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If American companies are setting examples the local companies will soon have to follow suit or face angry employees.
The second way it will benefit the world is by maintaining a fair competition in the market for other companies. Going overseas for the sole purpose of cost and then shipping the product back to the states at reduced prices also hurts the U.S. economy. American workers spend their money within the boundaries of the U.S. And it is important for companies to remember the very people who work for them also buy from them.
Under the gun most recently when it comes to fair labor standards overseas is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart provides jobs for hundreds of thousands of people worldwide and recently came under fire when it was discovered that it was not practicing even minimally fair labor standards with regards to its overseas workers.
Wal-Mart represents everything that's wrong with…
Boston-Based Sneaker Maker Denies Union's Charges on Overseas Labor.
Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News; 12/30/1998; Reidy, Chris
Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News
Comparative E.E.O. law: pregnancy legislation in the United States and Taiwan. (equal employment opportunity law)
However, it also indicates the offensive portrayal of the men, who ogle the woman, especially the overweight boss, who is totally convinced of his own sex appeal. This shows how ads use male stereotypes and misleading notions of male masculinity to appeal to men. This ad might seem that it is for women, but it is really appealing to all the men who think they are the hunk construction worker, even if they are really the overweight boss in reality. These unrealistic notions are supported by ads like these, and they help the industry create male role models that are often parodies of themselves.
Fast food ads are another notorious medium that perpetuates this skewed view of men and masculinity. Some ads portray men as hopelessly inept, especially when it comes to eating or cooking. The men in Carl's Jr. ads, for example, are pathetic and hopeless when it comes…
Editors. "Bud Light X-Ray Vision." YouTube.com. 2008 3 Oct. 2008. http://www.kewego.com/video/iLyROoafY9QJ.html
Editors. "Carl's Jr." Carlsjr.com. 2008. 3 Oct. 2008. http://www.carlsjr.com/#/?video=avocado&channel=on-tv-now
Editors. "Viva Viagra." Viagra.com. 2008. 3 Oct. 2008. http://www.viagra.com/content/viva-viagra-music.jsp?setShowOn=../content/viva-viagra.jsp&setShowHighlightOn=../content/viva-viagra-music.jsp
Sea, William. "Advertising Sets a Double Standard for the Male Gender." Texas a&M University. 2005. 3 Oct. 2008. http://media.www.thebatt.com/media/storage/paper657/news/2005/11/10/Opinion/Defining.Masculinity-1052311.shtml
So activity that takes place outside the laws invalidates the protections that the laws afford. Indeed, it is only at the institutional level where different treatment is not allowed is a society with equal rights under the law. The government cannot discriminate against people and treat them differently. However, laws have defined how the idea of "equal rights under the law" is applied, so that even today governments discriminate against gay people who want to get married, treating them differently from straight people. While I see that sometimes pragmatic considerations might arise, like affording one's daughters more protections, I do not feel that there should be institutionalization of different treatment if the nation truly wants to promise that all people will be equal under the law.
Where there are pragmatic considerations, I think it is reasonable to treat people differently. This world rewards people for what they contribute to it…
STANDARD-ASED COSTING AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR TODAY'S MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT
This paper outlines the various defect of the standard-based costing method and how they do not effectively measure manufacturing environment of today. It has 8 sources in Turabian style.
Cost control is needed by businesses to plan the actual cost it might incur on the production of certain commodities. The budget is an overall costing system but sub-division is needed if and when the company requires detailed cost structure of the department. This is necessary for achieving the overall goals of the organization.
In production organizations, such as manufacturing companies, the basic concern of the management is to have smooth operations with the least cost possible. There the existence of cost is measured by the tangible output each component of the department produces. Income is compared to the cost incurred. A system that is set for measuring the performance level of…
Davies, Ieuan, 03-01-1997. Are we going in the right direction? (production management techniques). Vol. 75, Management Accounting (British), pp 52(1). Lucas, Mike, Standard costing and its role in today's manufacturing environment.. Vol. 75, Management Accounting (British), 04-01-1997, pp 32(3).
Bear, Robert; Mills, Roger; Schmid, Felix, 12-01-1994. Product costing in advanced technology environments. (cost accounting in manufacturing environments). Vol. 72, Management Accounting (British), pp 20(3).
Lucas, Mike, 04-01-1997. Standard costing and its role in today's manufacturing environment.. Vol. 75, Management Accounting (British), pp 32(3).
Dugdale, David; Jones, Colwyn, 05-01-1996. Accounting for throughput.(part 2, practice). Vol. 74, Management Accounting (British), pp 38(5).
For example, a nurse or physician may come across a patient that is near death due to pregnancy complications and the only way to save the mother is ostensibly to abort the fetus. That is the medical standard but many doctors and nurses would stay far away from ever involving themselves in an abortion even if there is an over-arching reason behind it that does not involve improper or non-use of birth control before the fact.
The article makes note that the moral standing and views of the patient should always override that of the medical professional according to 75% of respondents. It is noted that when a conflict arises, it is usually due to religious convictions. Complicating things greatly is the fact that freedom of religion is in the Bill of ights but many argue that this right is waived when speaking of life and death or even the…
Davis, S. (2012). Influencers of ethical beliefs and the impact on moral distress and conscientious objection. Nursing Ethics, 19(6), 738-749.
Stegman, M.S. (2008). Standards of Ethical Coding: Why everyone should be aware of them. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 10(1), 59-81.
double blind trial. This is a study where neither the researchers or the participants know what they will receive. First and foremost, it removes any potential for bias, as there are no preconceived notions from the participants or those studying the reactions of the trial. Such studies often also "follow less restrictive methodological standards than phase III studies in terms of patient selection, comedictation, and other design issues," (Muller, 2011). Essentially they have greater room to better replicate real world scenarios. They are also much more able to be generalized than studies with more restrictions. However, there are also some downsides to double blind trials. For example, there is a much greater variance that the research will have to deal with. This is "caused by the different kinds of confounders as well as problematic design issues" that can lead to "wrong conclusions," (Muller, 2011). When there are issues it is…
Constanta, R. (2008). An integrative approach to quality of life management. Sapient 1(1), 12-16.
Muller, Hans-Jurgen. (2011). Effectiveness studies: Advantages and disadvantages. Dialogues on Clinical Neuroscience, 13(1), 199-207.
Lewis, John A. (2002). Study designs, duration, and choice of comparators including the use of placebo. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 4(4), 463-469.
Despite the highly purposeful construction of the annual report, however, there are no inaccuracies or deliberate attempts to mislead investors immediately apparent in MD's assessment of its financial situation, and indeed the annual report provides an excellent roadmap for the company's decision-making process during the year. Its divestment of certain operations was a direct response to the reduced capital -- through heightened repayment obligations and the loss in sales -- that the company experienced and continues to predict for the immediate future (MD 2009). Other company decisions were likewise based on appropriate and immediate recognition of and response to financial data.
t the same time, some of the financial figures that MD presents in its annual report show operating losses extending back several years before the onset of the recession, in some departments (MD 2009, pp. 60). The company's responsiveness to this issue seems to have been slower…
At the same time, some of the financial figures that AMD presents in its annual report show operating losses extending back several years before the onset of the recession, in some departments (AMD 2009, pp. 60). The company's responsiveness to this issue seems to have been slower than the annual report indicates; though the organization was spurred into restructuring and divesting itself of some of its less profitable operations by the recession, some of these problems existed previously. The new partnerships that the company formed during the year also seem to be the result of analysis of rising operating costs, especially when paired to the reduced sales and income that the company experienced during 2008. Most of AMD's decision-making appears to come form an analysis of projected (and real) costs and income; it was not until the recession severely hurt income levels that the extra costs the company was accruing became a significant problem.
Many of the major decisions made by AMD in 2008 were, of course, the result of complex and long-term analyses that are beyond the scope of the current paper. Even a brief analysis of the 2008 annual report, however, demonstrates the company's reliance on and utilization of financial data and analyses. It is only with accurate and complete information that responsible and effective decisions can be made, by both investors and the company itself, and AMD definitely strives to provide that in its annual report. This does not prevent the company from presenting the information in such a way that puts it in an advantageous light, however.
Double Indemnity is a 1944 noir film directed by Billy Wilder that cast Fred McMurray as Walter Neff opposite the scheming femme fatale played by Barbara Stanwyck. The film dared to push the boundaries of the production Code designed to maintain the moral standards of the audience: Barbara first appears on screen in a towel, shoulders exposed, as she stares down from her lofty perch at her prey -- McMurray newly arrived to "house of death." Stanwyck's sensuality is used as a plot device to lure McMurray's Neff into her clutches, which involves a preposterous scheme of murder and money. The film explores the manner in which a good man can become embroiled in a bad situation -- that way is mainly exposed as the way of the flesh. Neff's seduction at the hands of Stanwyck sets off a chain of events that eventually leads to his fall (bleeding and…
The widespread occurrence of Military Sexual Trauma requires an educational program to eliminate MSTs and deal with the difficulties created by MSTs that have or will occur. Some aspects of the victim, extended family, neighborhood and the Military itself can efficiently establish and enhance this educational program. Simultaneously, other aspects of the victim, extended family, neighborhood and the Military itself pose problems for this educational program. An effective educational program must therefore use and empower those positives while overcoming the negatives and acknowledging the existential realities that cannot be changed.
Approach to Health Education Program
A health education program for military victims of "unwelcome sexual attention including gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, unwanted sexual attention, sexual coercion, sexual assault, and rape" (Street, Stafford, Mahan, & Hendricks, 2008, p. 409) should include the victim, extended family and neighborhood. It is not enough to simply work with a victim within…
Cater, J., & Leach, J. (2011). Veterans, military sexual trauma and PTSD: Rehabilitation planning implications. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 42(2), 33-40. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from Proquest at http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2388951171&sid=6&Fmt=6&clientId=29440&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Hyun, J., Pavao, J., & Klinerling, R. (2009). Military sexual trauma. PTSD Research Quarterly, 20(2), 13.
Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder. (n.d.). Coping skills. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from Street, A., Stafford, J., Mahan, C., & Hendricks, A. (2008). Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: Prevalence and health correlates. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45, 409-420. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.rehab.research.va.gov/jour/08/45/3/pdf/Street.pdf
U.S. Department of Defense. (2010, March). Department of Defense fiscal year 2009 annual report on sexual assault in the military. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from U.S. Department of Defense Web site: http://www.sapr.mil/media/pdf/reports/fy09_annual_report.pdf
International Financial eporting Standards
IFS and Canada
Canada was one of the first prominent nations involved in the North American Free Trade Agreement to consider switching their financial reporting to the International Financial eporting Standards. For years, Canada had been under the pressure of the United States to adopt a system aligned with the GAAP. Still, growing opportunities across the globe made the adoption of the IFS in Canada a better option. It was announced in early 2008 that the move was going to be made in Canada. Canada officially adopted the IFS standards in January of 2011 (PWC, 2014). Actually, the IFS standards were quite similar to the already existing Canadian GAAP standards. Thus the transition, for most businesses, was not extremely different than what they had encountered in the past.
The country made the official decision to adopt the IFS over their own GAAP system came in a…
Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. (2011). The CICA's Guide to IFRS in Canada. Web. http://ocaq.qc.ca/pdf/ang/6_presse/infoca/2007/InfoCA1185_Guide_EN.pdf
Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. (2012). IFRS Adoption in Canada: An Empirical Analysis of the Impact on Financial Statements. Web. http://www.cga-canada.org/en-ca/ResearchReports/ca_rep_2013-10-03_IRFS.pdf
IFRS. (2013). Canada. IFRS Application Around the World. Web. http://www.ifrs.org/Use-around-the-world/Documents/Jurisdiction-profiles/Canada-IFRS-Profile.pdf
PWC. (2013). IFRS Adoption by Country. Web. http://www.pwc.com/en_US/us/issues/ifrs-reporting/publications/assets/pwc-ifrs-by-country-apr-2013.pdf
Non-English speaking patients present a challenge for those working in the healthcare industry due to the difficulty in accurately assisting and assessing the patient's needs. Because of this, it is required that interpreters be provided for patients who are non-English speakers.
Medical Language Interpretation Tools
There are six commonly used medical interpretation tools that hospitals can select from when serving patients. The first tool is a trained professional medical translator. This resource is optimal for larger hospitals that are serving a large amount of a certain group of people. For instance, an area with a large number of French speaking patients should have a French medical translator on staff. The second option is using a phone medical translator. When using a phone translator, the doctor, patient, and translator are all on the phone at the same time and work together to discuss the circumstances. The third option for…
Standard Chartered Bank in America Houston, Texas
Standard Chartered Bank is a multinational bank with several branches across the world offering different financial services in different regions. The bank is headquartered in New York City with operations in New Jersey, Florida, Houston Texas and California. The bank has been in operation in the U.S. since 1902 and has been employing thousands of the Americans. Its main focus in the U.S. is whole sale banking where it offers products and services in trade finance, treasury, foreign exchange and interest rate products, cash management, commodity finance and structured import and export financial services (Standard Chartered Bank, 2008).
My position at Standard Chartered Bank as my new company will be the Marketing Manager based in Houston. The job description will be to develop and maintain marketing strategies for the branch. I will be required to conduct market research establish what the…
Jeanne S., Melinda S., Lawrence R., & Robert S., (2012). Stress at Work. Tips to Reduce and Manage Job and Work place Stress. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/work_stress_management.htm
Jennn Fusion and Demand Media, 2012. Motivation & Goal Setting Theory. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/motivation-goal-setting-theory-1187.html
Karen C. Kaser & Madeline Johnson, (2011). Removing Communication Barriers Through Course Instruction. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://businesscommunication.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2011-ABC-10-KASER.pdf
Standard Chartered Bank, (2008). Wholesale Banking. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://www.standardchartered.com/us/fast-facts/en/
This article serves as an important reminder of the frequent conflict between science and politics. Science suggests two different hypothesis -- one, that the Kyoto Protocols are feasible, another that they are not. Democrats, in defiance of an unpopular president who is largely viewed as sympathetic to big business interests and hostile to the environment; wish to pass more stringent mandatory requirements, as they are proud their new legislative majority. Industry analysts say these standards are impossible to meet. Environmental lobbying groups with a different political agenda challenge industry scientists. Much of the technology used to cut emissions is in an experimental stage, and it is uncertain if it is economically feasible or even effective. The report also suggests consumers purchase more hybrid cars, but consumer concern for fuel efficiency seems to be waning rather than increasing, unlike the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Congress can limit consumer…
Field, Barry C. & Martha K. Field. (2006). Environmental Economics: An Introduction.
4th Edition. Boston: Irwin/McGraw Hill.
Wald, Matthew. (15 Feb 2007). "Study Questions Prospects for Much Lower Emissions."
The New York Times. Retrieved 16 Feb 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/15/business/15carbon.html?ref=science&pagewanted=print
Special Ed Standard
eflective paper on student differences and learning style approaches
This paper provides a brief overview of different learning styles and the types of accommodations teachers can make in the classroom
Learning styles: An overview
"Students learn in many ways -- by seeing and hearing; reflecting and acting; reasoning logically and intuitively; memorizing and visualizing and drawing analogies and building mathematical models; steadily and in fits and starts. Teaching methods also vary. Some instructors lecture, others demonstrate or discuss; some focus on principles and others on applications; some emphasize memory and others understanding" (Felder 1988: 674). The idea of using multiple approaches to teaching the same material has become more and more popular as teachers are cognizant of the different learning styles students manifest. Some auditory learners may learn best through listening; students who are visual learners may learn best if the teacher uses graphs and…
Felder, Richard M. & L.K. Silverman. (1988) Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-681. Retrieved June 26, 2011 at http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-1988.pdf
Understanding different learning styles. (2011). NDT. Retrieved June 26, 2011 at http://www.ndt-ed.org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Learning_Styles.htm
Human esources: Fair Labor Standards Act
An Examination of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and Its Implications for American Workers Today
Although most Americans take for granted the wide range of social programs that are in place for their protection, many of these initiatives are fairly recent in origin, but one that has been around for quite some time is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The legislation established a minimum standard wage and a maximum work week of 40 hours in industries that were engaged in interstate commerce. The implications of the Act were profound, and today, in what has become a classic pattern over the years, calls for increases to the federal minimum wage are followed by impassioned cries from industry leaders that such an initiative will do more to harm business than it will to help minimum-wage workers. ather than routinely bankrupt America's businesses,…
An overview of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (2005). U.S. Office of Personnel Management.
Retrieved May 12, 2005 from http://www.opm.gov/flsa/overview.asp .
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Cocheo, S. (2004). Banks Must Labor to Comply with New Overtime Rules; Fair Labor
preference abstract falls short APA standards. (You find standards noted APA Publication Manual sections text readings cited week's esources.) Use questions a guide asses abstract, rewrite abstract: Did author include a reference research study a format consistent APA Publication Manual? Did author mention problem addressed study?
The abstract of the research study article titled "The Benefits of Facebook "Friends:" Social Capital and College Students' Use of Online Social Network Sites" Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007()
falls short of the APA standards guidelines for abstracts in several ways. One is that the number of words should be between 150 and 200 yet the actual number of words in the abstract is 124. Secondly, the keywords from the research paper should be listed in the abstract. These keywords have not been listed. Third, the abstract should include the topic of the research, research questions, methods, sample or participants, data analysis, results, and…
Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook "friends:" Social capital and college students' use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), article 1.
The economy began to contract still further immediately after the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Fears that Roosevelt would devalue the dollar or even abolish the Gold Standard caused both domestic and foreign investors to once again to "convert dollars to gold, putting pressure on both the banking system and the gold reserves of the Federal Reserve System. Bank failures and the Fed's defensive measures against the gold drain further reduced the stock of money. The economy took its deepest plunge between November 1932 and March 1933, once more confirming the temporal sequence predicted by the monetary hypothesis. Once Roosevelt was sworn in, his declaration of a national bank holiday and, subsequently, his cutting the link between the dollar and gold initiated the expansion of money, prices, and output" (Bernanke 2002).
Roosevelt did not abandon the gold standard wholesale. However, he did devalue the dollar, nationalize gold owned by private…
Bernanke, Ben S. (2002, November 8). Remarks at the conference to honor Milton Friedman.
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved June 2, 2009 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/BOARDDOCS/SPEECHES/2002/20021108/default.htm
Bordo, Michael D. (2008). The Gold Standard. The Econ Library. Retrieved June 2, 2009 at http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GoldStandard.html
Kelley, Martin. (2009). Top Five causes of the Great Depression. About.com.
The color of the car was also considered as 1= brown, 2 = black, 3 = blue, 5 = red, 6 = yellow and 7 = white. Other variables included the time of the day and month at which the person was caught driving to control for the possible rush hour affect and month influence, the exact time of the stop was eliminated to avoid double counting in the model. The two dummy variables included the fact whether the person speeding was the resident or none resident. The none residents were assigned 1 to hypothize that none residents no matter of their gender and car type and time of the day, day of the month and month, are more tempted to speed over the limit. The second variable is the gender to assume that at all other things being equal, male are more prone to speed over the limit than…
References Available at http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/jfox/Courses/soc740/lecture-5.pdf#search=%22dummy%20variable%2C%20regression%22
Schroeder, L.D., Understanding Regression Analysis: An Introductory Guide, Sage Publications, 1996. Available at
Agree or disagree: Standard financial investment information and criteria are all that is needed to effectively evaluate IT outsourcing decisions.
Over the last several decades, outsourcing has become an effective tool for many companies to reduce their costs and increase their profit margins. As time went by the reduction in trade barriers and availability of highly skilled workers (in select locations) made these practices more acceptable. This has resulted in an increasing number of jobs being outsourced to different countries (i.e. China and India). (Buck, 2011)
Evidence of this can be seen with data provided by Statistics Brain. They found that in 2011 there were a total of 2.27 million American jobs outsourced to these locations. There are a number of different reasons as to why this is occurring. The below table is highlighting the most common factors influencing the decision to outsource various services. ("Job Outsourcing Statistics,"…
Job Outsourcing Statistics. (2012). Statistics Brain. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/outsourcing-statistics-by-country/
Bucki, J. (2011). Introduction to Outsourcing. About.com. Retrieved from http://operationstech.about.com/od/costsavingstrategies/a/OutSrcDefine.htm
Bucki, J. (2011). Top 6 Outsourcing Disadvantages. About.com. Retrieved from http://operationstech.about.com/od/outsourcing/tp/OutSrcDisadv.htm
More, R. (2009). How GM Lost Its Focus. Ivy Business Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/strategy/how-general-motors-lost-its-focus-%E2%80%93-and-its-way#.UHCX7VE2iZQ
The mean, median and standard deviation are as follows:
mean median std dev
The 95% confidence interval can be calculated as follows:
CI = x +/- t* (s/?n)
CI = 14.87 +/- 2.045 * (0.541 / ?30)
CI = 14.87 +/-
CI = 14.668 to 15.07
The null hypothesis is that the bottles are within the 95% confidence interval of 16oz as required by law. So the number of samples that fall within 15.8 to 16.2. This reality is that there are only three that fall within this, which shows that the null hypothesis is rejected. The samples deviate far too much from the desired 16 ounce state.
There are clearly less than 16 ounces of soda in each bottle. There are a number of possible causes for this. We have to first look at the measurement, to ensure that the device is measuring things…
U.S. Vs. Canada Health System
Comparing Two Health Systems:
The United States vs. Canada
Healthcare has become an issue of great importance in the United States. It has dominated debates everywhere. During the upcoming election, it is certain that healthcare will be on minds ranging from recent college graduates, to senior citizens and will be hotly debated on television. For those who have never experience anything but the American system, government provided or "nationalized" healthcare seems almost socialist. However, a more attainable, affordable, and even social-tendency-based health system could not hurt America. Yet the question, of course, remains whether America would benefit from such a system over its vast territory. Though the President has enacted reforms, it remains to be seen how these will be carried out and improved upon. In an effort to better understand various health systems, therefore, this paper will focus on a comparison between the United…
Based on own experience of healthcare coverages and some data from Empire Blue insurance in New York State.
"Health Care System." (2011). Health Care Canada. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from .
Blizzard, R. (2003). "Health Care System Ratings." Gallup. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from .
Pennsylvania's Unique Tax Environment
When someone says the word tax or any related form of the word, it makes people cringe. This cringe is for a good purpose. Almost everything we purchase is taxed somehow. Most of those people do not even understand all of the specific taxes that are being taken out of their checks. When comparing between different states, Pennsylvania has some unique features to its taxation system. To begin, it has a personal income tax, adopted in 1971, which is levied at a rate of 2.8%. Business taxes include a corporate net income tax of 9.99%, capital stock and franchise taxes, and taxes on public utilities, insurance premiums, and financial institutions (Braybrooks, et al., 2011). Pennsylvania's 6% sales and use tax exempts essential items like clothing, groceries, and medicines. Local sales taxes are limited to 1%. The state has an inheritance tax and has taken action to…
Braybrooks, M., Ruiz, J. And Accetta, E. 2011. State Government Tax Collections Summary Report: 2010. United States Census Bureau. Accessed: 13 Feb 2012. URL: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/g10-stc.pdf
Congressional Budget Office. 2011. Options for Changing the Tax Treatment of Charitable Giving. Accessed: 13 Feb 2012. URL: http://cbo.gov/ftpdocs/121xx/doc12167/CharitableContributions.pdf
Victorian Female Sexuality
Victorian Sexuality: George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid"
omen in the Victorian era must have suffered enormously under the massive double standards and the shameful image of a woman who wanted to be on her own. It is clear from examining the literature of the period how much discrimination was placed on women in the era. George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid" show the intense sexual and gender discrimination that women in the Victorian era had to endure and the extreme consequences that were reserved for them upon breaking such strict traditions on sexuality and love relationships; however, George Bernard Shaw does allow for a greater sense of freedom for his female characters as his work was written much later at the tail end of the Victorian era, as long as they avoid the contact…
Hardy, Thomas. "The Ruined Maid." All Poetry. 1866. Web. http://allpoetry.com/poem/8442925-The_Ruined_Maid-by-Thomas_Hardy
Shaw Festival. Mrs. Warren's Profession: Connections Shaw Festival Study Guide. 2008. Web. http://www.shawfest.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Mrs_Warrens_Study_Guide.pdf
Shaw, George Bernard. Mrs. Warren's Profession. Gutenberg EBook. 2011. Web. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1097/1097-h/1097-h.htm
Daughters in literature requires a thorough analysis of gender roles and norms. The concept of daughter is directly linked to gender roles, as being a daughter entails specific social and familial responsibilities. Daughters' rights, roles, and responsibilities vis-a-vis their male siblings can therefore become a gendered lens, which is used to read literature. This is true even when the daughters in question are not protagonists. For example, Sonya in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment is not a protagonist but her supportive role has a tremendous impact on main character Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov. Likewise, no one of King Lear's three daughters is the play's protagonist but they nevertheless propel the plot of the play and are central to its outcome. Virginia oolf's To the Lighthouse barely features any of the Ramsay daughters, and yet there are ample textual references to the role of daughters in families and correspondingly, the role of…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited by Stephen Orgel. New York, N.Y: Penguin Books, 1999.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. , c1955.
Third, birth control and condoms (for STD control as well) are far more available, as are clinics and a woman's access to birth control. Despite the issues of disease, many young people feel invincible, and especially when relaxing or alchohol is involved, tend to see sexual activity as a process for unwinding, not necessarily a sharing of intimacy between people. In fact, many believe that sex is not the most intimate activity they have with another person. When barriers to behavior fall because of substances, one of the responses is to seek physical pleasure. There are also more pharmaceuticals on the market now that, legal or illegal, enhance or intensify sexual pleasure: the Viagra types for male erection, Esctacy for both, Amyl Nitrate as an additional high, and more (What Drugs have You Used To Enhance Sex?, 2007).
Still, despite almost 50 years of Women's Liberation, Sex Education classes, more…
hitman, Harper, Alcott
American literature in the nineteenth century is necessarily concerned with democracy: by the time of the U.S. Civil ar the American democratic experiment was not even a century old, and as a result writers remained extremely sensitive until the end of the century toward questions of whether America was capable of living up to the high ideals that it had set for itself in its founding documents. An examination of some representative nineteenth century American works -- hitman's "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," Harper's "A Double Standard" and "The Deliverance," and Louisa May Alcott's story "ork" -- will demonstrate that the failings of American democracy were a subject all these writers had in common.
hitman is commonly thought of as the poet who champions American democracy, but "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" is a poem that contains grave doubts. e note this most obviously as hitman's long flowing stanzas suddenly dry…
Alcott, Louisa May. "Work: A Story of Experience." 1873. Project Gutenberg, 2003. 29 March 2014. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/4770
Walt Whitman. "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry." Leaves of Grass. 1867. Electronic Text Center. University of Virginia Library, 2000. 29 March 2014. .
Male Teacher etention in Early Childhood Programs: Why They Stay.
quick glance into any elementary, preschool or child care center quickly reveals that very few men work with young children. This cursory observation is solidly supported by the fact that fewer than five percent of all early childhood teachers in the United States are male (U.S. Department of Education, 1994).
There are a wide variety of reasons why so few men remain in the field of early childhood education. These reasons include suspicion, subtle discrimination, social isolation, pressure to move into administrative position away from children, and a double standard for behavior and performance (Sargent, 2001).
Importantly, the recent upsurge of reports of sexual and physical abuse in schools has made many male teachers feel vulnerable to unfounded charges of sexual or physical abuse against children in their care. Certainly, our societal tendency to see males as perpetrations of violent…
Kennedy, N.M. 1991. Policy issues in teacher education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72: 658-665.
Neugebauer, R. 1994. Recruiting and training men in your center. Child Care Information Exchange, May: 8-11.
Robinson, B. Vanishing Breed: Men in Child Care Programs, Young Children, Sept 1988.
Sargent, P. 2001. Real men or real teachers: Contradictions in the lives of men elementary school teachers. Harriman, TN: Men's Studies Press.
Language and Culture
In many, if not all, instances culture is not beneficial to its subscribers. Inherent within a culture is language. Language itself is very fluid and flexible and can elicit many emotions and feelings within a person or larger group of people. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the social influences of language by describing several issues that deal with interpersonal communication and more specifically the use of language to manipulate, hypnotize and ultimately inspire others. The essay will investigate the issues of jokes, speech laws, and specified slur-words to illuminate the qualities that language brings to society.
Humor is a gift that should be enjoyed by all. Laughing makes us feel good and provides a deeper psychological function. Lickerman (2011) agreed when she wrote "perhaps laughter could be most properly considered as a weapon against suffering and despair. If we can joke about a disappointing…
American Civil Liberties Union (1994). Hate Speech on Campus. December 31, 1994. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/free-speech/hate-speech-campus
Floyd, K. (2011). Interpersonal Communication 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, Oct 10, 2011.
Lickerman, A. (2011). Why We Laugh. Psychology Today, 23 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/happiness-in-world/201101/why-we-laugh
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…
Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.
Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.
Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007
2007 Estonian Cyber-war
This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).
More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf
Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf
Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War
With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are committing worst possible war crimes, every American is facing a dilemma: should we support the government or should we not. Everyone is asking the same question, what is America's point for continuing war in Iraq? Does America need to be in Iraq, should it have launched the military attack in the first, Is America really a champion of democracy or simply another terrorist state looking for ways to terrorize weaker nations? These are the questions that are bothering every thinking soul in the world and especially in America where public opinion is sharply divided on the issue of war. Any person with even the slightest degree of humanity left in him would want America to immediately pull out its troops…
Susan Page, Convergence of factors raises costs of Iraq war; As images erode U.S. credibility, analysts watch for tipping points in opinion, USA Today; 5/13/2004;
Siddioi, Moin, Pros & Cons of 'Gulf War II'. (View from the City). African Business; 2/1/2003;
JAMES TOEDTMAN. CHIEF ECONOMIC CORRESPONDENT, HIGH COST OF IRAQ WAR White House seeks extra $25B Newsday; 5/13/2004;
Prisoner mistreatment exposes U.S. double standard in human rights, XINHUA, (China); 5/11/2004
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
Bereavement counseling, for example, is very useful for some people and a waste of time for others. David has no patience for bereavement counseling, despite the fact that some people find it very helpful in times of crisis. In general, good people make an effort to understand the personal preferences and choices of others before criticizing or ridiculing them; they do not look for virtually every possible opportunity to criticize others for meaningless differences between them.
In general, good people make an effort to be positive influences in the lives of their friends and loved ones. Married people, in particular, are uniquely responsible for each other's emotional happiness and well-being. The overall tone of the entire relationship between Katie and David is miserable, even when they are not necessarily arguing. Neither comes across as remotely lovable and the reader is left with no clue as to what either sees in…
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…
Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.
Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.
Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.
Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.
When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…
Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.
Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…
Roberts, P., Bad Sports, Harper's Magazine. April 2001
Snead, M.C. And Martinez, R.D., Energy Prices and the Oklahoma Economy, Center for Applied Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, September 2004
Yetiv, S.A., America benefits from high oil prices, retrieved from Internet on 21st May 2006, http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060206/news_mz1e6yetiv.html , February 6, 2006
Finally, Lee descibes the agape style, chaacteized by selflessness and sacifice and a fundamental appoach to elationships that emphasizes poviding the love and benefits of the elationship that they believe eveyone deseves (Hahn & Blass, 1997). They ae not peoccupied with any paticula "type" of potential patne and tend to be extemely suppotive, patient, honest, and not jealous o highly emotionally chaged (Hahn & Blass, 1997).
The Significance of Diffeent Types of Relationships on Patne Pefeence
As helpful as Lee's six love styles ae to undestanding choice and behavio in intimate human elationships, that analysis does not take into account the degee to which individuals (egadless of thei pimay stylistic oientation in Lee's tems) sometimes engage in vey diffeent kinds of elationships. Pesumably, Lee's stylistic analysis petains mainly to omantic pai bonds such as potential maiage patnes and dating patnes but not necessaily to casual-sex patnes o platonic fiendships.
references in romantic relationships and friendships." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 19, No. 4: 463-481.
omen in Corporate Professions
The American workforce is increasingly reflecting the changing American demographic. "Minorities" like women and people of color are occupying more management and leadership positions in the business world and corporate America. Their presence has begun to trigger changes in how companies are managed and in the broader areas of corporate culture.
However, in many ways, women in business continue to face unique problems because of their gender. This paper discusses how these difficulties continue to form barriers for women in the business world. The effects of gender stereotypes and expectations can be seen in virtually all aspects of employment -- from hiring practices to wages, from chances for advancement to retirement benefits. This paper examines how factors like unequal pay and a male-dominated corporate culture help to ensure that the American corporate world remains largely an enclave of men.
Unfair hiring and advancement practices
Antilla, Susan. Tales from the Boom Room: Women vs. Wall Street. New York: Bloomberg Press, 2002.
Baugh, S.G. "On the Persistence of Sexual Harassment." Journal of Business Ethics, 16(3): 899-908.
Book, Esther Wachs. Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The unique female qualities of leadership. New York: Harper Business, 2000.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Statistics & Data." Women's Bureau. March 2003. Department of Labor. 6 November 2004 .
Reward motivates a particular action and discourages another and this observation appears to be applicable across all ages. Growing evidence, however, reveals that older adults could be less influenced by the consequences of their behavior than younger ones and suggests that reward has greater appeal to younger adults than to older adults. Related literature supported the view that older adults were less susceptible to motivation, such as financial gain, and that simple payoffs failed to elicit response from them (Sanford 1978 as qtd in Tripp). While young adults would be influenced by financial or social rewards, older people would prefer the acquisition of skill or learning.
The study was based on the responses of 31 younger adults and 31 older adults (Tripp 1999). The findings indicated that the reduced interest in reward was a direct consequence of the aging process (McCarthy 1991 as qtd in Tripp), and age-related changes in…
Chasteen, a.L. (1999).The Effect of Age-Related Stereotypes on Response Initiation and Execution. Journal of General Psychology: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_1_126/ai_54826718
Chatterie, P. (2001). Adolescence and Old Age. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_4_28/ai_83530634
Cherry, KE. (1999). Age-Related Differences in Spatial Memory. Journal of General Psychology: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3848/is_199906/ai_n8871495
Fingerman, KL. And Permutter, M.(1995). Future Time Perspective and Life Events Across Adulthood. Journal of General Psychology, Health and Fitness: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_n1_v122/ai_16999626
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Curious Case of Gary McKinnon
There is much controversy with regard to information in the digital age and Gary Mckinnon's case is especially intriguing when considering this discussion. The Scottish hacker is charged of having hacked into a U.S. database containing information stored on around one hundred computers owned by the U.S. military and by NASA. Mckinnon committed these activities between 2001 and 2002 and faced over ten years of judicial battles against extradition until 2013. In addition to the problematic implications of his crime, the case was even more difficult to address because of the U.K.'s reluctance to extradite the hacker.
hen discussing this case, it is essential to consider the gravity of the situation, taking into account that McKinnon willingly acted against the U.S. military and NASA at the time when he accessed and stole files from the two institutions. Such an act is a direct affront to…
Bassiouni, M.C. (2014). "International Extradition: United States Law and Practice." Oxford University Press.
Curtis, G. (2011). "The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations." CRC Press.
Slack, J., & Semark, M. "Spotlight falls on Starmer: Will Director of Public Prosecutions now order Gary McKinnon to face UK court on hacking charge?." Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218872/Gary-McKinnon-extradition-U.S.-outrage-hacker-wont-American-authorities.html
Wall, D. (2007). "Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age." Polity.
Liable is one way of preventing, someone from making false claims about another person. At the heart of these cases, is a focus on having varying degrees of proof. This means that private citizens have lower standards for demonstrating the damage that was caused (i.e. negligence). While more famous public figures and celebrities have higher benchmarks they must reach in providing their cases (i.e. strict liability). These differences are designed to give specific benefits to one group of people over others. The problem is that a double standard exists in the legal system, by providing favoritism to someone based upon the fact that they are not famous.
Years ago, these guidelines made sense, through giving the public more leeway in preventing damage to their reputations, income and standards of living. However, the rise of the 24-hour news cycle is highlighting how these concepts have become relics of the…
Harris, R. (2002). Citizenship and Participation in the Information Age. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Leadership and Management in Healthcare
Effective Leadership and Management
Leadership is much like communications in regards to the complexity inherent in these concepts. There are many different perspectives that are used to examine these issues and researchers study leadership and management from such disciplines includes Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Business, and Sociology. There have been somewhere in the neighborhood of six to eight major approaches, depending on the vantage point, to leadership theory produced in the scientific literature over the last sixty years and even more have emerged from outside academia (Kilburg & Donohue, 2011). Competing theories include such perspectives as trait theory, situational theory, behavioral theory, competencies theory, network theory of leadership and many more.
Much of the work that a nurse-leader engages in on a daily basis rests in their ability to communicate with others; including clients, colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. Therefore, since this…
Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.
Kilburg, R., & Donohue, M. (2011). Toward a "Grand Unifying Theory" of Leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 6-25.
Marquis, B., & Huston, C. (2011). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Straker, D. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from Changing Minds: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm
Characterization of Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet
In illiam Shakespeare's play Hamlet, the character of Ophelia is perhaps the most tragic, as her wishes and desires are constantly sublimated in favor of the scheming characters around her. Essentially she is used as bait for Hamlet, and when her father dies, she is left to her own madness and death (a death whose circumstances leave open the possibilities of accident or suicide). By examining the characterization of Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet, it will be possible to see how the play uses her conversations to heighten the tragedy of her death and subsequently implicate the other characters, and especially Polonius and Gertrude, more fully in her breakdown and death, thus revealing the destructive nature of gender stereotypes and the social roles they reinforce.
Before examining the character of Ophelia in more detail, it will be useful to briefly examine previous critical work on…
Hunt, Maurice. "Impregnating Ophelia."Neophilologus. 89.4 (2005): 641-663. Print.
Peterson, Karaa. "Framing Ophelia: Representation and the pictorial tradition." Mosaic: a Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature. 31.3 (1998): 1-24. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Shakespeare Navigator. 2011. Web. 31 May 2011.
From a national fiscal point-of-view, after the Clinton's Personal esponsibility and Work Opportunity reconciliation Act gave welfare control back to the states, there was a 60 per cent overall drop in welfare recipients, but critics point out that much of this was part of a reclassification from welfare to workfare during an unusually strong economic time (the late 1990s) (DeParle, 2009). Into the 21st century, the $16.5 billion that the states received as welfare rolls dropped were spent on block grants or other types of assistance, rather than saving for economic downturns or recessionary times (Goldstein, 2008).
Scholars point out that the perceptions of welfare also contribute to the cycle of underfunding. In America, one Political Science professor noted, "while Americans with the most exaggerated misunderstandings of the racial composition of the poor are the most likely to oppose welfare," which, in turn, perpetuates racial stereotypes and could increase Americans'…
The Burning Bed. (1984). Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved from: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/24570/Burning-Bed-The/
DeParle, J. (February 1, 2009). Welfare Aid Isn't Growing as Economy Drops Off. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/02/us/02welfare.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&pagewanted=all Dutton, D. (1994). Patriarchy and Wife Assault: The Ecological Fallacy. Violence and Victims. 9 (2): 167-82. Retrieved from: http://lab.drdondutton.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/DUTTON.-1994.-PATRIARCHY-AND-WIFE-ASSAULT-THE-ECOLOGICAL-FALLACY..pdf
Giles, M. (1996). Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American New Media. Public Opinion Quarterly. 60 (4): 515-41.
Goldstein, A. (December 17, 2008). Welfare Rolls See First Increase in Years. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/16/AR2008121602978.html
The subordination of women manifests in distinct patterns of physical, psychological, political, and economic oppression. Women's work is undervalued, whether that work is classified as domestic labor or as labor in the patriarchal universe. The readings from Chapter 8 reveal the ways domestic servitude continues to define women's work. Domestic servitude constrains women's participation in the patriarchal market economy, too, perpetuating cycles of subordination. Readings in Chapter 10 address another dimension of misogyny: physical abuse and violence. Sexual slavery and domestic abuse are manifestations of patriarchy with disturbing political and social dimensions.
In "Maid to Order," Barbara Ehrenreich (2000) uses the maid as the primary motif to discuss women's labor rights issues. Ehrenreich (2000) states that the "politics of housework" is rarely discussed in public arenas. Housework constitutes an "uncounted and invisible" aspect of the larger economy. Ehrenreich's (2000) astute analysis takes into account poor immigrant domestic laborers as…
Morality, Culture, And Environment
The ideas behind morality are very different based on the culture, society, and environment in which that morality is seen. Because of that, there are questions regarding exactly what morality is, and how it can be addressed or understood. In short, what is moral to one person may not seem moral to another. Society as a whole generally determines what is acceptable within that society, but once a person leaves that society and goes to another, there may be very different thoughts and feelings about morality in the new society to which the person has moved (Blackburn, 2001). That can be true from country to country, but a person does not have to leave his or her home country to find differing views of morality. Especially in the United States, where there are so many different types of people and regions seem to have very different…
Blackburn, S. (2001). Ethics: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harris, S. (2010). The moral landscape: How science can determine human values. New York: Free Press.
Stanford University (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University.
Superson, A. (2009). The moral skeptic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…
Binga, T. (2000). Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from Council for Secular Humanism: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=hall_of_fame&page=voltaire
Hewett, C. (2006). The Life of Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:
Hewett, C. (2006). John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate: http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/LockeEpistem.html
Based on what is present in the essay, it seems as if you do not really have a problem finding beauty in the work of the Nazis, or benefiting from their atrocities, but rather maintained a false sense of ambivalence throughout the essay in order to make it more compelling. However, it also seems likely that you would attempt to maintain a distinction between finding your essay entertaining and finding beauty in Pernkopf's book, if only because the essay's ambiguity points towards an unwillingness to follow your own positions to their logical, if sometimes uncomfortable, ends. The question your essay poses is a crucial one, and it is regrettable that you were unwilling to answer it sufficiently.
Assignment 4: Making a Scene
Reading about the Holocaust is a little bit like reading science fiction, because everything is at once familiar and entirely alien. Movies and television have made almost…
Angetter, Daniela C. "Anatomical Science at University of Vienna 1938-45." The Lancet
355.9213 (2000): 1454-7.
C, Raina MacIntyre, Catherine L. King, and David Isaacs. "Ethics and Access to Teaching
Materials in the Medical Library: The Case of the Pernkopf Atlas." Medical Journal of Australia 184.5 (2006): 254-5.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
Jamieson explains that the phrase Catch-22, serves as another synonym for double bind. Paula Caplan, a psychologist, notes, "Mothers are caught in a perfect Catch-22. They are supposed to be concerned with emotions and closeness in relationships, but because autonomy has been designated by the white male middle class in North America as the pinnacle of emotional health,"
Mothers in the workplace, however, who do what comes natural to them are sometimes treated as they are immature or even sick.
The gender of the leader does matter to perceivers who filter judgments to the demands of cultural expectations. "Applause from the same sensitive and collaborative leadership is more likely to go to a man than a woman."
In addition, women, particularly leaders frequently experience greater scrutiny for errors, even small ones they make, and are more likely to be criticized than men in leadership positions.
Viewpoints Regarding Genders
Booker, Stacie Kress. 1 May 2006. Perking up: progressive businesses try to offer a range of benefits and policies that help retain employees and make them more productive. Florida Trend. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-145982865.html .
Case Studies. 2008. Colorado State University. 21 Feb. 2008. http://writing.colostate.edu/index.cfm .
Charting the U.S. Labor Market in 2006. 28 Sept. 2007. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics United States Department of Labor. Section 6: Families. 23 Feb. 2009. http://www.bls.gov/LaborForceStatistics fromthe CurrentPopulation Survey>.
Chin, Jean Lau, Bernice E. Lott, Joy K. Rice, and Janis Sanchez-Hucles. 2007. Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices Blackwell Publishing. 21 Feb. 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZyhRWzTm_RwC .
In this scene Anna points at Sanderson and identifies him as "the man who betrayed me," but it makes no difference. She is banished. Sanderson is not. David, the Squire's son who is in love with her, is shocked and anguished to learn the truth about his beloved, that she is not a pure and moral woman. Everyone jumps to the conclusion that Anna is "wanton" and immoral -- she probably likes sex and cannot control her baser instincts.
If a woman becomes impure as a result of sexual activity, this implies a societal view of sex as low and dirty. At the same time it is juicy and fun to gossip about Anna's scandalous behavior, as Griffith clearly shows when Martha tells the Squire and appears to be tremendously self-satisfied in her total condemnation of Anna. Men, because they are men, cannot be expected to resist, but women because…
Way Down East (1920) D.W. Griffith, director, with music added in 1928.
Making Movies, 1920 web site: http://www.eyewitnessstohistory.com/gish.htm
Welter, B. (1983). The cult of True Womanhood, 1820-1860 in Michael Gordon (Ed.) The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective, New York: St. Martin's Press.
The lack of rights within marriage that makes women basically "property" to the man is obviously central to this story, as indicated by the way in which Maria is imprisoned. There are a variety of ways in which this most disturbing of issues is addressed in the book. Women who are married loose control over their own bodies, and are required to submit to caresses to which their soul does not consent. One woman in the madhouse is, in fact, there specifically because she could not tolerate her husband's caresses. "she had been married, against her inclination, to a rich old man,... In consequence of his treatment... she had... lost her senses." (1.39) Not only is a woman prone to institutionalized rape, but she also has no right to require the man to remain as he was before they wed. Maria declaims bitterly of how her husband deteriorates into a…
Instead of liberating women from the unjustified and prejudicial sexual double standard, the suggestions offered in connection with securing marriage proposals actually do the exact opposite by encouraging women to play into preconceived stereotypes and attitudes that ensure their continued social and sexual inequality.
Conversely, according to contemporary psychologists with formal training in human relations and psychosexual development, redressing the social and sexual inequality still faced by women in modern society requires a diametrically opposite approach to understanding the fundamental basis of moral judgment. Specifically, it requires recognizing the illusory, illogical, and unfair assumptions that are responsible for generating completely different sets of rules and behavioral expectations based on gender
(Branden, 1999; 91, 98, 111). Instead of encouraging women to continue conforming their behavior to traditional expectations imposed by invalid presumptions of "acceptable" female social and sexual conduct, the more sound advice would be to critically evaluate the worth of…
Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage (1995).
Baker, Robert, and Elliston, Frederick. Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus (1998).
Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Fein, Ellen, and Schneider, Sherrie. All the Rules: Time Tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right. New York: Grand Central Publishing (2007).
And proof of this sad truth stands the increasing trade deficit, meaning that the United States basically imports more than it exports. The imports from Canada and Mexico for instance have grown by 173%, whereas exports grew at a more toned pace. Then, NAFTA also caused 900,000 Americans in high-paid manufacturing positions to lose their jobs. "e're not signing trade agreements to open new markets for our exports. Instead we're continuing to enter into outsourcing agreements with countries that cannot possibly buy our goods" (Dobbs, 2005).
All in all, globalization is an extremely powerful force that can cause both wealth as well as poverty. Otherwise put, it is the force that intermediates the meeting of first and third world countries, with gains and losses for both parties.
Bhagwati, J., June 2004, Do Multinational Corporations Hurt Poor Countries?, Are e Being Run Over by Global Capitalism?
Dobbs, L., March…
Bhagwati, J., June 2004, Do Multinational Corporations Hurt Poor Countries?, Are We Being Run Over by Global Capitalism?
Dobbs, L., March 4, 2005, Free Trade at All Costs?, CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2005/U.S./03/03/cafta.push/index.htmllast accessed on May 29, 2008
Fisher, R.W., Cox, W.M., April 10, 2006, the Good in Globalization, the International Herald Tribune
Lindsey, B., July 2004, 10 Truths about Trade - Hard Facts about Offshoring, Imports and Jobs, Reason Online, http://www.reason.com/news/show/29200.htmllast accessed on May 29, 2008
The U.S. role in the current Lebanese crisis is beset with blatant double standards. For example, the Bush administration has accused Syria of being in violation of the UN Resolutions and, therefore, liable for international sanctions, while completely ignoring Israel's disregard of several UN resolutions that called for its withdrawal from Gaza and the est Bank. (Zunes) hile calling for immediate withdrawal of occupation forces from Lebanon, it conveniently forgets the fact that Syria has only 14,000 troops in Lebanon while the U.S. has a 150,000 strong occupation force in Iraq. Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and its occupation of Southern Lebanon until 2000 with U.S.'s tacit approval are not even mentioned in passing. Moreover, the U.S. democratization rhetoric vis a vis its policy in Lebanon and Syria does not carry much credibility as a number of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East continue to be supported…
Auken, Bill Van. "The assassination of Rafiq Hariri: who benefited?" World Socialist Web Site. 17 February 2005. March 13, 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/hari-f17.shtml
Cole, Juan. "Lebanon Realignment and Syria." Informed Comment
March 01, 2005. March 13, 2005
http://www.juancole.com/2005/03/lebanon-realignment-and-syria-it-is.html / 'Lebanese Civil War." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. March 13, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanese_Civil_War
Mercy Otis Warren "wrestled valiantly throughout her life with the problem of finding time for writing and reflection," Kerber explains on page 256. Warren had four children and a "large, elegant household," and while recognizing that the claims on her time - verses her own desire to write - presented no simple answer for her. That said, Kerber claims that Warren took the issues of republican motherhood "more seriously" than "virtually any other woman of her generation."
What are some of those republican motherhood issues that Warren took so seriously? For one thing, Warren envied unmarried women who, she said, were "...free from those constant interruptions that necessarily occupy the mind of the wife, the mother, and the mistress" (Kerber 256). That said, it was apparent that not only did Warren spend a bit of time being envious of those who didn't have as much domestic work to do as…
viewer ship of Hindi Films with respect to the Non-Asian population in the UK
The Hindi film industry or the 'Bollywood' as it has been referred to have made a significant mark not only in the Indian society, but has had far reaching influence among Indians residing abroad. We shall concentrate on the Hindi films in the UK with respect to the resident Indian population. The United Kingdom alone accounts for about a sizeable Indian population. It is only natural that Bollywood movies find a thriving and a huge revenue generating market in there. Hindi films have made a long standing presence in the British cinema houses for close to about thirty years now. This in itself is a notable achievement. It not only indicates the huge 'desi' presence in the United Kingdom, but also highlights the huge market and enthusiasm for films 'manufactured in bollywood.'
In addition to the…
Bollywood Ending' Retrieved at http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/2003_06/bollywood_ending.php . Accessed on March 18, 2004
The Indian Media and Entertainment Industry: UK Film Council' Retrieved at http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/filmindustry/india/. Accessed on March 18, 2004
Bollywood: Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia' Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BollywoodAccessed on March 18, 2004
Bollywood beyond Indian shores' Retrieved at http://www.indiantelevision.com/headlines/y2k4/mar/mar136.htm . Accessed on March 18, 2004
The very fact that the magazine openly admires men like Ray Liotta, who show depth beyond the typical alpha male and women like Christina Aguilera, who has chosen to use her sexuality rather than being used by her sexuality, demonstrates that the magazine does not even seriously believe that anyone should become the ideal male. On the contrary, the magazines use of stereotype-heavy advertising and writing suggests that the editors believe that men and women should try to incorporate some of the elements of these traditional stereotypes, while retaining their own individualized personalities. Such a position only becomes problematic when a consumer is not sophisticated enough to recognize that there is a distinction between writing about a stereotype and supporting all aspects of that stereotype. For example, violence against women has long been considered acceptable in sexual stereotyping. Maxim does not have articles, advertisements, or photos that glorify violence against…
Jeep advertisement. 2007. Maxim, March, 77.
Crown Royal advertisement. 2007. Maxim, March, 73.
Trojan advertisement. 2007. Maxim, March 71.