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Domestic violence is an insidious problem that affects communities large and small within the entire nation. It is a problem that affects young and old, affluent and underprivileged alike. There are many ways to view domestic violence. Though domestic violence may be defined in many ways, for purposes of this evaluation will be defined as violence that occurs between two individuals living together (Davis, 1998). Typically these individuals will be partners but this is not always the case. Domestic violence may include any type of violence whether verbal or physical, including hitting, verbal abuse, neglect, or any other type of violent act that leads to harm or injury in the battered victim.
Though several legislative measures have been enacted to curb domestic violence, there is still little uniformity of practice among community policing agencies and other support services. At present legislators and community members are considering working together to determine…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2000). Criminal victimization 2000: Changes 1999-2000
with trends 1993-2000 (NCJ Publication No. 187007). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. In Baker, et. al, "Moving beyond the individual: Examining the effects of domestic violence policies on social norms."
Baker, C.K., Carlin, K., Price, A.W. & Salazar, L.F. (2003). "Moving beyond the individual: Examining the effects of domestic violence policies on social norms." Journal of Community Psychology, 32(3-4):253
Davis, R.L. (1998). "Domestic violence: Facts and fallacies." Westport: Praeger
Domestic violence and domestic abuse is a world-wide epidemic. The prevalence of the occurrences of domestic violence is attributable to several variables: cultural differences between partners, alcohol and drug abuse, poverty, and mental issues of aggression, impulse, and character. Psychologists and sociologists have attempted to prove which of these components has the most important impact on whether or not a man will become abusive to his spouse. I say male not to dismiss the occurrences of female physical abuse of males, but because the studies analyzed in the following all consider male abuse of female. Each analyst makes a solid point about how their research indicates that the factor they are examining is the preeminent source of eventual violence. The only logical conclusion that can be drawn is that each of the four factors can contribute to a scenario where a partnership has the potential to escalate into physically violent…
Adelman, Madelaine (2000). "No Way Out: Divorce-Related Domestic Violence in Israel."
Violence Against Women. 6:1223. Sage.
Bassuk, Ellen et al. (2006). "Intimate Partner Violence in Extremely Poor Women: Longitudinal
Patterns and Risk Markers." J. Fam. Springer. 387-399.
CASE young female comes to your office looking frightened and dishelved. She made an appointment with you earlier that day. She keeps looking around and appears to be nervous. She discloses that she was beaten up by her boyfriend who she lives with, and she thinks he is following her. She is frightened because he said he would kill her if she told anyone what happened. She tells you she also has a 3-year-old son with her boyfriend.
The most immediate need associated with domestic violence is safety. Within the first few days, after the attach the most important thing for this individual would be to remove her and her minor child from harms way. The therapist should survey the individual to determine resources and a possible existing social network that would allow her to remove her self from the domestic abuse situation. The lack of financial and…
National Center for PTSD Domestic Violence Website Retrieved July 18, 2004 at: http://www.ncptsd.org/facts/specific/fs_domestic_violence.html.
Abuse Counseling and Treatment Inc. (ACT) "Types of Abuse: Financial Control" Retrieved July 19, 2004 at: http://www.actabuse.com/financecontrol.html .
Abuse Counseling and Treatment Inc. (ACT) "Types of Abuse: Isolation" Retrieved July 19, 2004 at:
Each year, many battered women kill their husbands after years of abuse and violence. Murder, obviously, is against the law, making the actions of these women an offense. The killing abusive husbands forces society to reconcile the desperation of these women with a need to respect and maintain the law. Such reconciliation can involve the use of self-defense as a legal tactic, reduced sentences, and potentially charging women with a crime other than murder.
Over 1.5 million women seek medical intervention in the U.S. As the result of assault by their male partners. There are many others who never seek such treatment. Such abuse, over time, can ultimately drive a small minority of these women to commit murder (Brown).
The legal system largely reacts by sentencing these women to jail, out of adherence to the law's strong prohibition against murder. At the same time, society, in the interest…
Browne, Angela. 1989. When Battered Women Kill. Free Press.
Leonard, Guy. 2003. Cultural differences pose challenge to combating domestic violence. Gazette.Net, 2003. 09 July 2004. http://www.gazette.net/200349/princegeorgescty/county/190935-1.html
Ludsin, H. (2003a). Legal Defenses for Battered Women Who Kill Their Abusers: Discussion Document 1. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 09 July 2004. http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
In our society, there has been an increasing identification of the occurrence of domestic violence for the past two decades. There are many types of domestic violence like physical mistreatment, sexual exploitation, emotional assault, and maltreatment to property and pets. Domestic violence is prevalent and takes place in all socioeconomic groups. A study of about 6000 American families were done, which showed that between 53% and 70% of male assaulters regularly ill-treated their children. Children from homes where domestic violence takes place are bodily or sexually ill treated and/or critically ignored at a rate 15 times the national average. oughly about 45% to 70% of battered women in protection have stated the occurrence of child abuse in their home. (Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Adolescents: An Overview)
Causes of Domestic Violence
When one companion senses the requirement to rule and control the other, domestic violence may…
Domestic Abuse. Retrieved from http://alcoholism.about.com/od/abuse / Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Domestic Violence. Adopted 36/3 Council 22/23: February 1994 - Appendix 3 Council Meeting 22/23. February 1994. Retrieved from http://www.racgp.org.au/document.asp?id=861 Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Domestic Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/DomViolFacts.html Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Dowry Main Cause of Domestic Violence: Study. 30 Oct 2002. Retrieved from http://lists.isb.sdnpk.org/pipermail/gsd-list/2002-October/000747.html
The Reasons that omen are Violent in Relationships
The evidence demonstrates that women engage in violent activities at a rate approaching the levels engaged in by men. However, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly characterized as female and the perpetrators as male. How can one reconcile the fact that women and men engage in a similar number of aggressive behaviors with the fact that the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly female? One hypothesis is that the majority of violence engaged in by women is defensive, where the majority of violence engaged in by men is offensive.
The objective of the proposed research is to determine whether or not men and women engage in domestic violence for different reasons. A determination of the reasons that men and women engage in violent behaviors will aid the researcher in making a determination of whether men and women are battered…
Bachman, R., and Saltzman, L. (1995). Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned
Survey. Washington D.C.: Office of Justice Programs. U.S. Department of justice.
Dobash, R.P., Dobash, R.E., Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1992). The Myth of Sexual Symmetry in Marital Violence. Social Problems, 39, 71-91.
Saunders, D.G. (1986). When Battered Women Use Violence: Husband-Abuse or Self-Defense?
The term 'domestic violence' and 'abusive relationships' are usually used interchangeably, while abusive behavior is referred to as 'battering'. Domestic violence can thus be defined as abusive behavior between adults in an intimate, sexual, usually cohabiting relationship. These abusive behaviors may include, but not limited to; emotional or psychological abuse, isolation, economic abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse (Hunter, 2010). It is a known fact that women are the most victims of domestic violence. The question that most people in the society ask is, "why can't abused women walk out of such relationships?"
The immediate reply one would get on asking such a question is that only those who are being abused understand why they are staying. This simply means that there are certain realities that such women face that are not understand by the society. In order to understand these realities, we need to look at patterns…
Brewster, Susan (2006). Helping her get free: A Guide for Friends and Family of Abused
Women. New York: Avalon Publishing Group
Hunter, Joana V. (2010). But He'll Change: End the Thinking That Keeps You in an Abusive
Relationship. Manhattan: Hazelden Publishing
hy do abused women tend to stay with their abusers? hat are the realities for those abused women -- and how do the realities impact the treatment of battered women? This paper delves into those questions and issues.
Choice and Empowerment for Battered omen who Stay
An article in the peer-reviewed journal Social ork points out that while there have been plenty of articles and a great deal of information in recent years -- so that the public is more aware of the problem of battered women than in the past -- that additional knowledge has "proved useful" in dramatizing the problem but in addition it has "created new myths and injustices" (Peled, et al., 2000). One of the realities that result from the additional publicity about battered women is that women who stay in relationships with their batterers are seen as a "deviant group" -- which is…
McCormick, T. (1999). Convicting Domestic Violence Abusers when the Victim Remains
Silent. BYU Journal of Public Law, 13(2), 427-450.
Peled, E., Eisikovits, Z., Enosh, G., and Winstok, Z. (2000). Choice and Empowerment for Battered Women Who Stay: Toward a Constructivist Model. Social Work, 45(1), 9-15.
emaining in an abusive relationship may seem a preposterous proposition to some, but a complex range of psychological and sociological factors impact the stay/leave decision. In particular, there are financial reasons as well as familial pressures to remain in an abusive relationship long after it is healthy to do so. Women in rural areas are especially at risk for suffering "further emotional abuse, physical violence, and sexual assault" after leaving an abusive relationship (ouse 292). Patriarchal values and entrenched patriarchal social, political, and economic systems are at the root cause of why many women remain trapped (ouse). Social and cultural pressures to remain in a committed relationship at all costs may deter some women from staying in a relationship after it becomes abusive.
Analyses of trends reveals that the longer the relationship has lasted, the more likely the woman is to remain in it (Bell and Naugle). However,…
Bell, Kathryn and Naugle, Amy E. "Understanding Stay/Leave Decisions in Violent Relationships." Behavior and Social Issues. Vol. 14, No. 1. 2005.
Rouse, Linda P. "Dangerous Exits: Escaping Abusive Relationships in Rural America." Contemporary Sociology. Vol. 39, No. 3. 2010.
The SAFE Act not only protects victims of domestic violence, but also helps them become effective members of the country's economy. Domestic violence also account for about fifteen percent of total crimes committed in the United States. Reports from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institute of Health indicate that each year, 5, 300, 000 non-fatal violent victimization committed by intimated partners against women are recorded.
Female murder victims are likely to occur compared to male murder victims to have been murdered by intimate partners (Congress 528). According to Congress, half of female murder victims and four percent of male murder highlighted in the Disease Control, Prevention, and National Institute of Health reports met their death in the hands of intimate partners. ith respect to government statistics, approximately 987, 400 rapes take place in United State where 89% of the rapes are perpetrated against female victims. Since 2001,…
Burton, Mandy. Legal responses to domestic violence. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Buwaza, Eve. Domestic violence: The criminal justice response. London: SAGE, 2003.
Congress. Congressional Record, V. 151, Pt. 16, September 26 to October 6, 2005. Washington:
Government Printing Office, 2010.
Domestic violence is a complex problem requiring a multiagency response. This response should include a range of advocacy, support, engagement with the criminal and civil justice systems and with other voluntary and statutory sector agencies.
Domestic violence and emotional abuse are behaviors utilized by one person in a relationship to control the other person. Partners may be married or not, heterosexual, gay or lesbian, separated or dating.
Abuse encompasses such behaviors as name calling and putdowns, keeping a partner from contacting their family or friends, withholding money, stopping a partner from getting or keeping a job, actual or threatened physical harm, sexual assault, stalking, and intimidation.
Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault, sexual abuse, and stalking. Though emotional, psychological and financial abuses are not criminal behaviors, they can lead to criminal violence.
Domestic Violence has a long history. In early oman society a woman was considered the property…
Gross, D. (2005, February 10). Husband battering. The Men's Resource Network, Inc./TheMensCenter.com/MENSIGHT Magazine. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://mensightmagazine.com/Library/husbatter.htm
Henslin, J.M. (2008). Social problems: A down to earth approach. 8th Ed. New York: Pearson
Hester, M. & Westmarland, N. (2005, February). Tackling domestic violence: Effective interventionsand approaches. Home Office Research Study 290. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs05/hors290.pdf
Johnson, M.P. & Ferraro, K.J. (2000, November). Research on domestic violence in the 1990s: Making decisions. Journal of marriage and the family. Vol. 62, No. 4, 948-963. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from Home Office Research Study 290. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.personal.psu.edu/mpj/2000%20JMF%20Johnson%20&%20Ferraro.pdf
Domestic Violence and Effects on Children
In the western culture, childhood is referred to as the period of special protection and rights. When a child is brought up in a safe and nurturing environment their development is expected to unfold.When a child is born, their brain is about 25% of its adult weight, which later increases to 66% by the end of first year. During the developing stages the brain is most susceptible to the impact of traumatic experiences (Perry, 1997). Latest research implies that exposure to extreme trauma can change the organization of the brain, which can result in problems in dealing with stresses later in life (Brown & Bzostek, 2003). According to the attachment theory, a child's sense of security depends on security of attachment to its first caregiver. In addition, the kind of relationship developed serves as a model of how to relate to people later in…
Bogat, G.A., DeJonghe, E., Levendosky, A.A., Davidson, W. S., & Von Eye, A. (2006). Trauma symptoms among infants exposed to intimate partner violence.Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 109 -- 125.
Brandon, M., & Lewis, A. (1996). Significant harm and children's experiences of domestic violence. Child and Family Social Work, 1, 33 -- 42.
Brown, B.V., & Bzostek, S. (2003). Violence in the lives of children.CrossCurrents, 1, Child Trends DataBank.
Cleaver, H, et al. (1999). Children's needs -- parenting capacity: The impact of parentalmental illness, problem alcohol and drug use, and domestic violence on children'sdevelopment, UK Department of Health.
Is Domestic Violence a Learned Behavior?
Unfortunately, domestic violence is a learned behavior. There are many forms of domestic violence and/or abuse: Physical, Sexual, Ritualistic, Verbal, Emotional, Religious, Silent, Elder, Economic, Using Children, Threats, Intimidation, Sibling, Cultural, Isolation, Personal, Institutional, and itness Abuse, etc.… However, they all have the same common denominator: the perpetrator's desire to gain and maintain POER and CONTROL in the relationship (Laws 2011). Domestic violence or abuse is a pattern of controlling behaviors that are purposeful, and directed at achieving compliance from and over a victim without regard for his or her rights. These behaviors can be perpetrated by adults or adolescents against their intimate partner or significant other in current or former dating, married or cohabiting relationships. Domestic violence is a combination of physical force or terror designed to cause physical, psychological, social, religious, economic, mental, and emotional harm to victims. Characteristics of…
Klein, Ethel, Jacquelyn Campbell, Esta Soler, and Marissa Ghez. "Ending Domestic
Violence: Changing Public Perceptions/Halting the Epidemic." Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1997.
"Know the Learned Behavior of Domestic Violence." Laws, 2011. Web 17 Apr. 2012
Applied research project
Domestic violence is one of the most pervasive and little-understood crimes perpetuated today. The reasons that so many women remain in such abusive relationships and also why some women are finally capable of leaving violent households are little-understood, even though there is considerable statistical evidence that women suffering from domestic violence are under great risk of losing their lives to their abusive partners. This paper offers a qualitative research design approach for a proposed study to explore motivational factors for why women leave or stay in such relationships. It is phenomenological in nature in the sense that it attempts to describe why women act as they do, and to categorize the various personal factors that impact their actions, rather than impose paradigmatic designs or theories upon the women's responses.
Stage One: Conceptualization of a research focus
Domestic violence is one of the most common, yet…
Carney, John H. Joseph F. Joiner & Helen Tragou. (1997). Categorizing, coding, and manipulating qualitative data. The Qualitative Report, 3 (1). Retrieved:
Interviewing techniques in domestic violence cases. (2011). State of NJ. Retrieved:
Domestic violence is often overlooked or simplified. People assume children who become exposed to domestic violence only exhibit negative symptoms. Just a couple of decades ago, few had any idea of the impact domestic violence had and continues to have on a child. From growing up and dealing with the pain and/or stigma, to lesser social skills and bad coping mechanisms, the effects of domestic violence on children are clearly visible in some cases while unnoticed in others.
These effects range from severe on one end of the spectrum, to little or no effect on the other. (Due in part to their level of internal or external resiliency) Current research focuses on several areas (1. behavioral and emotional ability, 2. cognitive and coping ability, and 3. long-term issues such as PTSD and depression.) and splits them into categories. (behavioral, emotional, social, cognitive, and mental/physical effects) so as to show the…
American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, (1986). Journal of interpersonal violence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Crosson-Tower, C. (2002). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Ellens, J.K., & University of California, S. (2008). The effects of domestic violence, child abuse, and parenting stress on psychological distress in children. Santa Barbara, Calif.: University of California, Santa Barbara.
Evans, S.E., Davies, C., & DiLillo, D. (2008). Exposure to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analysis of Child and Adolescent Outcomes (13). Retrieved from [email protected] of Nebraska - Lincoln website: http://www.childwitnesstoviolence.org/uploads/2/5/7/9/257929/evans._exposure_to_domestic_violence._a_m
Notwithstanding any sociocultural differences between the study's 24,000 respondents to the contrary, the WHO researchers found that, across the board, there were consistent similarities among the effects of domestic violence on the women who participated in the study. For instance, the press release from WHO includes an observation from a member of the core research team for the study, Dr. Charlotte Watt of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who advised, "The degree to which the health consequences of partner violence in the WHO study are consistent across sites, both within and between countries, is striking. Partner violence appears to have a similar impact on women's health and well-being regardless of where she lives, the prevalence of violence in her setting, or her cultural or economic background" (quoted in Landmark study on domestic violence, 2006, para. 3).
The WHO study's findings also confirmed much of the research to…
Landmark study on domestic violence. (2006, November 24). World Health Organization.
Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2005/pr62/en/ index.html.
It has long been recognized that clients must have the mindset and goals set forth for themselves if they are to succeed in a therapeutic changing process. Whether the goal is to change behavioral or emotional problems, the client must be motivated by their own desires to change. Lee, Uken & Sebold (2007) state that oftentimes in the therapy process, a client will know that he or she needs to change, however, they do not have any indication of when the problem has been successfully dealt with -- or when they are successfully changing their behavior. Because there are no indicators for them (without goals), long-term therapy is often what occurs -- sometimes with successful results and sometimes not. Goal setting becomes a vital part of successful treatment "because it gauges clients' progress toward beneficial solutions to their problems" (Maple, 1998; Lee et al., 2007).
There may be…
Babcock, Julia C. & Steiner, Ramalina. (1999). The relationship between treatment,
incarceration, and recidivism of battering: a program evaluation of Seattle's coordinated community response to domestic violence. Journal of family psychology,13(1), 46-59.
Babcock, Julia C., Green, Charles E., & Robie, Chet. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical psychology review,23(8), 1023.
Buttell, Frederick P. & Carney, Michelle M. (2004). A multidimensional assessment of a batter treatment program: an alert to a problem? Research on social work practice,14(20), 93-101.
The law enforcement community must present a united front with state agencies against domestic violence if it is ever to be stopped. Until abusers can be brought to justice there will always be frightened victims living their lives, blaming themselves for the bruises.
hen domestic violence occurs, many people suffer. The victim is in pain, obviously, but often the person who was violent feels bad about it afterwards. They say they will not do it again, but many do. Quite a few victims stay with abusive partners. Some stay because they have nowhere else to go and feel that no one else would want them. Others stay because they really believe the 'I'll never do it again' line every time it is said. hen victims decide to leave, however, it's important for them to know that they have somewhere to go and that the law will be there to protect…
Colarosi, L. (2005). A response to Danis & Lockhart: What guides social work knowledge about violence against women? Journal of Social Work Education, 41(1), 147-160.
Colarossi, L. & Forgey, M. (2006). Evaluation study of an interdisciplinary social work and law curriculum for domestic violence. Journal of Social Work Education, 42(2), 307-324.
Corcoran, J., Stephenson, M., Perryman, D., & Allen, S. (2001). Perceptions and utilization of a police-social work crisis intervention approach to domestic violence. Families in Society, 82(4), 393-398.
Costello, M., Chung, D., & Carson, E. (2005). Exploring alternative pathways out of poverty: Making connections between domestic violence and employment practices. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 40(2), 253-268.
Asian-American women must learn that abuse is not acceptable, and they do not have to submit to it to be "good" and "dutiful" wives.
The community norms of the entire American community indicated that domestic abuse is extremely widespread, and it is common in the Asian-American community. Abuse has negative affects on the entire community, because it creates an aura of shame and degradation over the community, and it creates discord between families, friends, and acquaintances. Finally, it places the entire community in jeopardy, because Asian communities are extremely close-knit. There are leaders in the Asian communities who want to make sure the Asian culture exists and thrives in America. Because of this, they often counsel women to stay in abusive relationships because it supports the culture and belief systems of the group in general. One writer notes, "community gatekeepers are interested in maintaining the status quo in order to…
Hamberger, L.K. & Renzetti, C. (Eds.). Domestic Partner Abuse. New York: Springer, 1996.
Rimonte, Nilda. "Domestic Violence among Pacific Asians."
Wong, Joann M.; Huang, Vivian Yi; Chan Sue Shu-Kwan; Park, Susan; Jung, Donna; and Lee, Debbie. "SOS: Shame, Obligation, and Survival: Asian-Americans and Domestic Violence."
Yoshioka, Marianne R. And Dang, Quynh. Asian Family Violence Report: A Study of the Chinese, Cambodian, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese Communities in Massachusetts. Boston, MA: Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, Inc., 2000.
Impact of the problem
The possible consequences of the continuation of domestic violence are visible both at the level of the society in terms of human suffering, as well as at the level o the financial perspectives affecting the state and local budget.
In the first case, domestic violence, as stated before represents a means through which constant violence, abuse and physiological stress can be perpetuated. At the same time, children become excluded from the society through the nature they come to develop. Thus, not only the present state of the society is affected, but also its future.
In the second case, there are considerable costs implied by the treatment of domestic abuse victims. According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control "the costs of intimate partner rape, physical assault, and stalking exceed $5.8 billion each year, nearly $4.1 billion of which is for direct medical and mental…
California Department of Justice. Criminal Justice Statistics Center. Accessed 21 December 2007, at http://caag.state.ca.us/cjsc/index.htm.
California Penal Code. Penal Code Section 13700-13702. Accessed 21 December 2007, at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&group=13001-14000&file=13700-13702
Corry, Charles E. "How Common Is Domestic Violence?" Equal Justice Foundation. 2002. Accessed 21 December 2007, at http://www.dvmen.org/dv-31.htm#pgfId-1000404
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. 2003. Accessed 21 December 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/IPVBook-Final-Feb18.pdf
And if the wrongfully arrested victim has children, the courts may deny this person custody of the children, and place the children in the care of the abuser, the abuser's sympathetic family, or into a foster care situation. Losing his or her children can cause even more grief to the victim than the victim is experiencing at home.
A wrongful arrest means that the financial and psychological energies of the victim are diverted to dealing with the need to defend him or herself against legal charges, rather than to find the best way to escape the situation. Many domestic violence victims often require the services of an overburdened public defender, particularly women who do not have financial resources independent of their partners. Victim's rights advocacy groups may feel wary of appearing to help the accused through the court system, even the wrongfully accused. This is especially true of the gay…
The first is that of face validity, which was what, appeared from when looking directly at the design of the study. This appeared superb concept at first, but this was what made the experiment weak. He or she did not rely on this form when the investigation was conducted. However, the content validity worked well with this exploration on domestic violence because many of the participants were empowered to find ways in which to break the cycle in their own lives. A step-by-step analysis was used in order to ensure that each client was making progress when doing follow up each week for that one full year. The same was true with criterion-validity. One has to note that this was quite helpful for all the participants and researchers because individuals were able to predict behavior and to use concurrent validity. Each of these concepts made the study more valid for…
Buss, K. E. & Warren, J. M. (2015, March 1). Trauma and treatment in early childhood: A review of the historical and emerging literature for counselors. The Professional Counselor,5(2), 225-231.
The first author, Buss, is a counselor at Hope-Thru-Horses, Inc. in Lumber Bridge, North Carolina and the second author, Warren, is an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina-Pembroke. Citing the high level of dependence on parents and other caregivers, the authors note that children aged 5 years and younger are especially vulnerable to trauma due to domestic violence. Moreover, these young people are particularly susceptible to different types of trauma due to a wide range of events and incidents involving some form of severe in-home domestic violence. In addition, the authors emphasize that fully 85% of all fatalities among this segment of the American population are caused by domestic violence, and this alarming figure only diminishes…
Crisis Response Portfolio
Intimate partner violence affects clients across the socioeconomic, ethnic, age, and sexual orientation spectrums. Women are nearly twice as likely to experience violence or sexual abuse than men, but statistics should never cloud over the fact that man men are the victims of intimate partner violence or household abuse (Sugg, 2015). While factors like patriarchal norms and gender roles frequently factor into the etiology of intimate partner violence, counselors should be careful to avoid jumping to conclusions or using stereotyped judgments when working with clients like Jamie.
Jamie is a 28 year-old Latino male. Born and raised in Honduras, Jamie could be considered a typical male in a patriarchal society but the case conceptualization reveals a more complex pattern of abuse, especially when viewed through the lenses of systems theory. Focusing on Jamie allows me to provide insight into systemic issues, thereby lending insight into ways all…
ACA Code of Ethics (2014). https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
The Center for Relationship Abuse Awareness (2019). Develop a safety plan. http://stoprelationshipabuse.org/help/develop-a-safety-plan/
Domestic Violence Resource Center (2019). Safety planning. https://www.dvrc-or.org/safety-planning/
FCADV (2019). Center for abuse and rape emergencies. https://www.fcadv.org/centers/charlotte
James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
McFarlane, J.M., Groff, J.Y., O’Brien, J.A., et al. (2006). Secondary prevention of intimate partner violence. Nursing Research 55(1): 52-61.
Mental Illness Policy (2019). Standards for involuntary committment. https://mentalillnesspolicy.org/national-studies/state-standards-involuntary-treatment.html
National Child Traumatic Stress Network (2019). About PFA. https://www.nctsn.org/treatments-and-practices/psychological-first-aid-and-skills-for-psychological-recovery/about-pfa
Effects of Domestic Violence on African- American Women: Opinion Paper
Issue and History of the Issue
Young women are primary victims of domestic violence and it has been estimated that every minute, 20 people suffer from domestic violence in the U.S. (NCADV, 2017). This issue is therefore one that is quite serious, but it is one that particularly impacts the African-American community. African-American women struggle particularly because the African-American family has suffered for decades in the U.S. because of a number of issues—from the incarceration of black men to such an extent that black disproportionately make up a greater percentage of the prison population than any other group to the fact that black culture has been abused by the pushing of drugs culture and liberalism into the homes and streets of black communities. However, this issue goes all the way back to the days of slavery when black women were…
Representations of Black Culture in the Media
Culture theory is one theory that can be used to explain domestic violence. As Serrat (2017) notes, culture is the set of “distinctive ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge” that define the way people behave and think (p. 31). This theory suggests that the way people act is based on the inputs they receive from their environment; and peers, groups, and media all go into shaping their perception of themselves and those around them (Bandura, 2018). If the culture in which they grow up signals to them that treating people in an inhumane way is acceptable, then those individuals are likely to engage in domestic violence acts as they feel or believe that it is an acceptable mode of behavior, sanctioned by the culture in which they live. The culture of media, friends, family, schools, churches and other organizations may all play a…
Why Men Don t Report Domestic Abuse
Today, domestic violence in the United States has been well-documented as a major social problem that has a number of adverse consequences, including threats of bodily harm, forced emotional and economic exploitation, sexual encounters as well as physical and psychological abuse (Carney, 2014). Domestic violence has also been referred to as “family violence,” “interpersonal violence," "spousal battering" and "intimate partner violence," but all of these constructs share the same foregoing controlling components (Carney, 2014). Although it goes by several different terms, domestic violence remains commonplace throughout the country and it adversely affects everyone involved irrespective gender, age, race, socio-economic status, sexual orientation, nationality or religion (Domestic violence fact sheet, 2018).
While most Americans believe that domestic violence is primarily directed against women, nearly as many men are abused each year with the same adverse outcomes (Domestic violence statistics, 2018). In…
Carney, A. Y. (2014, March/April). Incarcerated women and domestic violence. American Jails, 28(1), 36-40.
Cyprus, B. S. (2017, July/August). Rigor or reliability and validity in qualitative research: Perspectives, strategies, reconceptualization, and recommendations. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 36(4), 253-263.
Domestic violence fact sheet. (2018). NCADV. Retrieved from https://www.speakcdn.com/ assets/2497/domestic_violence2.pdf.
Domestic violence statistics. (2018). NCADV. Retrieved from https://ncadv.org/statistics.
Dutton, D. (2011, July-August). An ongoing battle: Is domestic violence really (mostly) men\\'s fault? Literary Review of Canada, 19(6), 28-32.
Karimov, F. P., Brengman, M. & Van Hove, L. (2011). The effect of Website design dimensions on initial trust: a synthesis of the empirical literature. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 12(4), 272-273.
Liebler, C. M. & Hatef, A. (2016, Winter). Domestic violence as entertainment: Gender, role congruity and reality television. Media Report to Women, 44(1), 6-9.
Men can be victims of abuse, too. (2014). The National Domestic Violence Hotline. Retrieved from http://www.thehotline.org/2014/07/22/men-can-be-victims-of-abuse-too/.
Sternberg et al. (1993) is a secondary research source that described the effects of domestic violence on children's behavior. This source of information on the topic of domestic abuse is more expansive than the previous two sources discussed. Here the impacts of domestic violence are realized through the children of domestic violence victims. As this article also expands the idea of domestic violence, it also ignores those victims of domestic abuse with no children. The article and all of its data suggest that the research that can be done on domestic violence may be infinite and can be viewed through multiple lenses all giving new characteristics to the term and creating new and challenging relationships that researchers must figure out.
The article itself reaches interesting conclusions about its effectiveness. The authors proclaimed "the results of this study have several important implications for the design of research on…
American Bar Association. "Domestic Violence Statistics." Viewed on 1 April 2013. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/groups/domestic_violence/resources/statistics.html
Sternberg, K. et al. (1993). Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression. Developmental Psychology. 1993, 29, 1. 44-52. Retrieved from http://empower-daphne.psy.unipd.it/userfiles/file/pdf/Stemberg%20KJ_%20- %201993.pdf
Wilt, S. & Olson, S. (1996). Prevalence of Domestic Violence in the United States. Journal of Medical JAMWA 51, 3. 76-82. Retrieved from http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Prevalence%20of%20Domestic%20Violence%20in% 20 the%20US.pdf
World Health Organization (2005). "Landmark Study on Domestic Violence." WHO Media Center, 24 Nov 2005. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2005/pr62/en/
By doing so right now, we are not only making a societal and human investment in today's citizens and today's crime rate, but we are improving the quality of life of entire families as well as working toward the reduction of future perpetrators of violence against women since the sons will see appropriate models of behavior and wil not be apt to become violent in the future.
A programme for action. (2008). etrieved May 5, 2010, from Care Against Domestic Violence, http://www.cadv.org.uk/points.html.
Coy, M., Kelly, L., & Foord, J. (2009). Map of gaps: The postcode lottery of Violence Against Women support services in Britain (United Kingdom, End Violence Against Women and Equality and Human ights, London, England). London: End VIolence Against Women.
Giles-Sims, J. (1985) a Longitudinal Study of Battered Children of Battered Wives. Family elations, 34 (2), 205- 210.
Great Britain., Home Office., Crime in England and Wales…
A programme for action. (2008). Retrieved May 5, 2010, from Care Against Domestic Violence, http://www.cadv.org.uk/points.html .
Coy, M., Kelly, L., & Foord, J. (2009). Map of gaps: The postcode lottery of Violence Against Women support services in Britain (United Kingdom, End Violence Against Women and Equality and Human Rights, London, England). London: End VIolence Against Women.
Giles-Sims, J. (1985) a Longitudinal Study of Battered Children of Battered Wives. Family Relations, 34 (2), 205- 210.
Great Britain., Home Office., Crime in England and Wales 2008/2009. (2009). The Home Office departmental report 2009. London: TSO.
The author further explains that even though there are similarities between heterosexual and homosexual relationships as it pertains to reaction and the victim remaining in the relationship. Again the author explains "homophobia does not allow mainstream service providers to have an adequate conceptualization nor the development of preventive and remedial strategies for the people involved (Toro-Alfonso and Rodriguez-Madera, 2004)."
Therapy for those effected by domestic violence
Both perpetrators, victims and children exposed to domestic violence may require some type of therapy. In many cases anger management is often required and used to assist perpetrators in dealing with anger issues. In addition to anger management some professionals also utilize Art therapy to assist hose effected by domestic violence. Art therapy involves the use of the arts (music, panting writing) to assist people in eliminating violence from the household. According to Panzer et al. (2000) places such as shelters for battered…
"About Art Therapy." American Art Therapy Associationhttp://www.arttherapy.org/aboutart.htm
"Domestic Violence." National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/domesticviolence.html
McClennen, J.C.. (2005) Domestic Violence Between
Same-Gender Partners. Journal of Interpersonal violence. 20 (2), 149-154.
Domestic Violence Legislation
Federal and State Governments Fight Domestic Violence
Although numerous federal and state laws sanctioning domestic violence exist in the United States, the incidences of domestic violence remain substantial. The federal government has undoubtedly taken significant steps over the years to protect the victims of domestic violence through legislation. One such Act is the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). The Act, at the time of its enactment in 1994, focused on providing funding to victims, services to victims, and training to judges and law enforcement officers. Still, as the number of domestic violence cases remained constant, the Act was re-enacted in 2000 and once again in 2006. The latest re-enactment extends services to domestic violence victims by addressing the issue of domestic violence related homelessness. The 2006 re-enactment guarantees that victims will not be evicted from government funded housing. Still, the VAWA has drawn criticism due to its…
Barton, A and Bartol, C. (2007). Criminal Behavior and Psychosocial Approach. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
California Penal Code, section 273.5. Retrieved from: leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-
(Potter-Efron, 2007). Both alcoholics and domestic violence offenders seem to be out of control at times, especially to their victims. (Potter-Efron, 2007). Finally, both family violence and alcoholism create tension in families, which can lead to an increase in assaultive behavior or alcoholic binges, making both problems very self-perpetuating. (Potter-Efron, 2007).
In addition, the drinking behavior can be a catalyst for family assaults. This is rarely due to the fact that non-violent people become violent when drunk. However, alcohol use lowers inhibitions, making it more likely that an abusive person will resort to violence. Furthermore, many abusers may actively seek to become intoxicated prior to abusing, knowing that their victims, and the rest of society, are less likely to hold them accountable for their abusive behavior when they are intoxicated. Therefore, it is quite likely that drinking patterns will establish abuse patterns in a household. For example, children may "keep…
Dryden-Edwards, R. (2008). Domestic violence. Retrieved August 3, 2008, from MedicineNet.com
Web site: http://www.medicinenet.com/domestic_violence/article.htm
Jordan, C., Nietzel, M., Walker, R., & Logan, T.K. (2004). Intimate partner violence. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Potter-Efron, R. (2007). Anger, aggression, domestic violence, and substance abuse. In Hamel, J. & T. Nicholls. Family interventions in domestic violence: a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
Matters appear to be even worse for those who are in need for protection and shelter as a consequence of psychological or physical abuse at home since statistics also indicate that the percentages of those who are denied shelter are slightly increasing every year in Texas. If there were 16% of those who asked for shelter who were denied in 2001 in Texas "due to lack of space"(Texas HHSC, 2008), according to the same report, 22.63 were denied due to the same reason in 2008.
The ATP in Webster Texas does not only offer temporary shelter for women and children, but it also involves their residents in educational programs that help them rebuild their self-esteem and learn the basic principles necessary for them to change their lives and start all over again. The organization also offers "a weekly confidential self-help support group for victims / survivors of Domestic Violence and/or…
Bay Area Turning Point, Inc. Retrieved: Oct, 7, 2009. Available at:
2008 Family Violence Program Statistics. Texas Council on Family Violence. 2009. Retrieved: Oct 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.tcfv.org/
Ferguson wrongly assumes that the one who initiates violence must also be worthy of it. This is a way of saying that domestic violence can be justified as long as the partner who initiated has enough reasons to do so. In my opinion, domestic violence is always wrong and can never be justified. If one partner has transgressed or if one of them fails to earn or usually squanders money, then alternatives to violence must be sought. In our times, many alternatives are available including marriage counseling, couple therapy, intervention of family and friends and then of course divorce which should be seen as the last resort. To use violence in order to maintain authority is a sign of weakness and also indicates a weak, lopsided marriage. Marriage or any relationship for that matter must be based on two people's willingness to stay with each other. If one partner is…
From a national fiscal point-of-view, after the Clinton's Personal esponsibility and Work Opportunity reconciliation Act gave welfare control back to the states, there was a 60 per cent overall drop in welfare recipients, but critics point out that much of this was part of a reclassification from welfare to workfare during an unusually strong economic time (the late 1990s) (DeParle, 2009). Into the 21st century, the $16.5 billion that the states received as welfare rolls dropped were spent on block grants or other types of assistance, rather than saving for economic downturns or recessionary times (Goldstein, 2008).
Scholars point out that the perceptions of welfare also contribute to the cycle of underfunding. In America, one Political Science professor noted, "while Americans with the most exaggerated misunderstandings of the racial composition of the poor are the most likely to oppose welfare," which, in turn, perpetuates racial stereotypes and could increase Americans'…
The Burning Bed. (1984). Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved from: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/24570/Burning-Bed-The/
DeParle, J. (February 1, 2009). Welfare Aid Isn't Growing as Economy Drops Off. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/ 2009/02/02/us/02welfare.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&pagewanted=all Dutton, D. (1994). Patriarchy and Wife Assault: The Ecological Fallacy. Violence and Victims. 9 (2): 167-82. Retrieved from: http://lab.drdondutton.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/DUTTON.-1994.-PATRIARCHY-AND-WIFE-ASSAULT-THE-ECOLOGICAL-FALLACY..pdf
Giles, M. (1996). Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American New Media. Public Opinion Quarterly. 60 (4): 515-41.
Goldstein, A. (December 17, 2008). Welfare Rolls See First Increase in Years. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/16/AR2008121602978.html
Domestic Violence & Alcohol
Role of Domestic Violence and alcohol in marriage
The Role of Domestic Violence and Alcohol
Evidence of Effective Treatment
The purpose of this work is to examine the relation of alcohol, specifically alcoholism in relation to domestic abuse perpetrated against one spouse by the other in marriage where alcohol plays a leading role in attributing to the abuse.
Most individuals are able to have a drink or two with their evening meal and simply relax with no event ensuing. However, there are individuals that cannot take even the first drink and it has been observed that there are those so sensitive to the effects of alcohol that merely opening a bottle and inhaling the fumes changes their personality immediately. Alcoholism is a volatile and dangerous mix in any marriage but within the marriage where issues already exist alcohol may progress toward the end of the spectrum…
Jennison, Karen & Johnson, Kenneth (2001)"Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication" The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, May, 2001
Stuart et al. Reductions in Marital Violence Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence J. Interpers Violence .2003; 18: 1113-1131[Online] located at: http://www .findarticles.com/p / articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_112083062/pg_1
Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2003) 2003 SAGE Publications, Vol.18, No 10, 1113-1131 DOI: 10.1177/0886260503255550 [Online] at: http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/ab stract/18 / 10/1113
Evidence that Treatment is Often Effective
Domestic Violence Abusers
The purpose of the study by Etter and Birzer was to characterize defendants in case of protection from abuse (PFA) orders in one Kansas county. The results of the study were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Both researchers are affiliated with universities and cited extensively from academic literature on this topic. As they pointed out, domestic violence is a widespread problem in the U.S., occurring every eighteen seconds (Paisner, 1989, cited in Etter and Birzer, 2007, p. 113) and across all socioeconomic classes and racial groups (Gilbert, 2001, cited in Etter and Birzer). A PFA order, unfortunately, does not necessarily stop the abuse.
The researchers reviewed data collected from PFA court filings for a period of approximately one year from Sedgwick County, Kansas, a metroplex with a population of over half a million and the largest urban area in the state. The study was descriptive in nature;…
Etter, G.W., and Birzer, M.L. (2007). Domestic violence abusers: A descriptive study of the characteristics of defenders in protection from abuse orders in Sedgwick County, Kansas.
Journal of Family Violence 22(3), pp. 113-119.
Domestic Violence Among Hispanics
olina, C.S., Gomez, J.R., & Pastrana, .C.V. (2009). Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children who are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence. Adolescence. 44(173). The paper is about symptoms which a child develops when he or she is exposed to domestic violence. This is a psychological survey, seeing the effects of children when they witness their mothers being beaten. It measures the dimesions of depression and anxiety which a child may develop. This study focuses on the Hispanic community and dysfunctional families within that community. The first author, olina, is a hold a Ph.D. In psychology and psychotherapy, this deems her credible for the study. Additionally, she is herself of a Hispanic background, therefore she is aware of most of the culture's traditions and dimensions.
urdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R. & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic Violence in…
Molina, C.S., Gomez, J.R., & Pastrana, M.C.V. (2009). Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children who are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence.
Murdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R. & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic Violence in Hispanics in the Southeastern United States: A Survey and Needs Analysis. Journal of Family Violence. 19(2).
Saenger, S.A. (2000). Family Violence: A Review of the Dysfunctional Behavior Patterns. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse.
Parental influence on domestic violence: An analysis of "Domestic violence across generations: findings from Northern India" by Sandra Martin et. al.
Martin et. al.'s (2001) report on the study of domestic violence in India provided insightful facts about the nature of the issue when applied in the context of collective societies such as India wherein cultural and social norms play a vital role in determining the behavior and attitude of individuals. Of particular interest of the study are the attitude and behavior of Indian males, in order to ascertain the role that parental influence play in perpetuating violent behavior against women, especially to their wives, whether this violent behavior be physical, sexual, or both.
The researchers offer the thesis, in the article, that apart from Indian culture, males have the greater propensity to abuse their wives if they have been exposed to previous episodes of domestic violence from…
Martin, S., K. Moracco, J. Garro, A. Tsui, L. Kupper, J. Chase, and J. Campbell. (2001). Domestic violence across generations: findings from northern India. International Journal of Epidemiology.
Each 911 call reporting an assault by a family member or member of the household will be considered a domestic violence incident. Income will be determined by looking at the tax records for the individuals listed as the tenant or owner of the location identified in the 911-telephone call. The phone calls will be tracked, and the researcher will determine how many of those phone calls end up in a conviction. Because domestic violence offenders can frequently plead-down, any conviction stemming from the alleged family violence incident will be considered a domestic violence conviction for the purposes of the study.
After collecting six months worth of initial phone calls, and tracking the resolution of those calls through the legal system, the researcher will correlate the number of calls attributable to each member of a socioeconomic group with income to determine whether domestic violence varies with income. After making that determination,…
Although many women seeking Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
report domestic violence, few receive mandated services through the Family Violence Option (FVO). A study was made of interview transcripts to determine whether the breakdown in the system occurred because of lack of social worker engagement or because details of reports were vague or unsubstantiated. Review of interviews at eleven different sites and by dozens of welfare workers revealed that workers' interpersonal communication skills were lacking. orkers were noted to have preconceived notions of what constituted abuse. The study recommends that welfare workers receive additional training to respond more appropriately to victims of domestic violence.
McLeod, a., Hayes, D.G., & Chang, C.Y. (2010). Female intimate partner violence survivors experiences with accessing resources. Journal of Counseling and Development 88 (3),
Five survivors of domestic violence, three African-American and two Caucasian women, reported on survival strategies and exiting the abusive relationships.…
Wuest, J., Ford-Gilboe, M., Merrit-Gray, M., Wil, P., Campbell, J., Lent, B., Varcoe, C., & Smye, V. (2010). Pathways of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violence.
Journal of Women's Health 19 (9), 1665-1674.
Researchers found a correlation between severe chronic pain in women and lifetime abuse-related injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, and depression severity. The findings are important to clinical care workers, who should assess for history of child abuse, IPV, IPV-related injuries and/or depression when working with women who report chronic pain.
What appears to explain their shared high rates of violent behavior is their increased interpersonal dependency. They are socially withdrawn and entertain a negative view of themselves. These difficulties with trust are common in the two disorders. They are thus more personally dependent on their partners. Furthermore, veterans with a major physical health problem are likelier to commit domestic violence than the other veterans surveyed. The physical problem tends to increase their irritability and dependence on their partners. Other studies found this characteristic high partner-specific dependency among physically abusive men who exhibit personal inadequacy, low social self-confidence and increased reliance on those nearest them. Many of these physically abusive men greatly fear abandonment and are anxiously attached. They are thus hypersensitive to rejection and often show anger in their intimate relationships. Veterans often display excessive coercion to which the partners respond by distancing themselves. The veterans' fear and dependencies can…
Blasko, K. et al. (2007). Therapists' prototypical assessment of domestic violence Situations. 13 pages. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: Blackwell Publishing
Brammer, a. (2006). Domestic violence crime and victims act 2004. 4 pages. Journal of Adult Protection: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
De la Hey, M. (2006). Gender differences seen in consequences of domestic violence. 2 pages. Cross Currents - the Journal of Addiction and Mental Health: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Kelly, K.a. (2004). Working together to stop domestic violence. 14 pages. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work
At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North American landscape. Some are funded through private donations and staffed by volunteers but most are sustained by a combination of public and private monies and are run by a mix of professional and nonprofessional, paid and unpaid staffs. Thus we see that contemporary efforts to address domestic violence are characterized by a pattern of service provision and problem definition that from the outset has involved a reliance on state and community measures.
The dual focus on the development of both…
Ellsberg, Mary, et al. "Researching Domestic Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Considerations." Studies in Family Planning 32.1 (2001): 1. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001004940 .
Feather, N.T. "Domestic Violence, Gender and Perceptions of Justice." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 35.7-8 (1996): 507+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000451409 .
Kelly, Kristin A. "Working Together to Stop Domestic Violence: State-Community Partnerships and the Changing Meaning of Public and Private." Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 31.1 (2004): 27+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970923 .
Kurz, Demie. "Women, Welfare and Domestic Violence." Social Justice 25.1 (1998): 105+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001359170 .
Moreover, most of the police officers believed that criminalization was not an appropriate or effective method to deal with batterers because it "leads to the break-up of the family" (Ganapathy).
According to a 2004 study of 1,200 women in Bangladesh, some 67% reported having experience domestic violence, and 35% during the past year (Islam). Domestic violence was higher among women with a dowry agreement, and was also higher among women with a registered marriage and women who cover at least some of their expenses (Islam). Khairul Islam reports, "The proportion experiencing domestic violence was non-significantly lower among women with more than five years of education than among less educated or non-educated women" (Islam).
However, in the United States, much progress has occurred during the past thirty years regarding the recognition of domestic violence as a major problem, resulting in the development of numerous services by different professional disciplines to address…
Forgey, Mary Ann. "Evaluation study of an interdisciplinary social work and law curriculum for domestic violence." Journal of Social Work Education. March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Ganapathy, Narayanan. "Between the devil and the deep-blue sea: conceptualising victims' experiences of policing in domestic violence in the Singaporean context." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. April 1, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hart, Sandra J. "Domestic violence: legal, practice, and educational issues."
MedSurg Nursing. June 1, 1998. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research
Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (Domesticviolence.org, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.
Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…
Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011
CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011
Domestic violence has been around for as long as many cultures can remember, however, that's not an excuse for its continuance. Although some see women and children as mere property, their rights and safety should be protected. Whether they suffer from physical, sexual or emotional abuse, thankfully there are an increasing number of programs for these victims to turn to. These programs work hard to take the steps necessary for America to become a domestic violence-free society.
Stopping Domestic Violence in America
Although domestic violence is often thought of in terms of physical violence or even sexual violence, it goes beyond that, beyond the cuts, the bruises, the scrapes, the broken bones; it's a control issue. "Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive control that one person exercises over another in order to dominate and get their way." ("Voices Set Free," n.d.) In addition to physical and sexual abuse, it…
Get the Facts - Domestic Violence in the United States. (2003). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://endabuse.org/resources/facts/
Victim Support. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://www.awoscentral.com/victim_support/victim_support.html
Voices Set Free. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://www.awoscentral.com/domestic_violence/domestic_violence.html
Stopping Domestic Violence in America
Women tend not to disclose their partner's violent behavior out of fear of retaliation, embarrassment or economic dependence on the abusing partner. Pregnant women, in particular, require comprehensive healthcare and special services. Postpartum violence is a serious issue as it not only affects the mother but also poses serious danger for the life of the child. Policy makers should focus not only on providing funds for prenatal and post natal medical care but also ensure that domestic violence services and other support services are integrated with the healthcare services. A collaborative approach involving a collocation of interdisciplinary services is critical for providing optimal care for victims of intimate partner abuse. Nurses, as primary caregivers in the emergency department are ideally placed not only to provide medical care but also to co ordinate and to lead multidisciplinary interventions that are in place to address domestic violence against women.
1) The Clark County, ' Fast Facts on Domestic Violence', retrieved Apr 13th 2010, from, http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/domviol/facts.htm
2) Brian J. Biroscak. MA, MS, BS, Patricia K. Smith MS, BS & Helen Rosnowski MSN, BSN RN et.al (2006), 'Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Findings from one State's ED Surveillance System', Journal of Emergency Nursing, 32-12: 6
3) Christine Rubertsson, PhD, Ingegerd Hildingsson PhD & Ingela Radestad PhD, (2010), 'Disclosure and Police reporting of Intimate Partner Violence Postpartum: A pilot Study', Midwifery, 26 e1-e5
4) Rebecca J. Macy, PhD, Sandra L. Martin PhD & Lawrence L. Cupper PhD et.al (2007), ' Partner Violence among women Before, During and After Pregnancy: Multiple Opportunities for intervention', Women's Health Issues 17: 290-299
Domestic Violence, Child Abuse and Neglect
Child abuse is normally characterized in physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Physical abuse is the non-accidental injury of a child. Sexual abuse entails any act of sex upon or with a child for the perpetrator's sexual gratification (Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 2011). Emotional abuse entails engaging in chronic acts that interfere with a child's psycho-social health.
A classroom teacher can easily identify a child who has been abused or neglected because signs of abuse are observable in a classroom setting. Teachers also easily identify these children because of the significant time they spend with them (Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 2011). The teachers can be sensitive to the chronic occurrence of the signals or sudden changes in a child's behavior which would point to a shift in this child's family environment. The frequency of repetition of these…
Besharov, D. (1990). Recognizing Child Abuse. New York: The Free Press.
Ohio Department of Job and Family Services (2011). Child Abuse and Neglect: Reference for Educators. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.odjfs.state.oh.us/forms/file.asp?id=398&type=application/pdf
Domestic Violence in the Latina Community
Domestic violence is an ongoing issue that experienced worldwide. Many of the victims of domestic violence are women. Although women experience domestic violence regardless of culture or societal norms, certain populations may experience a higher incidence of domestic violence than others. Latinas exist in a culture that values male dominance. Such a culture places women as having to serve the man and behave in an obedient and submissive manner. By adhering to these ideas of masculinity and femininity, the imbalance of power can lead to increased occurrence of domestic violence. Although Latinas have made strides in recognizing and fighting domestic violence, many still do not recognize domestic violence when they encounter. This essay aims to help identify why Latinas may not recognize or report domestic violence, why domestic violence occurs in the Latina community, and greater recognition of domestic violence amongst Latinas.
Ahrens, Courtney E., et al. "Talking about interpersonal violence: Cultural influences on Latinas' identification and disclosure of sexual assault and intimate partner violence." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, vol. 2, no. 4, 2010, pp. 284-295.
Edelson, Meredyth G., et al. "Differences in Effects of Domestic Violence Between Latina and Non-Latina Women." Journal of Family Violence, vol. 22, no. 1, 2007, pp. 1-10.
Kulkarni, Shanti J., et al. "Examining the Relationship Between Latinas' Perceptions About What Constitutes Domestic Violence and Domestic Violence Victimization." Violence and Victims, vol. 27, no. 2, 2012, pp. 182-193.
Maker, Azmaira H., and Terri A. DeRoon-Cassini. "Prevalence, Perpetrators, and Characteristics of Witnessing Parental Violence and Adult Dating Violence in Latina, East Asian, South Asian, and Middle Eastern Women." Violence and Victims, vol. 22, no. 5, 2007, pp. 632-647.
Domestic Violence Against Men
Domestic violence, domestic abuse, dating abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) or battering refers to a behavioral pattern in which one partner abuses another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, cohabitation or within a family setup. Domestic violence takes different forms, the most common being physical assault i.e. hitting, shoving, kicking, biting, slapping, shoving objects and general physical violence. It can also take the form of threats including sexual and emotional abuse, intimidation, controlling or domineering, stalking, covert abuses as well as economic deprivation (Siemineiuk et al. 2010). It can be inflicted on or by both men and women (Adebayo, 2014).
Male domestic violence targets men inflicted by their partners. Though rare and hardly vocalized like its counterpart, violence against women, domestic violence against men is real. It occurs in every society though at varied degrees. The challenges faced when trying to collect statistics is…
Adebayo Anthony A. 2014. "Domestic Violence against Men: Balancing the Gender Issues in Nigeria." American Journal of Sociological Research, 4(1): 14-19
Chan, Ko Ling. 2011. "Gender Differences in Self-Reports of Intimate Partner Violence: A Review." Aggression and Violent Behavior (Elsevier) 16 (2): 167 -- 175.
Cook, P.W. 2009. Abused Men -- The Hidden Side of Domestic Violence (Preager second edition 2009).
Kevin Smith (Ed.), Kathryn Coleman, Simon Eder and Philip Hall 2011. "Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10." Home Office.
Domestic violence is popular as domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse, or family violence. The behavior involves brutality or another abuse by one person in a domestic behavioral context where people rise against others in marriages or similar unions. The intimate partner causes violence to their spouses making it domestic violence. Spouses and partners within intimate relationships are expected to live in harmony without elements of discomfort. Domestic violence takes place where heterosexual and same-sex relationships are involved (Edelson, 2011). The issue of domestic violence takes various forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse ranging from subtle to coercive forms of marital rape and violent physical abuse resulting in death or disfigurement (Tolman, 2010).
Domestic violence occurs where abusers believe that their actions are justified and acceptable. The implication is that there is production of intergenerational abuse cycles of condoning violence. Perception, awareness, documentation, and definition…
Breines, W., and L. Gorden. (2013). "The New Scholarship on Family Violence." Signs: AJ. Woman in Cultural and Society 8(3):490-531.
Edelson, J.L. (2011). Social Workers' intervention in women abuse: A study of case records from 1907 to 1945. Social Service Review, 65, 304-313.
Ehrensaft, M.K., and D. Vivian. (2009). "Is Partner Aggression Related to Appraisals of Coercive Control by a Partner?" Journal of Family Violence 14(3):251-266.
Garbarino, J., & Sherman, D. (2011). High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development, 51, 188-198.
Communities are silent as well; people are still reluctant to intervene in domestic violence situations, assuming that adult victims have the ability to leave abusive scenarios and that parents should have the right to parent their children without intervention. In addition, neighbors and other potential interveners oftentimes fear the possible consequences of intervening in a violent situation. Finally, American society refuses to publicly condemn domestic violence; Michael Vick received more negative press for dog fighting than did Warren Moon, an even more famous football player, for his domestic violence behavior. With this permissive atmosphere, it is no wonder that women and children still suffer from domestic violence in fear and silence.
Question One: What individual changes can you make to create a society that is more condemning of domestic violence?
Question Two: Can you think of four reasons that a domestic violence victim would be reluctant to leave his or…
domestic violence laws. The writer defines domestic violence on a federal level as well as a Michigan state level. The author also provides insight to the Michigan state laws and programs when it comes to domestic violence issues. It wraps up with suggestions about how to change and improve the current domestic violence laws so that they offer even more protection. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Domestic violence is a topic that draws heated debates in many circles. Before one can understand all of the ramifications of domestic violence one needs to have a general knowledge of what it entails. The most violent type of domestic violence ends in the death of the victim. This is called femicide. Femicide is the murder of a woman at the hands of her current or former lover. Femicide as well as other aspects of domestic violence have become a…
Overview of Legislative Issues http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32671
Addressing the Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
Domestic Violence Laws in Michigan
theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.
The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.
The relative deprivation theory was…
1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International
2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor
Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143
Daughter directed by Brian Gilbert. Specifically it will discuss all aspects of domestic violence in the film. This film illustrates many aspects of domestic violence, indicating that violence and abuse take many different forms, and can exist in even the "happiest" of homes. Domestic violence is a threat facing many families, and this film shows that violence is not the only form of abuse; there are many different types of emotional and mental abuse that still can leave lasting scars on the victims.
The film opens in 1984 with the seemingly happy family of Moody, Betty and Mahtob Mahmoody, a family living in Michigan. Moody is an Iranian doctor, and Betty is his wife. Mahtob is their young daughter. They seem extremely happy and well-adjusted -- not the kind of family that would endure any kind of domestic violence or abuse, but that begins to unravel as the film continues.…
Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).
Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…
Duchon-Voyles, a. (2010, October 21). From dangerous home to safe house. The New York
Times. [online] available: http://www.nytimes.com/ 2010/10/24/magazine/24lives-t.html?ref=domesticviolence.
Glaberson, W. (2011, February 25). Abuse suspects, your calls are taped. Speak up. The New
York Times. [online] available:
Domestic violence poses serious mental and physical health risks. In fact, it is estimated that" more than 1.5 million women nationwide seek medical treatment for injuries related to abuse each year" (Stark, 2001, p. 347(Tomison, 2003)). Those who are abused can experience mental health issues, such as anxiety attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic depression, acute stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts and ideation (Tomison, 2003)."
Domestic violence in America comes with an annual $44 million price tag with more than 20,000 hospital stays and 40,000 doctor visits each year (Tomison, 2003).
One of the issues that literature has uncovered is a lack of services or resources for women who are the victim of abuse by their domestic partner.
Shelters and batterer's intervention programs are often geographically inaccessible and not community based (Asbury, 1987; Williams & Becker, 1994; Williams-Campbell, 1993). Inaccessible services are less likely to be used despite the need. Transportation…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.(2004) Perceptions of domestic violence: a dialogue with African-American women. Health and Social Work
Tomison, Adam M (2003)an analysis of current Australian program initiatives for children exposed to domestic violence. Australian Journal of Social Issues
Sharron M. (2005) Dating violence prevention in middle school and high school youth.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
(Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped) pastor or a priest may try and approach a domestic violence issue from a religious perspective, as these are primary for any religious person. The importance of dealing with the concerns for shelter, safety, intervention and treatment may have only secondary consideration. The view may be that once these people set things right with God things will become fine. This view discounts the fact that the other domestic issues are also important. Domestic violence is complicated and potentially dangerous and these ordinary concerns represent immediate and crucial needs. eligious concerns of a priest or pastor could become stumbling blocks or utility resources, when dealing with domestic violence as these concerns are at the core of many people's lives. The results will depend on how these are utilized. (a Commentary on eligious Issues in Family Violence)
In domestic violence…
Davidson, Bob. Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped. Retrieved at http://www.lovetakestime.com/art-domesticviolence.html. Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence. Adopted 36/3 Council 22/23 February 1994. Appendix 3 Council Meeting 22/23. February 1994. Retrieved at
Children who are victims of domestic violence situations often experience trauma and need help to cope with the lives and the negative experiences they feel. They will turn to abusing drugs and alcohol or engage in risky sexual activity in order to try to escape their trauma. In some cases, they lash out at their environment in response to the strain they are feeling. This can lead them to a life of crime and eventually to time served in prison. Understanding these issues and learning ways to help children who are victims of domestic violence is one way to make a positive difference in their lives and help communities to overcome their struggles.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV, 2017), there is a domestic violence situation occurring every twenty minutes in the U.S. In many cases, domestic violence…