1000 results for “Disorders”.
Disorders of the Brain
This is a progressive disease that damages nerve cells (neurons ) in parts of the brain that are involved in learning, memory, reasoning and language.as the disease progresses, there is a communication breakdown among the neurons.in the early stages of the disorder short-term memory starts failing .with time functions like language, long-term memory and judgment gradually decline. This disorder is a very common cause of dementia (loss of mental functions such as memory, thinking, and reasoning in older adults. Dementia is severe such that it interferes with the daily functioning of an individual.
Alzheimer disease ultimately affects all parts of the brain but every individual is affected differently as the disease progresses. This is partially because of the nature and extent of damage that is caused by different regions of the brain. This condition predominantly affects the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus that goes…
Remedy Health Media, LLC.(2014). Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.healthcommunities.com/alzheimers-disease/overview-of-alzheimers.shtml
Disorders in Older People
Alzheimer's and Eating Disorders and how they affect Older Adults
Alzheimer's and Eating Disorders and how they affect Older Adults
Disorders in Older People
Disorders in Older People
In considering the general health of the population, the larger elderly population does not necessarily imply that most of them live or are ill from severe disabilities. Age related disorders would occur to different people early or late in their lives. People are living longer and healthier, with the elderly population achieving this in the higher age range of 5-10 years population cohort. However, there are key exceptions in the perspective of disorders and mental disorders in the older population. These are indicated by disorders like dementia, Alzheimer's and a wider spectrum of the disease and related disorders. Understanding the problem of mental disorders in older people is currently an area of interest. In…
Abbilello, G and Rosenfeld, P (2013) Research on Cognitive Impairment in Community and Home Settings. Research Briefs. Home Healthcare Nurse.
Alzheimer disease; new clues as to why some older people may be losing their memory. (2012). Nursing Home & Elder Business Week,, 130. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/914228213?accountid=45049 .
Benjamic, J.S. & Virginia, A.S. (2008). Kaplan and Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer Business.
Carreiras, M., Baquero, S., & Rodriguez, E. (2008). Syllabic processing in visual word recognition in Alzheimer patients, elderly people, and young adults. Aphasiology, 22(11), 1176-1190.
Mostly proteins and platelets combine to form blood clotting in order to heal wounds inside the arteries. However, the accumulation of fatty protein and platelet deposits on the artery walls can sometimes cause the arteries to become narrow and hardened. This makes the artery more prone to damage and if it ruptures, the blood clotting occurs and thus, the artery becomes infected by arterial thrombosis.
Impact of patient age on the path physiology of CVI and DVT
The age factor is critical towards understanding how a disease might impact the sick person and how the person's body would respond to the various treatments applied on it. As mentioned earlier, these disorders are more common in the adult population. In the case of CVI, the vein walls weaken as the age of the person increases. This is due to the reason that the internal system of the person has become old,…
Chieh-Min Fan, M. (2005). Venous Pathophysiology. Semin Intervent Radiol, 22(3), 157 -- 161.
Lopez JA, C.J. (2009). Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis. Thromb Res 123 (suppl 4), S30 -- S34.
Personality disorders are long-standing and pervasive patterns of behavior that impede the individual's functioning and lead to significant distress in performing everyday activities with others (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). As these are chronic conditions that are present from an early age the patient does not perceive that the problems in their lives are a result of their behavior. Often people with these disorders are referred for psychological assessment or treatment at the bequest of persons close to them such as family members or employers. Personality disorders are not easy to diagnose for several other reasons. First, the assessment process does not allow a clinician ample time to spend with a patient to get a sense of the chronic pathology related to characterological dysfunction and other diagnoses such as mood or anxiety disorders are made. Second, individuals with personality disorders are often very good at hiding their pathology in the short-term,…
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Berg M. (1983). Borderline psychopathology as displayed on psychological tests.
Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, (2), 120-133.
signs and symptoms of a person suffering from intervertebral disc disease?
The signs that a person may have intervertebral disc disease include suffering from lower back pain which "radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve," a nerve that branches from the lower back through the hips and buttocks, then down each leg (Mayo Clinic).
The Medscape publication reports that a person suffering from intervertebral disc disease (IDD) feels "sharp" (not dull) pain, and usually the pain is "bilateral" and seems located at the beltline. In most cases the sharp pain is preceded by "multiple episodes of less severe lower back pain," and it is located in the lower back and "gluteal area" (Medscape, 2014). Sitting or standing for long periods of time causes "rotation" or "flexion" kinds of pain, and it is temporarily relieved by changing positions (to a "recumbent position") (Medscape). A doctor or qualified nurse will know…
Mayo Clinic. (2012). Intervertebral Disc Disorder. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org .
Medscape. (2014). Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://emedicine.medscape.com .
National Institutes of Health. (2010). Intervertebral disc disease. Retrieved July 28, 2014,
Disorders Prevalent in the Lives of College Students
The life in college always represents a significant step that marks the transition of the individual from one stage that they are viewed as young and naive, to the next stage where they are presumed to be mature and develop sense of responsibility as they are preparing to face the life as adults who work for their living and no longer depend on others. However, the college life can be a stressful time and there are several stressors from the pile of academic work to the social influence of peers and if an individual does not handle the stressors well, he will end up feeling guilty, hopeless, and can despair. Statistics have it that 10% of students at the colleges have contemplated suicide or made deliberate plans to commit suicide. The deaths in universities across the U.S. On annual basis go to…
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2013). Risk Factors and Warning Signs. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.afsp.org/preventing-suicide/risk-factors-and-warning-signs
Best Colleges, (2015). Top 5 Mental Problems Facing College Students. Retrieved April 23,
2015 from http://www.bestcolleges.com/resources/top-5-mental-health-problems-facing-college-students/
Christensen, H. (2010).Suicide prevention: Effective and timely interventions. Retrieved April
Diagnostic Statistical Manual Disorders
Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
There is a large array of more specified disorder types within the general category of anxiety disorders, but which all share a common symptom of increased anxiety (429). These are comprised of not only Generalized Anxiety Disorder, but also Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Social Phobia, Acute Stress Disorder, Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder, and unspecified conditions that do not meet the conditions of the ones outlined above. Generalized anxiety disorder, and its counterparts, is usually diagnosed through persistent levels of high anxiety within individuals. The DSM IV-TR describes the diagnosis for Generalized anxiety disorders as having six months or more of continuous anxiety which impacts the individual's quality of life (American Psychiatric Association 97). Other, more specific disorders within the larger classification do not have exactly that time necessity, but all require the feelings of anxiety within individuals to…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition: DSM-IV-TR®. American Psychiatric Publications. 2000.
Hyman, Bruce M. & Pedrick, Cherry. Anxiety Disorders. Twenty-First Century Books. 2005.
Klein, Raymond M. & Doane, Benjamin K. Psychological Concepts and Dissociative Disorders. Psychology Press. 2004.
Autistic Spectrum Disorders and the Family Unit
Autistic Spectrum Disorders are a group of related disorders or developmental disabilities that have been caused by some sort of problem within the brain. The necessity to understand the reasons for autism and the basic underlying pathophysiology has become more severe because the amount of diagnosed cases has increased dramatically in recent years. (White, 2003) Researchers and scientists have not been able to discover, as yet, what, exactly, causes this problem. The affected person may have his basic functioning affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder, and it may range form a mild affliction to a severe one. An autistic person may not look different from any of the others around him; the difference in fact is in the behavior and in the way in which he communicates, and interacts and behaves with the others around him. The Autistic Disorder is one of the…
However, as stated earlier, there is no single best treatment for all those who have been afflicted with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Disagreement occurs on several levels, with suitable setting for early intervention being one of the most significant disagreements. Even though most of the researchers on intervention accept the significance of social integration for children having disabilities, and more particularly, children having autism, there is less agreement regarding the intervention it should prevail. (Olney, 2000) Some of the researchers are of the view that in matters of autism, inclusion is suitable for children who are older by age or children who have higher levels of functioning but it is not for suitable for preschoolers who might not be in a position to be behaviorally fit to prove advantageous from an environment of inclusion. Other researchers are of the opinion that preschoolers having autism will not be provided suitable services in inclusion settings or might be alienated socially by their peer-groups. Programs which encourage such a philosophy suggest a period of single and small-group instruction before placement in an inclusive environment for the purpose of working on these required skills. (Ingersoll; Stahmer, 2004)
Since there is no single treatment which is suitable for all patients, all treatments, whenever necessary, must be made with the advice of a good diagnostic team. Therefore, in general, all those who are at present seeking a treatment course for their children who have been diagnosed as suffering from Autistic Spectrum Disorders, are advised that the best method of treatment available to them would be to, at the very outset, gather all the relevant and pertinent information about all the several different methods of treatment that are available for the treatment of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. One must try to learn as much as one can about the method available, and evaluate all the potions, and then decide on the best treatment for the child. (Autism Spectrum Disorders, Pervasive Developmental Disorders: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/autismmenu.cfm )
The Autism Society of America, in fact, offers the following
There are stated to be a wide range of toxic chemical sin the environment that are linked to neurodevelopmental disabilities which affect approximately three to eight percent of the total 4 million babies born in the U.S. every year. Exposure to toxic chemicals may be through industrial accidents, occupational exposure, suicide attempts and accidental poisonings. The number of toxic chemicals that cause neurotoxicity is stated to exceed 1000. (Gupta, 2008, paraphrased)
Prevention is possible although there are many challenges presented in the prevention of exposure of children to toxic chemicals. In order to prevent toxic chemical exposure in children the effort required is one of great magnitude and one that will require the participation of many actors at many levels throughout society and the world at large.
Gupta, Mona Sethi (2008) Neurodevelopmental disorders in Children. Autism and ADHD. Environmental Chemistry.com. 14 Apr 2008. Online available…
Gupta, Mona Sethi (2008) Neurodevelopmental disorders in Children. Autism and ADHD. Environmental Chemistry.com. 14 Apr 2008. Online available at: http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/200804childrenautismadhd.html
Graff, J. Carolyn; Murphy, Laura; Ekvall, Shirley; and Gagnon, Michele (In -- Home Toxic Chemical Exposures and children: Implications for Health Providers. Pediatr Nurs. 2006;32(6):596-603. © 2006 Jannetti Publications, Inc. Online available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552359_5
eating disorders in the male homosexual community. Eating disorders of all kinds are prevalent in the homosexual male community for a variety of reasons. Eating disorders are common in young people concerned with their appearances, but they usually occur in young females. Gay men are often extremely concerned with their appearances, as well, which is one reason they are more susceptible to these disorders.
A large number of gay men suffer from some type of eating disorder, especially when compared with heterosexual men. A Columbia University study found, "According to the study results, more than 15% of gay or bisexual men had at some time suffered anorexia, bulimia or binge-eating disorder, or at least certain symptoms of those disorders -- a problem known as a subclinical eating disorder, compared with less than five percent of heterosexual men" (Columbia University, 2007). It is important to define eating disorders before attempting to…
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health (2007, April 14). Gay men have higher prevalence of eating disorders. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from the ScienceDaily Web site: http://www.sciencedaily.com - / releases/2007/04/070413160923.htm.
Fichter, M., & Krenn, H. (2003). Chapter 23 Eating disorders in males. In Handbook of eating disorders, Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., & Furth, E.V. (Eds.) (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Meyer, C., Blissett, J., and Oldfield, C. (2001). Sexual orientation and eating psychopathology: The role of masculinity and femininity, International Journal of Eating Disorders, Vol. 29, No. 3. 314-318.
Nguyen, D.L. (2006, September 26). Wasting away: What's driving young gay men to starve, binge, and purge? The Advocate 24.
Generalized amnesia caused by phenomena of genuinely psychogenic origin is a rare psychological disorder and spontaneous recovery from amnesia in a comparatively short period of time is one of the characteristics of this disorder. A comparison between the six cases and previously reported cases of amnesia exposed the general characteristics of this disorder. Three of the patients believed they had names of other persons; and the two of the recalled personal histories completely different from their own (Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi: 1989; 91(4):260-93).
In a continuous amnesia, the amnesia covers the entire period without interruption from a traumatic event in the past to the present. The individual has no memory for events beginning from a certain point in the past continuing up to the present.
The significant distress within the individual is caused by the malfunction of his or her consciousness, memory, identity, or perception. This disorder is characterized by gaps…
All Psych and Heffner Media Group, Inc. Introduction and History of Mental Illness. Retrieved 27 April, 2008, from website: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/psychopathology.html.Lastupdated 21 March, 2004.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Text Revision. Washington, DC: APA Press; 2000:519-33.
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (2007, April 4). Selective Amnesia: How a Traumatic Memory Can Be Wiped Out. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 28, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2007/04/070402102218.htm
Eisendrath, Stuart J. "Psychiatric Disorders." In Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 1998, edited by Stephen McPhee, et al., 37th ed. Stamford: Appleton & Lange, 1997.
There is a certain social stigma associated with learning disorders. Many children and adults who suffer from a form of learning disorder are also burdened with its emotional and psychological effects that accompany it. This paper endeavors to explore what learning disorders are, the demographics of the more susceptible members of society, the types of therapy applied in the treatment of learning disorders, as well as the prognosis for sufferers. It is only through greater awareness of this debilitating disability, can we as a society eventually remove the stigma of intellectual failing which is associated with learning disorders.
Learning Disorders are diagnosed when the person's writing skills, reading ability, or math competency, are significantly less than expected for age group level, education level, and IQ level (http://www.aacap.org/about/glossary/ld.htm).Scientists assert that learning disorders are a result of difficulties with the nervous system that influences receiving, analyzing or relating information (http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsFam/ld.htm).To…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (May, 1999) Children with Learning Disabilities. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsFam/ld.htm
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001) Learning Disorders. http://www.aacap.org/about/glossary/ld.htm
Goodman, Robin F. & Gurian, Anita. About Learning Disorders. http://www.aboutourkids.org/articles/about_learning.html
Isyke. (2001) Learning Disorders: Research. http://www.mental-health-matters.com/articles/isyke001.php?artID=287
However Cull and Goldstein (1997) report that this focus is beginning to shift.
The search for new and better drug treatments is, however, just one aspect of the therapeutic strategies to help epileptics. Cognitive therapies that focus on the physical and social limitations that seizure disorders can cause is also essential. As discussed previously, seizure disorders can lead to a number of psychological disorders including depression, anxiety and social inhibitions. The limits these disorders place on normal social and working habits can be a great cause of stress for sufferers of seizure disorders and can often require intensive psychotherapeutic treatment in conjunction with pharmacological treatments.
Seizure disorders are difficult to live with both in terms of the physical symptoms as well as their psychological and behavioral symptoms. These disorders not only affect the individuals who are suffering from them, but can deeply affect their families and loved ones as…
Cull, C. & Goldstein, L.H. (1997) The clinical psychologist's handbook of epilepsy: Assessment and management. London: Routledge
Friendlander, W.J. (2001) The history of modern epilepsy: The beginning, 1865-1914 Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Harris, J.C. (2006) Intellectual disability: Understanding its development, causes, classification, evaluation, and treatment, New York: Oxford University Press.
Management and referral of seizure disorders (2009, August 7). Medical Economics, 86
neurotic disorders, gives some examples of such disorders, describes the symptoms, and discusses how these neurotic disorders can be treated.
Neurotic disorders (also known as neurosis in psychiatry) are a broad category of psychological disturbance, encompassing various mild forms of mental disorder without psychotic symptoms. They are of a relatively milder nature as compared to more serious mental disorders such as hypomania, schizophrenia or major depression. However, the symptoms of neurotic disorders are distressing to the individual and considered as unacceptable by the sufferer. Social relationships may be greatly affected by such a condition but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disorder persists without treatment. (Green, 1999; "Neurotic Disorders: definition,": Medical Glossary.org, 2004)
Examples of Neurotic Disorders
Neurotic disorders can be categorized in different ways. One way of classifying them is according to the kinds of feelings they generate, e.g., Anxiety disorders, Phobias, Obsessive compulsive disorders, Hypochondriasis, Hysterical neurosis, and…
Green, Ben Dr. (1999). "Neurotic Disorders and Somatisation" Priory Lodge Education Ltd. Retrieved on November 27, 2004 from http://www.priory.com/neuro.htm
--------------- -- . (2000). Notes on Neurotic Disorders. Psychiatry online. Retrieved on November 27, 2004 from http://www.priory.com/psych/neurosis.htm
'Introduction: Anxiety Disorders." (2004). Wrong Diagnosis.com. Retrieved on November 27, 2004 from http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/a/anxiety/intro.htm
'Neurotic Disorders: Definition." (2004). Medical Glossary.org Retrieved on November 27, 2004 from http://www.medicalglossary.org/mental_disorders_neurotic_disorders_definitions.html
McKinley (2005) calls for the use of these varying technologies to give students with language disorders a sense of empowerment so they can then overcome their problem and learn as they are capable of learning. Technology has offered a means of treatment for very young children as well as for students, with the hope of bringing about beneficial change before these children lose their way in school. Cochran and Nelson (1999) point out,
Computer technology has been used successfully in therapy for young children with speech and language disorders; however, the clinician is a crucial factor in such success. Clinicians choose communication goals and appropriate software, plan precomputer activities, provide appropriate models and opportunities during the computer activity, and provide postcomputer activities that ensure the generalization of new skills (Cochran & Nelson, 1999, para. 1).
Classroom Management there are a number of elements teachers should consider in adapting the classroom…
Charter schools: special education (2005). Retrieved July 13, 2005 at http://www.vaughncharter.com/Dissemination/Special%20Education%20Students%20in%20an%20Inclusive%20Setting.htm .
Cochran, P.S. & Nelson, L.K. (1999). Technology applications in intervention for preschool-age children with language disorders. Semin Speech Language.20(3), 203-217.
Dunham, P.J., Dunham, F., & Curwin, a. (1993). Joint-attentional states and lexical acquisition at 18 months. Developmental Psychology, 29, 827-831.
Hasselbring, T.S. & Glaser, C.H.W. (2000). Use of Computer Technology to Help Students with Special Needs. The Future of Children 10(2), 102.
Classic examples of these are relational problems within families, which are missing in DSM-IV-TR. A research team investigated how relational problems are handled in DSM-IV. From its findings, the team recommended the inclusion of relational problems or processes in DSM-V. It concluded by arguing for the inclusion of diagnostic criteria for relational problems in DSM-V in order to better serve science, families, individuals and the DSM itself (Heyman et al.).
3. Fictional Case Study
Monina, 85, has been able to control her blood sugar and hypertension through regular medication. Despite her leg weakness, she can walk around the house without assistance. What has been bothersome is her deteriorating memory and hearing. She has a hearing aid but refuses to use it. Many times, her daughter observes Monina's failure to replace her own personal items, like hairbrush, toothbrush and powder case, or misplace them . At other times, she fails to…
American Psychological Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). (5th edition). Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publishing
-. Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR-to-DSM-5.
Retrieved on April 19, 2014 from http://www.dsms.org/Documents/changesfromdsm-iv-tr-to-dsm-5.pdf
- (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
Public Service Pamphlet: Three Eating Disorders
Historical perspective: Although not formally called "eating disorders" until the 20th century, anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating have been recorded for quite some time. Ancient omans occasionally gorged on food and vomited afterwards. Many religious saints deprived themselves of food as a means of self-abnegation, and anorexia was sometimes called "wasting disease" between the 17th-19th centuries (Deans, 2011). Binge eating is likely the most common of the three major eating disorders.
Biological Basis: There is some controversy over whether there is a biological basis for any of the three major eating disorders. ecent research shows that a hormone called estradiol has been indicted in some adolescent female cases of eating disorders (Grohol, 2010). Estradiol is a type of estrogen that releases into the body around puberty. There may also be a genetic component to eating disorders, as well as a neuropsychological one as…
Deans, E. (2011). A History of Eating Disorders. Psychology Today. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201112/history-eating-disorders
Grohol, J.M. (2010). Eating disorders may have biological basis. PsychCentral. Retrieved online: http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/06/07/eating-disorders-may-have-biological-basis/14349.html
Kristeller, J.L. & Hallett, C.B. (1999). An exploratory study of a meditation-based intervention for binge eating disorder. Journal of Health Psychology 4(3).
Mayo Clinic. (2012) Eating disorders. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/eating-disorders/DS00294 /DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
Contrasting Approaches Towards Dealing With Corpulence: A Comparison Between Eating and Weight Disorders and Obesity Surgery: Stories of Altered Lives
Upon first examination, there would appear to be several areas of similarity between Carlos Grilo's Eating and Weight Disorders and Obesity Surgery: Stories of Altered Lives, which is co-authored by Marta Meana and Lindsey icciardi. Both literary works detail the finer points of cautionary measures regarding complications of eating, as well as the many hazards which may accompany this seemingly innocuous, vital act. However, thorough analysis of each book reveals a departure in the methodology and purposes presented in the manuscripts. Eating and Weight Disorders takes a decidedly more academic approach in presenting a comprehensive overview of the various types of disorders associated with eating including specific symptoms, potential treatments, and the overall prevalence in which such conditions can occur. Obesity Surgery: Stories of Altered Lives, on the…
Grilo, C.M. (2006). Eating and Weight Disorders. New York: Pschology Press.
Meana, M. Ricciardi, L. (2008) Obesity Surgery: Stories of Altered Lives. Reno: University of Nevada.
Additionally, the author concluded that other noninvasive treatments could be used, and those treatments may be better for treating the psychological aspects of female sexual pain disorders. Supported psychotherapy and biofeedback were two of the suggested options that could be used in place of cognitive behavioral therapy, indicating that the author was aware of the value of cognitive behavioral therapy but also aware of the limitations of the technique in this context (LoFrisco, 2011).
The article was interesting, mostly because female sexual pain disorders are something about which most people do not talk. There is a certain "taboo" about female sexuality and sexual health that began many years ago and has carried right on through the modern day (Bergeron, et al., 2001; Van Lankveld, et al., 2006). Although women are more open about their sexuality than they used to be, there are many areas of sexual health they still do…
Bergeron, S., Binik, Y.M., Khalife', S., Pagidas, K., Glazer, H.I., Meana, M., et al. (2001). A randomized comparison of group cognitive -- behavioral therapy, surface electromyographic biofeedback, and vestibulectomy in the treatment of dyspareunia resulting from vulvar vestibulitis. Pain, 91, 297 -- 306.
LoFrisco, B.M. (2011). Female sexual pain disorders and cognitive behavioral therapy. Journal of Sex Research, 48(6): 573-579.
Van Lankveld, J.J.D.M., ter Kuile, M.M., de Groot, H.E., Mellis, R., Nefs, J., & Zandbergen, M. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for women with lifelong vaginismus: A randomized waiting list controlled trial of efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 168 -- 178.
Sleep Disorders / College Students
The Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in College Students: Impact on Academic Performance
There are a number of reasons that college students experience sleep disorders. A common problem is sleep deprivation and resulting excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Both biological and social factors can be at the root of the problem, the consequences of which may be serious. The purpose of Gaultney's study was to look at sleep disorders among college students both by gender and age, and determine the effect on grade point average (GPA).
Gaultney points out that there is insufficient literature establishing the prevalence of sleep disorders among college students. Although both biological and social factors have been cited, the statistical breakdown is not known. In other words, students may voluntarily give up sleep for social purposes or to work at a job. They may be forced to give up sleep if they live…
Gaultney, Jane F. "The Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in College Students: Impact on Academic
Performance." Journal of American College Health 59.2 (2010): 91-98.
Analysis Paper - LGBTQMultiple studies have examined the use of illicit drugs and alcohol among the LGBTQ. Most of the studies compared the use of drugs among LGBTQ individuals and heterosexual individuals. According to some studies findings, it is claimed that LGBTQ individuals are more likely to consume illicit drugs and alcohol (Klein & Ross, 2014). Equally, LGBTQ individuals are prompt to develop various health challenges due to substance use. However, amongst the findings, none seem to have determined the predisposing factors that trigger more LGBTQ to alcohol and illicit drug abuse than heterosexual individuals (Klein & Ross, 2014). Such results, therefore, if not adequately evaluated, can be biased.On the other hand, some studies also argue that the differences in alcohol and illicit drug intake between heterosexual individuals and LGBTQ individuals emerge during adolescence and persist until adulthood (Klein & Ross, 2014). According to those studies, LGBTQ adolescents that are…
Klein, A. A., & Ross, B. L. (2014). Substance use and mental health severity among LGBTQ individuals attending Minnesota model-based residential treatment. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 26(3), 303-317.
Risk factors for PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)
The exact causes of PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) remain unknown. However, certain risk factors are associated with the disease, according to the National Institute of Health (NIH), including:
· Having a genetic history of the disorder
· Being overweight.
PCOS is a hormonal disorder which results when a woman’s ovaries produce more male hormones than normal, resulting in excessive hair growth, acne, pain in the pelvic area, and in some cases infertility. The NIH also notes that once a diagnosis is made, there is a strong correlation between women with PCOS and other disorders, including:
· Overweight and obesity
· Type II diabetes
· Metabolic syndrome
· High blood pressure
· Heart disease
Given that many of these disorders are already associated with obesity, the extent to which women prone to PCOS may be equally prone to these disorders is also not yet…
Symptoms, Duration, Severity, and Precipitant Factors
Pat Solitano was admitted to a psychiatric hospital for 8 months. This was after he nearly beat to death a man he had found his wife, Nikki, cheating with. Pat is around 30 years old and is a Caucasian man who is living provisionally with Bipolar Disorder. On being released from the hospital after the eighth month, Pat went to live with his parents, Dolores and Pat Sr (Russell, Elfman & Gigliotti, 2012). On discovering his wife cheating with another man, a fight ensued and the man the wife was cheating with almost died. A week earlier, prior to the incident, Pat had called the police as he believed that the man and his wife were involved in a conspiracy to embezzle money from a local school. After going through 8 months of inpatient treatment at a psychiatric hospital, he was released to the…
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
Disorder of the Hypothalamus
There is a tremendous amount of importance associated with the hypothalamus, which extends throughout various physical, emotional, and mental aspects of life. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that creates hormones that are critical to a number of processes of the body including temperature, sex drive, mood, and others. It is also directly related to certain glands that secrete hormones. Therefore, it is very important that it functions properly because it plays a role in a number of vital processes that most people take for granted. Those with this condition have a reduced sense of smell (Houneida et al., 2013, p. 144).
Several different disorders exist that pertain to the hypothalamus. One that is fairly rare is termed Kallman syndrome, and is a genetic disorder that is related to bodily processes that typically develop during puberty for those with a normal functioning hypothalamus. The…
Arkoncel, M., Arkoncel, F., Lantion-Ang, F. (2011). A case of Kallman syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 13(2), 24-37.
Houneida., Z., Slim, I., Zina, N., Mallet, N., Tajouri, H., Kraiem, C. (2013). Kallman syndrome: MRI findings. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 17(2) 142-146.
On the one hand, it has been rated as a severe and engrossing clinical disease; on the other hand, there is no clear consensus or protocol in defining and assessing it. Much about it still remains to be understood.
The most popular form of therapy for children with attachment disorders is 'holding therapy'. 'Holding therapy' describes a form of intervention that consists of close physical contact with one or more therapists. The child is held across the lap of one or two therapists, whilst touch and eye contact between child and therapists are encouraged strongly through the session. Although 'holding' is supposed to provide the child with the care and security that she missed during her developmental years, and although it is also thought to be the way to break through to the child, and perhaps contain the child's distress or frustration, considerable controversy surrounds the practice. There has been…
Carter, C. (1998). Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 779-818
Chisholm, K. (1998). A three-year follow-up of indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Child Development, 69, 1092-1106.
O'Connor, T. & Zeanah, C. (2003). Attachment disorders: Assessment strategies and treatment approaches. Attachment & Human Development, 5, 223-244
disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.
Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.
According to the CDC…
Buckley, S. (1995). Teaching children with Down syndrome to read and write. Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 158-169). New York: Wiley-Liss.
Cheung, Y.B., Law, C.K., Chan, B., Liu, K.Y., YIP, P.S. (2006): Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors. J. Affect. Disord.
Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crawford, P.A. (1995). Early literacy: Emerging perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 71-86.
Persons with Emotional Behavior Disorder
Importance of assessment of emotional and behavioral disorders in schools
Identifying and assessing emotional and behavioral disorders in schools (EBD) helps identify and address a number of risky behaviors among youths in good time. Students suffering from EBD experience difficulties when learning, have challenging social relationships, experience depression and anxious moments as well as exhibit inappropriate behaviors. School, administrators usually know these students, as they need a lot of support and different resources to be able to survive in a school environment (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters, 2011).
Early identification of these problem behaviors help school administrators provide the necessary support students need before the situation gets out of hand or becomes impossible to manage. Even though students at risk of EBD have less severe characteristics and frequency than those already diagnosed, early identification is crucial in improving educational outcomes (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters,…
Angold, A., & Costello, E. (2000). A review of issues relevant to the creation of a measure of disability in children based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICIDH-2). https://devepi.duhs.duke.edu/pubs/who.pdf.
BASC,.BASC-2 Summary - Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://basc-2.szapkiw.com/basc-summary/
Connecticut State Department of Education,. (2012). Guidelines for Identifying and Educating Students with Emotional Disturbance. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/publications/edguide/ed_guidelines.pdf
Davis, S., Young, E., Hardman, S., & Winters, R. (2011). Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Nassp.org. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.nassp.org/tabid/3788/default.aspx?topic=Screening_for_Emotional_and_Behavioral_Disorders
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…
Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.
Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.
Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.
Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
Digestive Disorder: Diverticulitis
The patient is a 37-year-old female with a family history of colorectal cancer mandating regular colonoscopies before the age of 40. The patient's diverticulosis was discovered during a routine colonoscopy at age 35. She was asymptomatic for 2 years, but developed diverticulitis at age 37. When she began experiencing significant pain her lower left abdominal area, she suspected diverticulitis, called her gastroenterologist who referred her to the emergency room for a cat scan, which confirmed the diagnosis, and then given a course of antibiotics, which resolved the issue.
"Diverticulitis develops when feces become trapped in pouches (diverticula) that have formed along the wall of the large intestine. This allows bacteria to grow and cause an infection or inflammation and pressure that may lead to a small perforation or tear in the wall of the intestine. Peritonitis, an infection of the lining of the abdominal…
Davis B.R. & Matthews, J.B. (2006). Diverticular disease of the colon. In M. Wolfe et al., eds., Therapy of Digestive Disorders, 2nd ed., pp. 855-859. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Maconi, G., Barbara, G., Bosetti, C., Cuomo, R., & Annibale, B. (2011). Treatment of diverticular disease of the colon and prevention of acute diverticulitis: A systematic review. Dis. Colon Rectum, 54(10), 1326-38.
Martin, S.T., & Stocchi, L. (2011). New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. Clin. Exp. Gastroenterol., 4, 203-212.
Unlu, C., Daniels, L., Vrouenraets, B.C., & Boermeester, M.A. (2011). A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease. Int. J. Colorectal Dis. doi: 10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23.
This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental impairments that typify the disorder, setting up an approach that is inherently humanistic and person-centered. Despite the highly technical and quantified nature of the ultimate research question and data collected and analyzed in this study, this person-centered focus and tone is observable throughout this research article. Immediately following a brief description of the impacts of autism spectrum disorders on individuals that have these disorders, the authors launch into a discussion regarding the evidence for a hereditary pattern in the development of the disorder and the ability to trace the disorder and its impact through families.
The authors follow this with a discussion about one of the general methodologies they ultimately employ in this research, known as "homozygosity mapping," which essentially is…
While no one knows what the future will bring, based upon what the background / significance uncovered, it is clear that a large portion of the population sample will more than likely suffer from some type of eating disorder. This will help to achieve the various aims / objectives of project, which are to assist these people, in realizing that they do have a problem and to seek out effective treatment options. This could be a real challenge, in identifying the problem as one issue, while encouraging someone to seek out help is another matter. As these people, must be able to realize that they have a medical condition and want to be able rectify the situation. The only way that this can occur, is for someone to admit that they are suffering from an eating disorder.
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html…
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html
Alexander, L. (2010). Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management. New Dimensions in Women's Health. (pg. 256). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Costin, C. (2007). Considering Ethnicity. The Eating Disorder Sourcebook. (pp. 35 -- 37). Los Angeles, CA: Lowell House.
Greenberg, J. (2006). Issue Related to Body Image. Physical Fitness and Wellness. (pg. 229). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…
Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder - gamma-knife
Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.
Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf
Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632. http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
According to Himmel (2009), "We could save a lot of pain, suffering and money by incorporating obesity into the range of illnesses now classified as eating disorders, and focusing on prevention" Obesity related issues are frequently classified separately from eating disorders, but there is more overlap than many people believe. When a person diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia, the traditionally recognized eating disorders, enter treatment with a professional counselor or psychologist, a Twelve Step program called Overeaters Anonymous is sometimes recommended. The Twelve Step program Overeaters Anonymous was not started to help people with anorexia and bulimia, and yet it has come to serve these populations as well, suggesting that what Himmel (2009) says is correct. Eating disorders encompass a range of disordered eating behaviors. Individual differences ensure that there are no two people who practice an eating disorder for the same reasons. By the same token, obesity…
Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.
Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-must-be-hungry/200909/is-obesity-eating-disorder
economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global.
The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been discovered relatively recently, meaning as such that progress has yet to be made in terms of treatment and management. Additionally, research is also yet to be exhaustive, as numerous aspects of the affection remain uncharted.
One important aspect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is represented by the economic cost of the affection, revealed at multiple levels, such as the cost for the healthcare system, as well as the costs for the family. The current project assesses this issue through the lenses of the research that has already been conducted on the topic, in an effort to centralize and conclude upon the matter. The means in which this endeavor would be addressed is that of the Toulmin Method.…
Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S., Persson, J., 2007, ADHD from a socio-economic perspective, Foundation Acta Paediatrtica
Daley, D., Birchwood, J., 2009, ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom, Child: care, health and development
Matza, L.S., Paramore, C., Prasad, M., 2005, A review of the economic burden of ADHD, http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/3/1/5 last accessed on March 30, 2012
Weida, S., Stolley, K., Organizing your argument, Owl Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03 / last accessed on March 30, 2012
"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" (IBD, 2013, CDC). Ulcerative colitis affects the large colon; Crohn's usually affects the small colon and the beginning portion of the large colon. egardless in both manifestations of IBD, the body attacks the cells of the intestine, mistaking 'good' things like food and bacteria for dangerous invaders and thus causing chronic inflammation.
The effects of IBD can be extremely severe because of the nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss and malnutrition that they cause. Crohn's is particularly dangerous because it can cause intestinal blockage from severe swelling and scaring. Ulcers can cause fistulas which become infected. Unlike lupus, both forms of IBD can be treated with surgery as well as various anti-inflammatory drugs.…
Systemic Lupus Erythematous (Lupus). (2013). American College of Rheumatology.
IBD. (2013). CDC. Retrieved:
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…
Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.
332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf
Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,
Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low growth of sex hormones that make them weaker sexually. You can see many people who have poor body structure and lack of bone density due to their improper nutrition so these children usually have weak bones and there is fear that they may face with bone fracture in their life.
While besides physical body disturbance and weakness it put effect on the brain of human being and person who is diagnose with Anorexia Nervosa have weak structure of their brain and have physiological impact on those people including poor personality, shattered body image.
There are many ways that can be used to cure this disease but first of all you need to find out that you are also suffering from this…
Cohen, Juliet. "Identifying Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms." EzineArticles 13 September 2007. 01 October 2007 http://ezinearticles.com/?Identifying-Anorexia-Nervosa-Symptoms&id=730487 .
Birmingham CL, Goldner EM, Bakan R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int J. Eating Disord. 1994;15:251-255.
Thomsen, S.R., Weber, M.M., & Brown, L.B. (2002). The relationship between reading beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among adolescent females. Adolescence, 37, 1-19
Crisp AH, Lacey JH, Crutchfield M. Clomipramine and 'drive' in people with anorexia nervosa: an inpatient study. Br J. Psychiatry. 1987;150:355-358
On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does not work, there are many sorts of antibiotics, painkillers, laxatives or anti-diarrhea pills that one can take to negate the effects of noxious symptoms. Corrective surgery is also an option, although it does not always work.
Some of the treatments for inflammatory bowel disease can work for irritable bowel syndrome, such as the taking of antibiotics, anti-diarrhea medicine, and fiber supplements. Additionally, corrective measures to one's diet and lifestyle to attempt to procure a stress free environment may work as well. Treatments specific to this condition, however, include antidepressants and counseling to assist with stress. Additionally, medications such as lubiprostone and alosetron also pertain strictly to this condition, and not to inflammatory bowel disease.
PATIENT FACTO: AGE
Age certainly has a…
Pace, F., Molteni, P., Bollani, S., Sarzi-Puttini, P., Stockbrugger, R., Porro, Bianchi, Drossman, D.A. (2003). "Inflammatory bowel disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome: a hospital-based, case-control study of disease impact on quality of life.." BMC Gastroenterol. 38 (10): 1031-1038.
Porter, C.K., Brooks, D.C., Pimentel, M., Akinseye, a., Riddle, M.S. (2012). "Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome." BMC Gastroenterol. 12: 55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444908/
Genes that are involved in the large families with a lot of individuals with ALS are sometimes called causative genes since they are usually sufficient to cause ALS devoid of any other genes or factors being involved. Genes involved in the smaller ALS families can either be susceptibility or causative genes (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005).
There appears to be no clear cause in the majority of ALS cases and there is just one medication, riluzole, has been shown to modestly prolong survival. esearch has recognized some of the cellular processes that take place after disease onset, including mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, generation of free radicals, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis, but for most people the underlying cause is unknown. While ALS is measured to be a multifaceted genetic disorder in which multiple genes in amalgamation with environmental exposures merge to render a person susceptible, few genetic or environmental risks have…
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (2005). Retrieved from http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/als.html
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Gordon, P.H. (2011). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. CNS Drugs, 25(1), 1-15.
Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when they become older. (Kolata, 2010)
Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension
Congestive heart failure and hypertension are interconnected with each other. According to a study conducted by the University of Texas, they found that there are 660 thousand new cases reported each year. This is accounting for 7% of all deaths associated with cardio vascular disease. One of the biggest factors that will determine if someone is at risk is hypertension. As this is used in 75% of all cases, to predict if someone will be impacted by congestive heart failure and the long-term effects it will have on them. (Merla, 2009)
Hypertension can lead to complications by increasing the chances of ventricle or systolic dysfunction taking place. This improves the chances…
Heart Disease Fact. (2013). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm
Heart Disease and Stroke. (2012). Lasker Foundation. Retrieved from:
Heart Failure. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-failure/DS00061
substance abuse disorder that can mimic a mental health or medical diagnosis. -Addictions or substance abuse counseling
Brooks, AJ & Penn, PE (2003) Comparing reatments for Dual Diagnosis: welve-Step and Self-Management and Recovery raining HE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE, 29, 359 -- 383
Brooks and Penn (2003) compared the effectiveness of the 12-step approach with the cognitive-behavioral (Self-Management and Recovery raining [SMAR]) approach for people with a dual diagnosis of serious mental illness and substance use disorder. he 112 participants were tested in an intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization setting and were assigned to two treatment conditions. 50 participants completed the 6-month treatment program. he participants were tested during five intermittent periods. Researchers discovered that the 12 Steps program was more efficacious in decreasing alcohol use and increasing social interactions, but that it resulted in a worsening of medical problems, health status, employment status, and psychiatric hospitalization. SMAR, on…
The authors found positive associations to exist between these six components and treatment completion, length of stay, decreased use of substances, reduced mental health symptoms, improved birth outcomes, employment, self-reported health status, and HIV risk reduction. The authors conclude by recommending that further research needs to be done into interventions that can be efficacious for women in order to best treat that gender.
The study is helpful to people who work with substance abuse since research has clearly indicated gender-based differences in etiology of substance abuse and reaction to interventions. In this case, it only makes sense to evaluate the existent research on pertinent gender differences and to structure substance-abuse programs for each gender accordingly.
The studies, however, that authors employed - only 38 -- may have been too few. They may also have been from biased samples and may have reflected specific and limited populations and contexts. Substance abuse is a complex and multi-variegated field with patients possessing many variables. It is, therefore, important that a more comprehensive and exhaustive study (both longitudinal and cross-sectional) be conducted and that further meta analytic studies including a more diverse population be conducted. Given the limited purview of this study, Ashley et al.'s (2003) findings may not be generalizable to all treatment programs and treatment populations. Furthermore, most of the articles employed were non-randomized rather than randomized studies, containing lesser reliability. Given accomplishment of these factors, future research on this same topic would be extremely helpful to researchers and social workers since substance abuse programs may be substantially improved for women helping both women and their offspring.
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…
"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online: http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm
Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.
Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.
Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…
Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.
Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…
Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)
Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54
NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.
Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…
Hall, J., Whalley, H.C., Marwick, K., McKirdy, J., Sussmann, J., Romaniuk, L., (2010). Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 761-761-70. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991000
Kinsella, Caroline and Kinsella, Connor Introducing Mental Health: A Practical Guide (London: Jessica Kingsley, (2006)
Kutscher M., Attwood M.L., Wolff R.R. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, LD, Asperger's, Tourette's, Bipolar, and More!: The one stop guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals. Philadelphia Kingsley Publishing (2005)
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J.M., . . . . (2005). Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(5), 295-295-302. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/235461846?accountid=13044
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…
Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information
Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-
Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.
Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…
Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.
Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.
Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…
American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.
Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press
Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Disorders of the Brain Alzheimer disease This is a progressive disease that damages nerve cells (neurons ) in parts of the brain that are involved in learning, memory, reasoning…Read Full Paper ❯
Disorders in Older People Alzheimer's and Eating Disorders and how they affect Older Adults Alzheimer's and Eating Disorders and how they affect Older Adults Disorders in Older People Alzheimer's-Type…Read Full Paper ❯
Mostly proteins and platelets combine to form blood clotting in order to heal wounds inside the arteries. However, the accumulation of fatty protein and platelet deposits on the artery…Read Full Paper ❯
Personality disorders are long-standing and pervasive patterns of behavior that impede the individual's functioning and lead to significant distress in performing everyday activities with others (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).…Read Full Paper ❯
signs and symptoms of a person suffering from intervertebral disc disease? The signs that a person may have intervertebral disc disease include suffering from lower back pain which "radiates…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Disorders Prevalent in the Lives of College Students The life in college always represents a significant step that marks the transition of the individual from one stage that they…Read Full Paper ❯
Diagnostic Statistical Manual Disorders Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders There is a large array of more specified disorder types within the general category of anxiety disorders,…Read Full Paper ❯
Autistic Spectrum Disorders and the Family Unit Autistic Spectrum Disorders are a group of related disorders or developmental disabilities that have been caused by some sort of problem within…Read Full Paper ❯
" (2008) There are stated to be a wide range of toxic chemical sin the environment that are linked to neurodevelopmental disabilities which affect approximately three to eight percent…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
eating disorders in the male homosexual community. Eating disorders of all kinds are prevalent in the homosexual male community for a variety of reasons. Eating disorders are common in…Read Full Paper ❯
Generalized amnesia caused by phenomena of genuinely psychogenic origin is a rare psychological disorder and spontaneous recovery from amnesia in a comparatively short period of time is one of…Read Full Paper ❯
Learning Disorders There is a certain social stigma associated with learning disorders. Many children and adults who suffer from a form of learning disorder are also burdened with its…Read Full Paper ❯
However Cull and Goldstein (1997) report that this focus is beginning to shift. The search for new and better drug treatments is, however, just one aspect of the therapeutic…Read Full Paper ❯
neurotic disorders, gives some examples of such disorders, describes the symptoms, and discusses how these neurotic disorders can be treated. Neurotic disorders (also known as neurosis in psychiatry) are…Read Full Paper ❯
McKinley (2005) calls for the use of these varying technologies to give students with language disorders a sense of empowerment so they can then overcome their problem and learn…Read Full Paper ❯
Classic examples of these are relational problems within families, which are missing in DSM-IV-TR. A research team investigated how relational problems are handled in DSM-IV. From its findings, the…Read Full Paper ❯
EDs Public Service Pamphlet: Three Eating Disorders Historical perspective: Although not formally called "eating disorders" until the 20th century, anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating have been recorded for quite…Read Full Paper ❯
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Additionally, the author concluded that other noninvasive treatments could be used, and those treatments may be better for treating the psychological aspects of female sexual pain disorders. Supported psychotherapy…Read Full Paper ❯
Sleep Disorders / College Students The Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in College Students: Impact on Academic Performance There are a number of reasons that college students experience sleep disorders.…Read Full Paper ❯
Drugs / Alcohol
Analysis Paper - LGBTQMultiple studies have examined the use of illicit drugs and alcohol among the LGBTQ. Most of the studies compared the use of drugs among LGBTQ individuals…Read Full Paper ❯
Medical - Disorders
Risk factors for PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) The exact causes of PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) remain unknown. However, certain risk factors are associated with the disease, according to the…Read Full Paper ❯
Symptoms, Duration, Severity, and Precipitant Factors Pat Solitano was admitted to a psychiatric hospital for 8 months. This was after he nearly beat to death a man he had…Read Full Paper ❯
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior…Read Full Paper ❯
Disorder of the Hypothalamus There is a tremendous amount of importance associated with the hypothalamus, which extends throughout various physical, emotional, and mental aspects of life. The hypothalamus is…Read Full Paper ❯
On the one hand, it has been rated as a severe and engrossing clinical disease; on the other hand, there is no clear consensus or protocol in defining and…Read Full Paper ❯
disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is…Read Full Paper ❯
Persons with Emotional Behavior Disorder Importance of assessment of emotional and behavioral disorders in schools Identifying and assessing emotional and behavioral disorders in schools (EBD) helps identify and address…Read Full Paper ❯
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need…Read Full Paper ❯
Sensorimotor Disorder estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately…Read Full Paper ❯
Digestive Disorder: Diverticulitis Patient history The patient is a 37-year-old female with a family history of colorectal cancer mandating regular colonoscopies before the age of 40. The patient's diverticulosis…Read Full Paper ❯
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common…Read Full Paper ❯
Eating Disorders and Gender There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are…Read Full Paper ❯
Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23. Introduction This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental…Read Full Paper ❯
Project Evaluation While no one knows what the future will bring, based upon what the background / significance uncovered, it is clear that a large portion of the population…Read Full Paper ❯
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a…Read Full Paper ❯
Eating Disorders According to Himmel (2009), "We could save a lot of pain, suffering and money by incorporating obesity into the range of illnesses now classified as eating disorders,…Read Full Paper ❯
economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global. The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit…Read Full Paper ❯
"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel…Read Full Paper ❯
Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is…Read Full Paper ❯
The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low…Read Full Paper ❯
On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does…Read Full Paper ❯
Genes that are involved in the large families with a lot of individuals with ALS are sometimes called causative genes since they are usually sufficient to cause ALS devoid…Read Full Paper ❯
Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
substance abuse disorder that can mimic a mental health or medical diagnosis. -Addictions or substance abuse counseling Brooks, AJ & Penn, PE (2003) Comparing reatments for Dual Diagnosis: welve-Step…Read Full Paper ❯
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of…Read Full Paper ❯
BP Disorder Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar…Read Full Paper ❯
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds…Read Full Paper ❯
Discussion Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and…Read Full Paper ❯
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has…Read Full Paper ❯
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They…Read Full Paper ❯
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction Narrative Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on…Read Full Paper ❯
Depression and Eating Disorders The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note…Read Full Paper ❯
Abstract Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders…Read Full Paper ❯
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia,…Read Full Paper ❯
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715 Gender: Age: ____ Grade: Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Other Completed by:____ Type of Class: Class…Read Full Paper ❯
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect…Read Full Paper ❯
Avoidant Personality Disorder As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent…Read Full Paper ❯