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Freudian Dream Interpretation
The dream presented by the client is one of wish fulfillment. The people in the dream and their "Trash" hurt the client. This trash is of an emotional nature and an expression of repressed feelings of sexual anger and resentment. The Old Friend from High School expresses both her wish to see that old friend and places a time frame on the time period which the anger and resentment began. The client is dealing with anger and resentment from the past. The client does shows displacement of the anger and resentment by the fact that the trash is not hers, but is being given to her by the other people. This expresses a clear feeling of being victimized by other people. The client does not take responsibility for her own feelings and blames others for their cause. The client wants to escape from these feelings and wishes…… [Read More]
The is also based on drive-defence model which was advanced by Freud.
The second topology one includes the less common dreams whose meaning are different and should therefore be treated and handled in the light of latest theoretical frameworks as advanced by Kohut Self-psychology. He referred to these dreams as "Self-state dreams" which are experienced when the patient's psychological structure stability is in jeopardy .Such crisis or threat usually occur in different pathological states, the states can however vary from being hyper-stimulation (maniacal), to tension reduction in approach of a depressed state. This might lead to a serious problem related to the of the psychic structure's disintegration .
Kohut in (1977) stated that the act of exhibiting the elements of a dream makes up the attempt by the unconscious to tackle the psychological dangers that are related to the actual processes portrayed in the visual images in the dream
Through…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in shaping self-concept and behavior, dreams as the language of the unconscious mind, and the development of ego defense mechanisms as psychological coping mechanisms.
Dream analysis is one of the hallmarks of Freudian theory and central to psychoanalysis. In this article, Hebbrecht (2013) presents several case studies from clinical practice to illustrate some of the ways dream recollection can be stimulated during therapy, and how…… [Read More]
Dreaming is just one of the natural phenomenons that human beings do during the process of sleeping. Indeed, this natural process is not constrained to any particular characteristic and people with cultural diversity, all age groups and different social backgrounds dream throughout their entire lives. Since dreaming is linked to the mind and soul, thus it is considered that people will continue to dream until they are living (Hobson 2004).
Dreaming is an entire chain and cycle of metaphors, feelings, sensation and insight that forms a story while a person is asleep. Since the dreams people see are not in one shape, hence it can be peaceful, thrilling, practical, scary, chaotic, or implausible. This means that during the entire phenomenon of dreaming, a person can hallucinate about humans, houses, places such as cities, hills, rivers and various other things that the individual have not even seen in real life (Hobson…… [Read More]
Chaucer basically offers an idea of the acceptance of the temporal quality of the world and how that relates to life and love. This can also be seen as a lack of consolation; however, in this lack of consolation he is admitting that there is no consolation and that that fact alone should act as a consolation. The man is destined to grieve for his wife as this is how the temporal world works. There is no consolation for the grieving.
There is not one of the two characters whom find any kind of consolation, though it is clear that the Dreamer is quite taken with the dream. e aren't able to say what happens next -- after he wakes up; however, it is somewhat accepted that the Dreamer and the Black Knight are a bit closer to making peace with their situations. Neither of them have been on a…… [Read More]
Culture, Dreams, And Artwork
Dreams and artwork are two things that seem to provide an invitation for interpretation, and cultural perspective is almost always going to influence that interpretation. At first blush, this statement may seem to fly in the face of Jungian interpretation, since the collective unconscious and the enduring interpretation of symbols might suggest that symbols would not vary across cultures. However, such an interpretation ignores the fact that Jung acknowledges the impact that individual culture has on the interpreter. While symbols may retain a broader overall meaning across cultures, the details of those symbols are certainly influenced by the surrounding culture. Moreover, some symbols may be culturally specific. In fact, this paper will discuss the veil and its relation to Islam, and how the surrounding culture can color interpretations of the veil in art and in dreams.
Because the symbols in dreams and artwork are influenced by…… [Read More]
Freud believed that dreams had the function of providing latent content that could not be easily discovered by the individual. He believed that the best way for an individual to discover the underlying meaning of dreams was to ignore the natural reaction of censoring thoughts and allow oneself to focus on the associations that can be inferred from the dream. According to Freud, in order to interpret dreams one must be able to think and remember in a visual manner and to understand the unconscious symbols that present themselves in dreams. Interpretation of dreams requires translating the visual imagery of the dream into linguistic symbols. The technique most often employed by Freud in dream analysis was free association, which seeks to uncover the underlying meaning in the dream. Freud utilized free association as a manner by which latent dreams could be manifested. In this method the client is encouraged to…… [Read More]
As in other areas of psychology, Carl Jung agreed with Feud on many of the basics of dream interpretation. He began to see Freud's views as overly simplistic, however, and believed that there were deeper collective archetypes that made themselves known through dreams, and which represented basic elements of the human character as ways of dealing with unconscious issues. Also of great importance to Jung, according to Hall, was the context of the dream, especially when it came to dangerous elements: "It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physical danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of its meaning within the dream" (Hall, 49). This is similar to Freudian interpretation in its seeking of a mechanism of meaning, rather than interpreting dreams as being purely symbolic in content, but Jung developed this much further.
Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.…… [Read More]
What does Jungians mean by the Symbolic Quest?
According to Jung, a symbol enables the development of themes from the unconscious in an effort to rewire us as human beings, in a manner of experience, from which we have come to be disengaged. In a better form of analysis, human beings experience external matters, aspects that can be detected and identified using our senses, and which have implication on us in a particular perspective that we have understood and gained knowledge of. In the same manner, human beings also experience inner matters that they cannot essentially distinguish or identify. Both of these aspects are depicted by imageries, which show themselves as representations of the outside world, and are consequently employed by the consciousness to outline the inner world. Symbolic Quest can be perceived as the action of seeking an inspiring source and a moral imperative in an individual;…… [Read More]
" (Flanagan: 38) Theorists, scientists and thinkers have come up with their own views on dreaming. Dreams are considered "warnings," "premonitions," "announcer of good" and "indicators of future" as well. Many feel that dreams come from a divine power that warns people about the consequences of their actions or tries to put them on a better path by sending messages in the form of dreams. Initially it was believed that EM period was the only time when we dreamt but this theory has been replaced by a more comprehensive one that states that dreams are divided into all parts of our sleep with EM sleep accounting for most of the dreams. Neuroscientist Mark Solms goes back to Freud saying that dreams are connected with preservation of sleep on a statistical level. He doesn't bring wish fulfillment into the equation but does agree with Freud on the subject of preservation of…… [Read More]
g. If one eats something salty it is possible to have a dream involving drinking water.
On the other hand, though Hobson and McCarley put forth a model that has been validated empirically to a certain extent, their theory gives a nonspecific explanation in that it refers to a general level of neural activation which generates dreams; the synthesis part involves the integration of disparate sensory, motor, and emotional elements by making use of memory integrated events which allow interpretation. Their model is too general and unspecific, while the Freudian theory suggest a complex process with several stages and different significance attached to them.
Freud's theory offers a deeper insight into the quality of dreams by reinforcing their meaningfulness, their role (they are the manifestation of repressed wishes), and, most importantly, Freud emphasizes that dreams are a particular condition of thinking, fact that was taken into consideration by his followers.…… [Read More]
dream of having a career in field of Actuarial Science started at a young age. This shaped my thinking by wanting to understand logic and the way conclusions were reached utilizing complex formulas. Along the way, this fueled my sense of motivation in assisting others. It focused on not only my own personal satisfaction, but the joy I experience when they succeeded. This is because I am an international student, who is the first in his family to go to college and can relate to the challenges they are experiencing.
During this time, I dedicated myself to education and gaining real world experience. My journey took me to Ohio State University. This is where I received my Bachelors in Actuarial Science. Never giving into the temptations of college life, as I always remained focused on working in the field. I am motivated to use advanced statistics to help corporations, entrepreneurs…… [Read More]
Of the alleged chief tragedies penned by Shakespeare, Othello has led to a certain degree of embarrassment. This 'domestic tragedy' lacks the dynastic and political consequences that characterize Macbeth, Hamlet, and Lear. The protagonist, Othello, behaves like a blockhead. eaders are led into doubting his claims to greatness right from the start. The Bard of Avon is famous for his interest in identity issues. Antagonists may cruelly impose themselves on other characters and assert their self-identity, but sensitive characters require external identity confirmation (ees). Othello's unique rawness stems from the way the playwright has dramatized the normal and ordinary, and exposed such normalcy as intrinsically cruel and horrific. A number of contemporary critics account for Othello's conduct by claiming it arose from the black Othello's insecure feelings in a white racist society. But I personally believe this tale compellingly fights racism (a theory that hypothesizes an essential difference between…… [Read More]
For centuries, people have sought to explain not only what people dream about, but also why humans dream. In older times, dreams were used for prophecy. Later, they were used in the growing field of psychology.
But, until fairly recently, people only theorized about what dreams mean, and not why people themselves have evolved the capacity to dream.
This paper examines various theories that explain why human beings dream. The first part of the paper looks at the writing of Sigmund Freud regarding dreams as the royal road to the unconscious. Implicit in Freud's writings is the view that dreams evolved as humans were forced to sublimate their natural desires to live in society.
The paper then looks at the work of J. Allan Hobson, who saw dreams as a result of the natural physiological workings of the brain. In this body of research, Hobson meticulously matches the features…… [Read More]
Midsummer's Night Dream
ere the actors believable in their roles?
I did not find all of the actors particularly believable in their roles. I could not help noticing that several of the members of the cast forgot their lines or misspoke their lines, sometimes saying a line in the wrong place. Knowing the play well, this really threw me off and took me out of the moment of the performance. I felt there was a lot of timing issues with the performers at well where they would not hit their mark or missed their cue.
Identify the performers you considered most successful.
Of all the performers in the play, I felt that the actress playing the role of Hermia excelled in her role. She made the love and despondency and anger very palpable which was conveyed easily to the audience.
If there were performers you did not like, identify…… [Read More]
Nickel and Dream
People who are born or raised in the United States share unique character traits because of the American culture. Because this is considered a land of freedom and opportunity there are rights and gifts that are promised to each citizen. The American Dream is the unique idea that anyone who is willing to work hard can come from nothing and achieve their life's goals and ambitions so long as they live in America. Anyone, no matter how low class their level of birth, can succeed and have all the material possessions, money, and related power that they want as long as they are willing to put in the effort to achieve it. It is a promise which is two-sided because it requires the American to reach out for what the nation is holding above their head. In response to this ideology, many American authors have taken it…… [Read More]
Arthur's dream of Mordred's treachery, and its implications for the overall King Arthur myth.
Arthur's Dream of Mordred's Treachery
The legend of King Arthur is full of various significant dreams and their interpretations. Celtic history, of which the King Arthur legend is a part, placed a huge emphasis on the meanings of dreams. Dreams were taken very seriously, and often professional dream interpreters were employed in order to divine the true meaning of dreams. In the King Arthur legend, dreams turn out to be very significant and symbolic for Arthur. One of the most important symbolic dreams that Arthur has is his dream of the treachery of his son/nephew, Mordred. Mordred was Arthur's son by his half-sister, Morgaine. Arthur knew nothing of Mordred's existence until Mordred himself was an adult. However, Arthur does have a symbolic dream after inadvertently sleeping with his half-sister, right at the moment that Mordred is…… [Read More]
If the American dream is real to someone, it is real; land and products can be bought and sold as a consequence.
Obviously, for the dream of a better life to be sold to anyone it needs to be established that their current existence is less than attractive. This is why water is diverted away from a city in desperate need of water: the citizens need to be convinced that what they need is somewhere else. Furthermore, all of the town's undesirables are lumped into the center of the city, where they are most visible and most difficult to avoid. Poor minorities, essentially, are caught within the low income housing projects in the inner city. This is why Chinatown is unattractive to white, affluent citizens. Racism is as much of an impetus to leave the city as the stifling drought. The organizational structures in place demand that the Chinese live…… [Read More]
We are also often unaware of the manner in which social forces such as economics, politics, and research professionals shape our technological advances. This is also evidenced in our response to technology that malfunctions; we oftentimes do not seek to understand how to fix it and instead will call in a professional to do so (Bijker, & Law, 1992). This does not make us any more knowledgeable about our own technology, its workings, or its design. One must question if this is due to a lack of knowledge or a purposeful desire to remain uninformed as to not have to face the give and take relationship between technological advances and the good of society.
Technology is not pure and while it provides us with opportunities to function in ways that we have never done before it also has negative aspects that cannot be ignored (Lawson, 2010). While it is difficult…… [Read More]
Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…… [Read More]
Finally, it was my turn and -- but then I woke up.
When I told this dream to a friend, he said, "Sounds like you have a bad conscience!" This was an interesting interpretation of my dream, I thought. He said that he had been dreaming the night before of snow mobiling all over the mountains and he said it had been such fun that he had not wished to wake up. I thought that he must possess a very good conscience if he could dream about such nice things.
I got to thinking about what my friend said to me, and I decided that perhaps he was not so far off the mark. Perhaps my conscience was not very clear. After all, some things had been troubling me, and I knew I had not been behaving as well as I should have. Therefore, perhaps it was not such a…… [Read More]
Message of Empowerment in Dream Deferred, Dreams, and Daystar
Dream Deferred (Harlem) by Langston Hughes, Dreams by Nikki Giovanni, and Daystar by Rita Dove are most often categorized as poetry offering insight into the frustration of African-Americans because of societies continuous oppression of their hopes, desires, and dreams. This is correct, but upon further examination one finds there is a deeper, more universal message among the prose...personal empowerment.
A person's individual capability must be fully developed before embarking on a revolution. Langston Hughes in A Dream Deferred warns of the danger involved when potential is subjugated. "What happens to dreams deferred" (Line 1) he asks. "Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?" Or fester like a sore and run" (Lines 3-5) The imagery is vivid, bringing a tangibility to the emotional death caused by a crushed spirit. The inevitable result of burying potential is a powder keg…… [Read More]
Jeremy ifkin: The European Dream
So we are all familiar with the proverbial American Dream. Whether it exists or not, whether it is attainable or not are questions that better to be left alone at this point because there appears to be another proverbial dream that has emerged that demands our attention. According to Jeremy ifkin, the idea of American dream is not only outdated, it is also being quickly replaced by the European Dream. "While the American Spirit is tiring and languishing in the past," ifkin writes, "a new European Dream is being born.." In his book, The European Dream, ifkin lays down the thesis that America has lost its charm, its appeal and almost everything it once symbolized, the new American generation is overweight, under-educated and unnecessarily aggressive with little or no regard for religion. So the American Dream that revolved around tapping into opportunities, buying a nice…… [Read More]
This postmodernist writing that finally ends up having a dialogue with itself reveals an idea common to most of the postmodern art: that language and formulations, as means of expression, are also a means of finding the meaning of something, and that most often, meanings do not reside out of language.
But, at the same time, Handke also demonstrates that the life can sometimes be to terrible to be expressed in language.
The book ends, significantly, with the same Handke sitting at his desk and reading the article about the suicide of a woman. It is not only that the writing turns upon itself, to reveal that the most important subject of the book has not been altogether elucidated and has not been given meaning to yet, but also, the fact that the author is in front if a piece if a newspaper article relating this event is crucial: the…… [Read More]
John Berryman's "Dream Song 14"
This poem, friends, is boring. The entire work seeks to illustrate the idea that "life, friends, is boring." It does so by being itself tremendously boring. Though the author occasionally uses exciting or interesting words and phrases, such as "flash and yearn," he does so only in the pursuit of higher boredom by showing that even these words can be sucked into a context which ultimately yields a wish for death. There is nothing but boredom. In the poem, the narrator subsumes the conventions of interesting poetry and puts on, as it were, the form of a half-decent modern poem. However, he purposefully avoids allowing any of the sublime to slip into his work, thus leaving this form of high poetry dead and boring. By structuring his poem in a modern conventional fashion, maintaining a detached and uninterested tone throughout, and by setting…… [Read More]
The harmony is used for particularly dramatic effect in Bar 4, where four eight notes can be heard under beats 3 (the second half of a half-note) and 4. Schumann again creates movement in a similar way in Bars 8, 12, 14, and 20, where there is much more movement for the left hand than for the right. Schumann keeps most of his chords in the register below middle C; to do otherwise would create an overly dramatic darkness that would not be appropriate for the childhood memories this piece tries to call to mind for its listeners. He uses C3 on beat 1 for the harmony in Bar 13; it is the lowest note in the piece and adds to the sense of climax in Bar 14.
Schumann also made Traumerei emotional with his use of tempo. It is a slow piece, slowing even further with the ritard ("slower")…… [Read More]
As we have already mentioned, the mood and tone for moral corruption in New York City was prime in the 1920s and while it may seem there are the rich and the poor, class distinction among the rich plays an important role in the novel. Gatsby's success will only carry him so far because of a dividing line that exists between the new wealth and the old wealth. This is best depicted with the est and East Egg sections that divide individuals according to their wealth. Gatsby, regardless of how much money he makes, cannot hold a candle to the old wealth of the community in which Tom and Daisy live. Tom comes from an "enormously wealthy" (6) family and when he moved to the rich East Egg, he "brought down a string of ponies from Lake Forest" (6). The Buchanan's home is "more elaborate" (7) than what our narrator…… [Read More]
And so America continues to search subconsciously for ways back, for snorkels to lower to those buried souls. Consider the resurgence of magical literature in America over the last decade and a half. Never since Tolkien has the fantasy genre -- the Twilight books and the wealth of vampire chronicles accompanying for example -- been so widely successful. J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels are a recent manifestation of that search for snorkels. What could be more escapist than to imagine being a wizard estranged and insulated from his magical heritage and forced into the mundane -- muggle -- world? As Shoeless Joe was to Ray Kinsella, as writing was to W.P. Kinsella, so has Harry Potter been to a recent generation of Americans. Harry Potter is a mythological symbol of the type Campbell knows has been lost to the detriment of the people. He is the truth Americans wish they…… [Read More]
Sociology and Req. For a Dream
ARequiem for a [email protected] takes sociological deviation to the extreme. Deviation is defined as behaviors which do not conform to significant norms held by most members of a society or group. This movie uses drugs as the deviation and shows how it destroys the four main character's lives. Harry and his girlfriend start out as ambitious young adults with dreams of starting their own clothing store. Tyrone just wants happiness with his girlfriend. Lastly Sara Goldfarb, Harry's mom wants to be on television. The three friends end alone, with nothing but their addiction to heroin and Sara is committed to an asylum because of the effects of the speed she uses to lose weight in order to be on TV. There are many specific sociological principles that apply to things that happen within deviant subcultures. This movie illustrates a good many of them in…… [Read More]
Here we see that Laura is coming around and realizing that she, broken or not, is just like everyone else. Furthermore, the odd horn that made the unicorn seem "freakish" (1018) is no longer an issue. hen Laura realizes this, she also realizes that the things that make her seem like a freak to others may not be so significant, either. The time she spent with Jim allowed her to see that what makes her different might not be such a bad thing after all. She even tells Jim that with a broken horn, the unicorn "will feel more at home with the other horses" (1018). This statement reinforces Laura's change.
The broken unicorn also symbolizes how Laura must deal with the possibility of remaining single. The broken unicorn could very well be her broken heart. These things break, and when they do, they are rarely the same again. However,…… [Read More]
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…… [Read More]
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…… [Read More]
Freud and Surrealism
Art and science are strongly interrelated fields. It has been through the recognition of the compatibility between art and science that some of the greatest achievements in both areas have been created. It was Michaelangelo, the artist, that made revolutionary anatomical discoveries in the pursuit of art, discoveries which would become an integral part of the development of medicine. The early mapmakers were the first to create mathematical grids, and those principles would be translated into perspective and proportion for artists recreating three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional art. Along this same vein, the scientific study of the mind, psychology, has had a significant impact on art. The father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, discovered the metaphysical "psyche" in his search to understand the symptoms of his patients, opening up science and medicine to the world beyond the physical. Artists latched onto his theories about the importance of the…… [Read More]
More specifically, children whose
transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long-
lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled. Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that
corresponds to the precise stage of development (i.e. oral or anal phase, etc.) where their essential needs where unfulfilled within their family of origin (McWilliams, 2004).
Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships (McWilliams, 2004). Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…… [Read More]
If it was a dream, then the programmers clearly attempted to incorporate background realism. For example, the characters get dirty; like sweat, dirt is not something that the programmers would need to create to have realistic humans, but there is dirt on people. If one accepts the premise that the entire story is a dream, it is not difficult to take an additional step and assume that the programmers would think to have a character, who is supposed to appear nervous, sweating while he was on screen.
7. There are clues throughout the movie that the hero could use to discover whether his experiences were veridical or not. Perhaps the best clue is foreshadowed at the beginning of the movie and comes at the end of the movie; the appearance of the blue sky on Mars. Having never been to Mars, I have to rely upon my own conjecture, but…… [Read More]
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…… [Read More]
"This is my covenant with you: I will make you the father of not just one nation, but a multitude of nations. . . I will give you millions of descendants who will represent many nations. Kings will be among them" (Genesis 17:4, 6).
Then, in relation to how Joseph ended up where he did -- why was he loved more than his siblings? We know Joseph was born was Jacob was in his "old age" (Verses 2-3), but it was more than that. Historically, scholars say that Jacob recognized that having a child with Joseph's mother, achel, was a blessing from God because she was barren for many years. "Then God remembered achel's policht and answered her prayers by giving her a child. She became pregnant and gave birth to a son. 'God removed my shame,' she said. And she names him Joseph. . . " (Genesis 30:22-23). The…… [Read More]
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…… [Read More]
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…… [Read More]
Behaviorism focuses almost exclusively on the outward manifestations of mental illnesses. Underlying emotions, childhood memories, and dreams are trivialized in order to focus on bad habits or dysfunctional behaviors. Behavioral therapy employs methods based on classical and operant conditioning including systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning. Talking therapy is not an integral part of behavioral interventions.
Cognitive therapies may, however, combine both talking therapy with behavioral techniques. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific subset of cognitive psychology and includes interventions like rational-emotive therapy. The methods used by cognitive-behavioral therapists encourage the client to address and change faulty thoughts, irrational beliefs, and other underlying cognitions. The ultimate goal is to change behavior as well. Cognitive psychologists may focus more exclusively on altering negative thought patterns such as guilt and self-hatred. The therapeutic intervention acknowledges the role that childhood upbringing and repressed anxiety plays in the creation of mental illness. However, cognitive psychologists are…… [Read More]
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…… [Read More]
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…… [Read More]
humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.
Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. iological processes are the central concerns in physiological…… [Read More]
An Exegesis of Daniel 9:24-27
Various approaches to Daniel 9:24-27 reveal a iblical prophecy that divides iblical scholars upon the matter of exact meaning. The most common understanding from the days of early Christianity to modern times has been that the text is one that prophecies the coming of Christ; but other interpretations, like the eschatological interpretation, view the prophecy as one that concerns the end times. This paper will show how a synthesis of the traditional interpretation and the eschatological interpretation provides what may be called a fuller, or perhaps more complete, view of Daniel 9:24-27.
As Francis Gigot notes, "linguistics, the context, and the ancient translations of Daniel are most of the time insufficient guides towards the sure restoration of the primitive reading"; however, exegetes are able to form a limited idea of a possible meaning to Daniel 9:24-27 by familiarizing themselves with the ook of…… [Read More]
Obasan, Oppression, & emembrance
Children whose parents survived the Holocaust often report that their parents spent their entire lives attempting to conceal the fact that they were persecuted, had narrow escapes, and -- for many survivors -- were interred in concentration camps. The desire to protect their children from the horrors they experienced is certainly one of the reasons that survivors give for their silence. But their silence also enables them to keep their fears, anxieties, and regrets at bay, at least for those brief periods of time when forgetting has its intended effect. In effect, the reluctance of survivors to remember puts up a barrier that neither generation can easily cross -- not the generation of survivors, who have grown old in the years that have passed since World War II, and not the generation of children who have managed not to ask too many questions or follow their…… [Read More]
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…… [Read More]
Freudian and Jungian Dream Analysis:
Infidelity in "All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose
"All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose clearly functions as an introverted type of art form based upon its structure and presentation: it is a stream-of-consciousness narration whereby the mother of several small children talks about her life directly to the reader. Little happens in the short story on a physical level and the details she narrates are mundane. The primary plot point of the story is the narrator's contemplation of an affair with a man she has met in a park where she takes her children. The children enjoy the swings; she enjoys the outdoor freedom and the idea of something that liberates her from the chains of motherhood. Yet it is unclear whether this liberation is real or imagined: Rose suggests that it does not matter, and that this type of suburban…… [Read More]
Platt Book Critique
eligion is an integral part of human culture -- a set of organized beliefs about the universe, humanity, and the larger questions surrounding the spiritual values akin to society. Philosophers have debated the notions of religion for centuries, and even in the Enlightenment Period of European history, many found the lack of tolerance in many Christians an idea that could not be reconciled with the actual teachings of the Bible. Indeed, this disconnect between spirituality and the man-made interpretation seemed to manifest in intolerance and judgment as opposed to the teachings of Christ as unconditional love and acceptance.
Author David Platt, in adical, challenges the reader on just this disconnect. How humans have historically manipulated the Gospels to fit a series of cultural preferences and to justify behaviors that were simply not part of the very nature of Christianity. We know that the Christian Bible has been…… [Read More]
ut apparently, he reached it many years before the film depicts him -- at least by Gittes summation. At a pivotal moment in the film, Gittes asks Cross why he did it and says, "How much better can you eat? What can you buy that you can't already afford?" Cross does not hesitate with his answer: "The Future!" (Chinatown, 1974). This exemplifies Gittes misconception regarding the American dream; specifically, that it ends when you have everything you "need." Yet, by this point in the film Gittes has been one of the few people privileged enough to earn a small piece of the truth behind city planning, organization, and corruption. Many of the social realities that we accept as inevitabilities of the modern world actually came into existence for the personal satisfaction of a handful of wealthy people.
Cross is victorious in every way he wanted and Gittes is left only…… [Read More]
Jerry's "unfailing impulse of contrition -- a sort of chivalry" struggles against the boy's impulse to be accepted and viewed as a man (3). The lack of father figure in the story underscores Jerry's preoccupation with the group of boys.
The symbolism in "Through the Tunnel" offers a perfect opportunity to explore Freudian theory. In fact, the symbolism emerges like it would in dreams. The titular tunnel is the central image, being an overt representation of the vaginal canal. Moreover, Jerry contemplates the opening of the canal, its vulva, for a long time before entering it. References to the "promontory" of the beach, "strokes," and finally an "explosion" offer phallic imagery too. Jerry is driven to explore the tunnel by a group of boys that he longed for with "a craving that filled his whole body," (5). The longing also suggests homosexuality, which is tempered soon by Jerry's deeper desire…… [Read More]
aking Life and Plato's Republic
Richard Linklater's 2001 film aking Life explores the nature of reality and its relationship to dreaming, and in particular the way in which the worlds of dreaming and reality intersect and cloud each other. At one point, as the main character essentially walks through his dreams, interacting with a variety of characters engaged in philosophical discussion, he comes upon a man playing ukulele who espouses and interpretation of dreaming very similar to Plato's allegory of the cave in his Republic. The ukulele-playing man describes the notion of lucid dreaming as a means of truly "living," and his description of lucid dreaming can be interpreted as the enactment of the goal in Plato's allegory. By comparing the scene with the ukulele-playing man in aking Life with Plato's allegory of the cave in The Republic, it will be possible to see how the former reinterprets the latter…… [Read More]
This is why Shakespeare included a character and plot of such low comedy in a play with such far-reaching and complex themes; in the end, all of the complexity boils down to a few very simple facts bout humanity. As Valerie Traub notes, "early modern England was a culture of contradictions, with official ideology often challenged by actual social practice," and Midsummer makes this exceedingly clear (131). Such contradictions necessarily lead to complications, as the central plot of the play (that of the lovers) clearly illustrates, and though these complications are comedic in their own way it is also hysterical watching someone who is unabashedly human -- and quite asinine in several senses because of it. His transformation is yet one more piece of honesty that Shakespeare includes in his commentary on humanity.
This aspect of both the character and the pay is captured brilliantly in Michael Hoffman's 1999 film…… [Read More]
Even when has the opportunity to make things better, he does not act. He refuses Charley's job offer because it seems easier to ask for money than it is to do something other than sell. He would rather see the family suffer than try to work at something else for a little while. After he is gone, she tells the kids, "First time in thirty-five years we were just about free and clear" (Requiem 1112). This statement illustrates just how disconnected to two were. She knew enough to know that they were almost at a place where they could stop and breathe but illy does not see things that way. He does not look at retirement as a way of beginning something refreshing with Linda. He fails her because he is not the strong, dependable man she deserves.
illy also fails his children. hile he does not beat his children…… [Read More]
This comes to only point out the fact that the role of postmodernism is essential because it offers a different perspective through which humans can understand the events taking place around them and can interpret them to provide meanings that would be useful in their own development and in the development of the social being.
One of the important aspects of postmodernism is that unlike other theories that have been advocated throughout the decades, this approach takes into account the human perception of things. The development of this trend was essential because the human individual needed a framework through which it could accept, acknowledge and deal with the changes taking place around it. More precisely, at the end of the 19th century, the issue of industrialization together with the huge developments that were taking place at the level of the political changes, economic burst, and cultural revolutions set the human…… [Read More]
The first reading allows the individual to react to it on a personal level, to relate the story of the tragic lovers in terms of his or her own experiences with love (Walker, 1995, p. 13). But secondary and tertiary (and so on) readings allow the individual to connect to the story on deeper and increasingly abstract levels so that an analysis of this story might come to understand it as a story of the temporary death of the individual and its potential and even expected rebirth as part of a universal mother, a submission of the identity of daughter and son into the more primary identity of creation and life. An individual who follows an analysis along such a path can explore his or her own feelings about love and loss, about autonomy and dependence, about fear and acceptance.
However, within the clinical setting, the client must choose his…… [Read More]
Antonio cannot avoid the darker side of human emotions. He dreams that a mob calls out for Ultima's blood. Through this dream Antonio subconsciously acknowledges that his desire for revenge against Tenorio is just savage.
His religious believes are not so strong anymore, this is also contrasted in his discussion with his father on the topic.
Antonio takes his first Communion and waits for God to answer the questions that haunt him about the moral understanding of the world but the answers doesn't seem to be reveled. Antonio's despair of understanding why evil exists actually leads him to greater spiritual understanding. In his conversation with his father Antonio expresses the desire to be both a Luna and a Marez, but Gabriel admits that the vaquero's way of life is fading, so he is ready to end the long conflict with Maria. Antonio meditates out loud that it is possible to…… [Read More]
This is indeed an absolutely profound concept in that it can't help but support the idea of the autonomous individual, existing in connection to thought. The truth of these emotions, be them good or bad, speak to the authenticity of the self. There's a notion of realness -- of the self that is a facet of the genuine, as emotions and desires are founded upon the genuine. This notion of genuineness and authenticity implies that there's a core aspect of the human experience which is not manufactured or artificial -- it just is, as thoughts and emotion occur organically with truth attached to them. This demonstrates that the internal processes of the self are based in the real, the actual and the genuine, offering more support to the idea, "I think therefore I am."
However, this is not to imply that there is a perfection in the human being's processes.…… [Read More]
The quick shifts of the young lovers' giddy affections thus take place in the 'real world' of Athens, just as they do under the power of Puck's magic. Love in fairyland is not that different from the real world, it only looks different on stage and screen. Even when there are misunderstandings, these misunderstandings are often merely illustrations of a larger truth, as when Hermia wrongly accuse Helena of taking Lysander from her -- she correctly accuses Helena of betrayal, just the wrong kind of betrayal. And Hermia unwittingly, temporarily won Demetrius from Helena in the real world, just as Helena wins the affection of both men in the forest, because of Puck's magic. The ways in which the never-never land of the woods parallel 'real' life in Athens point out how dreams and desire, while they may seem separated from real life, are also heightened reflections of real-world concerns.…… [Read More]
This paradoxical and provocative poem by John Donne illustrates a number of the central characteristics of Metaphysical poetry. This paper will attempt to elucidate the paradoxical elements of the poem through a close reading of the text. The poem is essentially argumentative and displays a number of conceits or paradoxical comparisons. The poet uses words and meanings in an unconventional and often startling sense to convince his lover to make love with him.
The poem compares the image of a flea to love and physical union. The entire poem is a sustained argument to convince the protagonist's lover of the validity of this comparison. The image of the flea is used to spur or encourage the loved one into agreeing to the unification of their blood through intercourse. It is also significant to note in this regard that during the Renaissance it was believed that in the act of…… [Read More]
The Sopranos and Society
Part I (Answer to Question #1)
The Sopranos, the author argues, is a reflection of a moral code which is prevalent in American society. This code, based on a twisted version of the American Dream, basically states that anything is acceptable as long as it furthers one's economic prosperity. No matter who gets hurt, or which laws are broken, as long as it benefits one personally, it is acceptable. Simon argues that the lead character, Tony Soprano, is a representative of the "power elite" in the United States; which also acts in a manner that is strictly for the benefit of themselves and with little regard for the collateral damage they cause. The moral code exemplified by the characters in the Sopranos is a representation of the twisted perversion of the American Dream which some, less honorable members of American society adapt; but unfortunately…… [Read More]