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In this case, it is doubt that drives the play and leas to irresolute action and unresolved conflicts.
In the Penn State scandal, the same doubts and power machinations can be seen in much of the story's progress. In contrast, however, it appears as though defensive coach Jerry Sandusky's acts of abuse were known by his bosses and other administrators at Penn State for years before the scandal broke; though Father Flynn's transfer could be seen either as a cover up or simply an easy solution to a complex problem full of doubt, Penn State officials were all but certainly aware of the abuse yet specifically avoided reporting it (Boren, 2012). The administration's guilt in covering up Sandusky's guilt became one of the lasting elements of the story, as it was a lack of action in light of certain evidence that was found truly unconscionable. The impact of the abuse…… [Read More]
In this case, the modified hypothesis needs to be tested again and if it passes the test, it will be considered a corroborated hypothesis and can be published. The sixth and final step is to construct, support or cast doubt on a scientific theory which is not a guess, speculation or suggestion which is the proper definition of the term theory.
Mathematics is an essential discipline due to its practical role to the individual and society, as a result of its problem solving approach. Applied mathematics loosely designates a wide range of studies with significant current use in the empirical sciences. It includes numerical methods and computer science that seeks concrete solutions, sometimes approximate, to explicit mathematical problems for instance differential equations, large systems of linear equations (Moyal 240). Descartes, in his search for certainty, found that none of the senses, individually or jointly, provides experience so "clear and distinct"…… [Read More]
Here is where Truman gains true knowledge, at the edges of his existence.
Philosophically speaking, Truman was unable to understand the world around him until he began to deconstruct it, one moment, and an interaction at a time. This is perhaps one of the ultimate American paranoiac fantasies and one that surfaces time and time again in modern film and stories (Zizek, 2002). This is perhaps due to the fact that many people feel their own life is a pseudo-reality were people and events are not always as thy seem. As people become more and more personally detached from one another through technology, this fantasy may indeed follow Americans within their psyche and everyday thoughts. Interestingly enough, the questioning of one's reality is the only remedy for such feelings of fantasy, and in the film, Truman's own questioning finally led him to the truth. This path was painful for him,…… [Read More]
In comparison, O'Brien's uncertainty in "On the ainy iver" comes from the uncertainly of standing at a crossroads and not being able to decide which way to turn. His uncertainty is based partly on the uncertainly of life that Shanley, chronicles in his play, but they are also based on his own uncertainty about fighting a war he "hates" and cannot come to terms with or support. O'Brien writes, "Certain blood was being shed for uncertain reasons. I saw no unity of purpose, no consensus on matters of philosophy or history or law" (O'Brien). O'Brien sees no purpose, while Sister Aloysius is totally convinced of her purpose and her position, so much so that she may have charged an innocent man. O'Brien is the innocent man, caught in a place where no matter what choice he makes, it will have terrific ramifications, and so, he is uncertain about his life,…… [Read More]
At the same time they lack the privilege of privacy and private property ownership accorded to all other classes. The auxiliary class enjoys both power as well as the ability to lead normal lives. However, they must consistently thrust themselves into danger with the knowledge that they face untimely death at any moment's notice. The worker class must live and die by the word and law of the guardian class, but they also do not have the burden of responsibility or concerns for their own safety. Of all the classes they are privileged with the most privacy and freedom within their world. As a result, each of these classes has their own happiness and sadness. The decision of which class lives the happiest lives is a completely subjective decision based on each individual's happiness. It is evident that Plato's intent is that social cohesion has the implicit affect of drawing…… [Read More]
It would be like a martyr's death, to run away in the name of the freedom of all black people.
While we ran away, there were times that I almost wanted to go back. I remembered the fire we had at home, and the warmth and comfort of our little dwelling. Being outdoors, hungry, and exposed to the elements suddenly made it all seem not so bad anymore. At least I had a roof over my head. Thankfully my sister came to her senses, and pushed me onwards. She reminded me that going back was not an option. It would not be the same anyway. We would be returned as runaways, and would be severely punished. Our fate was in the hands of some unknown force, and being sold South sounded like Hell. So we pushed on, and I am glad we did because once we arrived in Philadelphia the…… [Read More]
The institute of tobacco funded this report, and it strongly opposed the scientific consensus that there were risks of human health in smoking tobacco. Singer's report indicated that this scientific consensus was an agenda of politicians to expand the control of the government over the lives of people (Oreskes, 52).
The "Merchants of Doubt" indicates that Singer and Seitz were the founders and sponsors of several institutions and organizations in the United States of America. However, the authors indicate that these organizations oppose various forms of interventions thus regulating the citizens. The book has listed tactics by Singer and Seitz, which are similar. In each case, the book indicates that they use those tactics to spread false information, confusion, degrade science, and promote doubts (Oreskes, 60).
Naomi and Erik Conway wrote that for over 20 years. Seitz, Singer, and other scientists with contrary opinions did not conduct scientific researches arising…… [Read More]
Descartes assumes that it is reliable, when searching for true knowledge, to conclude that any principle that is obtained from our senses is false. His doubts are furthered by the deception of the content of our dreams, which is assembled and often mimics features we encounter throughout our lives. It is possible that our perceptions in which we establish a belief on was conjured while dreaming. However there are certain truths in sciences that whether asleep or awake are constantly genuine so in order to completely start at a base point in our beliefs must also take in the role of an omnipotent creator.
Descartes deploys more powerful skeptical hypotheses which call into question his claims to knowledge derived from these faculties. A method is a procedure for doing something which is repeated. Descartes method of doubt, then, is to deploy a skeptical hypothesis, see what can and what cannot…… [Read More]
Descartes and Doubt
The question to be addressed is as follows: if you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things? As the following will illustrate, I am convinced that the answer is in the affirmative. Moreover, I believe that the query is unnecessarily qualified; in my estimation, any pursuit of truth demands exercising doubt on a consistent basis, and certainly more than once in a lifetime.
Questions and Responses
hat is your initial point-of-view? I believe that seeking truth inherently requires a willingness to practice skepticism with what is presented as truth, and with virtually anything encountered in the course of seeking real truth. Furthermore, I feel that the willingness referred to must reflect an active commitment, and not be perceived as an occasionally needed behavior.
How can you define your point-of-view…… [Read More]
Carrying it to the next logical step, he says that all opinions are false until proven otherwise, and perhaps it is not he himself who is responsible for his own deception, but rather it is "some deceitful demon" who is so clever and capable that he can blur the reality of "the sky, the air, the earth" into a dream or illusion.
Meantime, illiams writes that Descartes is the kind of intelligent being who really enjoys peace of mind and clarity; and hence, illiams asserts that Descartes is disturbed by "...his awareness of various problems and puzzles" (illiams 119). Because Descartes is always determined to seek the truth in all matters, his initial state "can quite properly be described as one of doubt or uncertainty."
And this writer agrees with illiams' concerns as he continues; "Doubt is the state in which we want to know the truth but cannot decide…… [Read More]
The previous sorts of error apply to particular classes of object or condition: refraction (so far as common errors of perception are concerned) affects the appearance of sticks in water and a few other things; jaundice, so it is said, affects apparent color. But anything I can perceive, I can dream that I perceive. Confronted with an apparently bent stick, experience of refraction-illusions can put me on my guard - it is a special feature of the situation that it is an apparently-bent-stick situation, i.e. possibly a refraction-illusion situation. But since I can dream anything I can perceive, any situation, so far as its apparent constituents are concerned, could be a dream situation; and since dreams are marked, often, by total conviction, conviction which, moreover, often remains even if I raise the question of whether I am dreaming, the fact that I am and remain totally convinced that this is…… [Read More]
Some of the reason for error, therefore, is not related to indifference or for not having enough time to fully consider some matter. Some of it is due to man's propensity to flaw, and to his limited ability (which is related to his limited mental and physical power).
In addition to misinterpreting the nature of the relationship between intellect and free will, Descartes has incorrectly interpreted some of the most vital connotations that accompany free will. There is an innate responsibility that accompanies this gift. Free will presents human beings (and anything else endowed with it, for that matter), the opportunity to do good or evil, to make use of or to squander opportunity, to laugh or to cry. The power of the decision, regardless of the source (which is, of course, God) ultimately resides with the individual. And while the author readily acknowledges the relationship of intellect and will…… [Read More]
Dogen's Great Doubt
Both exoteric and esoteric Buddhism teach the primal Buddha-nature [or harma-nature] and the original self-awakening of all sentient beings. If this is the case, why have the buddhas of all ages had to awaken the longing for and seek enlightenment by engaging in ascetic practice? [Masao Abe, A Study of Dogen, 19]
How did Dogen's "Great Doubt" influence his approach to the philosophy and practice of Zen? How is this approach reflected in his conception of zazen (seated meditation) as "just sitting" (shikan taza)? Contrast Dogen's "just sitting" with the koan style of zazen that developed in the Rinzai school of Zen.
To understand his primal Buddha-nature, the Buddha of all ages paradoxically had to stand outside of the material world of suffering. Through meditation, he was able to break within himself the chain of infinite actions or desires that make up the material world. Dogen's great…… [Read More]
The main theme used by Dawkins in "The Selfish Gene" is that of doubt. For example, as Dawkins speaks about how due to the results of teaching, people have come to assume that traits inherited genetically are fixed and cannot be modified (Dawkins, 3). Even though genes may program one to be selfish, one is not necessarily forced to comply with the traits he or she inherited, all the time. It would also be somewhat difficult for one to learn how to be unselfish, if he or she was not in the first place, genetically modified, to be unselfish (Dawkins, 3).
Unlike all animals, man is largely influenced by the environment or culture, and other influences that have been inherited from his ancestors. Some would argue that culture is such an important influence to man in that whether or not one has selfish genes, it does not matter…… [Read More]
Then, by beginning with the idea that there may or may not be a chair present at all, one can begin building on those truths that remain to establish more truths and eventually establish the presence of the chair.
Descartes uses such reasoning not only to establish the presence of those things that can be verified by the use of the senses, but also to establish the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. Descartes begins with the premise that neither mountains nor valleys may exist, but that if they do exist, then "a necessary attribute of a mountain is that it be adjacent to a valley" (Burnham and Fieser). Descartes acknowledges that the same could be said of the existence of God:
In the same way, even though the concept of supremely perfect being necessarily possesses certain attributes, it doesn't follow that this being exists. It only…… [Read More]
Can person skeptical, limits? Is doubt? Does a person obligation ethical moral reasoning examining beliefs. Are beliefs possessed challenged shown false? How skeptic respond claim a belief doubted? Identify specific belief present response skeptic.
Philosophical skepticism: Its limits
Some philosophers have asserted that it is impossible to know anything and adopt a position of radical skepticism. "Philosophical skepticism attempts to render doubtful every member of a class of propositions that we think falls within our ken" (Klein 2011). An example of philosophical skepticism is manifested in Descartes' Meditations in which the philosopher begins by doubting everything. How does he know, Descartes asks, that the world is not a dream? It is widely accepted that persons may be subject to delusions and cannot accurately perceive reality, but what is to assure us this is not true of the entire world? "Visual experience is in fact notoriously unreliable about certain matters.…… [Read More]
As the movie continued, I began to look for evidences confirming his guilt. When I saw Sister James noticing how Father Flynn left Donald's shirt in his locker, I thought this confirmed my expectation. I believed Father Flynn was guilty. When Sister Aloysius suggested that this was something one could expect from lonely priests, in her first discussion of the incident with Sister James, I thought the case was closed.
As the story unfolded -- Father Flynn's confidence in his innocence and his ability to explain his treatment of children, especially in a conversation with Sister James who believes that Father Flynn's explanation is adequate and convincing -- I began to doubt. Nevertheless, I kept looking for evidences that would prove Father Flynn's guilt. Sister Aloysius's discussion with Donald's mother and the decision of Father Flynn to leave the school at the end of the film again confirmed my earlier…… [Read More]
Believing and Doubting Conventional Ideas
The ability to interpret and the acknowledgement of this respective ability emphasizes a person's willingness to doubt concepts that seem obvious. To a certain degree, it would be safe to say that humanity has evolved as a consequence of people being reluctant to accept things as they were and trying to consider their complexity. Through constantly refuting ideas that certain groups attempted to present as being valid, people have been able to discover new ideas and have been able to play important roles in creating the modern world. "The Believing Game and How to Make Conflicting Opinions More Fruitful" provides readers with information they need in order to both develop doubtful personalities and to learn more about accepting conventional ideas.
hen considering the concept of medical marijuana, it is easy to observe how the masses are often inclined to be against it.
Opponents of marijuana…… [Read More]
One may doubt that one person can make an impact on the world. There are times however where the actions of a single person can make a world of difference. In essence, such actions can save the world, if we just start the chain reaction.
However, the Jewish Talmud asks the question of why the human race was created in the beginning as a single human being, as opposed to the creation of many people at all at once. The Talmud teaches that just as Adam was created in the beginning and he represented the entire human population of the world. In just this way, we should look at each individual life as if he or she were the same as the entire population of the world. In this way, when one saves one human life, it is as if one saved an entire world at one stroke (Talmud,…… [Read More]
Believing and Doubting Game
Microtheme 1: Posing a problematic question
Is this boy removing rocks from the site or delivering them to the site?
It appears that the boy is removing rocks from the site. It would appear that the boy is carrying several rocks away from the site, cradling several in his arms. The boy's back is towards the rock pile, so it seems he is in the process of walking away from the site with the rocks. But the boy could just be pausing during his work to pose for a picture then resume, facing in the opposite direction.
The rocks also appear to be very clean, like they had not been on the ground, covered in dirt. Therefore, it is possible that the boy is moving rocks into the area, perhaps bringing them from his home into a more natural area. However, the boy's shirt sleeves have…… [Read More]
Without a doubt, the expansionist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan and a direct attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor necessitated the need for America to enter World War II. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening. As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Instead, America enjoyed the spoils of World War I and became isolationist in response to the Great Depression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. The Nazi goals of reversing the Versailles Treaty and the establishment of a German Empire by…… [Read More]
Publishing companies are responding to the targeting by producing magazines for the different markets. The magazine sections of book stores and pharmacies fill a sizeable portion of square footage by covering a range of titles from Teen People to Harley Davidson. Thousands of consumer magazines have been founded over the past decade, including 440 last year alone, nearly all of them born targeted. Only about 10% of the 6,200 consumer magazines published in the U.S. are general-interest titles, down from 30% two decades ago.
However, because of the ever increasing cost of paper and printing and the growing numbers of people going online to read about their special interests, the Internet is fast becoming the Mecca of targeted publications and the advertisements that go hand in hand with them. What makes it more enticing is being able to capture the names and locations of these online users through electronic tricks…… [Read More]
Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…… [Read More]
America, without doubt the most powerful nation on earth and the sole super-power of the 21st century evokes vastly conflicting feelings in people around the world, depending on their individual paradigm: the lens through which they look at the world. While to most people, America is a symbol of prosperity, freedom and equal opportunity it also is a source of equally negative feelings for others who resent its prosperity, and its economic, cultural and military power. This Jekyll & Hyde image of the country in the world, though surprising to many Americans, is not difficult to understand if one examines the issue in its historical, political, and cultural perspective. In this essay we will discuss what America looks like to an outsider, and what it means to people from different countries of the world as a state, as a people, and as a geographic region. Into what larger ideas and…… [Read More]
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]
Matrix and Descartes
The film The Matrix represents many of the ideas of Descartes regarding perception and reality, truth and selfhood, knowledge and falsehood. The film is about a man who is awakened from a simulated world and shown the reality of his life. The man's objective is to free humankind from its enslavement by machines. He achieves this objective by essentially putting mind over matter. This paper will discuss how scenes in The Matrix represent Descartes' ideas on doubt, reason, self and knowledge, and explain how the film correlates with our own society today.
In the quest for certainty, Descartes turns to doubt. Doubting in order to find the truth is a way to check oneself to see if whether what one believes is actually correspondent with reality. When researchers conduct research, they typically test a hypothesis, which is a form of doubting whether a thing is true…… [Read More]
The nurse is often expected to act and react only with empirical information, however personal knowledge is considered equally as important by many nurse educators and researchers (Chinn & Kramer 2004). This also helps to explain why "health" and "environment" are considered distinct major components in the metastudy of nursing; both can be understood on highly subjective terms, with the concept of "good health" changing from patient to patient, or "person" to "person." Environment, too, has a major effect on the practice of nursing and the growth of the nursing body of knowledge.
My personal philosophy of nursing centers on the belief that each individual person under my care deserves full attention and the unique application of my knowledge in addressing their immediate and long-term needs and concerns. That is, each person should benefit as much as possible from the full extent of my nursing knowledge, while still being…… [Read More]
He is described as being of gigantic size and of tremendous emotion. Always Achilles is described with the most exaggerated terms, shining like the sun or falling in the most absolute wretchedness. In a moment of sublimity oddly precognizant of gothic writers like E.A. Poe, Achilles refuses to bury his beloved Patrocles' body because "since I'm journeying under the earth after you, I'll postpone your burial...Till that time, you'll lie like this with me..." (book 18, 330-338) Achilles is perfect and heroic in the extremity of his nature. A more archetypal approach would say that he was heroic because, more than any other character, he represented the purity of war. Archtypically, he represents a purity of action and emotion than can drive men to battle, the pure warrior who is at once filled with the strength of emotion and will and yet resigned to perfect destiny, faithful towards the gods,…… [Read More]
Freud, Nietzsche & Russell
The Discovery and Realization of the Self in the Philosophies of Bertrand Russell, Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche
With the emergence of nineteenth and twentieth centuries, human history had been introduced to new philosophies that seek to celebrate individualism and the intelligence of human beings. From the philosophical discourses proposed by Sigmund Freud, Bertrand Russell, and Friedrich Nietzsche, it becomes evident that there no longer exists subsistence to religious idols and personalities, which had been the prevalent ideology and philosophy among societies in human history's early history until the 18th century.
In the texts that follow, this paper discusses and analyzes the philosophies of the three philosophers cited earlier. With references to the following texts, "Thus spake Zarathustra" by Friedrich Nietzsche, "Why I am not a Christian" by Bertrand Russell, and "Lecture 35: A philosophy of life" by Sigmund Freud, this paper argues that the philosophers'…… [Read More]
Truth and Fiction:
The Disputed Authorship of the Memoirs of Bernardo Vega
The Memoirs of Bernardo Vega detail the early 20th century immigrant experience of Bernardo Vega, a cigar-maker who immigrated to New York in 1916 and was an eyewitness to the rise of the socialist and labor movements of the era. Although cigar making might seem like a blue-collar occupation, at the time it was considered an art within the Puerto Rican community and the pride of Vega's life. Vega also worked as an editor, bookkeeper, and in other white collar occupations and was an influential intellectual amongst his people throughout the duration of his life. In many ways, Vega's life and career challenge the traditional white-collar/blue-collar divide even though he was very active in the union movement.
Cigar rollers were traditionally read to as a way of passing the time and Vega is recorded as substantially adding to…… [Read More]
.....doubt, I would think, between the two of us that Tulane University is a great institution that has proven time and time again how elite and adept it is at developing and teaching the leaders and workers of tomorrow. Whether it be engineers, scientists, mathematicians or other people that enter and then work in the STEM space, our curriculum is certainly better than most. Even with that, it is important to compare, consider and contrast how we present ourselves on the Tulane website and how this compares to universities of similar size and scope. We must always make sure that the online "face" we present is accurate, complete and contemporary. Beyond that, it must compare favorably to the colleges that we directly compete with for the best and brightest students.
For the purposes of this brief letter, the colleges that will be compared and contrasted are our own (University of…… [Read More]
How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?
Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."
In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.
4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?
Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…… [Read More]
Victims of a Meaningless Show of Force
In the article "Victims of a Meaningless Show of Force" the author uses language to express her point that police firing on two polar bears was unacceptable behavior and as the author says "it was illogical, unfair, and a meaningless show of force." While this statement makes her opinion clear, the author also uses language to create the same opinion in the reader.
The title of the article is a clear example of loaded language. The word 'victims' implies that the polar bears were helpless, while the words 'meaningless show of force' imply that the police officers were only acting to prove something, with no real purpose to their actions.
Before offering an opinion on the shooting, the author describes the shooting. This includes the statement "the four police officers emptied twenty blasts from a 12-gauge shotgun and a.38 caliber revolver…… [Read More]
Blood by Suzan-Lori Sparks expands on the main theme of society's unfair disregard for its people of low condition in general, for women, and for adulterers. Hester La Negrita, the protagonist, is an African-American woman who struggles to survive in poverty along with her five base-born children. The family's outcast status is portrayed as a direct inducer and accelerator of emotional suffering, poverty, lack of education, and sexual exploitation.
(A) From a structural perspective, In the Blood is constructed in two acts and nine scenes, employing a linear plotline (ush, 2005). In this sense, the play debuts with the equilibrium of Hester striving to provide for her children in meager conditions, the inciting incident represented by the suggestion to seek help from the available former lovers and fathers of her children, the major dramatic question of whether or not she will attain it, the developing action as Hester approaches everend…… [Read More]
This concept is implausible if there is a just and loving God, but if some evil genius had created the world instead -- along with human understanding of God -- then every single belief could be brought into doubt. Essentially, Descartes takes the null hypothesis regarding mental interpretations of the external world. Still, this construction of absolute doubt is merely a portion of Descartes' argument, because he intends to find some undeniable truth -- a principle beyond doubt -- which can destroy the premise that nothing can be known. In his Meditations he words this as "I am, I exist." This statement -- at other times worded as 'I think, therefore I am' -- is accepted by Descartes because even a maniacal construction of the world could not disprove his own existence, since he believes himself to exist. Obviously, this argument depends upon some distinction between the subjective and the…… [Read More]
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…… [Read More]
Plato and Descartes
Cephalus defines morality and justice as praying to the gods in the correct manner. However, Socrates argues that, rather than an active practice of goodness or justice, Cephalus is merely trying to morally shield himself from ill consequences of his acts, acting out of fear rather than justice or virtue.
Q2.Thrasymachus defines justice as might making right, namely that justice is merely determined by whomever is stronger in the society at a particular point in time, against which Socrates argues that to argue for such a self-serving manner of government would be as to argue that a physician exists merely to serve his own health, rather than the health of a patient.
Q3. A thing may be good in reason, spirit, and appetite -- a distinction made by Socrates to set up the need for a threefold caste system in the ideal society.
Q4.For Glaucon, it would…… [Read More]
Dillon's Rule: Help or Hindrance?
Corruption and financial issues at the local level led to the disenfranchisement of the people and high levels of concern at the state and federal level. Something had to be done to help curb these issues on a grand scale in the United States. This decision gave birth to what is now known as Dillon's Rule, which essentially results in a narrowing of power of governments at the local level. This rule is generally used when trying to decide and interpret whether a local government has any expressed powers in a given situation. This rule is strictly and narrowly defined, and if there is any reasonable doubt at all about whether the authority has been expressly given to a locality through the state, then the authority of that locality in that given situation is not recognized. Every state in the union has some element of…… [Read More]
Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech"
The Civil War was by far the most costly war in terms of human life ever fought by the United States, and the events that precipitated this conflict on U.S. soil included the succession of seven Southern states by March 1861 to form the Confederate States of America. With President Jefferson Davis leading the way, his vice president, Alexander Stephens, delivered a speech in support of the Southern cause including assurances that the new constitution was an improvement on the old, and that commercial enterprises were free to engage in interstate and international commerce at their discretion. Citing concerns over Northern superiority in infrastructure that would make prosecuting the war challenging, the vice president also assured his audience that enormous investments had already been made throughout the South and that more would be made in the future. In sum, this speech was a…… [Read More]
Cartesian dualism emerges from Descartes's approach of radical skepticism. Wanting to know what can be determined to be absolutely true, Descartes begins by doubting all sensory perception as fundamentally external and liable to interference. Just as we understand that hallucination exists as a real phenomenon -- whereby we might "see" an object that is not really there -- we may come to understand that all the evidence obtained from eyesight may not necessarily be a valid representation of the external world. Indeed, we do not even have to refer to the pathological category of hallucination to understand what it would mean to find sensory evidence to be deceptive. In his recent book on hallucinations, the noted neuroscientist Dr. Oliver Sacks (2012) makes reference to "dreams, which one can argue are hallucinations of a sort" (xiii). Anyone who has had a vivid dream knows that they contain visual, auditory, and…… [Read More]
They followed this advice and the proposal was referred to the Royal Engineer Committee, from whence a letter came advising the brothers of a visit from a prince that would never arrive. In the meantime, the brothers approached United States Congress about a possible sale only to be met with a letter of rejection. Part of this rejection stems from the fact that Congress funded Langley for "his $50,000 fiasco" (Dempsey 69). Dempsey asserts that the brothers were "very generous in their proposal" (69). They were also convinced that "war could be prevented with their airplane" (69). Despite rejection, they continued to improve upon their flying machine. However, things did not go well. Four trial flights after these inquisitions ended in accidents. In October of that year, the brothers flew the plane for the longest time ever recorded, which was 38 minutes at 38 miles per hour. The brothers wrote…… [Read More]
Theatre Today & Theatre for Me
Theatre, as a genre of creative expression, is still very much valid in the 21st century. It originated thousands of years ago, and still draws crowds in the 21st century around the world. Many of the classic plays of many cultures are still performed, as well as adaptations of other forms (such as films, songs, etc.) are transformed into plays that interest and captivate audiences. Of the plays we read in the course this term, I was able to find value in all of them, but I did not personally enjoy all of the plays.
Theatre today is sometimes based on historical events and figures, as well as new takes on old ideas in modern forms. Many plays are period pieces, and in many cities, such as New York City and London, there is a proliferation of one-person plays (one man show, or a…… [Read More]
Production: Gaumont-British; Producer: Michael Balcon; Screenplay and Adaptation: Charles Bennett and Alma Reville from the novel by John Buchan; Principal Actors: Madeleine Carroll, Robert Donat, Lucie Mannheim and Godfrey Tearle
The 39 Steps was based on the John Buchan novel, written in 1915. Hitchcock freely adapted and changed the premise of the novel that very little of the original plot remained. Buchan, who was also the British Governor General in Canada at that time, was initially upset; but, after he saw the final product, he admitted that the film was much better than his novel.
This was the first time that Hitchcock used the now often-repeated theme of sympathy for the man unjustly framed and on the run, all the while attempting to clear his besmirched name and find the real culprit. Hitchcock also used the techniques of combining two scenes unrelated visually but by sound. The director relied more…… [Read More]
The theory involving Christine being determined to put an end to Rhoda's life can be related to her ration intervening, influencing her to take action before Rhoda continued her killings.
Rhoda pays special attention to the way that her mother sees her, and, even though she knows that her mother has the power to denounce her, she does not attempt to murder Christine. The next in Rhoda's list of killings would have been Monica Breedlove, taking into consideration the fact that the women had been closely connected to her, and that it had been possible for her to endanger Rhoda with the information that she knew.
The ending of the movie is most probably intended to present the audience with what it wants to see, someone finally punishing Rhoda, not through putting her into a mental asylum (as should have been the case), but by physically hurting her.
Sidney Lumet's…… [Read More]
Psychology of Consumer Behaviour
The relationship between money-making motives and subjective well-being
There is presently much controversy regarding the motives behind making money and the concept of subjective well being. Most people associate finances with positive feelings and thus come to focus on making as much money as possible regardless of the risks involved. The masses needs to understand that people are not necessarily interested in money as an object, as they are actually certain that finances are likely to satisfy a series of their needs, thus meaning that people want to achieve particular states of minds and believe that having money is the only method of doing this.
Although it is difficult to determine the exact effects that money has on happiness, studies have shown that "within nations people's finances correlate with their reported well-being, but that richer nations show no greater happiness than poorer ones" (Buunk & Gibbons,…… [Read More]
Speech in Anger, by Vallejo
The poem "Anger" by Cesar Vallejo and translated into the English by Thomas Merton is absolutely suffused with successful utilizations of various figures of speech. Vallejo uses not only the pure aesthetics of word combinations that seem to "click," he also uses several figures of speech to accent his ideas and essentially put forth a mood of urgency. Some of the most integral figures of speech used by Vallejo are anadiplosis, anaphora, and personification.
Anadiplosis is a rhetorical figure of speech that means to "double back" and repeat a word or phrase that appears at the end of a sentence or clause at the beginning of the next sentence or clause.
In "Anger," Vallejo employs the following verses, for instance: "Anger which breaks a man into children, Which breaks the child into two equal birds." Here, the word "breaks" almost ends the first verse, and…… [Read More]
'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"
illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)
Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…… [Read More]
self" is difficult to define but usually involves the inner life of the individual, the psychological dimension of human existence as opposed to the outward, physical form. The self is conceived as a creature of consciousness, a mind capable of thought and able to engage in deliberate action. A self is capable of self-consciousness, which means it recognizes its own ability to think and to contain first-person thoughts. The question is, however, is there a Self or not, and if there is, what is its nature? This has been argued in philosophy since the time of the Greeks and has been answered differently by philosophers, religious leaders, and psychologists at different times in history. Leslie Stevenson notes that the "question of the ultimate nature of such mental states is a philosophical problem which is left open by our everyday language about them" (Stevenson 74). This common language is often challenged…… [Read More]
Any Asset Pricing Theory forms the basic foundation of finance theory, in that it deals with the value of any asset under unknown or uncertain circumstances. The relationship between an asset and its price is the mainstay of the asset pricing theory: the lower the price, the poorer the expected performance. The Arbitrage Pricing Theory derives from this theory. The basic idea in the APT theory is that any sort of risk in asset returns must not affect the pricing of the asset in any way; it must depend on the covariance of assets with the risk factors. (Bayesian Approach of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory) The APT originated from Stephen oss, 1976-1978. oss had used a statistical procedure for assets returns, with the belief that there are in existence no arbitrage probabilities. The APT must of necessity involve a lot of risk taking processes, (Definition of Arbitrage Pricing Theory.)…… [Read More]
Loma Linda University are particularly attractive and meaningful to you and why you have chosen to apply for advanced education.
I have been in search of an excellent academic program with top quality faculty that also suits my interests, aptitudes, and preferences in geographic locale. Loma Linda University meets all my needs. I grew up in Southern California, and wish to remain here during the course of my education because being close to family and friends is important to me. Loma Linda also supports a multicultural environment, and because I am of mixed heritage, I will feel most comfortable on this campus. I speak English, Spanish, and Chinese and look forward to interacting both with other students as well as faculty members during the pursuit of my advanced degree in health sciences. In fact, it was Loma Linda's commitment to a robust health sciences department that become the primary reason…… [Read More]
Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.
For Victorians, control was part of…… [Read More]
He questions whether he should try to clear the court of corruption or just give up and end his life now. It is this emotional doubt that drives Hamlet to act deranged at times, but he overcomes it, and almost manages to answer the difficult questions posed in his life. In Act V, when calm returns, Hamlet repents his behavior (V, ii, 75-78) (Lidz, 164).
In Lidz's book Freud is quoted as saying "that if anyone holds and expresses to others an opinion of himself such as this [Hamlet's "Use every man after his desert, and who shall escape whipping?"], he is ill, whether he is speaking the truth whether he is being more or less unfair to himself." Though Hamlet has proved his intellectual stability, he is quite obviously emotionally "ill."
This emotional illness and uncertainty is why Hamlet procrastinates in the killing of Claudius. On his way to…… [Read More]
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…… [Read More]
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…… [Read More]
4. Do you think that Astro Boy will be successful? Why?
This is a difficult question to answer simply and unequivocally. On the one hand, it is relatively certain that the character of Astro Boy will be a success in a financial and commercial sense. Part of the reason for this is that the impetus and popularity of global youth culture is behind anime and characters like Astro Boy. The large companies like Sony have taken cognizance of this global enthusiasm and popularity and they are fully prepared to exploit it and to raise the character to the level of cult status through marketing, advertising and film.
However, there is a certain degree of danger in this commercialization. It may have the effect of alienating the hardcore fans and fan base. Anime as a global youth culture has been firmly rooted in the unconventional aspects of the medium and in…… [Read More]
Most ecently, Entepeneu magazine named Libety Tax Sevice #50 on its list of Fastest Gowing Fanchises (May 2003). In 2003, Entepeneu magazine named Libety #50 on its annual Fanchise 500, and #15 on its list of Top Low-Cost Fanchises fo 2003 in its Be You Own Boss issue.
With nothing as cetain as taxes, what othe industy offes the pepetual poduct of tax pepaation, and a gowing maket even in sluggish economic times? Moe people pay taxes annually with an inceasing numbe willing to pay a pepae to do thei taxes. Unlike many industies, the tax industy aena has been dominated fo ove 40 yeas by only one majo competito, H&R Block.
It's ou goal to bing in fanchisees of high calibe, who ae motivated to gow with us as we each the pinnacle of the industy. Libety will exploe all financing options to bing the best candidates into ou…… [Read More]
Thus, the analytic approach offers the best method of approaching philosophical questions, because it understands and explicates the problems and limitations of human consciousness immediately by intentionally discussing language itself, because no philosophical work can ever escape the linguistic and therefore philosophical limitations placed upon human thought by the borders of language.
The answer to the question "who am I" is revealed to be the "I" itself, made into a "who" in every instance of the word's utterance (whether aloud or in the mind of a reader). hereas the two earlier philosophical approaches attempted to remove and separate the philosopher from the object of his or her study, the analytic approach realizes that everything, including the philosopher and his or her thought, are the objects of language and therefore ideology, such that the philosopher is reduced in importance in relation to the communication between humans, and the particular consciousness of…… [Read More]
S., who is duly aware of their hardships and struggles. Again, there are many reasons why they are not given what they need to succeed (covert imperialism, ideological differences, etc.) but one of the main reasons is global overcapacity. If there are more countries producing goods and services the supply of those goods and services continue to increase. When supply goes up, and demand remains relatively unchanged (or static) one of the only ways to earn a profit is to lower costs (Judis, 2010). Lowering costs means a smaller profit margin. A smaller profit margin means, well, less money for the CEs and shareholders.
ne may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to…… [Read More]
entrapment' and 'outrageous Governmental conduct'. Entrapment is usually permitted within confines of the law even though it contradicts the fourth and fifth amendments. It refers to entrapping the suspect into a situation where it is clearly seen that he was willing and ready to violate the law. 'Outrageous Government conduct,' on the other hand, refers to cases when the Government's conduct was so egregious that it provoked the accused into committing the transgression. Usually conducted out of undue zeal, particular Government official(s) can be egregious in their 'entrapment' conduct and generally, although not always, consequent in running afoul of the law.
The distinction between 'entrapment' and 'outrageous government conduct' is illustrated by the following fictitious case history, "Alabama vs. Billy Bob," where, on the grounds of 'Outrageous Governmental conduct', I appeal to the Judge to exonerate Mr. Bob.
There is no doubt in my mind that, firstly, Mr.…… [Read More]