, Sajer's short affair only serves to darken his worldview more, and his parting from Paula is as wrenching to him as any of the horrors of battle. Though he promises to return to her, the war "prevented [him] from keeping his word, and the peace made it lose all its value" (Sajer, p. 154).
The final and most irrevocable moment in Sajer's path from youthful innocence to bitter disillusionment and despair comes towards the end of his tenure in the German ranks, when he and a comrade are…
Sajer, Guy. The Forgotten Soldier. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 1967. Print.
His intention is to use an experimental approach by using statistical tools to quantify and assess program effectiveness by comparing school effectiveness ratings before implementation of the program with schools effectiveness ratings following the implementation of the program.
5. Is there anything in the procedures for collecting the information or in the instruments themselves that could bias the results or weaken the study?
The author does not describe the source of his schools merely stating the inclusive and exclusive criteria that they satisfied. The schools, all in Milwaukee, had to satisfy three main criteria: firstly that the program under study was introduced during a period when rating were available, secondly, that the number of schools introducing the program must be sufficient for statistical results, and thirdly, that there should be sufficient and adequate comparison groups. His research seems immune to bias.
The author does, however, mention the possibility of bias…
Thompson, B. (2006). Evaluating Three Programs Using a School Effectiveness Model: Direct Instruction, Target Teach, and Class Size Reduction, Third Education Group Review, 2, 1-10.
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…
Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Henry James is a plot that is replete with symbolism both in its overarching theme and in its subcomponents.
The Aspern Papers devolves around the plot of a man who would stoop at almost nothing to procure and publish the papers of Jeffery Aspern a famous poet. The character, this nameless narrator, goes to Venice to locate Juliana Bordereau, former lover of a famous, now dead, American poet. He erreoneously believes that Juliana has papers written by this poet and is prepared to court her niece Miss Tita, an unappealing and simple woman, in order to catch a glimpse of these 'Aspern papers'. Miss Tita agrees to help him. Juliana later offers to sell a miniature portrait of Aspern to the narrator for an exorbitant price, but shortly after catches the narrator rifling through her room searching for the alleged papers. Juliana calls the narrator a "publishing scoundrel," collapses, the…
James, H. The great short novels of Henry James, New York, Dial Press, 1944
Kaplan, F. Henry James: the imagination of genius: a biography . New York: Morrow, 1992.
6). Beattie, like anyone else, was a product of her times.
She is also, again like anyone else, a product of her own individual circumstances. A further interpretation of the bowl as a symbol of the feminine finds a deeper connection between the circumstances of the fictional Andrea and the real-life Ann Beattie. Though she is not especially forthcoming with personal details, there are some facts with which a correlation can be drawn.
Though (presumably) happily married for many years, Ann Beattie and her husband have no children (Frost, par. 1). Again, she has not shared the reasons for this, nor would it be a reasonable question to pose to her. It is a significant fact to note, however, given the resemblance of the bowl to the female womb. Henningfield suggests an interpretation of the bowl, especially of the husband's turning away from it and Andrea's refusal to let him…
Beattie, Ann. "Janus." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, J. Paul Hunter, Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2005. 280-283.
Brent, Liz. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
Frost, Adam. "Beattie, Ann." Literature Online bibliography. Cambridge, 2002. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. 12 Mar. 2009. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl-ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion-us&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:ref:BIO006220:0
Henningfield, Diane Andrews. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
But the friction between her and her mother translated also to the society, to the 'good country people.' The good country people, represented by Manley Pointer, turned against her, victimizing her by using her own ideals and beliefs. Manley took advantage of her 'weakness,' being able to see through her tough self, knowing that within her, there is a part of her that wanted attention and love without pity. O'Connor may have portrayed Manley to be truly taken by Joy/Hulga's sulkiness and believed her to be like him, the kind of 'good country person' who knew and experienced the harshness of life. This can be verified in his remark after he 'revealed' himself to Joy/Hulga, exclaiming to her, "[w]hat's the matter with you all of a sudden? You just a while ago said you didn't believe in nothing. I thought you was some girl!" (par. 139).
Though Emily and Joy/Hulga…
Faulkner, W. E-text of "A Rose for Emily." Accessed on 8 November 2008. Available at http://www.ariyam.com/docs/lit/wf_rose.html .
O'Connor, F. E-text of "Good Country People." Accessed on 8 November 2008. Available at http://us.geocities.com/cyber_explorer99/oconnorgoodcountry.html.
Most of all, they wanted to live, and that was evidenced through their choices in things like movies and music. A lot of the older generation during that time objected to the changes that society was making, though, because they saw rock and roll music as vulgar and felt that young people were growing up too fast and without the right kinds of morals and values that the previous generation had going for it.
Another thing that changed with the way that society viewed young women and teenage girls was the concept of work. The concepts of 'women's work' and 'men's work' are no longer as strong as they used to be, and those teenage girls of the 1950s deserve part of the credit for that. For example, there are men that are full-time, stay-at-home 'moms,' and there are women who work in construction, drive tractor trailers, and perform other…
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…
My appearance was always good and my ability to play on the piano, especially ragtime, which was then at the height of its vogue, made me a welcome guest."(Johnson, 139) Nevertheless, this only increases his feeling that he does not belong to his own race, and his sense that everything is a bitter irony. As the hero passes as a white man, he is forced many times to listen to unjust commentaries that are made against the black race and he realizes that he himself is ironically a disproof of these unfavorable remarks and an evidence that blackness does not render a man 'unfit': "The anomaly of my social position often appealed strongly to my sense of humor. I frequently smiled inwardly at some remark not altogether complimentary to people of color; and more than once I felt like declaiming, 'I am a colored man. Do I not disprove the…
Fitzgerald, Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Modern Library, 1934.
Johnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1927.
Wald, Gayle. Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth- Century U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.
One study published in the American Psychiatric Association found that "PTSD has been shown to predict poor health not only in veterans of the 1991 Gulf ar but also in veterans of orld ar II and the Korean ar. Our study extends these findings in a group of active duty soldiers returning from recent combat deployment to Iraq, confirming the strong association between PTSD and the indicators of physical health independent of physical injury" (Hoge, Terhakopian, Castro, Messer & Engel, 2007). From this study one can certainly glean that PTSD has a somatic component to it, or at least there is a prevalence in which persons afflicted with PTSD also suffer from physical health problems. One can also assume that the somatic component was downplayed or overlooked in prior studies, as most treatments for PTSD do not seem to address the physical aspect of the disorder.
To elaborate on this…
Cooper, M. (2008). The Facts are Friendly. Therapy Today.net. Retrieved from http://www.therapytoday.net/article/15/8/categories/
Frost, R. (1923). Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening. New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.ketzle.com/frost/snowyeve.htm .
Gelso, C., Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling Psychology Second Edition. Orlando, FL:
Hamlet is by far one of Shakespeare's more enigmatic characters. e understand from the beginning of the play with Horatio and Marcellus that they think very highly of Hamlet as they decide to tell him first about the ghostly vision they saw whom they believe to be his father. However, when we meet Hamlet, we are confused. Is he depressed -- or is he simply cruel (Davies 30)? Or is Hamlet, a man who is overly sensitive, deeply melancholy, and armed with a reflective mind, simply mad? It is this dichotomy of characteristics that always leave us guessing about Hamlet's psychological state. Hamlet himself does not deny this. In fact, he says to his mother, the queen, that there is much more to him than people see.
'Seems', madam -- nay it is, I know not 'seems'.
'Tis not alone my inky cloak, cold mother,
Nor customary suits of solemn…
Davies, Michael. Hamlet Character Studies (Continuum Character Studies). Continuum, 2008.
Paris, Bernard J. Bargains with Fate: Psychological Crises and Conflicts in Shakespeare and His
Plays. Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet (Arden Shakespeare: Third Series). Arden Shakespeare; 3rd
"Greasy Lake" is one of the most notable, readable and critically acclaimed contemporary short stories written by T. Coraghessan Boyle. The fact that he took the a line and an idea from the iconic, venerable rock star Bruce Springsteen has gained Boyle's book a lot of press although the story stands on its own as a piece of biting social satire, mixed with humor and drenched in bad behavior, felonious sexual behaviors, and alcohol. Not all critics praise this story, however, because though well written, it is very dark, sometimes it stretches credulity a bit too far, and the behavior of the characters is mindlessly violent and morally bankrupt.
The Greasy Lake Story
"…Thirty-three percent of teenagers experience problems at home, school, work or the in community stemming from substance abuse. The fact that teenagers become addicted more quickly than adults contributes to these problems… between…
Boyle, T. Coraghessan. Greasy Lake & Other Stories. New York: Penguin, 1986.
Colorado State University. "Family: Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse." Retrieved
June 11, 2011, from http://www.ext.colostate.edu .
Hennessy, Denis. "Thomas Coraghessan Boyle." American Short-Story Writers Since World
Overall, the writers really capture what is perhaps best defined as disillusionment. The men who returned home were drastically altered men -- quite literally. They returned home to parades, but when the parades ended, there they were with their physical bodies mutilated and their jobs gone. They had to witness the men who stayed behind receiving great money at their jobs, while the veterans were forced to find some way back into society -- and a society that was much more expensive than when they left.
"When Johnny Comes Marching Home" is relevant today because it captures a lot of the same feelings of disillusionment and not just for the people coming home but for the people who stay home and support (or don't support) the war from afar. Men and women today return home changed people who face tremendous challenges. Perhaps the medical care -- including mental health care…
Harries, M. & S. (1997). When Johnny comes marching home. The last days of innocence. New York: Random House, Inc.
" However, osch's writings were by no means one-dimensional, for he addressed many universal aspects of life. Indeed, osch's versatility as a writer is reflected in his ability to write works of fantasy, political thought, biographies, history, social realism, and cultural commentaries. He also published several poems and short stories in Cuban and Dominican newspapers and magazines, and worked for a period of time as literary editor for the influential newspaper, Listin Diario.
The fact that Juan osch was, first and foremost, a humanist who was interested in all aspects of human interest and welfare is clearly reflected in his writings. for, osch did not merely dwell on the miserable plight of the rural poor, but also reflected on the materialism and hypocrisy of the upper classes. For instance, in La bella alma de don Damian (the eautiful Soul of Don Damian), osch depicts Don Damian's soul examining itself with…
Alexander, R.J. Presidents of Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and Hispaniola:
Conversations and Correspondence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
Cambeira, a. Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural
Perspective. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
What is the impact of downsizing? As the studies below indicate, layoffs have a number of negative effects not only on workers in different industries, but also on their communities and the market as a whole. Although it has been said that downsizing can be economically beneficial to companies, the following shows that there are two sides to this issue.
Over the past decade, the workplace has altered considerably in terms of job stability. People have either experienced layoffs firsthand or directly known someone else who was impacted by re-engineering, downsizing, outsourcing or acquisition. For employees adversely affected by these changes or for those who do not completely understand why these changes are occurring, the effects can be very disturbing and impact both their personal and job life.
A variety of different industries have been impacted by layoffs, not only manufacturing. For example, hospitals like other companies and…
Burke, R.J., & Nelson, D.L. (1997). Downsizing and restructuring: Lessons from the firing line for revitalizing organizations. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18, 325-334
Center for Competitive Economics. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (July, 2004) Estimating the economic impacts of plant closings and business downsizing in Cleveland County, NC. Cleveland Chamber of Commerce.
Campbell-Jamieson, F., Worrall, L. & Cooper, C.L. (2001) Downsizing in Britain and its effects on survivors and their organizations. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 14, 35-58.
Dekker, S.W., & Schaufeli, W.B. (1995). The effects of job insecurity on psychological health and withdrawal: A longitudinal study. Australian Psychologist, 30, 57-63.
The modernist era was not just a revolution in art, but rather a whole social, economic, and cultural movement away from the previous era. As a result, Parisian society and the growing disparate classes meant that Manet's painting is capture both the decadent and the "now," the sense of immediacy that was occurring within the city. The depiction of in his masked ball for instance, depicts the rising "shift" within city life, no longer is everything and everyone stationary and domestic, but always on the move, with people passing by each other without a clue to their actual identity. The indistinct nature of the masses is Manet's theme, he looks at the clash between traditional depictions of French upper class, and compares it with the "mobile population" of Paris's underground as urban leisure has created Paris as not a cohesive image, but a series of constantly changing actions and people,…
This conflict led Krebs to want to seek a staid, trouble free existence in which there were as few responsibilities and hardships incurred as a result as possible. In addition to the evidence already discussed that reinforces the truth of this thesis, such as the fact that Krebs lost the facets of his memory and life before the war that he once valued, that he spurns his parents' desires to get a good job and to readily marry, and that he has become exceedingly apathetic to the point of losing his love for his mother and himself, there is other evidence to support this claim. Hemingway spends a substantial amount of the text discussing Krebs' desire for young girls, yet his lack of interest in actually pursuing them. This aspect of his characterization is accounted for by the several allusions to sex and his involvement with prostitution in the war.…
Hemingway, Earnest. "Soldier's Home." Strong Brain. 1925. Web. http://www.strong-brain.com/Reading/Texts/hemingway-soldiers-home.
McDonnell, John "Hemingway and the Iceberg Theory." McDonnell Writing. 2010. Web. http://mcdonnellwrite.blogspot.com/2010/01/hemingway-and-iceberg-principle.html
Petrarca, Anthony. "Irony of Situation in Ernest Hemingway's "Soldier's Home." The English Journal. 58 (5): 664-669.
American Religious History
Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…
Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.
Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.
Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
Cop in the Hood
In CIH Moskos describes aspects of his career as a young rookie. Moskos is a big city police officer who has served in areas with high crime and drugs in altimore, Maryland. ecause of this Moskos describes a model of crime causation and specifically that lazy, ignorant poor people cause crime and perpetuate poverty because they refuse to work. The futility of using rapid response to 911 calls as a measure of the quality of service, crime prevention, officer performance and departmental performance and the highly pragmatic view from the streets that patrol officers manifest and show in their actions and their accounts for why they acted as they did, the contrast between what was taught at the academy and what is actually done on the streets, the arbitrary nature of arrests, especially drug arrests in high crime areas of altimore as well as the context-based…
Moskos, Cop in the Hood. (CIH) Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Patillo, Mary E. (1998) Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood. Social Forces Vol. 76 No. 3
Venkatesh, SA. (1997) The Social Organization of Street Gang Activity in an Urban Ghetto. The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 103 No.1
Twelve-Step Program to Escaping Dante's Hell
Dante's The Inferno paints an incredibly vivid picture of what Hell is like. The journey Dante undertakes in order to progress past his 'lost' stage and escape Hell can be likened to the 12-Step Program a recovering alcoholic must complete in order to finally escape from the clutches of drinking to excess. This paper endeavors to explore Dante's journey through the perspective of this 12-Step Program. y going through each step, one can witness the introspective and emotional self-examination Dante goes through, with a little help from his support group, in order to get out of Hell.
The first step that every recovering alcoholic must take involves the process of admitting his or her problem. Alcoholics must acknowledge that they are helpless when battling their addiction and they must admit that this addiction to drink has wreaked havoc on their lives to the point…
Alcoholics Anonymous (1955) The Story of How Many Thousands of Men and Women Have Recovered From Alcoholism. New York City: Alcoholics Anonymous Publishing, Inc. http://www.recovery.org/aa/misc/12steps.html
ClassicNote on Inferno. http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/inferno/fullsumm.html
Dante's Inferno. http://www.*****/essays/Literature/danteinferno.shtml
Dante's Inferno: Character List. http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/inferno/characters.html
Wild Swans Three Daughters of China
Juan Chang's Wild Swans Three Daughters of China is a delightful combination of a historical epic of China from 1924 to 1978 and a novel that unfolds the story of 'Three Daughters' (Juan Chang herself, her mother and maternal grandmother) within that same historical period.
The book begins by giving the reader a view and insight into life in China in the 1920's through the simple device of narrating Chang's grandmother's experiences as a concubine to a powerful Chinese warlord and the story of her eventual escape. From the 1920's through to the 1960's, the history of early 20th century China and Communist China under Mao unfolds as Chang continues on her quest to chronicle the life and times of three generations of her own family. The 1940's, 50's and 60's act as a setting to the life story of Chang's mother.
American Modernism and the Edenic Themes
Langston Hughes and Jay Gatsby: Different Strokes for Different Folks in the Search for an Edenic orld
The search for Eden has always had an eternal quality since the development of primordial man. At times, this search has manifested itself as a quest for a promised land full of natural resources, while at others, it has taken the form of a journey seeking social acceptance and harmony. Either which way, man's search for Eden has always been motivated by a desire to secure material and emotional well-being. Though this search is not unique to the people of America, the promise held out by a vast, virgin continent and new beginnings led to the belief that a life in the pursuit of wealth and happiness was possible here. This great 'American Dream,' however, soon proved as susceptible to human greed, bigotry, and the struggle for…
Baldwin, J. et.al. "The Eternal Adam and the New World Garden: The Central Myth in the American Novel since 1830." New York: Braziller, 1968.
Daly, P.E.M. & Mayhew, P.H. "Envisioning the New Adam: Empathic Portraits of Men by American Women Writers." Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.
Dickinson, D.C. "A Bio-Bibliography of Langston Hughes, 1902-1967." Hamden, Conn:
Archon Books, 1967.
Post orld ar I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset
The outbreak of orld ar I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs. The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.
hen the Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud sat down to write an article on the war in early 1915, it was this sense of disillusionment, of a loss of faith in progress, that was uppermost in his mind. The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…
Freud, Sigmund, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915), in Collected Papers: Volume IV (London: Hogarth Press, 1924).
Gilbert, Martin, First World War (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1994).
Ortega y Gasset, Jose, The Revolt of the Masses (English translation, New York: Norton, 1932; 2nd edn., 1957).
Pick, Daniel, War Machine: the Rationalization of Slaughter in the Modern Age (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993).
Salinger is an American literary treasure, best known for his novella Catcher in the ye. However, Catcher in the ye is but one of many in the canon of Salinger works. Salinger's short stories have recently garnered renewed attention because several unpublished Salinger stories were leaked online in November of 2013, three years after the author's death (uncie, 2013). Salinger died a recluse, and a man of mystery who was as much an American antihero as Holden Caulfield of Catcher in the ye. There have been numerous cultural allusions of Salinger's iconic novel and its quintessentially postmodern protagonist. Although no film has ever been made directly from the story of Catcher in the ye, Morgan (2010) points out that there have been allusions to Salinger stories in films like The Collector (1965) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). Additionally, a 2013 documentary film about J.D. Salinger promises to reveal the…
Gopnik, A. (2010). Postscript: J.D. Salinger. The New Yorker. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2010/02/08/100208ta_talk_gopnik
McGrath, C. (2010). J.D. Salinger, literary recluse, dies at 91. International New York Times. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/29/books/29salinger.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Morgan, K. (2010). Six stories: Salinger inspired cinema. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kim-morgan/six-stories-salinger-insp_b_443099.html
Runcie, C. (2013). JD Salinger unpublished stories 'leaked online'. 28 Nov 2013. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/booknews/10480275/JD-Salinger-unpublished-stories-leaked-online.html
Urban Pollution by Joel a. Tarr
Joel Tarr's article, "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago" is largely about the form of urban pollution that preceded that created by automobiles. In short, this pollution was largely caused by horses, which were used as the dominant form of transportation from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. The author is essentially establishing a comparison between the pollution caused by horses and that caused by automobiles, although he devotes the vast majority of the article to elaborating on the fact that the pollution caused by horses was considered as big of a problem as the pollution caused by automobiles in the 1970s. If one examines the amount of space he uses for detailing the concerns regarding horse pollution to that of automobile pollution, one can infer that the former appears to be worse than…
Tarr, Joel. "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago."
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
Life's Subjections: Changes To The ays Of Life Found In Tolstoy's ar And Peace
ar and Peace is a truly epic novel in that details a number of important themes as well as major events in the lives of its characters. In this respect it actually uncovers some of the most major events that are bound to take place throughout a person's life -- birth, death, marriage, divorce, war and peace. hat makes this particular novel so compelling is the fact that it largely depicts these life altering events through the fates of a couple of aristocratic Russian families during the time in which the usurper Napoleon Bonaparte is wreaking havoc on the European continent in the early part of the 19th century. As such, there is a certain romantic quality to this tale and to the life-altering events it depicts of people who in some cases are noble personages…
Close, Adam. "Sancho Panza: Wise Fool." The Modern Language Review. 68(2), 344-357. Print. 1973.
Knowles, Alexander. Count Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy, The Critical Heritage. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Books. Print. 1997.
Southgate, Beverly. "Tolstoy and Ethical History: Another look at War and Peace." Rethinking History. 13(2), 235-250. 2009. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. www.archive.org. Web. 1805.
Poem -- Version 1: "next to of course god america i"
"next to of course god america i" E.E. Cummings
A Good Man Is Hard to Find
Short Writing: Paraphrasing a scene from a play
Short Fiction -- John Updike -- "A&P"
Short Writing: Describing a Poem
Short Writing: Paraphrasing a scene from a play
Short Story - Cathedral by Raymond Carver
Short Story - A Good Man Is Hard to Find
In my literary analysis essays, I have endeavored to discover why I thought an author wrote a particular piece, how they think about their work, and why they made the choices they did with regard to theme, character development, and use of literary devices. I have also attempted to make my own perspective transparent in my writing, and through this effort,…
music is not always a vehicle for political or social commentary, it has become increasingly more so in the past several generations. Music serves often as a vehicle for community and cultural self-expression, or as a means to communicate social and political ideals as with the spirituals and blues songs of African-Americans bemoaning slavery and racism. Since the 1960s, however, music and its lyrical component has become a means by which to understand the zeitgeist of the historical epoch. Music in the 1960s was often directly and overtly political, particularly the songs of American folk musicians like Bob Dylan. It is almost easier to single out songs from the late 1960s that did not have political overtones versus those that did, because there were so many artists who used music to convey political messages. One of the most notable such songs is John Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance." This song…
Britton, L.M. (2015). Times they are a changin': Indie's apathy v pops political pursuit. The Guardian. 8 June, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/08/times-they-are-a-changin-indies-apathy-v-pops-political-pursuit
Burns, C. (n.d.). Lady Gaga: Performer, persona, and political advocate. Retrieved online: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=comssp
Gavish, E. (2009). Music has always been a tuneful force for political change. New York Daily News. 10 Act, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/music-arts/music-tuneful-force-political-change-article-1.381154
Hughes, D. (2013). Hip-hop in politics. ABC News. 14 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/hip-hop-politics-difference-generation-makes/story?id=18495205