Down Syndrome Essays (Examples)

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Down Autism
Down Syndrome and autism are two conditions that can affect the lives of people, including their ability to learn and to participate in society. Moreover, Down Syndrome and autism affect how a person is perceived by others. Down Syndrome is the most common genetic condition in the United States, affecting one in every 691 births (National Down Syndrome Society, 2013). It is also the most common cause of learning disabilities in children (Mayo Clinic Staff, n.d.). Therefore, it is important to understand what Down Syndrome is in order to reduce discrimination against persons with Down Syndrome.

Autism is completely different from Down Syndrome, although both the conditions can result in learning disabilities in children. Autism and autism spectrum disorders are related to abnormal brain development (Autism Speaks, 2013). The rates of autism have increased ten times in the past forty years, partly due to improved diagnostic procedures, but also due….

Chicoine also cautions that whenever a patient declines in function, a thorough evaluation is necessary "to look for reversible causes, or, if no reversible cause is found, to confirm that the decline is consistent with Alzheimer's disease" (Chicoine pp). In other words, just as in the general population, Alzheimer's disease is a diagnosis of exclusion in persons with Down's (Chicoine pp). Because traditional neuropshychological testing, such as used for persons in the general population, is not particularly helpful for assessing individuals with an intellectual disability, thus careful clinical evaluation is important to avoid missing potentially reversible causes of decline (Chicoine pp).
Chicoine cautions that mental health disorders often present differently in persons with Down syndrome due to cognitive and expressive language limitations, which means that mental health disorders may be difficult to distinguish from Alzheimer's dementia (Chicoine pp). For example, loss of adaptive skills, disruption of sleep cycle, appetite changes,….

So, they are saying that the initial screening followed with a second round of screening have proved to have a detection rate as high as 84%, the article continues.
Also, integrated screening (combining the results of tests in the first and second-trimesters) has also proved to be valuable in terms of detection of DS during pregnancy. The problem with integrated screening, the article points out, is that there is quite a period of time from the initiation of the testing until completion. But the larger question is, what is a woman to do if indeed her baby has a mis-matched chromosome count? If it is caught early enough, would she consider an abortion? That is a moral and personal privacy issue, of course, but it is worth consideration given the issues that arise for a family with a DS child.

If a pregnant woman is screened properly during her first-trimester, and….

Hearing loss
7. Heart problems (American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, 2009)

The Cleveland Clinic reports that individuals with Down syndrome have different experiences in terms of the problems with health than those experienced by the normal population and these problems include a weakened immune system and premature aging. Alzheimer's disease is stated to be "far more common in people with Down syndrome..." (2009)

Those who are 35 to 40 years old and who have Down syndrome are often noted as having Alzheimer's disease. This is stated in current research to have been shown that the 'extra gene dosage caused by the abnormal third chromosome of Down syndrome might be a factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Interest also is being focused on the early onset of Alzheimer's disease in individuals with Down syndrome, which might be related to the early aging of the Down syndrome brain." (Cleveland Clinic, 2009)

Summary and Conclusion

This review….

Down Syndrome the Work of
PAGES 4 WORDS 1033

(Pulsifer, 2005)
ACADEMIC STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES

Meier (2008) states that there is a tendency to over generalize those with Down syndrome but states that there are however "significant trends that teachers can use to help their students learn and become part of the classroom." Meier states the following strengths and weaknesses of students with Down syndrome related to academics:

Learning Strengths

Strong, short-term visual memory

High social/interpersonal intelligence (Meier, 2008)

Learning Weaknesses

Poor short-term auditory memory

Difficulty with basic math skills

Mild to moderate hearing loss (Meier, 2008)

The work of Fox, Farell and Davis (2004) entitled: "Factors Associated with the Effective Inclusion of Primary-Aged Pupils with Down's Syndrome" reports a study that states findings that effective academic support for children with Down syndrome includes:

1) Schools in which knowledge of the needs of the student with Down syndrome was shared among all staff members;

2) Schools in which teachers and teaching assistants worked in unison to provide appropriate support for….

EE values were 10% lower in Down syndrome patients compared with normal babies. Neonatal heartbeats were also found to be lower in Down syndrome babies (6 beats less per min on an average). The researchers found that REE was 14% lesser than healthy infants of comparable age. [Jacqueline et.al, 2003] more recent study aimed at understanding the differences in weight among normal people and the intellectually disabled population was conducted by the Leicestershire NHS Partnership Trust and the Department of health. This was an extensive study which included 1119 ID subjects registered in the Leicestershire database and comapred their MI data with non-intellectualy disabled subjects in the region. The data obtained indicated that among those aged 20 and above, the prevelance rates for obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight were 20.7%, 28%, 32.7% and 18. 6% respectively. From the data that was gathered it was clear that obesity was….

If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.
The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. fter all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.

Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better to….

What Causes Down Syndrome
PAGES 3 WORDS 848

Pathophysiology—Down Syndrome Introduction
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that can produce a range of intellectual and physical defects in the individual. Depending on the phenotypic variation, these defects can be more or less severe for some than they are for others (Karmiloff-Smith et al., 2016). It is the most common genetic disorder in the U.S. and the most common cause of learning in young children. It can also lead to other health-related issues and complications such as heart as well as gastrointestinal disorders (Mayo Clinic, 2018). This paper will discuss the pathophysiology of Down Syndrome; the signs, symptoms and complications of the disorder; what current research and evidence-based practices focus on; and the most common treatment and management practices for Down Syndrome.

Pathophysiology
In all but 5% of cases, Down Syndrome is caused by trisomy 21—i.e., the individual has three chromosome 21 copies (Antonarakis, Lyle, Dermitzakis, Reymond & Deutsch, 2004). As human cells….

disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.
Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.

According to the CDC estimates,….

onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome
ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT

onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome

Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to make appropriate decisions about the condition (Khasin, 2013). Unlike prenatal genetic screening, which requires only a blood test, prenatal genetic testing obtains a direct sample of the amniotic fluid through a needle. The result is, therefore, more reliable. Prenatal genetic testing has been commonly used in detecting genetic abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Trisomies are extra chromosomes, which are not compatible with life. This means that children with these chromosomes die shortly after birth (Zieve et al., 2013). The main ethical issue against the procedure is that a finding of Down's Syndrome or another genetic abnormality leads women to seek abortion. Since there is no cure for these diseases, the discovery can only depress mothers and/or….

Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked disorder? -Describe populations affected Edwards Syndrome (Include gender, age & number affected USA wordwide.
Edwards syndrome which is also known as Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 18 instead of the normal two copies. The extra 18th chromosome comes as a result of nondisjunction of the chromosomal material during meiosis. As a result of failure in the segregation of a chromosome to the daughter cells, there can be errors in the meiotic division leading to an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome usually occurs before conception and it is the second most common autosomal trisomy that carries to term after Down syndrome though it is more common in females than males….

Patau Syndrome
PAGES 5 WORDS 1650

Trisomy 13 or Patau Syndrome is a genetic disease in which the person has 3 copies of the genetic material from chromosome 13 instead of having 2 copies. It occurs when the extra DNA from chromosome 13 appears in some or all of the body's cells. The treatment of this disorder differs from child to child and depends on the symptoms.
Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome)

Background (description of the disease, its symptoms, and impacted population)

Klaus Patau was a German-American geneticist, and together with his research colleagues, described the condition in 1960. The syndrome's clinical appearances were described in 1657 for the first time by Erasmus Bartholin, but he did not know its aetiology (Patient Information, n.d.). Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal condition linked with severe physical and intellectual disability. Those suffering from Trisomy usually have spinal or brain abnormalities, heart defects and smaller, not fully developed eyes -a condition referred to as….

Fragile X Syndrome
PAGES 8 WORDS 2837

Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).
The FM1….

(Northern & Downs, 1974)
In China, otoacoustic emissions studies on patients with Alport Syndrome have determined, specifically by way of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests, that the location of pathological changes due to Alport Syndrome are located in the basilar membrane (Zhang & McPherson, 2005). Other studies have found "no statistically significant average difference between left and right ears for average values of TOAE (transitory otoacoustic emissions) response amplitude with no contralateral acoustic stimulation in patients with Alport's syndrome. (Abreu Alves & al, 2008)"

Auditory brainstem response results for Alport Syndrome patients indicate the cochlea as the site of damage, with dramatic alterations of the stria vascularis.

Hearing loss from Alport Syndrome complications is usually permanent. ecommendations for patients include: urine testing alongside SNHL testing; otologist involvement at all stages of treatment once hearing loss presents; counseling and education to enhance coping skills; instruction for lip reading and sign language; use….

Tourette's Syndrome
PAGES 11 WORDS 3410

Tourette's Syndrome: How It Affects Education
Imagine living in a body, explosive in nature, uncontrolled in behavior, and unpredictable in affect.

Now place that body in setting that requires concentration, interaction, and measured response - a classroom. Use your imagination again and pretend that you are a school district administrator.

You have just learned that three students with Tourette's syndrome are moving into one of your schools this fall. You are already facing budget cuts that threaten the integrity of the educational programming. How will you afford the special training that is required to accommodate your new students?

Alternatively, you are the mother of a child with TS. Your child is segregated from the other students because she spits and hums uncontrollably. Her self-esteem and frustration play out in jerks and tics. How will her future be secure without the present support of professional educators?

There are ramifications beyond the immediately obvious challenges presented by….

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3 Pages
Essay

Disease

Down Autism Down Syndrome and Autism Are

Words: 928
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Down Autism Down Syndrome and autism are two conditions that can affect the lives of people, including their ability to learn and to participate in society. Moreover, Down Syndrome and…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Disease

Down Syndrome Down's Syndrome Which

Words: 2572
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Chicoine also cautions that whenever a patient declines in function, a thorough evaluation is necessary "to look for reversible causes, or, if no reversible cause is found, to…

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9 Pages
Term Paper

Children

Down Syndrome Impact on the

Words: 3084
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Term Paper

So, they are saying that the initial screening followed with a second round of screening have proved to have a detection rate as high as 84%, the article…

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6 Pages
Thesis

Disease

Down Syndrome According to the

Words: 1576
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Thesis

Hearing loss 7. Heart problems (American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, 2009) The Cleveland Clinic reports that individuals with Down syndrome have different experiences in terms of the problems with health than…

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4 Pages
Thesis

Children

Down Syndrome the Work of

Words: 1033
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Thesis

(Pulsifer, 2005) ACADEMIC STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES Meier (2008) states that there is a tendency to over generalize those with Down syndrome but states that there are however "significant trends that…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Miscellaneous

Down Syndrome and Obesity Downs

Words: 2542
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

EE values were 10% lower in Down syndrome patients compared with normal babies. Neonatal heartbeats were also found to be lower in Down syndrome babies (6 beats less…

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2 Pages
Case Study

Disease

Downs Syndrome What Is Down

Words: 481
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Case Study

If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law. The doctors might have considered…

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3 Pages
Essay

Nursing

What Causes Down Syndrome

Words: 848
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Pathophysiology—Down Syndrome Introduction Down Syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that can produce a range of intellectual and physical defects in the individual. Depending on the phenotypic variation, these defects can be…

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10 Pages
Research Paper

Children

Disorder Down's Syndrome and the Certain Ways

Words: 3241
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Research Paper

disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society…

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5 Pages
Essay

Women's Issues - Abortion

Bonnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome Ethically Defensible or

Words: 1526
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to…

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4 Pages
Essay

Genetics

Edwards Syndrome Trisomy 18 8 Sources

Words: 1372
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Health

Patau Syndrome

Words: 1650
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Trisomy 13 or Patau Syndrome is a genetic disease in which the person has 3 copies of the genetic material from chromosome 13 instead of having 2 copies. It…

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8 Pages
Research Paper

Genetics

Fragile X Syndrome

Words: 2837
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Disease

Audiology Alport Syndrome Alport Syndrome

Words: 601
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

(Northern & Downs, 1974) In China, otoacoustic emissions studies on patients with Alport Syndrome have determined, specifically by way of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests, that the location…

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11 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Tourette's Syndrome

Words: 3410
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Tourette's Syndrome: How It Affects Education Imagine living in a body, explosive in nature, uncontrolled in behavior, and unpredictable in affect. Now place that body in setting that requires concentration, interaction,…

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