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Down Syndrome and autism are two conditions that can affect the lives of people, including their ability to learn and to participate in society. Moreover, Down Syndrome and autism affect how a person is perceived by others. Down Syndrome is the most common genetic condition in the United States, affecting one in every 691 births (National Down Syndrome Society, 2013). It is also the most common cause of learning disabilities in children (Mayo Clinic Staff, n.d.). Therefore, it is important to understand what Down Syndrome is in order to reduce discrimination against persons with Down Syndrome.
Autism is completely different from Down Syndrome, although both the conditions can result in learning disabilities in children. Autism and autism spectrum disorders are related to abnormal brain development (Autism Speaks, 2013). The rates of autism have increased ten times in the past forty years, partly due to improved diagnostic procedures, but…
Autism Speaks (2013). What is autism? Retrieved online: http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism
Mayo Clinic Staff (n.d.). Down Syndrome: Definition. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/down-syndrome/DS00182
National Down Syndrome Society (NDSS, 2013). What is Down syndrome? Retrieved online:
Chicoine also cautions that whenever a patient declines in function, a thorough evaluation is necessary "to look for reversible causes, or, if no reversible cause is found, to confirm that the decline is consistent with Alzheimer's disease" (Chicoine pp). In other words, just as in the general population, Alzheimer's disease is a diagnosis of exclusion in persons with Down's (Chicoine pp). Because traditional neuropshychological testing, such as used for persons in the general population, is not particularly helpful for assessing individuals with an intellectual disability, thus careful clinical evaluation is important to avoid missing potentially reversible causes of decline (Chicoine pp).
Chicoine cautions that mental health disorders often present differently in persons with Down syndrome due to cognitive and expressive language limitations, which means that mental health disorders may be difficult to distinguish from Alzheimer's dementia (Chicoine pp). For example, loss of adaptive skills, disruption of sleep cycle, appetite changes,…
So, they are saying that the initial screening followed with a second round of screening have proved to have a detection rate as high as 84%, the article continues.
Also, integrated screening (combining the results of tests in the first and second-trimesters) has also proved to be valuable in terms of detection of DS during pregnancy. The problem with integrated screening, the article points out, is that there is quite a period of time from the initiation of the testing until completion. But the larger question is, what is a woman to do if indeed her baby has a mis-matched chromosome count? If it is caught early enough, would she consider an abortion? That is a moral and personal privacy issue, of course, but it is worth consideration given the issues that arise for a family with a DS child.
If a pregnant woman is screened properly during her first-trimester,…
Clinician Reviews. (2007). Down syndrome screening expanded (Literature Monitor). 17(2),
Devenny, Darlynne a. (1993). Stress and Parenting. Down Syndrome Today, 2(4), 22-23,
Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Bredin-Oja, Shelly L.;
7. Heart problems (American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, 2009)
The Cleveland Clinic reports that individuals with Down syndrome have different experiences in terms of the problems with health than those experienced by the normal population and these problems include a weakened immune system and premature aging. Alzheimer's disease is stated to be "far more common in people with Down syndrome..." (2009)
Those who are 35 to 40 years old and who have Down syndrome are often noted as having Alzheimer's disease. This is stated in current research to have been shown that the 'extra gene dosage caused by the abnormal third chromosome of Down syndrome might be a factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Interest also is being focused on the early onset of Alzheimer's disease in individuals with Down syndrome, which might be related to the early aging of the Down syndrome brain." (Cleveland Clinic, 2009)
Down Syndrome (2009) American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, 2009. Online available at: https://health.google.com/health/ref/Down+syndrome
Down Syndrome (2009) Mayo Clinic -- Mayo Clinic Staff. Online available at:
ACADEMIC STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES
Meier (2008) states that there is a tendency to over generalize those with Down syndrome but states that there are however "significant trends that teachers can use to help their students learn and become part of the classroom." Meier states the following strengths and weaknesses of students with Down syndrome related to academics:
Strong, short-term visual memory
High social/interpersonal intelligence (Meier, 2008)
Poor short-term auditory memory
Difficulty with basic math skills
Mild to moderate hearing loss (Meier, 2008)
The work of Fox, Farell and Davis (2004) entitled: "Factors Associated with the Effective Inclusion of Primary-Aged Pupils with Down's Syndrome" reports a study that states findings that effective academic support for children with Down syndrome includes:
1) Schools in which knowledge of the needs of the student with Down syndrome was shared among all staff members;
2) Schools in which teachers…
Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining, et al. (2008) Written and Oral Narratives of Children and Adolescents with Down syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. Vol. 51. April 2008.
Fox, Sam; Farell, Meter and Davis, Pauline (2004) Factors Associated with the Effective Inclusion of Primary-Aged Pupils with Down's syndrome. British Journal of Special Education 31(4), 2004.
Leshin, Len (2003) Trisomy 21: The Story of Down syndrome. Online DS-Health. Available at http://www.ds-health.com/trisomy.htm
Meier, Kristin (2008) Down Syndrome 101: What Teachers Need to Known. The Complete Education Resources Center.
EE values were 10% lower in Down syndrome patients compared with normal babies. Neonatal heartbeats were also found to be lower in Down syndrome babies (6 beats less per min on an average). The researchers found that REE was 14% lesser than healthy infants of comparable age. [Jacqueline et.al, 2003] more recent study aimed at understanding the differences in weight among normal people and the intellectually disabled population was conducted by the Leicestershire NHS Partnership Trust and the Department of health. This was an extensive study which included 1119 ID subjects registered in the Leicestershire database and comapred their MI data with non-intellectualy disabled subjects in the region. The data obtained indicated that among those aged 20 and above, the prevelance rates for obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight were 20.7%, 28%, 32.7% and 18. 6% respectively. From the data that was gathered it was clear that obesity was positively…
1) Melville C., 2005. 'Obesity in adults with Down syndrome: a case control study'. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(2), 125-133.
2) Fernhall B. et al., 2005. 'Resting metabolic Rate is Not Reduced in Obese
Adults With Down syndrome'. Mental Retardation, 43 (6), 391-400.
3) Sheela N. Magge, Kristen L. O'Neill, Justine Shults, Virginia a. Stallings, Nicolas Stettler, 2007, 'Leptin Levels among Prepubertal Children with Down Syndrome Compared with Their Siblings', the Journal of Pediatrics
If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.
The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. fter all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.
Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better…
Although it should have offered the test as an elective option, the clinic is not automatically liable for not testing Jane for two reasons. First, her risk factors were relatively low; and second, the test for the disorder can put the baby at risk. Moreover, Jane's risk factors were low considering her family had no history of Down Syndrome. If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.
The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. After all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.
Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better to warn the parents of the possibility of Down syndrome, including what the condition entailed in terms of parenting. Experts agree on this issue: "In 2007, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that every pregnant woman, regardless of age, be offered a choice of tests for this common birth defect," (slide 43). The clinic should be advised to offer an amniocentesis test, but must also warn the mother that the test itself can be dangerous. In this case, the clinic should only be held liable if it was not following the proper procedural code.
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that can produce a range of intellectual and physical defects in the individual. Depending on the phenotypic variation, these defects can be more or less severe for some than they are for others (Karmiloff-Smith et al., 2016). It is the most common genetic disorder in the U.S. and the most common cause of learning in young children. It can also lead to other health-related issues and complications such as heart as well as gastrointestinal disorders (Mayo Clinic, 2018). This paper will discuss the pathophysiology of Down Syndrome; the signs, symptoms and complications of the disorder; what current research and evidence-based practices focus on; and the most common treatment and management practices for Down Syndrome.
In all but 5% of cases, Down Syndrome is caused by trisomy 21—i.e., the individual has three chromosome 21 copies (Antonarakis, Lyle, Dermitzakis, Reymond & Deutsch,…
disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.
Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.
According to the CDC…
Buckley, S. (1995). Teaching children with Down syndrome to read and write. Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 158-169). New York: Wiley-Liss.
Cheung, Y.B., Law, C.K., Chan, B., Liu, K.Y., YIP, P.S. (2006): Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors. J. Affect. Disord.
Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crawford, P.A. (1995). Early literacy: Emerging perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 71-86.
onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome
ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT
onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome
Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to make appropriate decisions about the condition (Khasin, 2013). Unlike prenatal genetic screening, which requires only a blood test, prenatal genetic testing obtains a direct sample of the amniotic fluid through a needle. The result is, therefore, more reliable. Prenatal genetic testing has been commonly used in detecting genetic abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Trisomies are extra chromosomes, which are not compatible with life. This means that children with these chromosomes die shortly after birth (Zieve et al., 2013). The main ethical issue against the procedure is that a finding of Down's Syndrome or another genetic abnormality leads women to seek abortion. Since there is no cure for these diseases, the discovery can only…
Arras, J.D. et al. (2007). Ethical issues in modern medicine: contemporary readings in bioethics. 7th edition. McGraw-Hill Education -- Europe.
Asch, A. (1999). Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. Vol 89 # 1 American Journal of Public Health: Pubmed. Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508970/pdf
Khasin, M. (2013). Prenatal genetic testing ethics. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6597554_prenatal-genetic-testing-ethics.html
Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked disorder? -Describe populations affected Edwards Syndrome (Include gender, age & number affected USA wordwide.
Edwards syndrome which is also known as Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 18 instead of the normal two copies. The extra 18th chromosome comes as a result of nondisjunction of the chromosomal material during meiosis. As a result of failure in the segregation of a chromosome to the daughter cells, there can be errors in the meiotic division leading to an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome usually occurs before conception and it is the second most common autosomal trisomy that carries to term after Down syndrome though it is more common in females than males…
Buyse, M.L. (Ed.). (1990). Birth Defect Encyclopedia Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Canfield, M.A., Honein, M.A., Yuskiv, N., Xing, J., Mai, C.T., Collins, J.S., . . . Kirby, R.S. (2006). National estimates and race/ethnic-specific variation of selected birth defects in the United States, 1999-2001. . 2006 Nov;76(11):747-56. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology, 76(11), 747-756.
HealthStar PR. (2012). First Peer-Reviewed Data For New Noninvasive Prenatal Test Published By Aria Diagnostics. Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/240123.php
Merritt, T.A., Catlin, A., Wool, C., Peverini, R., Goldstein, M., & Oshiro, B. (2012). Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13: Treatment and Management Decisions. NeoReviews, 13(1), e40-e48. doi: 10.1542/neo.13-1-e40
Trisomy 13 or Patau Syndrome is a genetic disease in which the person has 3 copies of the genetic material from chromosome 13 instead of having 2 copies. It occurs when the extra DNA from chromosome 13 appears in some or all of the body's cells. The treatment of this disorder differs from child to child and depends on the symptoms.
Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome)
Background (description of the disease, its symptoms, and impacted population)
Klaus Patau was a German-American geneticist, and together with his research colleagues, described the condition in 1960. The syndrome's clinical appearances were described in 1657 for the first time by Erasmus Bartholin, but he did not know its aetiology (Patient Information, n.d.). Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal condition linked with severe physical and intellectual disability. Those suffering from Trisomy usually have spinal or brain abnormalities, heart defects and smaller, not fully developed eyes -a condition…
Misanovic, V., Jonuzi, F., Bisacevic, E., & Vegar, S. (2002). [The Patau syndrome]. Med Arh., 42-3.
NICHD. (2013). March Is Trisomy Awareness Month. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
NS. (2011). Trisomy 13. Retrieved from Living Naturally: http://www.livingnaturally.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=70CDC1C8F3B5425B8CCB5B230415A520&DocID=condition-trisomy13#COMPLICATIONS
PHC. (2013). Patau Syndrome. Retrieved from Prime Health Channel: http://www.primehealthchannel.com/patau-syndrome.html
Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Test Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W & Spence, J.T. (Eds.) pp. 89 -- 195. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews
(Northern & Downs, 1974)
In China, otoacoustic emissions studies on patients with Alport Syndrome have determined, specifically by way of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests, that the location of pathological changes due to Alport Syndrome are located in the basilar membrane (Zhang & McPherson, 2005). Other studies have found "no statistically significant average difference between left and right ears for average values of TOAE (transitory otoacoustic emissions) response amplitude with no contralateral acoustic stimulation in patients with Alport's syndrome. (Abreu Alves & al, 2008)"
Auditory brainstem response results for Alport Syndrome patients indicate the cochlea as the site of damage, with dramatic alterations of the stria vascularis.
Hearing loss from Alport Syndrome complications is usually permanent. ecommendations for patients include: urine testing alongside SNHL testing; otologist involvement at all stages of treatment once hearing loss presents; counseling and education to enhance coping skills; instruction for lip reading and sign…
Tourette's Syndrome: How It Affects Education
Imagine living in a body, explosive in nature, uncontrolled in behavior, and unpredictable in affect.
Now place that body in setting that requires concentration, interaction, and measured response - a classroom. Use your imagination again and pretend that you are a school district administrator.
You have just learned that three students with Tourette's syndrome are moving into one of your schools this fall. You are already facing budget cuts that threaten the integrity of the educational programming. How will you afford the special training that is required to accommodate your new students?
Alternatively, you are the mother of a child with TS. Your child is segregated from the other students because she spits and hums uncontrollably. Her self-esteem and frustration play out in jerks and tics. How will her future be secure without the present support of professional educators?
There are ramifications beyond the…
Bronheim, S. (1991). An Educator's Guide to Tourette Syndrome. Journal of Learning Disabilities; Jan91, vol. 24 Issue 1.
Cohen, D.J. And Jankovic, J. (Ed.). 2001. Advances in Neurology. Vol.85. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2001.
Leckman, J. Tourette Syndrome. Lancet; 11/16/2002, vol. 360 Issue 9345, p1577, 10p, 3 diagrams, 2 graphs.
Leckman, J.F. And Cohen, D.J. (Ed.). 1999. Tourette's Syndrome: Tics, Obsessions, Compulsions - Developmental Psychopathology and Clinical Care. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1999.
During stage two, if the stress continues, the body adapts to the stressors that it is exposed to. There are changes at different levels take place in order to reduce the effect of the stressor, which indicates they are starving. At this point, thee person might experienced a reduced desire for physical activity to conserve energy, and the absorption of nutrients from food might be maximized (General adaptation syndrome).
The second stage is the body's response to long-term protection. It secretes further hormones that increase blood sugar levels to sustain energy and raise blood pressure. The adrenal cortex produces hormones called corticosteroids for this resistance reaction. Overuse by the body's defense mechanism in this phase eventually leads to disease. If this adaptation phase continues for a prolonged period of time without periods of relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress response, sufferers become prone to fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and…
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), is a representation of several medical and psychological complaints, which are affecting several men and women who had participated in the Gulf War which took place in 1991. These ailments are muscular pain, skin rash; sleep disturbances peripheral numbness, memory loss, fatigue, respiratory illness, headaches, fever, spasms, low blood pressure and dizziness. The Depleted uranium could be considered partly as a factor responsible for the Gulf War Syndrome. The depleted uranium produced long-term health problems in people who had contacts with its usage. It was in the Gulf war that the Depleted uranium weapons were used for the first time. There have been studies conducted by scientists regarding whether depleted uranium affects the physical health of individuals. As a result they are of the opinion that many veterans of the Gulf War are affected in terms of health problems by the depleted uranium. Even though several…
Myers, Steven Lee. Test drug may be cause of Gulf War Syndrome, Scientific Survey Finds, New York Times, Oct. 18, 1999
Bruce, Ian. Troops in Gulf to use depleted uranium shells, Fourth Sunday of Advent, December 19, 1999 (Frisk, Robert. The Truth About Depleted Uranium, Independent, UK, January 8, 2001)
The Herald (Scotland) January 22, 2003 http://www.mint.gov.my/policy/nuc_disarm/issue_duweapons.htm
At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.
David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…
David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)
Hoffman, p. 56
Balch, p. 390
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…
Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)
Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54
NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
2006). The article introduces an innovative research strategy; doctors are observing - in magnified format - key movement patterns in infants who may be showing early signs of as. To open the door to a "more accurate way of distinguishing autism from as," Teitelbaum explains, researchers are employing the "Eshkol-achman" movement notation (EMN), which was originally developed for dance and choreography. The EMN, in short, allows the most delicate deficits in infant movement to be detected.
Because the EMN system was designed to allow choreographers to write movement down on paper "that dancers could later reconstruct in its entirety," the EMN is proved to be "very detailed in analyzing a person's movement." Thus, the research team from the University of Florida asserted, when 16 videotapes from parents whose children had been diagnosed with as were analyzed using the EMN, this system of research was borne out as valid. The EMN…
AZ Psychiatry. (2005). Asperger's Syndrome: Epidemiology. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2008 at http://www.azpsychiatry.info/cap/asperger/epidemiology.htm .
Hutcheson, Julian; & Rausch, Jeffrey L. (2006). Janssen Asperger's Risperidone Study.
Medical College of Georgia. Clinical Trials NIH. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2008 from http://clinicaltrials.gov .
Kohn, Arlene; Zaphiriou, Marianna; & McDougle, Christopher J. (2005). A Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Asperger's and Pervasive Development
Additionally, such programs can be "driven by economic and entrepreneurial interests. It was supported by a private biotechnology firm, justified by economic concerns about health care costs, and encouraged by the interests of a university research and development program" (Nelkin 1996: 540). However, parents supported the program and were in fact instrumental in organizing it, partially because they hoped the more information they had about their child's difficulties the better, because they desired to help future suffers, and because they hoped to prevent passing on the mutation to future generations (Nelkin 540).
Furthermore, when Fragile X is identified, however, some researchers argue, it can clarify research about other areas. For example, it can identify the cause of some cases autism, and make studies that look for non-Fragile X, genetically-related conditions that cause autism more instructive (Hertz-Picciotto et al. 1120). Knowing the source of a child's status as a Fragile X…
Abrams, Liane. (2008). "What Does it Mean to Be a Carrier?" National Fragile X
Foundation. Retrieved 19 Jan 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/carriers.htm
Summary of Fragile X Syndrome." (2008). National Fragile X Foundation. Retrieved 19 Jan 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/summary.htm
Nelkin, Dorothy. (Dec., 1996), "The Social Dynamics of Genetic Testing: The Case of Fragile-X Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series. 10. 4.: 537-550.
"Men, when they receive good from whence they expect evil, feel the more indebted to their benefactor." ~ Niccolo Machiavelli
Stockholm syndrome is a psychological condition in which those who are held captive learn to sympathize with their captors. Instead of trying to escape the conditions that they are in, they become a part of the twisted psychology of those in control (Kocsis 266). It was named for the first reported incidence of the phenomena after a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. Captives were held for six days, during which time they became emotionally attached to their captors, even defending them after the ordeal was over. It is a very serious condition affecting approximately 25-30% of all hostage situation victims. People affected by Stockholm syndrome can have serious psychological repercussions for years to come, even affecting the individual for the rest of their life if not properly treated.…
Bejerot, Nils. "The Six Day War in Stockholm." New Scientist. 61: 886. 1974. 486-487. Print.
Doctor, Ronald M., and Frank N. Shiromoto. The Encyclopedia of Trauma and Traumatic Stress
Disorders. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2010. Print.
Fabrique, Nathalie. "FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin." 76:7. 2007. 10-17. Print.
In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.
On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…
Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on
Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht
National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197
National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health. http://www.genome.gov/11009201
estless Leg Syndrome
A simple way to define estless legs syndrome (LS) is an overpowering urge to move limbs, especially the legs that mostly take place when relaxing or during bedtime. This neural disorder is a major causative factor of nighttime blood pressure spikes and its associated circulatory consequences which reduces sleep quality and in some cases even eliminates the possibility of sleep. This sleep deprivation causes adverse effects such as nervousness, perpetual sadness and reduced comfort of living. Patients initially suffering from hemodialysis that develops LS have a much higher death rate. In most cases, they suffer from disorders that are difficult to explain. This paper's objective is to educate medical personnel on the need to understand and make deductions from the patient's signs, which are the factors considered and from which a conclusion is made if a patient has LS or some other disorder (Einollahi & Izadianmehr, 2014).…
Allen, R., Chen, C., & Garcia-Borreguero, D. (2014). Comparison of pregabalin with pramipexole for restless legs syndrome. N Engl J. Med, 370(7), 621-31.
Comella, C. L. (2014). Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome. Neurotherapeutics, 11(1), 177-87.
Einollahi, B., & Izadianmehr, N. (2014). Restless Leg Syndrome: A Neglected Diagnosis. Nephrourol Mon, 6(5).
Gangadharan, S., Perkins, L., Sauerbier, A., & Chaudhuri, K. R. (2016). The treatment challenges of restless legs syndrome. Prescribing In Practice.
And the movements which typify chronic movement disorder are probably subserved by the same structures within the basal ganglia as those which underpin compulsive behaviors and complex tics" (p. 470).
In addition to the other disorders associated with Tourettes, there are (not surprisingly) many emotional and social problems that affect its sufferers. Many sufferers of Tourettes are afraid to go out in public for fear of embarrassment, and many have very low self-esteem. There are also noted problems of aggression in Tourettes sufferers, not only because the tics themselves can manifest themselves aggressively, but also because the victims are angry that they were 'cursed' with this debilitating and often humiliating disorder. Making matters even worse is the fact that feelings of anger and stress can actually increase the symptoms of Tourettes (Prestia, 2003).
While there is no known cure for Tourettes, there are ways of reducing the emotional and social…
Brady, E. (2006, January 5) How Jessica's learning to live with Tourette's, the Birmingham Post (England), 4
Carr, a. (1999) the handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach, Routledge
Hendren, G. (2002), Tourette Syndrome: A new look at an old condition, the Journal of Rehabilitation, 68, 22-30
Prestia, K. (2003), Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and interventions, Intervention in School & Clinic, 39, 66-70
Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.
Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…
Brandes, P., et al. 2008. 'The Interactive Effects of Job Insecurity and Organizational Cynicism on Work Effort Following a Layoff.' Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies
14 (3), pp. 233-247
Carey, M. 2007. 'White-Collar Proletariat? Braverman, the Deskilling/Upskilling of Social Work and the Paradoxical Life of the Agency Care Manager.' Journal of Social Work 7 (1), pp.
People who have savant syndrome lead lives that are far from normal, but studying them is important. They appear to have increased blood supply to part of their brain, and a decreased flow to other parts. That is believed to be part of what accounts for what they can do, but there is no real understanding if the blood supply creates their abilities or if the blood supply is working to compensate for abilities that they do not have. SPECT studies show the increase, however, which is a provable part of how these people function and what makes them different from the rest of society. Even people with genius-level IQs cannot do what these savants can do. For example, many people can learn to play the piano well, and some can even play "by ear" - without the need for sheet music. Few, however, can hear a piece played once…
ARDS," all definitions of this syndrome include patients who meet the following criteria: www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php?xmlFilePath=journals/ijeicm/vol1n1/ards.xml" 5
Clinical evidence of respiratory distress.
Chest radiograph revealing diffuse bilateral airspace disease ("pulmonary edema").
Hypoxemia that is difficult to correct with oxygen supplementation.
Hemodynamic evidence of a pulmonary artery occlusion (wedge) pressure < 18 mm Hg.
Thoracic static compliance less than 40 mL/cm of water
What clinical conditions did this patient experience that are common risk factors associated with ARDS?
Patients who have nearly drowned can develop ARDS. It is slightly more common to see ARDS with a salt water aspiration. The onset of symptoms may be slow. Lung infiltrates and the hypoxia are not usually seen until 12-24 hours of the accident.
The aspiration of the water is considered to be damaging to the lung tissue, and then results in situation where the osmotic gradient prefers the movement of water into the lung.
Chromosomal Abnormality: Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is accompanied by both serious physical and mental developmental problems, and it is one of the most common genetic syndromes. According to Rebecca Saenz (1999), Down Syndrome occurs in one out of every 800 to 1,000 live births, which is an extremely high rate of incidence. This disorder occurs equally among both boys and girls. There are several genetic occurrences that can cause Down Syndrome to appear in a child, but all of them lead to the same chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome, which is the unit of genetic information that exists within each cell, appears in the genetic code of the affected person. When a baby is normally conceived, the egg cell of the mother and the sperm cell of the father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the genetic makeup of the child. In some cases, there may…
Bower, B. "Disabilities develop as family affair." Science News. Nov. 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/18_160/80344963/p1/article.jhtml
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn. "Down syndrome." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2601/0004/2601000443/p1/article.jhtml
Mayor, Susan. "Parents of people with Down's syndrome report suboptimal care." British Medical Journal. Mar. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0999/7185_318/54342406/p1/article.jhtml
Saenz, Rebecca. "Primary Care of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome." American Family Physician. Jan. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3225/2_59/53730237/p1/article.jhtml
Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.
Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental…
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, Robert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues for mental retardation. Your Total Health. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/mental-retardation.html?pageNum=4#4
Mental Retardation -- Developmental delay. (2010). Mass General Hospital for Children. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_mental_retardation.aspx
Math education, over the precedent years has been a contentious issue plaguing society at large. Many students, as they enter their preliminary schooling years, often have difficulty learning basic mathematical concepts. These difficulties compound as students proceed to upper levels of education. Throughout this process, math becomes more difficult for the student, often discouraging them from pursing math in a meaningful manner. Due to globalization, other nations are now becoming more competitive in regards to their overall workforce. They are now more educated, particularly in both math and science. Their respective countries are also very ambitious in teaching their children about the merits of math education. Competition now arises from all corners of the globe irrespective of geographic location. ealizing that global competition, market demands, and business needs necessitate the need for a mathematically oriented society, America has renewed its emphasis on math education. One such theory regarding…
1) Brousseau, G. (1997). The theory of didactical situations in mathematics: Didactique des mathematiques, 1970 -- 1990 (N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, & V. Warfield, Eds. And Trans.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
2) Tiberghien, Andree. "Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER June 2009 vol. 38 no. 5 329-342
At times, marvel how far have come. Ever since was a young boy, under the influence of my father, a molecular biologist, dreamed of researching genetically inherited diseases. Today, live that reality in my current field of work and research as a graduate student in neuroscience.
Thus, long before most children, because of my early exposure to the field of biology, was intimately aware that one's genetic inheritance could determine an individual's future physical and emotional health. Perhaps it comes as no surprise that soon decided was genetically coded to become a medical researcher. will receive my Ph D. n the summer of 2006 in neuroscience. But my current studies in the field of genetics have also soberly reminded me of how far both my own learning and the field of genetics need to be stretched, before the objectives of genetic research into inherited diseases can be realized.…
I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.
At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant '(SNTG) fellowship funded by National institute of health (NIH) since the fall of 2004. Thus I am well aware of the critical role genetics plays in public health of the nation as well as of the field of medical science, because of this generous grant, and I will strive to add to this knowledge in all of my future research.
Also, as a T.A. over the past two years, I have gleaned further knowledge of the curiosity of students for 'in the field' research. I have been grateful to have this human element present even in my PhD education. I am also proud to say I have not merely have received excellent reviews from my students, but joined them in many intramural soccer games, one of my favorite pursuits of my college years. I was not given the genetic gift, sadly, of becoming a great sports star, but I do believe that it is encoded in my own personal biology to bring a vital element of clinical humanity to the important work being done in the field of genetic research.
I have worked as a paraprofessional with special needs children for seven years in a diverse, socio-economically disadvantaged district of Brooklyn. Despite the tremendous challenges faced by the students and teachers alike in this geographic area, I go home every day feeling privileged to have witnessed the growth and compassion of my students and colleagues, as they fight against tremendous odds. Still, I am all too well aware that there is much more that needs to be done to serve at-risk communities. At present, I have a B.A. In psychology, but I seek the more rigorous and specific knowledge needed to help these types of children and the wider community that can be only provided by a graduate degree in social work. As a social worker, I believe I can make a more meaningful impact upon the lives of others.
As well as my professional experience, my personal…
I know whatever major I choose, my first priority is to help others and make a difference in their lives.
I feel I have a lot to offer to your university in my attitude, involvement, and dedication. I am a very sensitive person because of my sister and her condition. She has had many medical problems (including open-heart surgery, heart failure, and several battles with pneumonia). She is an inspiration to me, and my family rejoices in all of her successes. This has made me more open to others, and to understand those who are different, as well as those who fit in. I feel this will make me a better, more compassionate student and peer.
My sister has taught me more than compassion and sensitivity. Despite her health problems and situation, she still holds down a part time job at McDonald's, and is always positive and upbeat. As my…
One study published in the American Psychiatric Association found that "PTSD has been shown to predict poor health not only in veterans of the 1991 Gulf ar but also in veterans of orld ar II and the Korean ar. Our study extends these findings in a group of active duty soldiers returning from recent combat deployment to Iraq, confirming the strong association between PTSD and the indicators of physical health independent of physical injury" (Hoge, Terhakopian, Castro, Messer & Engel, 2007). From this study one can certainly glean that PTSD has a somatic component to it, or at least there is a prevalence in which persons afflicted with PTSD also suffer from physical health problems. One can also assume that the somatic component was downplayed or overlooked in prior studies, as most treatments for PTSD do not seem to address the physical aspect of the disorder.
To elaborate on this…
Cooper, M. (2008). The Facts are Friendly. Therapy Today.net. Retrieved from http://www.therapytoday.net/article/15/8/categories/
Frost, R. (1923). Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening. New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.ketzle.com/frost/snowyeve.htm .
Gelso, C., Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling Psychology Second Edition. Orlando, FL:
I intend to pursue a career in medicine, a career that I regard as a calling as well as an aspiration. My sports activities have disciplined me, toughened me, and honed my competitive instincts in a way that I believe is necessary for pre-medical studies, and later, perhaps, for medical school. I intend to enter the health care field, either a practitioner, or perhaps from a business angle, as I have grown convinced, after seeing my own family's struggle with the bureaucratic aspects of the American medical system, that there is a need for an infusion of compassion and reform into the system from all areas, on the part of administrators as well as doctors.
At present, to give me a strong academic founding for my rigorous college studies in science and business, I am currently enrolled in three AP classes: Calculus AB AP, Psychology AP, and Spanish V AP.…
My short-term goals are to make the most out of my academic talents and abilities and fulfilling the core values of Respect, Compassion, Excellence, Justice, and Stewardship. The Medical focus Program will be an opportunity for me to begin specializing in science and healthcare-related subjects and to get to know other students who share my academic and career interests. I look forward to being able to the first-hand experience of volunteering in the healthcare professions so that I can interact with patients and experienced healthcare professionals. I also look forward to being as creative as possible, such as in the way that I duplicated several classic scientific experiments in my school science fairs.
My long-term goal is to become an orthodontist. I have had this goal since I was six years old, when I had an accident that broke some of my teeth and required orthodontic care. My…
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
Terri Schiavo- a Case of Life-Ethics
Mercy Killing, euthanasia, life support, brain damage are some of the hotly debated issues today in medical and legal circles. When is a person really dead? Why should life support system be provided? When can it be removed? Under what circumstances a person can be killed by the medical staff? There questions, as disturbing as they may be, are high pertinent to the case of Theresa Schiavo, the 41-year-old woman who died on March 31st, this year after her feeding tube was removed. (BBC News)
Terri Schiavo, as she is popularly known now, suffered a serious brain injury in a cardiac arrest in 1990 which may have been triggered by her suspected bulimia. She was then married to Michael Schiavo and apparently living a happy life. Terri's parents, obert and Mary Schindler, wanted to keep her alive with the use of a feeding tube.…
1) Disabled state - special legislation for Terri Schiavo -- 39-year-old woman in vegetative state since 1990 Christian Century Nov 29, 2003
2) Robert Marus, Florida dispute renews life-ethics controversy - News Terri Schiavo Christian Century Nov 15, 2003
3) Excerpts from the Supreme Court decision in Washington v. Glucksberg allowing states to ban doctor-assisted suicides "The State Has an Interest in Preventing Suicide . . . And Treating Its Causes', Washington Post, Friday, June 27, 1997; Page A18
4) "Brain-damaged Terri Schiavo dies" Story from BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/americas/4398131.stm Published: 2005/03/31
Hnc Social Care
I am an Hnc SocialCare Student currently on placement within a day care center for older adults. I have experienced an incident in which challenging behavior was an issue. The following essay will detail this incident.
I had been with my current day care center for roughly a year. The center cared for older adults primarily with conditions including dimentia and alzheimer's disease. I was called into my supervisor's office and notified that we were taking on a new patient. The patient was in their 40's and had down syndrome. Our center was offering respite nighttime care. This was to be my first time caring for a down syndrome patient, so I was unsure what to expect.
The patient arrived for care the next evening. We were offering the family overnight relief care. Apparently the young man does not sleep well and often wakes up during the…
Loveland, Katherine; Michelle, Kelley (1988). "Development of Adaptive Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism and Down Syndrome." American Journal of Mental Retardation. Volume 93 (84-92).
Heron, Gavin (2006). "Critical Thinking in Social Care and Social Work: Searching Student Assignments for the Evidence" Social Work Education. Volume 25.3 (209-24).
Dumas, Jean; et al. (1991). "Parenting stress, child behavior problems, and dysphoria in parents of children with autism, down syndrome, behavior disorders, and normal development." Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal. Volume 2.2 (97-110).
Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Kasari, Connie (1997) "Maladaptive Behavior in Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome, Down Syndrome, and Nonspecific Mental Retardation." American Journal on Mental Retardation: Volume 102.3 (228-37).
Nature of Cognition
Ever since Simon and inet developed the first intelligence test in 1905, the field of psychology has maintained a strong interest in the nature of intelligence. How do we think? Why are some people better problem solvers than others? What is cognition, the ability to think about our environment? Why are some people consistently more able to use their brains to think, to remember, and to problem-solve than others?
The first IQ tests were devised to determine which children were mentally retarded. These children were pulled away from mainstream education. However, the tests did an effective job of predicting school success for all students, and their use was broadened (Sternberg, 1999). Multiple tests were developed to measure cognition, which might be defined as the ability to think abstractly. Markman (2001) described it in this way:
Cognition depends on the ability to imagine or represent objects and events…
American Academy of Pediatrics. August, 2000. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Pediatrics.
Baker, O. Oct. 1999. "Faulty control gene underlies retardation (Rett Syndrome)." Science News.
Bower, B. Nov 20, 1999. "DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation." Science News.
Eliez, Stephan. Feb, 2000. "Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XI. Fragile X Syndrome." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).
Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements
According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…
Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry
News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1
Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1
Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…
Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.
PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to offspring of couples who have undergone this process, 'test tube babies.' In vitro ('in glass') fertilization is only one of the many treatments for infertility. The general term by which in vitro can be identified is through artificial insemination, wherein semen taken from the woman's partner or male donor is "injected" into a woman's uterus. In the technique of in vitro fertilization, however, "eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory dish with her partner's sperm" (Dmowski 1991 265).
There are several reasons why infertility happens, and indications that show that a couple needs to undergo an in vitro treatment. Infertility may be due to either the man or the woman's infertility. A man becomes infertile when…
Dmowski, Paul. "Infertility." World Book Encyclopedia Vol 10. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): "Test Tube Babies." 2001. Fertility Confidential Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.fertilityconfidential.com/fertilityconfidential/infertility/conventional/ivf.cfm.
IVF Program. 2000. South Jersey Fertility Center Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.sjfert.com/assisted_reproductive_Programs.html .
Williamson, Miryam. "Waiting Longer to Get Pregnant: The Advantages and Disadvantages for Women." 6 November 2000. Rockhill Communications. Laurus Health News Feature. 10 June 2002 http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/HealthNewsFeature/hnf1110600.htm.
Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.
The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.
Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…
Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.
Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.
CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/genetics/genetic_counseling.html
Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
As the mentioned societies characterized themselves for athleticism, power and strength so it was not a surprising thing that those people looked down on and hated babies who were weak, dependent and immature. Thus, an individual child was given importance on the basis of his likable future contributions to the society as a mature adult. egrettably, no rules and regulations and laws were there that prohibited people from murdering the helpless and ill babies. Sorry to say, in some cases, even the newborn babies who were in good physical health did not have protection by social custom or lawful decrees. It is a bitter reality that killing of malformed babies was considered important for the maintenance of the quality of the civilians. Similar practices were also common in some parts of the Eastern world (Wyatt 1).
As far as the secular perspective in this regard is concerned, a number of…
"Bioethical Issues - Neonatal Ethics."Adelaide Centre for Bioethics and Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. .
Brazier, M.. "How to Treat Premature Infants." The Scientist Dec. 2006: 22+.Questia. Web. 7 May 2013. .
Carter, B.S. . "Ethical Issues in Neonatal Care ." MedScape. N.p., 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 6 May 2013. .
Laurance, J.. "Should Doctors Try to Save Extremely Premature Babies? The Big Question." The Independent [London] 16 Nov. 2006: 42. Questia. Web. 6 May 2013. .
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…
Kleinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.
active and passive euthanasia. Why does James achels think there is no moral difference between them?
Active euthanasia is the "mercy killing" of a life to prevent further suffering; passive euthanasia is deliberately allowing that life to die of "natural" causes. James achels believes there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia for a few reasons. First, in many cases where passive euthanasia is allowed (meaning it has already been decided that the life is not worth saving) but active euthanasia is against the law, the patient suffers more, longer, and needlessly by being allowed to die on their own. Therefore, since active euthanasia in these cases would prevent that suffering, active euthanasia is clearly less immoral than passively standing by. Still, achels' argument for moral equality between the two is that in each case it has been decided that the life at stake is not worth saving:…
Foot, P. (2002). Moral Dilemmas and Other Topics in Moral Philosophy: Killing and Letting Die. Oxford, England: Clarendon.
Hardwig, J. (1997). Is There A Duty to Die? The Hastings Center Report, 34+.
Harris, J. (1975). The Survival Lottery. Philosophy, 81-87.
Rachels, J. (1975). Active and Passive Euthanasia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 78-80.
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…
Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,
1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)
II. EFFECTS on LIFE of FAMILY in NORMAL ACTIVITIES
In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…
Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10118
Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth
Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/Autism.html
Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163
Hypothyroidism is a fairly common disorder that patients are diagnosed with and it can have wide ranging effects. While hyperthyroidism is when the thyroid is excreting too much into the bloodstream, hypothyroidism is the opposite. If untreated, the effects on the body are numerous and substantial with the most prominent affected area being the body's metabolism rate and quality. Even with these risks, there is absolutely treatment available for the disorder once it is identified with certainty. This report will cover, after a more detailed description of hypothyroidism, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods that are used to address the disorder.
As indicated in the introduction, the main effect that hypothyroidism has on the human body is a slower and more sluggish metabolism. However, to say it is just that is less than accurate. As described by WebMD, the thyroid is in charge on controlling how one's body uses energy from…
Corriher, S. (2013). How to Cure Hypothyroidism Naturally. Healthwyze.
Mayo. (2016). Treatment - Hypothyroidism - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 7 June
2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20155362
MBG. (2011). 13 Ways to Treat Hypothyroidism Naturally. mindbodygreen. Retrieved 7 June
They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)
The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.
My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…
References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm
Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836
Lustig D.C. (1996)
Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825 " Journal of Rehabilitation,
There are too many factors that cannot be controlled. Children may develop inferiority feelings regarding their own specialness due to the choices of their parents. Many people who may be able to make contributions to society will more than likely be aborted. There is also the possibility that just because someone has a genetic trait for a malady, they may not even manifest such a condition. Additionally, the lack of clear boundaries in this field leaves the potential for catastrophes, such as that which happened during orld ar II.
Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.
Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.
Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.…
Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.
Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.
Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.
King, David S. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the 'New' Eugenics." Journal of Medical Ethics, 25, 1999, 176 -- ?182
Abortion After Prenatal Testing
Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis
There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.
The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…
Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.
Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
Psychometric Assessment Autism
Background of Autism
What is autism? Autism is a disease, which poses tons of questions, while providing least of answers. This being said, autism is one of the five diseases coming under Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). It shows in early years of a human and effects the brain's functioning. An autism website states that, 'it's a result of a neurological disorder, which hampers the proper operations of a brain, hindering the social interactions and communications' (Autism Society of America website). Autism asks us millions questions, its origins, its solutions, its causes and symptoms; none of which are answered. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2013), states that, autism is basically pervasive developmental disorder otherwise called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It is described as a condition where the person faces severe problem in social communication, interactions, perception and communication. APA (2013) shows…
Alpern, G.D. (2007). Developmental Profile 3. Lutz, FL: Western Psychological Services.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html
Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., & Excoffier, E. (2005). Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 103 -- 116.
Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.
The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.
LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/
WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009. http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10
Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.
Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…
Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.
Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic
Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5
Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
Experts report improved interactions with peers, support for the parents to act as teachers at home, improved motivation for the child, and aiding the family in learning about other support available in the community (mmerman & Herson, 2000).
Medications may play a role if the child has other concerns such as D/HD or seizures (mmerman & Herson, 2000).
Inclusion with Mental Retardation
Educationally, some research suggests that students with mental retardation learn more in general education classes than in special education. Studies on inclusion aren't quite as clear. Students may benefit from inclusion when younger, but when older it may have more negative effects unless the non-handicapped students are supportive of the program (Turnbull et. al.). In addition to behavioral and socialization support, students need functional as well as academic skills. For instance, they should be taught how to use public transportation and information about handling money (Turnbull et. al.).…
Ammerman, Robert T., and Hersen, Michel. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. 2000: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Michel Hersen; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Swartz, Stanley, L., Ph.D. "Positive Behavior Support: An Inclusion Strategy." Accessed via the Internet 6/10/05. http://www.stanswartz.com/positivebehaviorsupport.htm
Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann; Shank, Marilyn; and Smith, Shean J. Exceptional Lives.
The author of this report has been asked to assess a case study that is quite tragic and challenging. Indeed, Jessica and Marco are about to have a child but they discover that the child has no arms and possibly possesses Down Syndrome. The recommended action by the doctor is termination of the pregnancy due to the quality of life the child will not have and the impacts that will be rendered on the parents in terms of economic and other burdens. However, there are several ethical issues that pop up along the way including the doctor being able to notify Jessica despite Marco's misgivings, the viewpoint of both Jessica and Aunt Maria to not abort the child and Marco's general stance that he'll honor either choice while also thinking that keeping the baby will create a lot of obligations and challenges.
The first question for this…
Howe, J. (2014). Paying For My Special-Needs Child. MONEY.com. Retrieved 30 June 2015, from http://time.com/money/2793944/paying-for-my-special-needs-child/
Utilitarian. (2015). Abortion. Utilitarian.org. Retrieved 30 June 2015, from http://www.utilitarian.org/abortion.html