Double Jeopardy Essays (Examples)

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Fifth Amendment of the U S Constitution Governs

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64029649

Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution governs the issue of double jeopardy and states in pertinent part, "No person… shall… be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb…( )." The Amendment was a codification of the common law that had long recognized the doctrine that a defendant should not be subject to multiple attempts by the state to convict him for the same crime. On its face, the Fifth Amendment appears to be clear but there are nuances that are been interpreted over the years that make its application more intriguing including the possibility, that given certain circumstances, defendants can face double jeopardy.

The recognition that double jeopardy was a legal reality began when the U.S. Supreme Court rendered its decisions in Bartkus v. Illinois (Bartkus v. Illinois, 1959) and Abbate v. United States (Abbate v. United States, 1959). Beginning with these…… [Read More]

References

Abbate v. United States, 359 U.S. 187 (U.S. Supreme Court 1959).

Bartkus v. Illinois, 359 U.S. 121 (U.S. Supreme Court 1959).

Department of Justice

Merkl, T.A. (1999). The Federalization of Criminal Law and Double Jeopardy. Columibia Human Rights Law Review, 175-185.
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Families Delinquency & Crime Describe

Words: 2165 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31046334

It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.

7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?

I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…… [Read More]

References

Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.

Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.

Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
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People of the State of California v Conrad Robert Murray

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18700176

People of the State of California v. Conrad obert Murray

The involuntary manslaughter trial of Michael Jackson's personal doctor, Conrad Murray, was in the news seemingly every day for months. Even though the trial has concluded and the world knows that Dr. Murray was found guilty, it is important to look at the court proceedings and how the evidence led the jury to that verdict. Dr. Murray administered a powerful drug called propofol - an anesthesia drug that is only supposed to be used in closely monitored hospital settings - to Michael Jackson to help him sleep.

The argument by the prosecution was that Dr. Murray did this even though he knew the dangers, and that he administered too much of the drug to Jackson, resulting in a fatal overdose. At that point, Murray did not act quickly enough in calling the paramedics and did not do enough to save…… [Read More]

References

Kepner v. United States, 195 U.S. 100 (1904).

Neubauer, D.W. & Fradella, H.F. (2010). America's courts and the criminal justice system, 10th ed. New York: Wadsworth.

People v. Broussard, 76 Cal.App.3d 193, 197 (1977).
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Functions of Due Process in the Criminal Law System

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97962405

Criminal Law Due Process

Due process is an essential guarantee of basic fairness for citizens based on law. It has two basic goals; to produce accurate results through fair procedure to prevent wrongful deprivation of interests and to make people feel the government treated them fairly by listening to their side of the story (Procedural Due Process). Due process requires fair procedures when governments take actions against citizens, whether it is the federal government or a state government that is taking action.

Due process is divided into two categories, substantive due process and procedural due process (Due Process of Law - Substantive due Process, Procedural Due Process, Further Reading, 2013). Substantive law creates, defines, and regulates rights. Substantive due process makes the laws that give rights to citizens by due processes. Procedural law enforces those rights or seeks redress for violation of those rights. Evidence presented against a citizen will…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Criminal Procedure. (2010, August 19). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/criminal_procedure

Due Process of Law - Substantive due Process, Procedural Due Process, Further Reading. (2013). Retrieved from JRank:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/6315/Due-Process-Law.html 

Fifth Amendment. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School: http://www.law.cornell.edu/we/fifth_amendment

Procedural Due Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Missouri:  http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/proceduraldueprocess.html
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Categorizing Crimes Against Persons and Crimes Against Property

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074583

Categorizing Crimes:

Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.

Crimes against Persons and Crimes against…… [Read More]

References:

Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf

Schneider, S.W. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.netplaces.com/paralegal/criminal-law/types-of-crimes.htm

"State v. Stewart." (n.d.). Justia.com -- U.S. Law. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from  http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/court-of-appeals/2005/f580-1c753-1cc91.html
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Three Strikes Laws From the

Words: 4798 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9858190

herefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…… [Read More]

Trends: Crime, the Police, and Civil Liberties

Greg M. Shaw; Robert Y. Shapiro; Shmuel Lock; Lawrence R. Jacobs

1998 62:405-426. Public Opinion Quarterly
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Criminal Justice Process a Felony

Words: 2551 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52581112

A plea-bargain is frequently attained at this time in order to circumvent a trial. In the event that a plea-bargain is reached, the case does not move forward to a trial but failure to offer enough evidence to establish a plea bargain will mean that the case goes on to trial (Criminal Justice System Handbook, 2009).

The trail

Trials consist of a sequence of proceedings where the prosecutor presents evidence which will be used to prove the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In felony cases, the defendant is given chances to admit their innocence but there are also times where they are presented that they may dispute the validity of evidence that has been presented by the prosecutor. Felony cases normally entail the services of a jury who listen to the case proceedings together with the judge and then after careful assessment of the evidence that is presented; they…… [Read More]

References

Criminal Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/practical/books/famil y_legal_guide/chapter_14.authcheckdam.pdf

Criminal Justice System Handbook. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nycourts.gov/litigants/crimjusticesyshandbk.shtml

Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.courtwatchflorida.org/uploads/Training_-_Criminal_Justice_Process.pdf

Steps in the Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retreived from http://sao.co.sarasota.fl.us/legal.htm
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Victims and Defendants Rights Extended by the

Words: 2849 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8102411

victims and defendants rights extended by the Criminal Justice System. Followed by introduction is the comparison of both sides detailing the rights of victims and defendants by the Criminal Justice System. Conclusion given at the end shows that the Criminal Justice System has more rights to the defendants; however, rights for victims are also increasing in several states.

It has been during the last two decades that the rights of crime victims started to be known in the law. Earlier, none of the crime victims had rights during the criminal justice process. For example, they did not have any right that could notify them of court trial or the arrest or release of the defendant. Further to that they had no right to be presented during the trial or other hearings, or to make a statement to the court at sentencing or at other proceedings (Emmet County).

But now, nations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emmet County. Prosecuting Attorney: Crime Victim Rights / Witness Assistance. www.co.emmet.mi.us

National Center for Victims of Crime. (1998). Rights of Crime Victims. FYI.

National Center for Victims of Crime. (1999). Constitutional Rights for Crime Victims. FYI.

Philip L. Reichel (2001). Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: A Topical Approach.
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Role of Civil Sanctions in

Words: 2951 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39123081

If police officers are not sufficiently deterred by the prospect of evidence being suppressed at a hearing where a person's liberty is in jeopardy, it is a fortiori that they will not be deterred by the possibility of suppression at a civil forfeiture hearing where only the person's property is in jeopardy.

Law enforcement officials have much to gain in the outcome of the issues raised in Scott, and will likely bring challenges to the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture. While the court's trend is moving away from applying the exclusionary rule in civil contexts, law enforcement agencies are increasingly relying on civil tools to attack crime. At the forefront of this movement is the use of civil forfeiture to seize the fruits and instrumentalities of the narcotics trade. Civil forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement officers to seize privately held assets that have been used in a crime, a practice…… [Read More]

References

Crandley, Mark J (2001) a Plymouth, a parolee, and the police: the case for the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture after Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott.

Albany Law Review

Bilionis, Louis D. (1998) Process, the Constitution, and substantive criminal law.

Michigan Law Review
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RICO Act and the Mafia

Words: 2269 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91763001

Oreto, 37 F.3d 739 (1st Cir. 1994). The 2st Circuit rejected the defendant's claim that requiring two predicate acts for conviction under one theory of liability but only one act for conviction under "loan sharking," violated equal protection.

Due Process. The forfeiture provisions of RICO have been criticized for violating the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Numerous cases have rejected this criticism including U.S. v. Nichols, (10th Cir. 1994).

Tenth Amendment. Arguments that RICO unconstitutionally intrudes upon state sovereignty in violation of this Amendment have all been summarily rejected. U.S. v. Thompson, 685 F.2d 993-1001 (6th Cir. 1982).

Most experts agree that RICO has been abused since its first effective use against the Mafia in the 1980s. For certain, it has virtually destroyed the Mafia -- lakey's intended goal and its only intended purpose at the time. However, even prior to the first Mafia convictions under its statutes,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AJFL. (2004). Divorce law determines how much property forfeited under RICO. American Journal of Family Law (AJFL), 175(3). Gordon, M. (2002). Ideas shoot bullets: How the RICO Act became a potent weapon in the war against organized crime. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from Villanova.edu: http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2003/Gordon%20Formatted%20Paper.htm

Harvard Law Review Assoc. . (2008). Ninth circuit holds that RICO enterprise need not have any particular organizational structure. Harvard Law Review, 1652(8).

Holt, M., & Davis, K. (Spring 2009). Racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations. (Twenty-fourth annual survey of white collar crime). American Criminal Law Review, 975+.

Jacobs, J., & Peters, E. (2003). Labor racketeering: The Mafia and the unions. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 229-282.
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Interoffice Memorandum of Law Case Joe Lee

Words: 1373 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82812742

Interoffice Memorandum of Law

Case: Joe Lee Simmons, Appellant v. State of Texas, Appellee

Docket number: 01-07-00543-C

Office file number

e: Issue [1] was there evidence of possession of cocaine weighing four or more grams but less than 200 grams given the evidentiary requirements of TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 38.35(d)(1); [2] the validity of a motion to suppress based on the officer's failure to report all offenses committed in his jurisdiction to the magistrate, as required by TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 2.13(b)(3); and [3] the sufficiency of an indictment under TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 28.10.

Facts:

The appellant contends that the trial court erred in admitting the testimony of the State's forensic chemist, who performed a chemical analysis on the controlled substance found in appellant's shirt pocket, because the chemical analysis was not accredited at the time of the analysis; appellant challenges the trial court's denial of…… [Read More]

Reference:

TEX. JUR. 3d § 23 Sufficiency of Indictment (2006).

It is the appellant's responsibility to show error on appeal, and if the record fails to show error, then it should be assumed that the trial court acted correctly.

"It is generally presumed on appeal that the court ruled correctly and that the appellant must show error" (Hall v. State, 829 S.W. 2d 407, 410-411).

"It is appellant's burden to not only preserve the alleged error for review, but to present a record of the alleged error sufficient for us to review it and determine if it was error and if so whether the defendant was harmed" (Montoya v. State, 43 S.W.3d 568, 572).
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Credit Card Scam Conviction

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52306735

Multiple Counts of Identity Fraud

There is little doubt as to whether or not a person is subject to multiple violations of a state statute that makes it a crime to "knowingly obtain, possess, use, or transfer a means of identification of financial information of another" (Wash. 2006) if a person attempts to use a credit card that is not his or hers more than once. Such a person certainly is liable for multiple criminal counts. The logic that reinforces this assertion is quite clear. In most instances, states consider it a crime to attempt to utilize the financial information or some other means of identification of another -- when a person does so knowingly. Each time a person makes such an attempt, he or she is committing a crime. Moreover, there was a case that helped to establish this precedent in the early part of the last decade. In…… [Read More]

References

Court of Appeals of Washington, Division 1. (2004). State v. Leyda. http://caselaw.findlaw.com / Retrieved from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/wa-court-of-appeals/1025106.html

State vs. Leyda, 138 P.3d 610 (Wash. 2006).
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USA Patriot Act

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91217712

Patriot Act

The U.S.A. Patriot Act was passed because of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. e realized that our current body of laws did not completely address the task of finding terrorists before they take action. The Patriot Act was passed to make it easier for us to protect ourselves from future terrorist acts. The Act has been controversial because although most people recognize the need to effectively prevent future attacks, some people feel the law has gone too far and infringed on civil liberties. Other critics contend that the law doesn't give government enough power (Doyle, 2002).

The Patriot Act makes various actions by the government when trying to identify who might be a terrorist easier to execute. It extends wiretapping to email, provides for nationwide permission to use wiretapping and related investigatory techniques rather than having to get those permissions on a…… [Read More]

While obviously we have to protect ourselves from terrorism, I have some concerns about some of the provisions. I think that for the most part our legal system has functioned very well. I wonder if it's really necessary to suspend due process for an entire group of detainees without any checks and balances. Once a person has been detained under the Patriot Act, the government does not have to justify it or explain it, and they don't even have to tell the person's relatives where he or she is. In addition, the protection against double jeopardy has been of major importance in our country. Because of that part of the Constitution, police or other law enforcement agencies have to have solid evidence before arresting someone, and prosecutors must be sure they have a strong case before bringing someone to trial. If a person is acquitted, that person can get on with his or her life without worrying about being tried again. I personally think our legal system is up to the task of trying and convicting terrorists without taking these steps.

SOURCE:

Doyle, Charles. CRS Report for Congress. April 18, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04.
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Defense Witness Immunity the Supreme

Words: 6352 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41754631

Judge roderick concluded that the Compulsory Process Clause of the Sixth Amendment does not give a defendant the right to require immunization of a witness, but that such a right is "probably" contained in the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Id. However, he declined to accord the defendants the benefit of this "probable" Fifth Amendment right to defense witness immunity for two reasons. First, he ruled that the defendants' motion was untimely, since it should properly have been made at the beginning of the trial. Second, he concluded that defense witness immunity would be available only to secure testimony that was material and exculpatory and that the defendants had not shown that any of the witnesses for whom they sought immunity would give material, exculpatory testimony."

The only federal appellate decisions that have ruled in favor of defense witness immunity are stated to appear to be the Third…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cornell University Law School (2009) "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. United States Constitution. LIT/Legal Information Institute. Online available at: Cornell University Law School. "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School

Charters of Freedom - The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights

Sosnov, Leonard N. (nd) Separation of Powers Shell Game: The Federal Witness Immunity Act. Temple Law Review.

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Norman TURKISH, Defendant-Appellant. United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit May 27, 1980 623 F.2d 769. Online available at: http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/557484
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Count 3996 Most Important

Words: 4005 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22662564

They also had the power to decide the merits of evidence and arguments. In the 19th century, judges gained greater control over juries and the role of juries became what it is currently; hearing evidence presented on both sides and determining the guilt or innocence of the accused.

The advantages of the jury system lie in the foundational elements articulated and supported by amendments and the Supreme Court. The Sixth Amendment provides that "in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial" (Landsman & Hastings 1992). A speedy trial was emphasized to avoid the accused languishing in prison for extended periods of time prior to a trial, or have the accused fate put off for an indeterminate amount of time. Further, the Sixth Amendment guarantees every citizens right to an impartial jury. The intent is that the prospective juries not enter into the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, B. (1993). Neo-federalism? Constitutionalism and Democracy, Cambridge:

Allan, T. (2001). Constitutional justice: A liberal theory of the rule of law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Decent, E. (2010). Democratizing common law constitutionalism, McGill Law Journal, 55(3), 511-535.

Hogue, A. (1986). Origins of the common law. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
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U S and European Jury Systems

Words: 1984 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56241685



Reform from within the EU does not seem possible, either. It is so structured as to prevent changes in member states' minority status and other modifications from becoming attainable. Attempts by any government to amend the Community laws are considered doomed to failure, because Parliament has almost no part in European law-making (Andrews).

Conclusion

Common and civil law systems are inherently opposed, although their shared goal is to conduct a just, speedy and most inexpensive settling of conflicts (Messitte 1999). American courts have increasingly acknowledged the need to continuously evaluate and modify their processes and altogether improve the quality of justice. Efforts cover many other aspects of court activity, ranging from dispute resolution mechanisms, such as arbitration and mediation, to procedures, such as default and summary judgment used I the early stage of a trial without needing to proceed to a formal trial (Messitte).

Jury trial has disappeared in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, James, ed. The Jury Enigma. Court Management Observer, 2003. http://www.cmobs.com/editorial403.htm

Andrews, D. Freedom in Jeopardy. Freedom Central, 2004. http://www.freedom.central.net/euandbritain.html

Kotz, Hein. Civil Justice Systems in Europe and the United States. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, Special Issue, 2003. http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?13+Duke+j.+Comp+8+Int'l+L.061

Massitte, Peter J. Common Law vs. Civil Law Systems. United States Information Systems, 1999. http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0999/ijdc/messitte.htm
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Parenting Program for Women and

Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12171638

There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.

Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.

Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.

Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
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Canada & USA Tax Treaty

Words: 1597 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 182530

Tax Planning -- Employer (II of II)

Tax Planning - Employer

The marketplace that businesses operate in has become more and more globalized and international in nature, not to mention extremely competitive. This particular report will focus on the employer and their tax implications when it comes to operating and/or headquartering in one or more countries around the world. The prior report focused on the employee. While the implications for the employee are complicated and diverse enough, they become even more complicated when speaking of the employer, and for a number of reasons.

Considerations

Just as there were a number of considerations relevant to the employee and their tax treatment, there are a number of tax considerations that USCo will need to consider for themselves and they are as follows:

The actual headquarters location (nation, state/province and county/city)

The actual locations outside of that home country (or state and city)…… [Read More]

References

Bachmann, H. (2009, August 20). Can Swiss Banks Thrive After the UBS-U.S. Deal?

Retrieved December 3, 2014, from  http://content.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1917648,00.html 

Canada. (2014, December 3). Income Tax Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.)).

Retrieved December 3, 2014, from  http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/I-3.3/
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Criminal Justice Aggravated Assault Which

Words: 2111 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37318109

Scholars believe the Fifth Amendment as competent of breaking down into five separate constitutional privileges. These include grand juries for capital offenses, a ban on double jeopardy, prevention against compulsory self-incrimination, an assurance that all criminal defendants will have a just trial, and an assurance that the government will not take private property without paying fair market worth. Although the Fifth Amendment initially only concerned federal courts, the U.S. Supreme Court has construed the Fifth Amendment's requirements as currently pertaining to the states by way of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (Fifth Amendment, n.d.). In this case Victor Violent would be protected from testify against himself in his aggravated assault trial because of his Fifth Amendment protections.

In all criminal proceedings, the accused has the right to a speedy and open trial, by an unbiased jury of the State and district in which the crime was allegedly…… [Read More]

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Competing Concepts Under Which Organizations

Words: 2865 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5237993

Over time the cause-and-effect of strategies to increased retention, get reflected in the metrics and KPIs that are rolled up into a single balanced scorecard. All of these metrics also are used for defining the second step in the process the book promotes, which is defining the causes of attrition and working to alleviate them.

The most difficult aspect of customer retention strategies and minimizing the defection rate is equating attrition to lost profits (Wright, iebe, 2010). Measures of lifetime customer profitability are difficult to accurately define and measure over time (Wright, iebe, 2010). The majority of companies attain the first two of these three steps yet stop short of being able to capture lost profits due to attrition (Wright, iebe, 2010). Only in those industries where there are exceptionally high levels of churn, for example with cable television and cellular phone providers, can the profitability be assessed per customer,…… [Read More]

References

Crosby, L., & Masland, J.. (2009). Customer Experience Innovation. Marketing Management, 18(2), 10.

De Beir, J., Fodha, M., & Magris, F.. (2010). LIFE CYCLE of PRODUCTS and CYCLES. Macroeconomic Dynamics, 14(2), 212-230.

Dedrick, J., Kraemer, K., & Linden, G.. (2010). Who profits from innovation in global value chains?: a study of the iPod and notebook PCs. Industrial and Corporate Change, 19(1), 81.

Elinor Dumont. (2001, April). Problem / solution: Is life cycle marketing outdated? Bank Marketing, 33(3), 12-13.
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Lesbianism as a Social and

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47443950



This may allow room for evaluation of the gender role conflicts which must naturally enter into this conversation. Where so many validate gender roles according to sexuality, this discussion of lesbian and feminist identity yields something of a less certain correlation. Rather, by an inclination to overcome the limitations imposed upon the female identity, there are distinctive characteristics which have been adopted by some within the lesbian community distinguishing these as apolitical-social lesbians. Driven by personal identification, and therefore required to pursue a social agenda which contrasts with mainstream conventions, apolitical-social lesbians may or may not be distinguishable by observable gender-role characteristics. However, in cases where such distinctions can be drawn due simply to a subversion of assumed gender rolls, the "butch" lesbian can be identified by a presentation of historically accepted male characteristics of identity. As outliers to the standards for gender-orientation normalcy, such lesbians are easily targeted for…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Ardill, S. & O'Sullivan, S. (1987). Upsetting the Applecart: Difference, Desire and Lesbian Sadomasochism in Sexuality: A Reader. Feminist Review London: Virago Press.

Butler, J. (1991). Imitation and Gender Insubordination. Inside/Out: Lesbian

Theories, Gay Theories. ed. Diana Fuss. New York: Routledge
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Women's Rights Cases for Gender

Words: 4162 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90558822

The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.

The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's

Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,

2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li

erti+v.+York&lr=&ei=ub3YScLeEIqKNKT3vIAD&pgis=1

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
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Criminal Justice - Juvenile Justice

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61302876



The problem of determining the right approach is compounded by the effects of the culture of violence to which many young offenders are exposed. In some cases, it is possible to reform their behavior but in other cases, juvenile offenders already take on the hardened attitude normally associated with adult offenders. As a result, some juveniles are too far gone to reach through non-punitive methods by the time they reach high school age.

In terms of the protections afforded by American due process principles, those principles are essential to the fair administration of criminal justice and they provide a much more fair judicial system than those of most other countries (Dershowitz 2002).

However, in terms of the distinction between due process with respect to suspending concepts of guilt in crimes perpetrated by juveniles, the strict application of punitive sentences for criminal conduct may sometimes be more appropriate. Certainly, there are…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2007: 1-7.

Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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IRS-CID the Internal Revenue Service

Words: 5371 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1767886



There are ten Fraud Detection Centers across the United States, and these are meant to detect refund fraud and to identify prevention measures. Each of these offices has a Resident Agent in Charge to direct, monitor, and coordinate operations supporting electronic and paper tax filing, and each Center performs activities that include educating Submission Processing Center and Customer Service Center personnel on fraud awareness and detection.

Criminal investigation in the agency started shortly after the Revenue Act of 1913 was passed, and that act imposed a modest tax of 1% on net incomes of individuals, estates, trusts, and corporations. In addition, another tax, or surtax, graduated from 1 to 6%, was applied to income exceeding $20,000. Over time, many laws have been passed that have changed the rates and other aspects of revenue assessment. Tax evasion was noted as early as 1919, when many serious allegations concerning alleged tax frauds…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, Jeremy and Rebecca Young. "False Statements and False Claims." American Criminal Law Review, Volume 42, Issue 2 (2005), 427.

Berlau, John. "Return of the 'Audits from Hell': IRS Commissioner Charles Rossotti Once Pledged to Champion Taxpayer Rights, but Instead Americans Find Themselves Facing the Resurrection of Random Audits." Insight on the News, Volume 18, Issue 27 (July 29, 2002), 15.

Cochran, Amanda a. "Evidence Handed to the IRS Criminal Division on a 'Civil' Platter: Constitutional Infringements on Taxpayers." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 91, Issue 3 (2001), 699.

Craig Jr., James L. "Guidance on Financial Status Audits: It's Not Just for CPAs." The CPA Journal (2007), http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1996/0796/features/Guida.htm.
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Drug-Related Crime Many People Who

Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33725497

One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.

Reurer 170)

orks Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
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Culture and Health Care the

Words: 2819 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81797871

6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).

Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity

Lifestyle diseases

There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.

On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…… [Read More]

References

A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx

Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).

http://www.state.nj.us/health/chs/dataindex.htm

Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
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Brian Stewart on February 6

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98875918

Married to his wife of 25 years and the father of four children, Minns nonetheless pursued Piotrowski, who was 24 years his junior. The two became involved in a serious romantic relationship. Piotrowski maintains that she believed Minns' statements that he was in an open marriage, and the fact that she repeatedly appeared in public with him certainly seemed to verify his assertions that his wife knew of their affair. However, at some time, Piotrowski became dissatisfied with the affair. She broke up with Minns, who did not take the break-up well. He allegedly hired a series of individuals to harass her, including tapping her phones and following her. When intimidation did not prove sufficient to bring Piotrowski back into his arms, Minns allegedly hired a hit-man to try to kill her. Piotrowski was shot four times, which resulted in her paralysis.

It is important to keep in mind that…… [Read More]

References

McLellan, D. (1991, July 26). Near-fatal attraction: Athlete still a victim of lover's obsession that led to her paralysis. Retrieved January 22, 2012 from LA Times website:  http://articles.latimes.com/1991-07-26/news/vw-364_1_richard-minns 

Wikipedia. (2012). Brian Stewart (phlebotomist). Retrieved from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Stewart_(phlebotomist)
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Fraud Specifically Health Insurance Fraud

Words: 7682 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45702393

Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), previously the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), that by the time 2011, health care expenditure will arrive at $2.8 trillion, as well as it will bill for 17% of the Gross Domestic Product. As a result, it is no revelation that white-collar offenders observe health care deception as a rewarding effort. Certainly, the General Accounting Office ("GAO") quotes that such deception accounts for up to 10% of entire health care expense (3).

As health care deception outlays taxpayers almost $100 billion a year, federal, as well as state agencies have given health care fraud tribunal a key center of attention. All through her term, Attorney General Janet Reno made impeaching health care fraud a top precedence at the Department of Justice ("DOJ"), subsequent only to brutal offenses (3).

The government focuses its pains to perceive, as well as take legal action against health care fraud…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(1) Adelaide Few & Jay Trezevant, Fighting the Battle Against Health Care Fraud & Federal Enforcement Actions, 72 FLA. B.J. 34, 34-6 (1998)

(2) Alice A. Love, Leniency Offered Health Care Providers that Admit Federal Fraud, S.D. Union Trib., Oct. 22, 1998

(3) Andy Bunds, The results of the Health Insurance Regulations on Health Care Fraud and Abuse, 72 Mont L. Rev. 63, 72 (2001)

(4) Brian A. Kaset, Sailing Without Safe Harbors: Physician Recruitment and the Law of Fraud and Abuse, 9 Healths Span. 9, 9 (1992)
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Prescription Drug Compliance Among Homeless

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93175630

Health care [...] prescription compliance among the homeless. Health care for the homeless is perhaps one of the biggest challenges for the healthcare professional. The homeless in America face many problems, and healthcare is only one of them. It is difficult for most homeless people to fill and use prescription drugs for health problems for a number of reasons, from cost to the ability to self-administer drugs they may not understand or want. The problems of homeless noncompliance with prescription medications must be addressed to avoid a crisis in homeless health care.

Most homeless people do not have health care coverage, and so even basic prescription medications for health problems may be out of their reach. If they do attempt to receive health care at all it is usually through a county facility such as a clinic or a free clinic. If their conditions require prescription drugs, often they cannot…… [Read More]

References

Boucher, L.A. (1995). Medication: Overview and issues. In Old and homeless -- Double-jeopardy: An overview of current practice and policies, Rich, D.W. & Mullins, L.C. (Eds.) (pp. 53-63). Westport, CT: Auburn House.

Clarke, P.N., Williams, C.A., & Percy, M.A. (1995). Health and life problems of homeless men and women in the southeast. Journal of community health nursing, 12(2), 101-110.

Editors. (2004). Health care for the homeless. Retrieved from the American Medical Student Association web site: http://www.amsa.org/programs/gpit/homeless.cfm 27 Dec. 2004.
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Film History

Words: 8657 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24941469

movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the studios in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…… [Read More]

"What better way to annoy the Hollywood liberals than to remind them every single day that

George W. Bush is STILL the President?" Retrieved from https://www.donationreport.com/init/controller/ProcessEntryCmd?key=O8S0T5C8U2 Accessed 15 September, 2005

"What's interesting about the business is that it's no longer the movie business" Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/picture/corptown.html  Accessed 14 September, 2005
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Defendant and the Bill of

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50128262

Also, the search warrant must specify exactly what evidence the police are seeking. At times, a search warrant is not required, for if an officer observes a crime being committed, he/she has the right to arrest or apprehend the culprits. However, if a search warrant specifies what evidence is being sought during a search and other evidence is found concerning another crime, such evidence cannot be used in court.

The Sixth Amendment guarantees that an accused person will be treated fairly and justly by the officers that make the arrest and by the courts that hear the accuser's case. As to jury trials, three rules must be followed -- first, the jury must be made up of twelve members; second, the trial must be supervised by a judge with the authority to instruct the jurors, and third, the verdict of the jurors must be unanimous. However, prior to 1968, states…… [Read More]

REFERENCES'

Brant, Irving. (1965). The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.

The Bill of Rights: Amendments 1-10 of the Constitution." (2005). Internet. Accessed October 15, 2005. http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htm.

Bill of Rights
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Federal Criminal Jurisdiction Unlike Local

Words: 1273 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23880630

The last and final level of the federal court system is the U.S. Supreme Court. A federal defendant begins his case in the District Court, but can appeal decisions.

Because there is an essential difference between the violation of state and local laws and the violation of federal laws, it would seem as if federal law enforcement agents would play a different role from state or local agents. Pop media portrayals of the heartless federal agent who is willing to sacrifice individuals for the greater good accentuate this difference. However, the reality is that there is a tremendous amount of cooperation between state, local, and federal law enforcement agencies. The agencies share the common goals of preventing, detecting, and punishing criminal behavior. However, each agent is confined to the roles of their jurisdiction. For example, local and state law enforcement agencies have de facto jurisdiction over most crimes. It is…… [Read More]

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U S Constitution the Effect That Ever Changing

Words: 1977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54174002

U.S. CONSTITUTION

The effect that ever changing societal values have on the Supreme Court's interpretation of the U.S. Constitution

The effect that ever changing societal values have on the Supreme Court's interpretation of the U.S. Constitution

The effect that ever changing societal values have on the Supreme Court's interpretation of the U.S. Constitution

Constitution represents the supreme law that directs political, social, cultural, and economic aspects of the nation. All other laws must be in line with the constitution in order to be effective and efficient in their application. Social or societal values have continuous effects on the interpretation of the constitution. The main objective of the constitution is to protect the interest of the individuals in the society. This objective makes the constitution relevant to the societal values within the context of the United States of America. The societal values keep changing in the contemporary world thus resulting into…… [Read More]

References

Epps, G. (2008). Freedom of the press: The first amendment; its constitutional history and the contemporary debate. Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus.

Vile, J.R. (2010). A companion to the United States Constitution and its amendments. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Epps, G. (2007). Democracy reborn: The Fourteenth Amendment and the fight for equal rights in post-Civil War America. New York: Henry Holt.

Chemerinsky, E. (2007). Interpreting the constitution. New York u.a: Praeger.
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Rights Accused 1 Fully Defined Due Process Origins

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85168951

ights Accused 1.Fully defined due process origins, Completed 90-100% accuracy, 2.Fully explained due process protects accused abuses federal government. Complete 90-100% accuracy, thoroughness, logic, Used (3) reference directed.

Due process was one of the first rights that were created in the U.S. constitution. The history of due process comes from the year 1355 when the phrase was coined at the time when there was the first government. The Great Charter of the Liberties of England statute stated that no man would be imprisoned or prevented from enjoying their freedom or liberty or be outlawed or exiled unless by lawful judgment that is passed or by the law of the land. Several years later in the 28th year of the reign of King Edward III, it became a declaration that no man was allowed to be deprived of their property, be imprisoned, disinherited or killed without being charged by the due…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, N.J., & Ramen, C. (2011). Understanding the Rights of the Accused. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing Group.

Israel, J.H., Kamisar, Y., & LaFave, W.R. (2003). Criminal Procedure and the Constitution: Leading Supreme Court Cases and Introductory Text. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

Nicholaidis, N. (1989). Sixth Amendment Right to a Speedy and Public Trial. American Criminal Law Review, 26(4), 1489-1505.
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U S ICC Treaty the Benefits and Drawbacks

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84003961

U.S. ICC Treaty

The Benefits and Drawbacks of the U.S. Entering Into an ICC Treaty

An ICC treaty would involve the International Criminal Court (Broomhall, 2003). A treaty with such a governing body is designed to affect prosecution for war crimes, genocide, the crime of aggression (but not until 2017), and crimes against humanity (oach, 2009). The Court is seated in the Netherlands, but proceedings can take place in other countries (oach, 2009). While many countries are part of the ICC in that they have treaties with it, the United States does not want to be one of the countries that allows the ICC to have domination over it when it comes to war crimes and related issues. There are both benefits and drawbacks for the U.S. If it changes its position and creates a treaty with the ICC. Both of these are important to discuss, because they have to…… [Read More]

References

Broomhall, B. (2003). International Justice and the International Criminal Court: Between Sovereignty and the Rule of Law. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Roach, S.C. (ed.) (2009). Governance, Order, and the International Criminal Court: Between Realpolitik and a Cosmopolitan Court. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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Wetlands Regulation in USA

Words: 8001 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63050849

Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States

Regulation of etlands in the United States

Defining etlands and their Value

A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010

Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:

Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.

Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
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Errors and Summarize It The

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67345960

Even so, both outcomes have downsides but a child being saved from further harm due to an abundance of caution is surely the better outcome to most people.

That all being said, the way this study is proving/disproving whether errors have been made is based on DNA evidence being looked at subsequent to the trial being concluded. Technically, just because the collected DNA supposedly rules out a person does not necessarily mean the convicted person is innocent, it just opens up other possibilities a lot of the time. Even so, DNA evidence is usually pretty conclusive and definite unless there is somehow a feasible alternate explanation how the identified DNA got there other than the person being the perpetrator so being Tuesday morning quarterback is not an exact science.

Conclusion

In the end, errors are not usually made in a criminal court setting but other environments that involve forensic psychology…… [Read More]

References

Spencer, B.D. (2007). Estimating the Accuracy of Jury Verdicts. Journal of Empirical

Legal Studies, 4(2), 305-329. doi:10.1111/j.1740-1461.2007.00090.x
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Perjury False Testimony Lying Under Oath

Words: 1404 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10163487

Perjury

Aristotle believed there should be guidelines governing the act of giving testimony (Kennedy, 2004, p. 227-228). For example, a jury member should place greater weight on the reputation and social standing of the witness, than on the content of the testimony given. If a person of good character is called to testify before a formal investigative body, a reasonable listener is therefore required to open their mind to anything the witness may claim. This process of 'reciprocation' requires reasonable jury members and judges to accept as trustworthy the testimony of a reputable person, even if the events described seem incredible and go beyond their own personal experiences.

Unfortunately, the days of small village tribunals where jury members knew most of the participants in a trial, and therefore the reputations and trustworthiness of witnesses, are generally a thing of the past in the United States and much of the world.…… [Read More]

References

Cornell University. (2012). Title 18 -- Crimes and Criminal Procedure, Part I -- Crimes,

Chapter 79 -- Perjury. Law.Cornell.edu. Retrieved 7 Aug. 2012 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/pdf/uscode18/lii_usc_TI_18_PA_I_CH_79_SE_1621.pdf.

Kennedy, Rick. (2004). A History of Reasonableness: Testimony and Authority in the Art of Thinking. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Lichtman, Robert M. And Cohen, Ronald D. (2004). Deadly Farce: Harvey Matusow and the Informer System in the McCarthy Era. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
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Megan's Law

Words: 1817 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67960466

Megan's Law (Pro)

In 1994, Megan's Law was passed in order to protect innocent women and children from violent sex offenders. Critics of the law have argued that the law infringes on the constitutional rights of sex offenders after they have been released from prison; however, it is my position that the law is constitutional and an excellent deterrent to stop repeat offenses by convicted sexual offenders.

This report is an attempt to understand the constitutionality of Megan's Law. Megan's Law was the state of New Jersey's attempt to control repeat sex offenders from assaulting women and children. The law eventually became a national campaign to control sex offenders as all fifty states have since adopted at least some parts if not all of the original New Jersey statute. However, because we live in a society where rights go to both criminal and non-criminal alike, there are several legal battles…… [Read More]

References

Ahearn, Laura A. (2004). Albany Drags Feet Better action needed against sexual predators. Newsday, October 25.

Curtis, Kim (2004). Law to Put Crime Data Online Awaits OK. AP Online, August 31.

Hampson, Rick (7/28/1998). N.J.'S Megan's Law Is Seen As Model, But Still Has Its Flaws. USA Today.

Richey, Warren (2003). Megan's Law Upheld; High Court Allows Internet Lists That Track Sex Offenders. The Christian Science Monitor, March 6.
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Further Incarceration of Sexual Predators

Words: 1161 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41485062

Sexual Violent Predators Act

The state of Kansas enacted the Sexually Violent Predators Act on May 11, 1994 which attempted a procedure for the civil commitment of sexually violent predators. The law stated that because there was a small number of individuals who engage in violent sexual predation, and that these persons have a high likelihood of repeating their crimes but because they did not have a mental disease or defect which could allow for their commitment to a treatment facility, there was a need for a way to keep these individuals in confinement. As a result the Kansas legislature enacted the Sexually Violent Predators Act which "sets forth a procedure for the involuntary commitment of individuals who had been convicted and incarcerated for a sexually violent offense." (King 1438) In effect the state of Kansas wanted a way to keep violent sexual predators incarcerated beyond their sentences and created…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hunt, Derald, and Devallis Rutledge. California Criminal Law Concepts. Pearson Learning Solutions, 2013. Print.

Kansas v. Hendricks. 521 U.S. 346. Supreme Court of the United States. 1997. Legal

Information Institute. Web 7 April 2014.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/95-1649.ZS.html
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Negative Liberty vs Positive Liberty

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88969339

Negative Liberty

Much is made about freedom and liberty in the United States. Indeed, this stretches all the way back to the founding of this nation. That founding was spurred and motivated in large part by the lack of freedom and representation that the British colonists felt they were receiving with the British crown. Over the years, one of the subtopics that has developed is negative liberty. Generally, negative liberty is the idea that someone has the right to not be bothered or pestered by people or authorities. hile the idea of negative liberty sounds good and should generally be extended to people with no question, there are very specific instances where the concept of negative liberty is abused and should not be extended because it would indeed be wrong.

Analysis

Negative liberty is a subject that has evolved and changed over the years. The modern manifestation of negative liberty…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Archives.gov. "Constitution of the United States - Official." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, 20 Feb.

2015. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. .

Archives.gov. "Bill of Rights - Official." National Archives and Records Administration.

National Archives and Records Administration, 20 Feb. 2015. Web. 20 Feb.
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Current Trends in Due Process Lawsuits

Words: 2159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24573374

Americans are aware that they are entitled to "their day in court" but may not fully understand the full range of due process protections that are contained in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the meaning, history and importance of the constitutional concept of "due process" as contained in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. A brief discussion analyzing the conflicting positions of Justices Hugo Black and Felix Frankfurter with respect to the incorporation of American citizens' rights under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and how these Justices' positions helped develop the concept of due process is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning due process in the conclusion.

.eview and Discussion

According to Black's Law Dictionary, "due process of law" means…… [Read More]

References

Bernstein, D.E. (2003, November). Lochner's legacy's legacy. Texas Law Review, 82(1), 1.

Bodenhamer, D.J. (2007). Our rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapman, N.S. & McConnell, M.W. (2012, May). Due process as separation of powers. The Yale Law Journal, 121(7), 1672-1677.

Fifth amendment. (2014). Legal Information Institute. Retrieved from http://www.law.
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Analyzing Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Fcpa

Words: 5505 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19277173

FCPA

The following till take a look at Foreign Corrupt Practice Act or in other words the FCPA.

Discovering the corporate payments difficulty in the middle of the 70s from a blend of work by the Watergate Special Prosecutor office, this includes related additional work and inquiry by SEC-Security and Exchange Commission and the Multinational Corporations Subcommittee by Senator Frank Church. In 1975, within four months, separate hearings were held by the Church Committee on Gulf Oil, Mobil Oil, Northrop, and Lockheed (Koehler). Every one of these corporations became the main subjects of allegations, concerning uncertain payments made either directly or indirectly to officials of foreign government or foreign political parties bearing a business purpose in mind. For example, the Gulf Oil primarily involved the contributions made to political campaigns of the epublic of Korea President. Northrop was mainly involved in making payments to a general in Saudi Arabia. Principally,…… [Read More]

References

Burns, D., Sullivan, & Gibson. (2009). Navigating the FCPA's Complex Scienter Requirements. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/Burns-Sullivan-NavigatingTheFCPAComplexScienterReq.pdf

Harris, A. (2011). Scholarship @ Claremont -- Claremont Colleges Research. The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/

International Whistleblower Reward Law Information Center. (n.d.). History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://www.internationalwhistleblower.com/history.html

KOEHLER, M. The Story of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 73(5). Retrieved, from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2013/02/73.5.Koehler
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Analyzing the Forth Amendment

Words: 6920 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92815852

4th Amendment's evolution and history, together with the "search and seizure" law.

4th Amendment Background

People's rights of being secure in personal effects, papers, houses and persons, against unreasonable seizures and searches, may not be breached, nor shall any warrants be issued, but in case of probable cause, which is supported by affirmation or oath, and describes, particularly, the place that must be searched, or the things or individuals that should be seized, under the 4th Amendment. Like most fields in U.S. law, the English common law forms the principal basis of the 4th Amendment. Broadly, it was created for limiting governmental powers and their capacity of enforcing legal actions upon citizens (4th Amendment - constitution -- Laws.com). Amendment IV was implemented in immediate reaction to the historical writ of assistance's abuse. This writ was a sort of general governmental search warrant employed in the American evolution's era. Amendment IV…… [Read More]

References"

(n.d.). Annenberg Classroom. The Right to Protection against Illegal Search and Seizure. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from  http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/Files/Documents/Books/Our%20Rights/Chapter_15_Our_Rights.pdf 

(n.d.). Arizona Defense Attorney James E. Novak Law Blog -- Legal discussions and observations with Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney James E. Novak. Requirements and Exceptions to Lawful Search Warrants in Arizona -- Legal discussions and observations with Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney James E. Novak. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://blog.novakazlaw.com/2013/01/requirements-and-exceptions-to-lawful-search-warrants-in-arizona/

Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616 (1886)

(n.d.). Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Guide to the Constitution. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from http://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/4/essays/144/searches-and-seizures
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Ethical and Social Responsibility Specifically

Words: 2389 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89231303

Their reputation suffered, although it did not seem to make a dent in their passenger traffic, something that indicates how complacent and compliant the American people have become. Most people did not even seem to care that Southwest had endangered them and only a few spoke out in blogs or in other areas when the news broke. Southwest has a serious responsibility to keep its passengers and crews safe, and they lost the trust of at least some people because of their callous disregard for safety. That is a huge moral responsibility, and Southwest has never really acknowledged their failure, which is an even larger ethical concern, it seems. In a statement before Congress, Southwest CEO Gary Kelly said, "Our compliance with certain specific Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness directives has been called into question. We have committed to a thorough review and to make any changes necessary to ensure…… [Read More]

References

Goodwyn, W. (2008). FAA whistleblowers: Southwest probes stymied. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the NPR Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89328997.

Kelly, G. (2008). Southwest Airlines provides testimony to U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Southwest Airlines Web site: http://www.southwest.com/swamedia/trust_in_southwest.html.

Levin, a. (2008). Inspectors: FAA officials gave Southwest a pass on safety checks. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the USAToday Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2008-03-09-safety_N.htm.

Wilber, D.Q. (2008). Airlines, FAA under fire on the hill: Lawmaker links safety lapses to 'cozy relationship,' will hold hearing. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Washington Post Web site:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/01/AR2008040102696.html
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Intelligence Community Reform Since the

Words: 3351 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61555606

After September 11th, President ush authorized the use of water boarding, as a way to gain knowledge of terrorist groups and their activities. The problem is that many of the civil rights-based groups believe that this is in violation of American law. When the people, who are interrogated (terrorists), are not American citizens and they want to do as much harm to the country as possible. Given the fact that these individuals, are more than likely hard core terrorists and posses knowledge about imminent terrorist activities, meant that the this technique would be utilized to obtain information. Even though this was successful and was used on limited number of people, the press and Congress continued to debate the issue. (Froomkin, 2010) This is troubling, because it undermines the activities of U.S. intelligence officials (who are trying to protect the nation). As they are inserted into a game of political chicken,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Congressional Reports. (2004). Go Access to Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/intel_reform.html

Five Bombshells from Wiki Leaks Iraq War Documents. (2010). Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from:  http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2010/1022/Five-bombshells-from-WikiLeaks-Iraq-war-documents/Details-of-torture-and-abuse 

Key Provisions. (2004). CNN. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2004-12-08/politics/intelligence.key.facts_1_civil-liberties-board-intelligence-reform-bill-number-of-detention-beds?_s=PM:ALLPOLITICS

Overall U.S. Intelligence Budget Tops $80 Billion. (2010). LA Times. Retrieved from:  http://articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/28/nation/la-na-intel-budget-20101029
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Viacom Is One of the

Words: 3495 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31091470



In 1996 Westinghouse/CS bought Infinity radio broadcasting and outdoor advertising group for $4.7 billion, a deal that was largely the result of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The Telecommunications Act heavily deregulated the media industry and allowed a company to significantly increase the amount radio stations it could own. In 1997, Viacom dealt its educational, professional and reference publishing businesses to Pearson for $4.6 billion, and retains Simon & Schuster. In 1999, CS bought King World Productions, the leading television program syndicator at that time, for $2.5 billion. On September 7, 1999, Viacom and CS announced their merger, a $50 billion deal. This was the largest media merger of that era, which came one-month after the FCC approved duopolies. Under this merger, the new Viacom had 33 television stations, eclipsing the FCC's 35% ownership cap. This cap was based on the amount of stations one company owns that reach 35%…… [Read More]

Bibliography

America Online. (2005). AOL.com. Retrieved October 2, 2005 at  http://www.corp.aol.com/ .

Bloomberg News. (2005). Viacom Explains Slip into Units. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/06/business/media/06viacom.html.

Columbia Journalism Review. (2005). Viacom Corporate Timeline. Retrieved October 1, 2005 at http://www.cjr.org/tools/owners/viacom-timeline.asp.

Goldsmith, J. (2005). Viacom Looks to the Future. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at http://www.variety.com/article/ur1117929452?cs=1&5=h&p=0.
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Subsistence Patterns in Today's Modern

Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8001293

While technological advancements have allowed for better planning around environmental conditions, a restriction on nomadic movement has been responsible for deciding economic stability. Care must be taken to preserve the pastoralist way of life in Mongolia, or the entire nation will suffer. Unless measures are taken, either by the Mongolian pastoralists themselves or by the government of Mongolia, the subsistence of the Mongolian pastoralists may be in jeopardy, and centuries of tradition will be lost, along with an economic pattern of survival that has sustained a nation.

eferences

Bedunah, Donald J. And Sabine M. Schmidt.

2004 Pastoralism and Protected Area management in Mongolia's Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park. Development and Change 35(1): 167-191. Academic Search Premiere Database. University of Maryland University College Information and Library Services. (6 November 2005).

Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E.

2001 The Effects of livestock Privatization on Pastoral Land Use and Land Tenure in Post-Socialist Mongolia. Nomadic Peoples 5(2):…… [Read More]

References

Bedunah, Donald J. And Sabine M. Schmidt.

2004 Pastoralism and Protected Area management in Mongolia's Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park. Development and Change 35(1): 167-191. Academic Search Premiere Database. University of Maryland University College Information and Library Services. (6 November 2005).

Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E.

2001 The Effects of livestock Privatization on Pastoral Land Use and Land Tenure in Post-Socialist Mongolia. Nomadic Peoples 5(2): 49-65. Academic Search Premiere Database. University of Maryland University College Information and Library Services. (6 November 2005).
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Opportunities Including Education Employment and Entrepreneurship That

Words: 3104 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77057217

opportunities, including education, employment, and entrepreneurship that immigrants have in America.

America provides opportunities for all races:

America guarantees that one will not be discriminated on the basis on of his race,

National origin, gender, age etc.

All citizens in America have the right to an equal education, which includes a bilingual education.

Teaching immigrants the English language on an academic level allows them to communicate on a level equivalent to other professionals in the work place.

Immigrants who learn the English Language on a communicable level gives him or her the same equal legal rights as natural born Americans, for example-no hidden surprises in legal contracts.

Entrepreneurship:

Foundations help immigrants start up their own businesses in America.

Immigrants, upon receiving citizenship, have the same rights to own businesses in America as Native Americans.

Immigrants of other countries are allowed to contribute their uniqueness to this country when they open…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Frost, Martin, (01/22/1999)

Where-Freedom Seekers Yearn to be Free; Halting Immigrants Deprives America of Fresh Talent that Keeps in on Top

Knight-Ridder News Service

Kelley, S., (9/18/2002)
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Competitive Forces Have Challenged the

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56993281

Over time, this solution became less and less effective as the sheer volume of YouTube uploads increased and the studios and companies were unable to keep up with the inflow of illegally posted material. Currently, many studios and companies have entered into a revenue sharing agreement with sites like YouTube to help make up for the potential in lost revenue that the illegally posted content presents. In this structure, studios present advertisements before the posted video content where ad revenues are split between both YouTube and the studios themselves. This has become a common way of trying to recoup some of the lost revenues due to video sharing sites while also opening up new avenues for companies to promote their products online on these sites. The movie industry can learn much from the music industry because they are experiencing what the music industry experienced only a decade or so ago.…… [Read More]

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Northwest Airlines

Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70938625

Northwest Airlines

Many airlines have faced difficult times after deregulation, and the problems were exacerbated by the downturn in air travel after 9-11. Smaller airlines like Northwest Airlines have had even more problems, and yet Northwest in particular persists and so far has voided going out of business in spite of a series of threats, including poor traveler performance, lowered expectations in business terms, labor problems, and so on.

Before deregulation in the 1970s, many had speculated as to how it would affect the structure of the airline industry, and the prevailing view was that deregulation would lead to a substantial consolidation of the industry, leaving some four to six large systems, each centered around one of the major prederegulation trunks. It was believed, for example, that American Airlines, Delta Airlines, Northwest Airlines, United Airlines, and TWA would be among the survivors because of financial strength or protected international franchises.…… [Read More]

References

Castro, Janice, 'Get 'Em While They Last," Time (July 22, 1991), p. 49.

Form 8-K for Northwest Airlines Corp. (2006). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved December 10, 2006 at http://biz.yahoo.com/e/061130/nwacq.pk8-k.html.

Meyer, John R., Clinton V. Oster, Jr., Ivor P. Morgan, Benjamin A. Berman, Diana L. Strassman. Airline Deregulation: The Early Experience. Boston, Mass.: Auburn House, 1981.

Morrison, S. & Winston, C. (1986). The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
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Capsule Imagine if You Could

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49811830

However, the life she found with her Native American captives was much more appealing to her. There were less religious restrictions, and as a woman, she had much more freedom in Iroquois culture. She was not doomed to become a submissive wife within the framework of Puritan colonialism, but instead she found her freedom through her adoptive Native American family. ith this in mind, one object in particular would help represent her struggle at a very early stage in American history. In the time capsule, I would place a recent 2009 article describing the voting demographics of women in the most recent presidential election. Eunice chose a life of relative freedom, sticking up for herself and basically paving a path of feminist rights in the earliest stages of American history. Thus, she would be proud to see how far this nation has come from its Puritan roots, giving women a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Demos, John Putnam. The Unredeemed Captive: a Family Story from Early America. Vintage Books. 1995.

Martin, James K. Ordinary Courage: The Revolutionary War Adventures of Private Joseph Plumb Martin. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 1999.
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Adults on Secured Online Environments

Words: 12910 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48598250

Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.

Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].

Bever, T.G., Smith, M.L., Bengen, B., & Johnson, T.G. (1975). Young viewers' troubling response to TV ads. Harvard Business Review, 54, 109-120.

Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.
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Server Cookies the Term Cookies

Words: 2131 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82259059

In January 2000 a new system was implemented by double click wherein for the first time the linking of the name of the user and any other information that it can pick up as the user moves from site to site. This is done in this manner and that is the user name and address is collected and stored in a cookie from a site where this is entered and the name and address is then linked to all the other activity that the user does on the web sites and stored in the same cookie and thus the activities of the user are linked to the real identity of the user. All this information is then sold to the highest bidder and it is estimated that there are nearly one hundred million such files available on Internet users that clearly indicates that the privacy of a majority of the…… [Read More]

References

Brain Marshall. How Does Cookie Data Move?. Retrieved at  http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie2.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005

Brain Marshall. How Do Web Sites Use Cookies?. Retrieved at  http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie3.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005

Brain Marshall. Problems with Cookies. Retrieved at  http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie5.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005

Brain Marshall. Why the Fury Around Cookies? Retrieved at  http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie6.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005
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Hostile Takeover -- the Modern

Words: 6689 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70747462



Types of Takeovers

There are several consequences of whether a takeover is considered hostile or friendly. These consequences are more in the practical business realm than legal ones. Hostile takeovers are riskier for the acquirer than friendly ones. In a friendly takeover, the bidder will have a better chance to examine the company and its health. If the board is amicable to the situation, they will provide a full disclosure of the company's strengths and weaknesses. In a hostile takeover, the bidder only has access to publicly available information. There may be situations within the company that have not been disclosed. This can be good or bad depending on the situation. The acquirer might get a pleasant surprise, or they might find out that they have bought a sinking ship. Due to the risk involved in a hostile takeover, it is often more difficult to obtain financing than for a…… [Read More]

References

Anheuser-Busch Wins Bidding for Chinese Brewery" (2004). Money. 3 June 2004. USA

Today. Accessed 22 May 2007 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2004-06-03-china-brewer_x.htm.

CBR Staff Writer (2005). Shanda poised for hostile takeover bid of Sina. 23 February 2005. The Chronline. Accessed 23 May 2007 from www.cbronline.com/article_news.asp?guid=612C6FC4-9F8F-4057-83E8-10CA399A7B7A

ChrStaff Writer (2006). Motorola and Shanda enter mobile gaming partnership. 31 July 2006.
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System Implementations

Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26039795

Systems Implementation

System Implementations

Describe the company, the business problem the company was addressing with the system implementation, the system chosen to implement, and the company's rationale for selecting the system to solve the problem.

Wal-Mart, a company that enjoys a significant market share in the U.S. food industry, rolled out its multi-phased project. This marked the beginning of implementing the company's long ditched in-house IT systems, which favored their operations with vendors. However, implementation of the SAP system is already raising red flags. This is because the system comes with costly financial works, which have strained the company (Scheck, 2010). While the project was aimed at leading the firm to growth, Wal-Mart recorded a significant sales decline. This was one of the company's worst performance over three decades now, been beaten by new corporations from Germany and South Korea. As local competitors maintained the pace set by Wal-Mart, most…… [Read More]

References

Hellens, L, Nielsen, S., Beekhuyzen, J., & Ebrary, Inc. (2008). Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.

Jacobs, A.J. (2012). Information system implementations: Using a leadership quality matrix for success. S.l.: Authorhouse.

Ramachandran, S. (2007). Digital VLSI systems design: A design manual for implementation of projects on FPGAs and ASICs using Verilog. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Scheck, D.E. (2010). Implementation project for traffic signal monitor/recorder and analysis system. Athens, Ohio: Dept. Of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Ohio University.