Down Syndrome Essays (Examples)

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Downs Syndrome What Is Down

Words: 481 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78817628

If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.

The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. fter all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.

Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better…… [Read More]

Although it should have offered the test as an elective option, the clinic is not automatically liable for not testing Jane for two reasons. First, her risk factors were relatively low; and second, the test for the disorder can put the baby at risk. Moreover, Jane's risk factors were low considering her family had no history of Down Syndrome. If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.

The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. After all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.

Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better to warn the parents of the possibility of Down syndrome, including what the condition entailed in terms of parenting. Experts agree on this issue: "In 2007, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that every pregnant woman, regardless of age, be offered a choice of tests for this common birth defect," (slide 43). The clinic should be advised to offer an amniocentesis test, but must also warn the mother that the test itself can be dangerous. In this case, the clinic should only be held liable if it was not following the proper procedural code.
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Disorder Down's Syndrome and the Certain Ways

Words: 3241 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75320661

disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.

Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.

According to the CDC…… [Read More]

References

Buckley, S. (1995). Teaching children with Down syndrome to read and write. Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 158-169). New York: Wiley-Liss.

Cheung, Y.B., Law, C.K., Chan, B., Liu, K.Y., YIP, P.S. (2006): Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors. J. Affect. Disord.

Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, P.A. (1995). Early literacy: Emerging perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 71-86.
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Bonnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome Ethically Defensible or

Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27743173

onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome

ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT

onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome

Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to make appropriate decisions about the condition (Khasin, 2013). Unlike prenatal genetic screening, which requires only a blood test, prenatal genetic testing obtains a direct sample of the amniotic fluid through a needle. The result is, therefore, more reliable. Prenatal genetic testing has been commonly used in detecting genetic abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Trisomies are extra chromosomes, which are not compatible with life. This means that children with these chromosomes die shortly after birth (Zieve et al., 2013). The main ethical issue against the procedure is that a finding of Down's Syndrome or another genetic abnormality leads women to seek abortion. Since there is no cure for these diseases, the discovery can only…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arras, J.D. et al. (2007). Ethical issues in modern medicine: contemporary readings in bioethics. 7th edition. McGraw-Hill Education -- Europe.

Asch, A. (1999). Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. Vol 89 # 1 American Journal of Public Health: Pubmed. Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508970/pdf

Khasin, M. (2013). Prenatal genetic testing ethics. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6597554_prenatal-genetic-testing-ethics.html
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Edwards Syndrome Trisomy 18 8 Sources

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77979310

Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked disorder? -Describe populations affected Edwards Syndrome (Include gender, age & number affected USA wordwide.

Edwards syndrome which is also known as Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 18 instead of the normal two copies. The extra 18th chromosome comes as a result of nondisjunction of the chromosomal material during meiosis. As a result of failure in the segregation of a chromosome to the daughter cells, there can be errors in the meiotic division leading to an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome usually occurs before conception and it is the second most common autosomal trisomy that carries to term after Down syndrome though it is more common in females than males…… [Read More]

References

Buyse, M.L. (Ed.). (1990). Birth Defect Encyclopedia Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Canfield, M.A., Honein, M.A., Yuskiv, N., Xing, J., Mai, C.T., Collins, J.S., . . . Kirby, R.S. (2006). National estimates and race/ethnic-specific variation of selected birth defects in the United States, 1999-2001. . 2006 Nov;76(11):747-56. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology, 76(11), 747-756.

HealthStar PR. (2012). First Peer-Reviewed Data For New Noninvasive Prenatal Test Published By Aria Diagnostics. Medical News Today. Retrieved from  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/240123.php 

Merritt, T.A., Catlin, A., Wool, C., Peverini, R., Goldstein, M., & Oshiro, B. (2012). Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13: Treatment and Management Decisions. NeoReviews, 13(1), e40-e48. doi: 10.1542/neo.13-1-e40
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Patau Syndrome

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55962905

Trisomy 13 or Patau Syndrome is a genetic disease in which the person has 3 copies of the genetic material from chromosome 13 instead of having 2 copies. It occurs when the extra DNA from chromosome 13 appears in some or all of the body's cells. The treatment of this disorder differs from child to child and depends on the symptoms.

Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome)

Background (description of the disease, its symptoms, and impacted population)

Klaus Patau was a German-American geneticist, and together with his research colleagues, described the condition in 1960. The syndrome's clinical appearances were described in 1657 for the first time by Erasmus Bartholin, but he did not know its aetiology (Patient Information, n.d.). Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal condition linked with severe physical and intellectual disability. Those suffering from Trisomy usually have spinal or brain abnormalities, heart defects and smaller, not fully developed eyes -a condition…… [Read More]

Reference: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/trisomy-13#

Misanovic, V., Jonuzi, F., Bisacevic, E., & Vegar, S. (2002). [The Patau syndrome]. Med Arh., 42-3.

NICHD. (2013). March Is Trisomy Awareness Month. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

NS. (2011). Trisomy 13. Retrieved from Living Naturally: http://www.livingnaturally.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=70CDC1C8F3B5425B8CCB5B230415A520&DocID=condition-trisomy13#COMPLICATIONS

PHC. (2013). Patau Syndrome. Retrieved from Prime Health Channel: http://www.primehealthchannel.com/patau-syndrome.html
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Fragile X Syndrome

Words: 2837 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97214966

Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).

The…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Test Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W & Spence, J.T. (Eds.) pp. 89 -- 195. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press.

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews
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Tourette's Syndrome

Words: 3410 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53377019

Tourette's Syndrome: How It Affects Education

Imagine living in a body, explosive in nature, uncontrolled in behavior, and unpredictable in affect.

Now place that body in setting that requires concentration, interaction, and measured response - a classroom. Use your imagination again and pretend that you are a school district administrator.

You have just learned that three students with Tourette's syndrome are moving into one of your schools this fall. You are already facing budget cuts that threaten the integrity of the educational programming. How will you afford the special training that is required to accommodate your new students?

Alternatively, you are the mother of a child with TS. Your child is segregated from the other students because she spits and hums uncontrollably. Her self-esteem and frustration play out in jerks and tics. How will her future be secure without the present support of professional educators?

There are ramifications beyond the…… [Read More]

References

Bronheim, S. (1991). An Educator's Guide to Tourette Syndrome. Journal of Learning Disabilities; Jan91, vol. 24 Issue 1.

Cohen, D.J. And Jankovic, J. (Ed.). 2001. Advances in Neurology. Vol.85. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2001.

Leckman, J. Tourette Syndrome. Lancet; 11/16/2002, vol. 360 Issue 9345, p1577, 10p, 3 diagrams, 2 graphs.

Leckman, J.F. And Cohen, D.J. (Ed.). 1999. Tourette's Syndrome: Tics, Obsessions, Compulsions - Developmental Psychopathology and Clinical Care. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1999.
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Audiology Alport Syndrome Alport Syndrome

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8854389

(Northern & Downs, 1974)

In China, otoacoustic emissions studies on patients with Alport Syndrome have determined, specifically by way of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests, that the location of pathological changes due to Alport Syndrome are located in the basilar membrane (Zhang & McPherson, 2005). Other studies have found "no statistically significant average difference between left and right ears for average values of TOAE (transitory otoacoustic emissions) response amplitude with no contralateral acoustic stimulation in patients with Alport's syndrome. (Abreu Alves & al, 2008)"

Auditory brainstem response results for Alport Syndrome patients indicate the cochlea as the site of damage, with dramatic alterations of the stria vascularis.

Hearing loss from Alport Syndrome complications is usually permanent. ecommendations for patients include: urine testing alongside SNHL testing; otologist involvement at all stages of treatment once hearing loss presents; counseling and education to enhance coping skills; instruction for lip reading and sign…… [Read More]

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Adaptation Syndrome When a Person

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2815502



During stage two, if the stress continues, the body adapts to the stressors that it is exposed to. There are changes at different levels take place in order to reduce the effect of the stressor, which indicates they are starving. At this point, thee person might experienced a reduced desire for physical activity to conserve energy, and the absorption of nutrients from food might be maximized (General adaptation syndrome).

The second stage is the body's response to long-term protection. It secretes further hormones that increase blood sugar levels to sustain energy and raise blood pressure. The adrenal cortex produces hormones called corticosteroids for this resistance reaction. Overuse by the body's defense mechanism in this phase eventually leads to disease. If this adaptation phase continues for a prolonged period of time without periods of relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress response, sufferers become prone to fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and…… [Read More]

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Tourette Syndrome the Human Condition

Words: 2284 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72324891

Globus pallidusinterna (GPI) of the patient was treated through DBS. The internal pulse generators (IPG) helped stimulate the inner cognition area of patient's brain. Since the study employed Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) for assessing the results after intervention, lateral assessment indicated that 84%improvement in YGTSS was observed by the researchers. Thus, DBS as an effective intervention treatment is corroborated by two results of two independent research studies.

Many people report that since Tourette syndrome is a spectrum condition (that is it ranges from mild to severe and that too depends on the age of the sufferer) therefore associated characteristics and symptoms tend to become less severe as the sufferer ages. hat a Tourette syndrome patient requires most is no extensive cure in the form of administered medication, but instead an encouraging environment and dedicated support system which makes it possible for him or her to lead a completely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brambilla, a. (n.d.). Comorbid Disorders in Tourette Syndrome. Tourette Centre - IRCCS Galeazzi Milano. Retrieved March 2013

Buckser, a. (2006). The Empty Gesture: Tourette Syndrome and the Semantic Dimension of Illness. Purdue University. University of Pittsburgh- of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. Retrieved March 2013, from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/20456601 

Coffey, B., Berlin, C., & Naarden, a. (n.d.). Medications and Tourette's Disorder: Combined Pharmacotherapy and Drug Interactions. Retrieved March 2013, from http://www.tsa-usa.org/aMedical/images/medications_and_tourettes_berlin.pdf

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (n.d.). 4th Edition, 103. American Psychiatric Association.
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Gulf War Syndrome

Words: 1943 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93800506

Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), is a representation of several medical and psychological complaints, which are affecting several men and women who had participated in the Gulf War which took place in 1991. These ailments are muscular pain, skin rash; sleep disturbances peripheral numbness, memory loss, fatigue, respiratory illness, headaches, fever, spasms, low blood pressure and dizziness. The Depleted uranium could be considered partly as a factor responsible for the Gulf War Syndrome. The depleted uranium produced long-term health problems in people who had contacts with its usage. It was in the Gulf war that the Depleted uranium weapons were used for the first time. There have been studies conducted by scientists regarding whether depleted uranium affects the physical health of individuals. As a result they are of the opinion that many veterans of the Gulf War are affected in terms of health problems by the depleted uranium. Even though several…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Myers, Steven Lee. Test drug may be cause of Gulf War Syndrome, Scientific Survey Finds, New York Times, Oct. 18, 1999

Bruce, Ian. Troops in Gulf to use depleted uranium shells, Fourth Sunday of Advent, December 19, 1999 (Frisk, Robert. The Truth About Depleted Uranium, Independent, UK, January 8, 2001)

The Herald (Scotland) January 22, 2003 http://www.mint.gov.my/policy/nuc_disarm/issue_duweapons.htm

http://www.consultclarity.com/blazing/uranium.html
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Restless Leg Syndrome Is Found

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61583215

At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.

eferences

David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…… [Read More]

References

David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)

Hoffman, p. 56

Balch, p. 390
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Sotos Syndrome Is a Disorder

Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6935295

For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.

Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]

References

Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)

Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54

NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
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Asperger's Syndrome About Sixty-Five Years

Words: 4128 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94458383

2006). The article introduces an innovative research strategy; doctors are observing - in magnified format - key movement patterns in infants who may be showing early signs of as. To open the door to a "more accurate way of distinguishing autism from as," Teitelbaum explains, researchers are employing the "Eshkol-achman" movement notation (EMN), which was originally developed for dance and choreography. The EMN, in short, allows the most delicate deficits in infant movement to be detected.

Because the EMN system was designed to allow choreographers to write movement down on paper "that dancers could later reconstruct in its entirety," the EMN is proved to be "very detailed in analyzing a person's movement." Thus, the research team from the University of Florida asserted, when 16 videotapes from parents whose children had been diagnosed with as were analyzed using the EMN, this system of research was borne out as valid. The EMN…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AZ Psychiatry. (2005). Asperger's Syndrome: Epidemiology. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2008 at  http://www.azpsychiatry.info/cap/asperger/epidemiology.htm .

Hutcheson, Julian; & Rausch, Jeffrey L. (2006). Janssen Asperger's Risperidone Study.

Medical College of Georgia. Clinical Trials NIH. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2008 from http://clinicaltrials.gov.

Kohn, Arlene; Zaphiriou, Marianna; & McDougle, Christopher J. (2005). A Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Asperger's and Pervasive Development
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Fragile X Syndrome Causation and

Words: 1638 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37471765

Additionally, such programs can be "driven by economic and entrepreneurial interests. It was supported by a private biotechnology firm, justified by economic concerns about health care costs, and encouraged by the interests of a university research and development program" (Nelkin 1996: 540). However, parents supported the program and were in fact instrumental in organizing it, partially because they hoped the more information they had about their child's difficulties the better, because they desired to help future suffers, and because they hoped to prevent passing on the mutation to future generations (Nelkin 540).

Furthermore, when Fragile X is identified, however, some researchers argue, it can clarify research about other areas. For example, it can identify the cause of some cases autism, and make studies that look for non-Fragile X, genetically-related conditions that cause autism more instructive (Hertz-Picciotto et al. 1120). Knowing the source of a child's status as a Fragile X…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abrams, Liane. (2008). "What Does it Mean to Be a Carrier?" National Fragile X

Foundation. Retrieved 19 Jan 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/carriers.htm

Summary of Fragile X Syndrome." (2008). National Fragile X Foundation. Retrieved 19 Jan 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/summary.htm

Nelkin, Dorothy. (Dec., 1996), "The Social Dynamics of Genetic Testing: The Case of Fragile-X Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series. 10. 4.: 537-550.
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Stockholm Syndrome

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88248057

Stockholm Syndrome

"Men, when they receive good from whence they expect evil, feel the more indebted to their benefactor." ~ Niccolo Machiavelli

Stockholm syndrome is a psychological condition in which those who are held captive learn to sympathize with their captors. Instead of trying to escape the conditions that they are in, they become a part of the twisted psychology of those in control (Kocsis 266). It was named for the first reported incidence of the phenomena after a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. Captives were held for six days, during which time they became emotionally attached to their captors, even defending them after the ordeal was over. It is a very serious condition affecting approximately 25-30% of all hostage situation victims. People affected by Stockholm syndrome can have serious psychological repercussions for years to come, even affecting the individual for the rest of their life if not properly treated.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bejerot, Nils. "The Six Day War in Stockholm." New Scientist. 61: 886. 1974. 486-487. Print.

Doctor, Ronald M., and Frank N. Shiromoto. The Encyclopedia of Trauma and Traumatic Stress

Disorders. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2010. Print.

Fabrique, Nathalie. "FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin." 76:7. 2007. 10-17. Print.
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Tourette Syndrome and the Case

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90488771

And the movements which typify chronic movement disorder are probably subserved by the same structures within the basal ganglia as those which underpin compulsive behaviors and complex tics" (p. 470).

In addition to the other disorders associated with Tourettes, there are (not surprisingly) many emotional and social problems that affect its sufferers. Many sufferers of Tourettes are afraid to go out in public for fear of embarrassment, and many have very low self-esteem. There are also noted problems of aggression in Tourettes sufferers, not only because the tics themselves can manifest themselves aggressively, but also because the victims are angry that they were 'cursed' with this debilitating and often humiliating disorder. Making matters even worse is the fact that feelings of anger and stress can actually increase the symptoms of Tourettes (Prestia, 2003).

While there is no known cure for Tourettes, there are ways of reducing the emotional and social…… [Read More]

References

Brady, E. (2006, January 5) How Jessica's learning to live with Tourette's, the Birmingham Post (England), 4

Carr, a. (1999) the handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach, Routledge

Hendren, G. (2002), Tourette Syndrome: A new look at an old condition, the Journal of Rehabilitation, 68, 22-30

Prestia, K. (2003), Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and interventions, Intervention in School & Clinic, 39, 66-70
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Charcot-Marie Tooth Syndrome Definition and

Words: 2666 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66269973

In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.

On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on

Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht

National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197

National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health. http://www.genome.gov/11009201
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Restless Leg Syndrome

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94280149

estless Leg Syndrome

A simple way to define estless legs syndrome (LS) is an overpowering urge to move limbs, especially the legs that mostly take place when relaxing or during bedtime. This neural disorder is a major causative factor of nighttime blood pressure spikes and its associated circulatory consequences which reduces sleep quality and in some cases even eliminates the possibility of sleep. This sleep deprivation causes adverse effects such as nervousness, perpetual sadness and reduced comfort of living. Patients initially suffering from hemodialysis that develops LS have a much higher death rate. In most cases, they suffer from disorders that are difficult to explain. This paper's objective is to educate medical personnel on the need to understand and make deductions from the patient's signs, which are the factors considered and from which a conclusion is made if a patient has LS or some other disorder (Einollahi & Izadianmehr, 2014).…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R., Chen, C., & Garcia-Borreguero, D. (2014). Comparison of pregabalin with pramipexole for restless legs syndrome. N Engl J. Med, 370(7), 621-31.

Comella, C. L. (2014). Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome. Neurotherapeutics, 11(1), 177-87.

Einollahi, B., & Izadianmehr, N. (2014). Restless Leg Syndrome: A Neglected Diagnosis. Nephrourol Mon, 6(5).

Gangadharan, S., Perkins, L., Sauerbier, A., & Chaudhuri, K. R. (2016). The treatment challenges of restless legs syndrome. Prescribing In Practice.
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Redundancy and Survivor's Syndrome Investigating

Words: 3538 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96236096



Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.

Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…… [Read More]

References

Brandes, P., et al. 2008. 'The Interactive Effects of Job Insecurity and Organizational Cynicism on Work Effort Following a Layoff.' Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies

14 (3), pp. 233-247

Carey, M. 2007. 'White-Collar Proletariat? Braverman, the Deskilling/Upskilling of Social Work and the Paradoxical Life of the Agency Care Manager.' Journal of Social Work 7 (1), pp.

93-114.
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Savant Syndrome Is a Highly

Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1543211



People who have savant syndrome lead lives that are far from normal, but studying them is important. They appear to have increased blood supply to part of their brain, and a decreased flow to other parts. That is believed to be part of what accounts for what they can do, but there is no real understanding if the blood supply creates their abilities or if the blood supply is working to compensate for abilities that they do not have. SPECT studies show the increase, however, which is a provable part of how these people function and what makes them different from the rest of society. Even people with genius-level IQs cannot do what these savants can do. For example, many people can learn to play the piano well, and some can even play "by ear" - without the need for sheet music. Few, however, can hear a piece played once…… [Read More]

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Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome John

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54543230



ARDS," all definitions of this syndrome include patients who meet the following criteria: www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php?xmlFilePath=journals/ijeicm/vol1n1/ards.xml" 5

Clinical evidence of respiratory distress.

Chest radiograph revealing diffuse bilateral airspace disease ("pulmonary edema").

Hypoxemia that is difficult to correct with oxygen supplementation.

Hemodynamic evidence of a pulmonary artery occlusion (wedge) pressure < 18 mm Hg.

Thoracic static compliance less than 40 mL/cm of water

What clinical conditions did this patient experience that are common risk factors associated with ARDS?

Patients who have nearly drowned can develop ARDS. It is slightly more common to see ARDS with a salt water aspiration. The onset of symptoms may be slow. Lung infiltrates and the hypoxia are not usually seen until 12-24 hours of the accident.

The aspiration of the water is considered to be damaging to the lung tissue, and then results in situation where the osmotic gradient prefers the movement of water into the lung.

Describe…… [Read More]

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Prequel to the Movie 28 Days Later by Danny Boyle

Words: 1984 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23923252

Chromosomal Abnormality: Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is accompanied by both serious physical and mental developmental problems, and it is one of the most common genetic syndromes. According to Rebecca Saenz (1999), Down Syndrome occurs in one out of every 800 to 1,000 live births, which is an extremely high rate of incidence. This disorder occurs equally among both boys and girls. There are several genetic occurrences that can cause Down Syndrome to appear in a child, but all of them lead to the same chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome, which is the unit of genetic information that exists within each cell, appears in the genetic code of the affected person. When a baby is normally conceived, the egg cell of the mother and the sperm cell of the father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the genetic makeup of the child. In some cases, there may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bower, B. "Disabilities develop as family affair." Science News. Nov. 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/18_160/80344963/p1/article.jhtml

Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn. "Down syndrome." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2601/0004/2601000443/p1/article.jhtml

Mayor, Susan. "Parents of people with Down's syndrome report suboptimal care." British Medical Journal. Mar. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0999/7185_318/54342406/p1/article.jhtml

Saenz, Rebecca. "Primary Care of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome." American Family Physician. Jan. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3225/2_59/53730237/p1/article.jhtml
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Early Intervention for Mentally Disabled Children Due to Genetic Etiology

Words: 6396 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95316825

Intervention for Mentally Disabled Children Due to Genetic Etiology

The objective of the study is to study degrees of response to early intervention among intellectually disabled children due to different genetic etiologies and estimating a possible underlying molecular genetics that could serve to modulate the degree of response to early intervention among children of different genetic causes and children of the same genetic cause.

Sampling

The study reported herein is inclusive of 100 cases involving individuals with mental disabilities due to different genetic causes including those of Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome & Silver-ussell Syndrome in addition to controls matched for age (6M-4Y) and sex.

Methodology

Each case was subjected to: (1) comprehensive history including family history and specifically maternal and paternal ages at birth in each case, similar conditions in the family, jobs and exposure to drugs or x-rays; (2) pedigree construction and analysis; (3) evaluation of social status of…… [Read More]

References

Nilholm, C. (1996) Early intervention with children with Down syndrome - Past and future issues. Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 1996;4(2);51-58. Online available at: http://www.down-syndrome.org/reviews/62/

Mahoney, G., Robinson, C. And Fewell, RR (2001) The effects of early motor intervention on children with Down syndrome or cerebral palsy: a field-based study.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 22 (3): 153-62 (2001 Jun)

Crombie, M. And Gunn, P. (1998) Early Intervention, Families, and Adolescents with Down Syndrome International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 45 (3): 253-281 (1998)
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Mental Retardation in Adolescences Mental

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64628334

Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.

Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.

eferences

Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm

Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded

Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental…… [Read More]

References

Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm

Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded

Daigneault, Robert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues for mental retardation. Your Total Health. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/mental-retardation.html?pageNum=4#4

Mental Retardation -- Developmental delay. (2010). Mass General Hospital for Children. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_mental_retardation.aspx
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Math Education

Words: 947 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34751312

Children Learn

Math education, over the precedent years has been a contentious issue plaguing society at large. Many students, as they enter their preliminary schooling years, often have difficulty learning basic mathematical concepts. These difficulties compound as students proceed to upper levels of education. Throughout this process, math becomes more difficult for the student, often discouraging them from pursing math in a meaningful manner. Due to globalization, other nations are now becoming more competitive in regards to their overall workforce. They are now more educated, particularly in both math and science. Their respective countries are also very ambitious in teaching their children about the merits of math education. Competition now arises from all corners of the globe irrespective of geographic location. ealizing that global competition, market demands, and business needs necessitate the need for a mathematically oriented society, America has renewed its emphasis on math education. One such theory regarding…… [Read More]

References:

1) Brousseau, G. (1997). The theory of didactical situations in mathematics: Didactique des mathematiques, 1970 -- 1990 (N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, & V. Warfield, Eds. And Trans.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

2) Tiberghien, Andree. "Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER June 2009 vol. 38 no. 5 329-342
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Jungsik Yoo at Times I Marvel How

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62397771

Jungsik Yoo

At times, marvel how far have come. Ever since was a young boy, under the influence of my father, a molecular biologist, dreamed of researching genetically inherited diseases. Today, live that reality in my current field of work and research as a graduate student in neuroscience.

Thus, long before most children, because of my early exposure to the field of biology, was intimately aware that one's genetic inheritance could determine an individual's future physical and emotional health. Perhaps it comes as no surprise that soon decided was genetically coded to become a medical researcher. will receive my Ph D. n the summer of 2006 in neuroscience. But my current studies in the field of genetics have also soberly reminded me of how far both my own learning and the field of genetics need to be stretched, before the objectives of genetic research into inherited diseases can be realized.…… [Read More]

I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.

At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant '(SNTG) fellowship funded by National institute of health (NIH) since the fall of 2004. Thus I am well aware of the critical role genetics plays in public health of the nation as well as of the field of medical science, because of this generous grant, and I will strive to add to this knowledge in all of my future research.

Also, as a T.A. over the past two years, I have gleaned further knowledge of the curiosity of students for 'in the field' research. I have been grateful to have this human element present even in my PhD education. I am also proud to say I have not merely have received excellent reviews from my students, but joined them in many intramural soccer games, one of my favorite pursuits of my college years. I was not given the genetic gift, sadly, of becoming a great sports star, but I do believe that it is encoded in my own personal biology to bring a vital element of clinical humanity to the important work being done in the field of genetic research.
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Letter of Intent

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78081536

Admissions Committee:

I have worked as a paraprofessional with special needs children for seven years in a diverse, socio-economically disadvantaged district of Brooklyn. Despite the tremendous challenges faced by the students and teachers alike in this geographic area, I go home every day feeling privileged to have witnessed the growth and compassion of my students and colleagues, as they fight against tremendous odds. Still, I am all too well aware that there is much more that needs to be done to serve at-risk communities. At present, I have a B.A. In psychology, but I seek the more rigorous and specific knowledge needed to help these types of children and the wider community that can be only provided by a graduate degree in social work. As a social worker, I believe I can make a more meaningful impact upon the lives of others.

As well as my professional experience, my personal…… [Read More]

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Genetics and Development Genetics Is a Scientific

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88664099

Genetics and Development

Genetics is a scientific discipline that deals with how individuals inherit their physical and behavioral attributes. Generally, genetics is a branch of biology that deals with the science of heredity, genes, and differences in living organisms. It's the process with which a child inherits traits from his/her parents and the molecular organization and function of genes. The question of what determines the development of a child has been an issue that has attracted considerable concerns and debates across educators, biologists, and psychologists. This issue has attracted huge concerns because it's impossible to explain each and every factor that eventually determines who a child becomes. Notably, the development of a child involves a mix of various influences such as parenting, genetics, individual experiences, family relationships, friends, and school. One of the most important influences on a child's development and growth is genetics, which primarily is the process of…… [Read More]

References:

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Genes and Development -- How Genetics Influence Child Development.

Retrieved December 9, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/genes-and-development.htm

"Genetics - Introduction." (2012, July 30). NHS -- Your Health, Your Choices. Retrieved December 9, 2013, from  http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/genetics/pages/introduction.aspx
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Contemplate My Admission to Your

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93534305

I know whatever major I choose, my first priority is to help others and make a difference in their lives.

I feel I have a lot to offer to your university in my attitude, involvement, and dedication. I am a very sensitive person because of my sister and her condition. She has had many medical problems (including open-heart surgery, heart failure, and several battles with pneumonia). She is an inspiration to me, and my family rejoices in all of her successes. This has made me more open to others, and to understand those who are different, as well as those who fit in. I feel this will make me a better, more compassionate student and peer.

My sister has taught me more than compassion and sensitivity. Despite her health problems and situation, she still holds down a part time job at McDonald's, and is always positive and upbeat. As my…… [Read More]

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Robert Frost Poems Stopping by

Words: 2878 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18310667

One study published in the American Psychiatric Association found that "PTSD has been shown to predict poor health not only in veterans of the 1991 Gulf ar but also in veterans of orld ar II and the Korean ar. Our study extends these findings in a group of active duty soldiers returning from recent combat deployment to Iraq, confirming the strong association between PTSD and the indicators of physical health independent of physical injury" (Hoge, Terhakopian, Castro, Messer & Engel, 2007). From this study one can certainly glean that PTSD has a somatic component to it, or at least there is a prevalence in which persons afflicted with PTSD also suffer from physical health problems. One can also assume that the somatic component was downplayed or overlooked in prior studies, as most treatments for PTSD do not seem to address the physical aspect of the disorder.

To elaborate on this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cooper, M. (2008). The Facts are Friendly. Therapy Today.net. Retrieved from http://www.therapytoday.net/article/15/8/categories/

Frost, R. (1923). Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening. New Hampshire. Retrieved from  http://www.ketzle.com/frost/snowyeve.htm .

Gelso, C., Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling Psychology Second Edition. Orlando, FL:

Harcourt, Inc.
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Dedicate Myself to an Interest

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90537785

I intend to pursue a career in medicine, a career that I regard as a calling as well as an aspiration. My sports activities have disciplined me, toughened me, and honed my competitive instincts in a way that I believe is necessary for pre-medical studies, and later, perhaps, for medical school. I intend to enter the health care field, either a practitioner, or perhaps from a business angle, as I have grown convinced, after seeing my own family's struggle with the bureaucratic aspects of the American medical system, that there is a need for an infusion of compassion and reform into the system from all areas, on the part of administrators as well as doctors.

At present, to give me a strong academic founding for my rigorous college studies in science and business, I am currently enrolled in three AP classes: Calculus AB AP, Psychology AP, and Spanish V AP.…… [Read More]

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Long-Term Goals My Short-Term Goals Are to

Words: 468 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80065361

long-Term goals?

My short-term goals are to make the most out of my academic talents and abilities and fulfilling the core values of Respect, Compassion, Excellence, Justice, and Stewardship. The Medical focus Program will be an opportunity for me to begin specializing in science and healthcare-related subjects and to get to know other students who share my academic and career interests. I look forward to being able to the first-hand experience of volunteering in the healthcare professions so that I can interact with patients and experienced healthcare professionals. I also look forward to being as creative as possible, such as in the way that I duplicated several classic scientific experiments in my school science fairs.

My long-term goal is to become an orthodontist. I have had this goal since I was six years old, when I had an accident that broke some of my teeth and required orthodontic care. My…… [Read More]

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Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
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Terri Schiavo Conflict

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86343865

Terri Schiavo- a Case of Life-Ethics

Mercy Killing, euthanasia, life support, brain damage are some of the hotly debated issues today in medical and legal circles. When is a person really dead? Why should life support system be provided? When can it be removed? Under what circumstances a person can be killed by the medical staff? There questions, as disturbing as they may be, are high pertinent to the case of Theresa Schiavo, the 41-year-old woman who died on March 31st, this year after her feeding tube was removed. (BBC News)

Terri Schiavo, as she is popularly known now, suffered a serious brain injury in a cardiac arrest in 1990 which may have been triggered by her suspected bulimia. She was then married to Michael Schiavo and apparently living a happy life. Terri's parents, obert and Mary Schindler, wanted to keep her alive with the use of a feeding tube.…… [Read More]

References

1) Disabled state - special legislation for Terri Schiavo -- 39-year-old woman in vegetative state since 1990 Christian Century Nov 29, 2003

2) Robert Marus, Florida dispute renews life-ethics controversy - News Terri Schiavo Christian Century Nov 15, 2003

3) Excerpts from the Supreme Court decision in Washington v. Glucksberg allowing states to ban doctor-assisted suicides "The State Has an Interest in Preventing Suicide . . . And Treating Its Causes', Washington Post, Friday, June 27, 1997; Page A18

4) "Brain-damaged Terri Schiavo dies" Story from BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/americas/4398131.stm Published: 2005/03/31
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Hnc Social Care I Am an Hnc

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43650968

Hnc Social Care

I am an Hnc SocialCare Student currently on placement within a day care center for older adults. I have experienced an incident in which challenging behavior was an issue. The following essay will detail this incident.

I had been with my current day care center for roughly a year. The center cared for older adults primarily with conditions including dimentia and alzheimer's disease. I was called into my supervisor's office and notified that we were taking on a new patient. The patient was in their 40's and had down syndrome. Our center was offering respite nighttime care. This was to be my first time caring for a down syndrome patient, so I was unsure what to expect.

The patient arrived for care the next evening. We were offering the family overnight relief care. Apparently the young man does not sleep well and often wakes up during the…… [Read More]

References

Loveland, Katherine; Michelle, Kelley (1988). "Development of Adaptive Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism and Down Syndrome." American Journal of Mental Retardation. Volume 93 (84-92).

Heron, Gavin (2006). "Critical Thinking in Social Care and Social Work: Searching Student Assignments for the Evidence" Social Work Education. Volume 25.3 (209-24).

Dumas, Jean; et al. (1991). "Parenting stress, child behavior problems, and dysphoria in parents of children with autism, down syndrome, behavior disorders, and normal development." Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal. Volume 2.2 (97-110).

Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Kasari, Connie (1997) "Maladaptive Behavior in Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome, Down Syndrome, and Nonspecific Mental Retardation." American Journal on Mental Retardation: Volume 102.3 (228-37).
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Individual Differences in Mental Abilities Cognition

Words: 2720 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38941016

Nature of Cognition

Ever since Simon and inet developed the first intelligence test in 1905, the field of psychology has maintained a strong interest in the nature of intelligence. How do we think? Why are some people better problem solvers than others? What is cognition, the ability to think about our environment? Why are some people consistently more able to use their brains to think, to remember, and to problem-solve than others?

The first IQ tests were devised to determine which children were mentally retarded. These children were pulled away from mainstream education. However, the tests did an effective job of predicting school success for all students, and their use was broadened (Sternberg, 1999). Multiple tests were developed to measure cognition, which might be defined as the ability to think abstractly. Markman (2001) described it in this way:

Cognition depends on the ability to imagine or represent objects and events…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Academy of Pediatrics. August, 2000. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Pediatrics.

Baker, O. Oct. 1999. "Faulty control gene underlies retardation (Rett Syndrome)." Science News.

Bower, B. Nov 20, 1999. "DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation." Science News.

Eliez, Stephan. Feb, 2000. "Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XI. Fragile X Syndrome." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
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Teaching Communication Skills for Students With Autism

Words: 6440 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69966135

Teaching Communication Skills for Students With Autism

The conditions for diagnosis for autism that are presently prevalent within the U.S. are those mentioned in the American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders," Fourth Edition, which is generally pinpointed as 'DSM-IV." Autism is taken into account by the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (4th Ed, DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as an existent development disorder (PDD) that is impacted by abnormal or impaired development in social cooperation and speech combined with a constrained array of actions and individual wishes. (Gresham et el, 1999).

Autism is termed as an impotent syndrome marked chiefly by important difficulty in the evolution of speech and social functioning. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) envisages a vast definition of autism that is comprehensive of associated impotencies like Asperger Syndrome, ett's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Autism and ASD are identifications portraying students with a vast array…… [Read More]

References

Biklen D. (1990) Communication abound: autism and praxis. Harvard Educational Review; 60:291-314

Biklen D, Morton M, Gold D, Berrigan C, Swaminathan S. (1992) Facilitated communication: implications for individuals with autism. Top Lang Disord; 12:1-28.

Biklen D. (1993) Facilitated communication. Harvard Mental Health Newsletter; 10:5-7

Bondy, A. And Frost, L. (1994). The Picture Exchange Communication System. Focus on Autistic Behavior 9, 1-19.
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Trimester of Pregnancy When Life

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14282047

Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).

Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements

According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry

News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1

Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1

Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
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Detection and Intervention in Childhood Mental Health

Words: 10566 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97642961

detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?

Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…… [Read More]

References

AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).

Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964

Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp. Accessed on 12/08/2003

Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
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Human Genome Project May Be

Words: 2793 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46892228

Since the antigens are closely linked to race and ethnicity, it is much easier to find a biological match among people with similar ethnic and racial backgrounds than it is among any two randomly selected individuals. On the basis of tissue matching, organs from blacks will almost always go to blacks and organs from whites will almost always go to whites. Blacks, however, have a much higher incidence of kidney failure than whites. But since whites significantly outnumber blacks in the American population, there are still large numbers of whites waiting for organs. There are so many, in fact, that nearly every white donor is matched to a white recipient. Blacks and other minorities must rely on a much smaller pool of kidneys. The situation for potential black kidney transplant recipients is made even worse by the fact that blacks have a lower rate of cadaver organ donation than do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrew, Lori. "Public Choices and Private Choices: Legal Regulation of Genetic Testing."

Justice and the Human Genome Project. Ed. Timothy Murphy and Marc Lappe. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994, 46-75.

Caplan, Arthur. "Handle with Care: Race, Class, and Genetics." Justice and the Human Genome Project. Ed. Timothy Murphy and Marc Lappe. Los Angeles:

University of California Press, 1994, 30-46.
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Vitro' Fertilization Is One of the Applications

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81617249

Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to offspring of couples who have undergone this process, 'test tube babies.' In vitro ('in glass') fertilization is only one of the many treatments for infertility. The general term by which in vitro can be identified is through artificial insemination, wherein semen taken from the woman's partner or male donor is "injected" into a woman's uterus. In the technique of in vitro fertilization, however, "eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory dish with her partner's sperm" (Dmowski 1991 265).

There are several reasons why infertility happens, and indications that show that a couple needs to undergo an in vitro treatment. Infertility may be due to either the man or the woman's infertility. A man becomes infertile when…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dmowski, Paul. "Infertility." World Book Encyclopedia Vol 10. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): "Test Tube Babies." 2001. Fertility Confidential Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.fertilityconfidential.com/fertilityconfidential/infertility/conventional/ivf.cfm.

IVF Program. 2000. South Jersey Fertility Center Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.sjfert.com/assisted_reproductive_Programs.html.

Williamson, Miryam. "Waiting Longer to Get Pregnant: The Advantages and Disadvantages for Women." 6 November 2000. Rockhill Communications. Laurus Health News Feature. 10 June 2002 http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/HealthNewsFeature/hnf1110600.htm.
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Ethics of Allowing Anyone to Have Kids

Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76179453

Biomedical Ethics

The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
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Genetic Counseling

Words: 2111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630310

Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.

The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.

Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…… [Read More]

References

Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.

Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.

CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/genetics/genetic_counseling.html

Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
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Neonatal Ethics and Have Presented

Words: 2667 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 566514

As the mentioned societies characterized themselves for athleticism, power and strength so it was not a surprising thing that those people looked down on and hated babies who were weak, dependent and immature. Thus, an individual child was given importance on the basis of his likable future contributions to the society as a mature adult. egrettably, no rules and regulations and laws were there that prohibited people from murdering the helpless and ill babies. Sorry to say, in some cases, even the newborn babies who were in good physical health did not have protection by social custom or lawful decrees. It is a bitter reality that killing of malformed babies was considered important for the maintenance of the quality of the civilians. Similar practices were also common in some parts of the Eastern world (Wyatt 1).

As far as the secular perspective in this regard is concerned, a number of…… [Read More]

References

"Bioethical Issues - Neonatal Ethics."Adelaide Centre for Bioethics and Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. .

Brazier, M.. "How to Treat Premature Infants." The Scientist Dec. 2006: 22+.Questia. Web. 7 May 2013. .

Carter, B.S. . "Ethical Issues in Neonatal Care ." MedScape. N.p., 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 6 May 2013. .

Laurance, J.. "Should Doctors Try to Save Extremely Premature Babies? The Big Question." The Independent [London] 16 Nov. 2006: 42. Questia. Web. 6 May 2013. .
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Active and Passive Euthanasia Why Does James

Words: 1642 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93828109

active and passive euthanasia. Why does James achels think there is no moral difference between them?

Active euthanasia is the "mercy killing" of a life to prevent further suffering; passive euthanasia is deliberately allowing that life to die of "natural" causes. James achels believes there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia for a few reasons. First, in many cases where passive euthanasia is allowed (meaning it has already been decided that the life is not worth saving) but active euthanasia is against the law, the patient suffers more, longer, and needlessly by being allowed to die on their own. Therefore, since active euthanasia in these cases would prevent that suffering, active euthanasia is clearly less immoral than passively standing by. Still, achels' argument for moral equality between the two is that in each case it has been decided that the life at stake is not worth saving:…… [Read More]

References

Foot, P. (2002). Moral Dilemmas and Other Topics in Moral Philosophy: Killing and Letting Die. Oxford, England: Clarendon.

Hardwig, J. (1997). Is There A Duty to Die? The Hastings Center Report, 34+.

Harris, J. (1975). The Survival Lottery. Philosophy, 81-87.

Rachels, J. (1975). Active and Passive Euthanasia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 78-80.
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Hearing Voices Patients Therapists in an

Words: 4695 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37526528



Jung and auditory hallucinations

Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.

Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Bentley, Kia J. "Women, Mental Health, and the Psychiatric Enterprise: A Review." Health and Social Work 30, no. 1 (2005): 56+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Davidson, Larry. "Intentionality, Identity, and Delusions of Control in Schizophrenia: A Husserlian Perspective." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 33, no. 1 (2002): 39+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
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Nursing it Is Generally Agreed

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27966345

, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195

Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.

Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.

leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]

Kleinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.
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Autistic Children and the Effect

Words: 2503 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36537320

1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)

II. EFFECTS on LIFE of FAMILY in NORMAL ACTIVITIES

In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10118

Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth

Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/Autism.html

Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163
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Dealing With an Under Active Thyroid

Words: 1978 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30054161

Hypothyroidism is a fairly common disorder that patients are diagnosed with and it can have wide ranging effects. While hyperthyroidism is when the thyroid is excreting too much into the bloodstream, hypothyroidism is the opposite. If untreated, the effects on the body are numerous and substantial with the most prominent affected area being the body's metabolism rate and quality. Even with these risks, there is absolutely treatment available for the disorder once it is identified with certainty. This report will cover, after a more detailed description of hypothyroidism, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods that are used to address the disorder.

As indicated in the introduction, the main effect that hypothyroidism has on the human body is a slower and more sluggish metabolism. However, to say it is just that is less than accurate. As described by WebMD, the thyroid is in charge on controlling how one's body uses energy from…… [Read More]

References

Corriher, S. (2013). How to Cure Hypothyroidism Naturally. Healthwyze.

Mayo. (2016). Treatment - Hypothyroidism - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 7 June

2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20155362

MBG. (2011). 13 Ways to Treat Hypothyroidism Naturally. mindbodygreen. Retrieved 7 June
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Mental Retardation Is Generally Understood

Words: 2000 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76150564

They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)

6. Conclusion

The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.

My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm

Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836

Lustig D.C. (1996)

Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825" Journal of Rehabilitation, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n4_v62" Oct-Dec, 1996. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_2_65/ai_54924773/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1

Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.hmc.psu.edu/childrens/healthinfo/m/mentalretardation.htm
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Ethical Eugenics Unethical Pgd There

Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72060914

There are too many factors that cannot be controlled. Children may develop inferiority feelings regarding their own specialness due to the choices of their parents. Many people who may be able to make contributions to society will more than likely be aborted. There is also the possibility that just because someone has a genetic trait for a malady, they may not even manifest such a condition. Additionally, the lack of clear boundaries in this field leaves the potential for catastrophes, such as that which happened during orld ar II.

orks Cited

Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.

Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.

Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.

Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.

Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.

King, David S. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the 'New' Eugenics." Journal of Medical Ethics, 25, 1999, 176 -- ?182
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Abortion After Prenatal Testing Methods of Prenatal

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88174952

Abortion After Prenatal Testing

Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis

There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.

The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.

Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
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Psychometric Assessment of Autism

Words: 3635 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15294317

Psychometric Assessment Autism

Background of Autism

What is autism? Autism is a disease, which poses tons of questions, while providing least of answers. This being said, autism is one of the five diseases coming under Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). It shows in early years of a human and effects the brain's functioning. An autism website states that, 'it's a result of a neurological disorder, which hampers the proper operations of a brain, hindering the social interactions and communications' (Autism Society of America website). Autism asks us millions questions, its origins, its solutions, its causes and symptoms; none of which are answered. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2013), states that, autism is basically pervasive developmental disorder otherwise called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It is described as a condition where the person faces severe problem in social communication, interactions, perception and communication. APA (2013) shows…… [Read More]

References

Alpern, G.D. (2007). Developmental Profile 3. Lutz, FL: Western Psychological Services.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html 

Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., & Excoffier, E. (2005). Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 103 -- 116.
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Special Ed Learning Disabilities Chart

Words: 696 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90030934

Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.

The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.

eferences

LDA. (209).…… [Read More]

References

LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/

WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10 

Sheet1

Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
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Genetic Counseling Dealing With Its

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92171465

"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.

Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.

Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic

Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5

Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
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Mental Retardation Students With a

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65841775

Experts report improved interactions with peers, support for the parents to act as teachers at home, improved motivation for the child, and aiding the family in learning about other support available in the community (mmerman & Herson, 2000).

Medications may play a role if the child has other concerns such as D/HD or seizures (mmerman & Herson, 2000).

Inclusion with Mental Retardation

Educationally, some research suggests that students with mental retardation learn more in general education classes than in special education. Studies on inclusion aren't quite as clear. Students may benefit from inclusion when younger, but when older it may have more negative effects unless the non-handicapped students are supportive of the program (Turnbull et. al.). In addition to behavioral and socialization support, students need functional as well as academic skills. For instance, they should be taught how to use public transportation and information about handling money (Turnbull et. al.).…… [Read More]

Ammerman, Robert T., and Hersen, Michel. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. 2000: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Michel Hersen; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

Swartz, Stanley, L., Ph.D. "Positive Behavior Support: An Inclusion Strategy." Accessed via the Internet 6/10/05.  http://www.stanswartz.com/positivebehaviorsupport.htm 

Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann; Shank, Marilyn; and Smith, Shean J. Exceptional Lives.
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Symptoms of Periodontitis Smoking and

Words: 3837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64949452



According to the research conducted by Silverstein et al., (2000), the pressure used to place the probe tip at the base of the periodontal sulcus is approximately 50 N/cm2 and at the base of the junction epithelium is 200 N/cm2. A tip diameter of 0.6 mm is needed to reach the base of the sulcus. Clinical inflammation does not reflect the severity of histological inflammation, and the recordings may not illustrate probing depth. Therefore, probing depth does not identify anatomical locations at the base of the sulcus. Probe tips must have a diameter of 0.6 mm and a 0.20 gram force (50 N/cm2) to gain a pressure which demonstrates estimated probing depth. This pressure is useful for the measurement of the reduction of clinical probing depth, which includes the formation of a long junctional epithelium as a result of treatment. but, different forces or diameter tips are essential for the…… [Read More]

References

Chaves et al., (1993). Clinical oral research. Journal of Clinical Periodontol, 139-43.

Fowler, et al., (1982). Histologic probe position in treated and untreated human periodontal tissues. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 9, 373-385.

Gerber et al., (2009). Clinical Oral Implants Research. Journal of Periodontology, 20(1):75-8

Heins, et al., (1998). Pain threshold values during periodontal probing: assessment of maxillary incisor and molar sites. Journal of Periodontology, 69, 812-818.
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Abortion Due to Birth Defect

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96422705

Fetal Abnormality

The author of this report has been asked to assess a case study that is quite tragic and challenging. Indeed, Jessica and Marco are about to have a child but they discover that the child has no arms and possibly possesses Down Syndrome. The recommended action by the doctor is termination of the pregnancy due to the quality of life the child will not have and the impacts that will be rendered on the parents in terms of economic and other burdens. However, there are several ethical issues that pop up along the way including the doctor being able to notify Jessica despite Marco's misgivings, the viewpoint of both Jessica and Aunt Maria to not abort the child and Marco's general stance that he'll honor either choice while also thinking that keeping the baby will create a lot of obligations and challenges.

Summary

The first question for this…… [Read More]

References

Howe, J. (2014). Paying For My Special-Needs Child. MONEY.com. Retrieved 30 June 2015, from  http://time.com/money/2793944/paying-for-my-special-needs-child/ 

Utilitarian. (2015). Abortion. Utilitarian.org. Retrieved 30 June 2015, from  http://www.utilitarian.org/abortion.html
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Looking Into Early Childhood Special Education

Words: 819 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96451037

Children's Books On Development Of Children's Self-Concept, Dealing With Life's Challenges and/or Have Characters With Disabilities

This list has been sorted by the books' readability levels;

AC = Adult ead to Children. Books for Pre-K to Grade 3, ranging from 10 to 30 pages, with illustrations; typically designed for parents to read to their children (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).

JE = Juvenile Easy eader. For children who are beginning to read on their own, such as those in Grades 1-2; ranging from 30 to 80 pages; illustrations are included to break up the text (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).

JF = Juvenile Fiction. Children's fiction or chapter books; for children in Grades 2-6; ranging from 60 to 200 pages, the books are generally divided into chapters, contain fewer illustrations, and have more complicated plots or concepts than either AC or JE books (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).

Andy and His Yellow Frisbee

Publisher: Woodbine House,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Teacher Vision. (2000-2016). Children's Books About Disabilities. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from Teacher Vision: https://www.teachervision.com
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Ethics Treating Impaired Infants Nearly

Words: 2590 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5828803

Newborn pain is an example of an everyday occurrence where achieving neonates' interests are through making them comfortable and pain-free. As the neonatal intensive care nursery gives rise to many potentially painful procedures, a dilemma exists for caregivers in assessing if sick and/or premature infants are in pain (Nagy 1998). Although newborn pain affects the short-term interests there are possibilities that the lasting effects may also be harmful (Spence, 2000).

For a long time, the medical profession has given its members with the knowledge and skills that are required to treat disease and deformity. Physicians have often been the front line of technological mastery, increasingly emotional with the onerous responsibility of determining when intervention is suitable. Underlying this responsibility is a foundation of core principles, including beneficence, non-malfeasance, and compassion. Conscious use of these principles is not often supportive when the best interests of patients are diverse and apply to…… [Read More]

References

Head, David W., Head, Becky and Head, James L. (1985). Life or Death of Severely Disabled

Infants: A Counseling Issue. Journal of Counseling & Development. 63(10), p. 621.

Kopelman, Loretta M. (2005). Are the 21-Year-old Baby Doe Rules Misunderstood or Mistaken? Pediatrics. 115(3), pp. 797-802.

Morrow, Jason. (2000). Making Mortal Decisions at the Beginning of Life: The Case of Impaired and Imperiled Infants. Journal of American Medical Association. 284, p. 1146-
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R-Questions to Build the Literature

Words: 9245 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46920430



Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.

Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.

Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.
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Language Autism Language and Children With Autism

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801154

Language Autism

Language and children with autism:

Sources of cognitive deficits

Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).

The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…… [Read More]

References

ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html 

Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html 

Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.

Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html
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Raising IQ Scores Education

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41640985

raising IQ scores/Education. Question: Should the IQ cutoff for mental retardation be raised to 80? Six sources. APA.

Should the IQ Cutoff for Mental Retardation be raised to 80?

The debate regarding IQ tests continues to rage into the new millennium. Every decade has a myriad of new studies supporting or contradicting the last accepted theories and studies. There are new studies which indicate that the IQ scores in the United States has risen by 3 points per decade, "indicating that intelligence is not stable but is flexible with regards to environmental influences." However, after vast research, no one knows just exactly what is causing the rise in IQ scores. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate in regards to raising the IQ cutoff scores for the mental retardation assessment. The American Association of Mental Retardation's definition of mental retardation is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davis, Sharon. "The Human Genome Project: Examining The Arc's Concerns Regarding the Project's Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications." November 12, 1997. http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/resource/arc.html.(accessed 11-24-2002).

Definition of Mental Retardation." American Association of Mental Retardation: 2002

Policy Forum. July 29, 2002. http://www.aamr.org/Policies/faq_mental_retardation.shtml.(accessed 11-24-2002).

MacMillan, Donald L.; Forness, Steven R. "The Role of IQ in Special Education
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Autism and Performance

Words: 1019 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47775122

Children with autism can be hard to assess. Many children who fall under the criteria needed to determine autism, may be in fact be socially awkward, shy, among other things. As the CDC websites explains: "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain" (CDC, 2014). Some have even identified a gene that could play a role in the development of autism. This however does not speak for the majority of children diagnoses with autism so therefore other assessment tools as well identification methods must be used to determine whether a child has autism.

"A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder" (CDC, 2014). Along with the new guidelines for proper diagnosis comes a set of identification methods…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2014, March 20). Signs and Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html  (tags: none | edit tags)

Meisels, S. (n.d.). Performance Assessment. Performance Assessment. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from  http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/assessment/perfassess.htm
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Autonomy and Pregnancy Personal Autonomy Lies at

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34209029

Autonomy and Pregnancy

Personal autonomy lies at the heart of the pro-choice movement and is an issue that impacts every pregnant woman. Any person who has been pregnant can tell you that pregnancy has consequences to the individual, both short-term and long-term. Some of those consequences are seemingly minor, but others can be literally life-threatening. However, while the pro-choice anti-choice debate focuses on maternal rights and fetal rights, there is little discussion of the impact of maternal choices on fetuses when mothers choose to carry a pregnancy to term, but engage in behaviors that are less-than-optimum for fetal health. The reality is that maternal behavior has consequences for the lifelong health for the developing child. There are several maternal behaviors, such as alcohol or drug usage during pregnancy that can lead to lifelong disabilities for the developing child. However, there are other maternal behaviors that are linked to optimal fetal…… [Read More]

References

Munson, R. (2011). Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics. Cengage Learning.
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Frameworks for Child's Learning and Development

Words: 4909 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35607774

health care strategies and skills for Zoe to improve in her decision-making, communication, introspection, and problem-solving. The strategies will focus on using and developing various ground rules for health care discussions. The interventions will also assess independence of attitudes and knowledge in relation to Zoe's content. ecognizing and reflecting on Zoe's personal feelings and emotional negotiations is essential in this study. The paper encourages stakeholders such as Mrs. Flynn to listen to different views while accepting Zoe's rights of growth and development. The strategies recognize the diverse impacts and influences on family, media, peers, and religion on parental decision-making. It is critical to appreciate that learning and decision-making processes inform thinking and taking responsibility for health care alternatives. The essay proceeds to identify ways of enhancing awareness of community resources as availed for the assistance of individuals and families.

Assessment of Zoe's need

Zoe is experiencing delayed growth. The delays…… [Read More]

References

Allen, K., Marotz, L., 2009. Developmental Profiles: Pre-birth through Twelve. New York: Cengage Learning.

Bickley, L.S., Szilagyi, P.G., & Bates, B. 2009. Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Brownhill, S. 2009. 100 Ideas for Teaching Physical Development. New York: A&C Black.

Bukatko, D., Daehler, M., 2011. Child Development: A Thematic Approach. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Autism and Dementia Description of Autism Spectrum

Words: 1791 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89055531

Autism and Dementia

Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia

Behavioral Criteria for Autism and Dementia

The Incidence ates and Causes

Options for Treatment Based on Theoretical Models

Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia

Autism Spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is essentially a brain dysfunction that has the potential to affect emotion, learning ability and memory that gradually comes to light as an individual grows up. This is generally evident in children and sometimes, if undetected and untreated, can manifest in adults also. Autism Spectrum disorder can include brain dysfunctions due to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Down syndrome and intellectual developmental disorder. In modern medicine, Autism and ADHD are also considered to be Autism Spectrum disorders (http://aadmd.org, 2015).

The root of autism seems to be in the very early brain development. Since it is a brain developmental condition that becomes prominent as an individual continuous to grow…… [Read More]

References

Barnham, K., & Cherny, R. (2011). Metal chaperones: A holistic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(4), e54. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.221

CDC - Facts about Autism Spectrum Disorders - NCBDDD,. (2015). Facts About ASDs. Retrieved 27 July 2015, from  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html 

Corcoran, M. Neurocognitive disorder (NCD).

Corrada, M., Brookmeyer, R., Paganini-Hill, A., Berlau, D., & Kawas, C. (2010). Dementia incidence continues to increase with age in the oldest old: The 90+ study. Annals Of Neurology, 67(1), 114-121. doi:10.1002/ana.21915
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Three Part Assignment With Interview

Words: 4806 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25811577

level of communication it takes to handle a case where a child has multiple disabilities. A transdisciplinary approach is useful in allowing professionals to collaborate and ask for help should the client or the client's parent require it. Handling a child with multiple disabilities is an arduous process. It involves use of equipment, proper handling, and consistent therapy that cannot be done in a multidisciplinary setting. Well, it can be done, but not as successfully as in a transdisciplinary setting.

Connecting the material back to earlier information read, open-ended interview questions help collect information from a parent more than simple questions. It is so important during the initial stage of a case to understand what the child goes through each day and how the parent handles the child. While this part may seem difficult by asking open-ended questions, it provides the kind of information that will be needed by everyone…… [Read More]

References

Addison, J. (2016). Home. Visualaidsforlearning.com. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.visualaidsforlearning.com/

Bell, S. & McCallum, R. (2015). Handbook of Reading Assessment: A One-Stop Resource for Prospective and Practicing Educators. Rotledge.

Brandenburg, J., Klesczewski, J., Fischbach, A., Schuchardt, K., Buttner, G., & Hasselhorn, M. (2014). Working Memory in Children With Learning Disabilities in Reading vs. Spelling: Searching for Overlapping and Specific Cognitive Factors. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 48(6), 622-634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022219414521665

Chen, D. (2008). Early intervention in action. Paul H Brookes Pub Co.