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Eye in the Sky presents a bleak portrait of drone technology and calls into question the norms of global counterterrorism and warfare. Technological tools of surveillance allow for targeted operations, aimed at known terrorists. These tools entrench existing hegemonies of power. However much drones are celebrated for reducing the numbers of casualties in counterterrorism units while simultaneously targeting top terrorism suspects, the effects of the drone strikes can be devastating on the local innocents, the civilians caught in the drone fire, and may even have some detrimental long-term effects such as increased acts of terror or reduction of the credibility of counterterrorism.
Public attitudes towards the use of drones vary considerably. In the United States, attitudes toward the use of drone strikes as a counterterrorism tactic "is moved more by legal principles than by military effectiveness," (Kreps and Wallace). Given the ways drones can be reframed as legally problematic, and…
Robotic drones have been in use by the United States as a strategy of attack against terrorist groups for several years now, beginning in the administration of George . Bush. They have been effective and yet there is and has been controversy with the use of these robotic technologies. This paper will point to the criticisms and the supportive positions as well. In this paper the writer uses opinion articles by Daniel Byman and Kenneth Anderson to point to how drones actually work and to arguments against the continued use of drones as well as arguments in support of the policy of using drones.
This paper supports the use of drones as a very successful way to combat and kill certain key terrorist leaders who use violence to kill innocent people as they push their twisted Islamic ideologies on society. There is no doubt that innocent people have been killed…
Anderson, Kenneth. "The Case for Drones." Commentary. Retrieved February 23, 2015,
From http://www.commentarymagazine.com . 2013.
Byman, Daniel. "Why Drones Work." Foreign Affairs, 92.4 (2013): 32-43.
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…
Aljazeera.com. (2013, October). U.S. 'drone strike' kills senior Shabab members. Retrieved from aljazeera.com: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/10/drone-strike-kills-senior-shabab-members-20131028184651994308.html
BBC. (2013, October). Pakistan says drones killed 67 civilians since 2008. Retrieved from BBC.co.uk: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-24742037
FAS.org. (n.d.). Military Intelligence Satellites. Retrieved from Fas.org: https://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Intro/Part2_26e.html
Galbraith, P. (2013, October). NSA spying on Europe gives the U.S. more intelligence, but not better. Retrieved from Theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/29/nsa-spying-europe-us-intelligence
Political Issues Based on the Film "Eye in The Sky" In Which Government Attitude, Which Decides Who Lives and Who Dies for The Cause of The Nation Is Examined
The film "Eye in the Sky" is somewhat a literal depiction of war fare between the drones. This is a flagrantly contrived film that examines the ethics of using remote control to kill. The subject was dramatized a year ago in Andrew Niccol's film "Good Kill." In this film, there is a simplistic device of the little girl in which it is made clear that the new ones have no chance of winning hearts. The debate is getting awful to change any mind; even though, there is no attempt to try and change the mind. That is where its strength lies. In the film "Eye in the Sky" the case is argued on all fronts: the merits and the perils of…
The counter-terrorism speech given by president Obama came with a couple of messages. His first address touched on the restrictive policy strikes using drones; of course this was not new or restrictive according to prior experience. His second focus was directed at the need to close down Guantanamo Bay detention center. The latter was also not a new stand taken by the president but it surely opposed a long standing position by the powers that be. Here are the major highlights of President Obama's speech.
esponding to the Threat: Leveraging Effective Partnerships and Targeting Terrorists
Effective response to terrorism needs a lot more than just military response and law enforcement. There is need for a concerted effort to be directed towards winning the war of ideology and the battle of will. The first item should be to complete the task of defeating the Al Qaeda forces.
Hudson, J. (2013, May 23). The 4 key points of Barack Obama's counterterrorism speech. Retrieved from Foreign Policy: http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/23/the-4-key-points-of-barack-obamas-counterterrorism-speech/
O'Connell, M. E. (2013, May 24). Obama's Speech May Have Made His Drone Problem Worse. Retrieved from New Republic: https://newrepublic.com/article/113297/president-obama-and-drone-warfare-his-speech-wasnt-good-enough
The White House. (2013, May 23). Facts on President Obama's Speech on Counterterrorism. Retrieved from Office of the Press Secretary: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2013/05/20130523147928.html#axzz49PJsZCMv
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
Predators has led to Decrease in Road-Side ombings in Afghanistan
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started firing drones missiles in Afghanistan in order to reduce civilian casualties and reduce roadside bombings. These missiles known as Predators incorporate accuracy, wide efficient surveillance and precision target meant to reduce roadside bombings. To minimize civilian casualties, the Predator targets mobile insurgents as opposed to focusing on residential areas. The use of Predator has minimized roadside bombings and civilian as a result of increased surveillance.
Roadside bombing casualties represent a reduction from a 10% casualty level in 2009, 7% in 2011 to almost 3% in 2012. In line with this, rook (2012 ), adds that improvised explosive devices were a major cause of troop deaths untill the introduction of the Predator.
The most important feature of the predator is the detection of all types of improvised explosive devices. Data indicate that from January through…
Abbot, S. Study: Militants, not Civilians, are Primary Victims of Drone Attacks. Associated Press, 2012.
Brook, Tom Vanden. "Drones detection cutting into IEDs in Afghanistan."
www.theleafchronicle.com. July 16, 2012 . (accessed July 22, 2012).
Drew, C. "Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan ." The New York Times, February
Or, as Saletan points out, those three elements "by deduction, are the due process test" (2011).
But this ought to leave a bad taste in one's mouth because all three of these elements can be manipulated to violate one's due process right.
"hich leaves us with an awkward bottom line. If the target is a suspected terrorist, "imminence" can be redefined to justify killing him. If the weapon is a drone, feasibility of arrest has already been ruled out -- that's why the drone has been sent to do the job. So in any drone strike on a U.S. citizen suspected of terrorism, only one of the three questions we supposedly apply to such cases is really open: Has he been fighting alongside al-Qaida? If he has, we can kill him. That's the same rule we apply to foreigners. In effect, citizenship doesn't matter. The "due process" test is empty"…
Cornell University Law School. (n.d). Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law
School. Retrieved from:
Lithwick, D. (2011, July 14). Murder Conviction Most Foul: What Justin Wolfe's case in Virginia tells us about death row cases everywhere. Slate.com. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2011/07/murder_c
Describe the strategy, tactics, and tools that are available to agencies within the U.S. To perform counter-terrorism operations
The basic strategy for agencies within the U.S. is to focus on coordinating with states and local officials. This means that between the different levels of government, there will be increased amounts of intelligence sharing. At the same time, there is a concentrated effort in working with first responders to effectively prevent and mitigate the effects of a terrorist attack. This is accomplished by having threat level alerts that will let everyone know when to be vigilant. (Alexander, 2007, pp. 559 -- 597)
Some of the tools that are utilized during this process include: facial recognition technology, bomb / explosive detectors, dogs, surveillance cameras and laws that give officials greater powers. A good example of this can be seen with the passage and renewal of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. After…
Alexander, Y. (2007). Evolution of U.S. Counterterrorism Policy. Westport, CT: Prager.
Kagely, C. (2011). The Global Future. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Mickoulus, E. (2011). The Terror List. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.
In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…
Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/
Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.
Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law
Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.
War and Terrorism
War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…
Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf
Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability
3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).
of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.
With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…
Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html
Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf
Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fort-hood-shooter - contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873
Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
The President of the United States is responsible for the protection of the American people and in order to accomplish this objective the President, in his official capacity, is both the leading diplomat as well as the Commander in Chief of the armed forces. With this power he has the obligation to create a foreign policy that protects the interests of the nation and defends the people of the United States. Presidents therefore possess a number of tools which can be utilized in order to accomplish these goals including political, economic, and even military ones. Within the list of potential actions that a president can take to accomplish an effective foreign policy lies one which everyone recognizes as necessary, and therefore uses, but nobody likes to admit they are doing so: Covert Action. But while presidential use of covert action in defense of the United States can become…
Best, Richard. (1996). Covert Action: An Effective Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy?
Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://congressionalresearch.com/96-844/document.php
"Executive Order 12333 United States Intelligence Activities." (4 Dec. 1981). National
Archives. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12333.html#3.4
Fort Hood Shooting
On November 5, 2009 at Fort Hood, a military base close to the city of Killeen Texas, a U.S. Army major and psychiatrist opened fire on the people. Thirteen people were murdered and thirty-two other people were injured (Kenber 2013). One of the victims was pregnant and the baby was lost when she died, so some put the figure of murder victims at fourteen. Nidal Malik Hasan has since been convicted of those shootings and has been sentenced to death by a military court. Hasan has never denied being the killer, nor has he wavered in the explanation of his motives behind the actions. He has stated repeatedly that he is a Muslim and that the United States is at war with Islam. His actions, he claims, are a direct result of his Muslim extremism. Hasan was due to be shipped to Afghanistan where he would have…
Crabtree, S. (2012, Oct. 22). Pentagon will not label Fort Hood shootings as terrorist attack. The Washington Times.
Definitions of terrorism in the U.S. code. (2013). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Esposito, R., Abraham, M., & Schwartz, R. (2009, Nov. 12). Major Hasan: soldier of Allah; many ties to jihad web sites. ABC News.
Hsu, S.S., & Johnson, C. (2009, Nov. 8). Links to imam followed in Fort Hood investigation.
Do you feel that this play should be viewed as a lecture, or a piece of literature? Use evidence from the text to support your conclusion. (4 marks)
Brooks and Verdecchia are so self-aware that their piece might be viewed as a lecture rather than a work of art that it would seem churlish not to regard it as a work of art. It's certainly more artfully done than most of Hollywood's product nowadays. The device of the "artstick" which is employed any time the piece threatens to become more of a screed than a good night out is just such a device that works well. Any event which features lecturers squirting their audience with water pistols and pelting them with wadded-up paper is certainly more than just a lecture. Moreover Brooks and Verdecchia fit into an established tradition of political theater, such that their piece can be…
2. What are the ten ways that media tries to manufacture our consent in the play, and give an example of how each of them work, which is not given in the play? (20 marks)
Brooks and Verdecchia list the following ten ways in which the media tries to manufacture consent: "Choice of Topic," "Placement," "Ideological Assumptions," "Blind Stupidity," "Biased Sources," "Quoting out of Context," "The Memory Hole," "Captions and Headlines," "Doublespeak," and "Weight."
"Choice of Topic" is simple: rather than reporting on, say, the legality of a drone strike to kill a U.S. citizen, instead the media will focus on Anwar Al-Awlaki's ties to radical Islam. The legality of a government-ordered assassination of an individual without due process of law immediately takes a backseat to the details about that individual which make it seem like it was a good idea to kill him. "Placement" has to do with establishing a sense of importance without any change in content -- the capture of PFC Jessica Lynch in 2003 by Saddam Hussein's forces is a "front page" story, the death of thousands of Iraqi civilians gets less emphatic placement. "Ideological assumptions" have to do with the media taking advantage of the assumptions that the reader will make: Osama bin Laden is assumed to be a moral monster for having perpetrated 9/11, as a result the question of whether or not his "targeted killing" was lawful
Civil Liberties vs. Government
The role of government in regulating the behaviors and activities of certain people and/or in certain situations is not generally questioned by most people. On the same note, the right of people to generally live their lives and be left alone is also presumed to be true in many to most cases. However, those two paradigms inevitably collide because they cannot both be true at the same time in all situations. There are situations where government should or must step in just as there are situations where they should leave people alone and let them live how they wish. The million dollar question is where that line precisely exists in certain situations because it can be far from clear what that answer is.
One source that the author of this report focused on was the definition of positive and negative liberty. The latter one, that…
Alexander, J., & Richmond, S.A. (2007). Administrative discretion: Can we move beyond cider house rules? The American Review of Public Administration, 37(1),
51 -- 64. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Carter, I. (2012). Positive and negative liberty. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/liberty-positive-negative/
U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy
Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military, economic sanctions, etc.). However, the question remains, nearly a decade and a half later, with terror attacks occurring more and more frequently around the world, whether the U.S. has been effective in its countering of terrorism. According to various studies, it can be shown how far from actually eradicating terrorism, the policies of the U.S. government have actually helped to foster the spread of terrorism. Now, as Russia steps into the Middle East to fight ISIS at the request of Syria, a disinformation campaign in the West has been put into practice by the mainstream media to show how Russia and Syria are hurting the war against terrorism, when the reality is that Russia has been far more effective in…
Barzegar, Kayhan. "The Terror Plot, An Ideological War for Geopolitical Interests," Iran
Review. 24 Oct 2011. Web. 12 Dec 2015.
Britton, Neil. "Dog or Demon?" in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions,
Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli. International Research Committee on Disasters, 2005.
This has allowed for the U.S. To fight effectively in the guerilla type fighting that is occurring overseas near civilian populations.
The future warfare will undoubtedly continue to be changed by technology developments. One arena that has just begun to be explored is space. Many have expressed the idea that space is "perhaps the battlefield of the future" (oland, 2009). In reality, it is already happening, thanks to changes in technologies. There are designs for destructive satellites that take out enemy communications (McCoy, 2012). Moreover, "the age of space warfare dawned in April 2010 when the Pentagon quietly launched the X-37B space drone, an unmanned craft just 29 feet long, into orbit 250 miles above Earth" (McCoy, 2012). Thus, technology is continuing to shape the way we see and fight modern wars.
Gao, Peter. (2011). Law and technology: The changing face of war and its legal ramifications. The Triple…
Gao, Peter. (2011). Law and technology: The changing face of war and its legal ramifications. The Triple Helix. Web. http://triplehelixblog.com/2011/01/law-and-technology-the-changing-face-of-war-and-its-legal-ramifications/
Jin, Xin. (2006). The strategic implications of changes in military technology. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(2), 163-193.
McCoy, Alfred W. (2012). Space warfare and the future of U.S. global power. Mother Jones. Web. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/11/space-warfare-and-future-us-global-power
Michaels, Jim. (2012). U.S. military snipers are changing warfare. USA Today. Web. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/military/story/2012-04-23/snipers-warfare-technology-training/54845142/1?csp=34news
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.
Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.
Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…
. History of the selected system, including developer/manufacturer, need it was built to fulfill, and unique characteristicsThe history of unmanned aerial systems has been heavily emphasized for centuries. Many countries around the world used UAS as a means to provide a competitive advantage during war times. Others uses these systems as a means to create a climate of surveillance and research. These findings have been used to create further commercial applications that are still in use today. The usage of UAS, from a historical perspective, dates back to China. Around 200 AD Chinese developers and manufacturer used paper balloons equipped with oil lamps to illuminate the night during war periods. Foreign enemies, who were not aware of the technology believe the lamps during the night were spirits or a divine being. Likewise, during the civil war, both Union and Confederate forces launched balloons laden with explosives and attempted to land…
References 1. Andrejevic, M. (2016). Theorizing drones and droning theory. In A. Zavrsnik (Ed.), Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance (pp. 21-43). New York: Springer.2. Asaro, P. M. (2013). The labor of surveillance and bureaucratized killing: New subjectivities of military drone operators. Social Semiotics,23(2), 196224. doi:10.1080/10350330.2013.7775913. Daggett, C. (2015). Drone disorientations: How \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"unmanned\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" weapons queer the experience of killing in war. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(3), 361379. doi: 10.1080/14616742.2015.10753174. Feigenbaum, A. (2015). From cyborg feminism to drone feminism: Remembering women\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s anti-nuclear activisms. Feminist Theory, 16(3), 265288. doi: 10.1177/14647001156041325. Gusterson, Hugh. Toward an Anthology of Drones: Remaking Space, Time, and Valor in Combat. The American Way of Bombing: Changing Ethical and Legal Norms, from Flying Fortresses to Drones, edited by Matthew Evangelista and Henry Shue, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014, pp.191-2066. Holmqvist, C. (2013). Undoing war: War ontologies and the materiality of drone warfare. Millenium: Journal of International Studies, 41(3), 535552. doi: 10.1177/03058298134833507. Kindervater, K. H. (2016). The emergence of lethal surveillance: Watching and killing in the history of drone technology. Security Dialogue, 47, 2232382
Control and the Media
The media is an incredibly powerful force which has the ability to manipulate the minds and hearts of the American people. This type of "mind control" which is employed by news organizations in the United States is nothing less than propaganda.
Noam Chomsky writes that, "propaganda is to a democracy what violence is to a dictatorship." Indeed, nowhere is this more clear than in recent debates over the impending war with Iraq. On one side of the fence, the conservative Right argues that war is essential and that Iraq is in league with Al Qaeda. They argue that Saddam Hussein is developing weapons of mass destruction which he would like to unleash on the free world. On the other side of the fence, the liberal Left argues that such a preemptive war is "unjust," and that there is no definitive proof that Hussein was ever in…
Corn, David. "Bush's Irrelevant Case for War." The Nation. 7 March 2003. http://thenation.com/capitolgames/index.mhtml?bid=3&pid=468
Price, Niko. "Iraqis Reject Deadly Drone Claim by U.S." The Village Voice. 12 March 2003. http://apnews.myway.com/article/20030312/D7PNJ4D80.html
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. "Iraqi Officals Proudly Exhibit a Disputed, Dinged-Up Drone." The Washington Post. 13 March 2003. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17650-2003Mar12.html
Associated Press. "Powell Decries New Iraq Weapon Discovery." U.S.A. Today. 13 March 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-10-us-iraq_x.htm
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
CFACC and AOC are, by their very nature, located several hundred, sometimes thousands of miles from the air battle. And, as emphasized prior, we understand that technology allows command far more specific details than in the history of the military. That being said, no amount of technology can translate a blip on a screen to an actual threat, and react with the appropriate response within milliseconds. One would think, for instance, that with the thousands upon thousands of dollars the service spends on training their pilots, the number of scenarios engendered, and the amount of air time required to pilot a multimillion dollar piece of extraordinary equipment that command would acknowledge that there needs to be a certain level of trust and allowance for experience and pilot assessment of various high stress situations. While it is certainly true that, at times, the individual pilot cannot see the "big picture," and…
However, this article makes a counter argument against such a use. Instead, it argues that the greatest benefit of unmanned aerial vehicles will come from developing ones not fast and flashy, but instead slow and steady. Instead of remote missions from the United States, according to the article, the operations should be capable of loitering over the same spot for months. In this sense, the unmanned aerial vehicle will act as a low-orbit satellite, or surveillance drone capable of capturing important security information without endangering lives.
"UAVs next step to stem terrorism." USA Today. December, 2003.
This article examines the non-military uses of unmanned aerial vehicles. Its main focus is on the value that unmanned aerial vehicles have for protecting the United States homeland. According to the Deputy Homeland Security Secretary, it is believed that unmanned aerial vehicles will be a primary aid to the department's ongoing efforts to provide…
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…
Address to Joint Session of Congress. Remarks of President Barack Obama, As Prepared for Delivery, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Tuesday, February 24th, 2009.
Comprehensive Regional Strategy on Somalia: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement Report to Congress, February 2007.
JP 3-0 Chapter I.
JP 3 Extract Chapter 2.
Since U.S. forces helped to establish this government, there is a general sense of distrust directed at Americans and American affiliated individuals. Furthermore, the use of "drones" is an especially charged subject. Stanley McChrystal, who authored the U.S. counterinsurgency strategy in Afghanistan, has publically stated that "the resentment created by American use of unmanned strikes ... is much greater than the average American appreciates. They are hated on a visceral level, even by people who've never seen one or seen the effects of one (Alexander, 2013)." Therefore, overcome the biasness towards even the most benevolent use of unmanned aerial vehicles would likely be a daunting affair.
Alexander, D. (2013, January 7). Retired general cautions against overuse of "hated" drones. Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/07/us-usa-afghanistan-mcchrystal-idUSBRE90608O20130107
Hughes, M. (2013, March 21). arlords Set to Rule Post-NATO Afghanistan. Retrieved from Afghan Online Press: http://www.aopnews.com/opinion/hughes_warlords.shtml
Alexander, D. (2013, January 7). Retired general cautions against overuse of "hated" drones. Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/07/us-usa-afghanistan-mcchrystal-idUSBRE90608O20130107
Hughes, M. (2013, March 21). Warlords Set to Rule Post-NATO Afghanistan. Retrieved from Afghan Online Press: http://www.aopnews.com/opinion/hughes_warlords.shtml
Apocalypse of Art in the Tech Era
Modern Apocalypse Art and Technological Aspects
The purpose of this paper is to examine modern art, in particular that which is referred to as "apocalypse art" and further to examine the interactions between art and technology. Specifically this paper will look at the new dimensions that technology has contributed to the rendering of art as well as what contribution or impact that art has rendered to technology.
The methodology for this study is through examination of several of the artists as well as scholars who are in some way interconnected in this process of producing apocalypse art.
The question that seems to weigh on the minds of those who view the modern "apocalypse" art exhibits asks:
Has this artist attempted to achieve the effect of shock or is the artist attempting to convey some deeper truth?"
London's Art Gallery featured an exhibit entitled…
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28. UNSW (nd) "Anna Munster" [Online] available at http://www.icinema.unsw.edu.au/bios/zbio_munter.html
29. Vesna, Victoria (1999) "Fear of Deletion and the Eternal Trace" [Online] available at http://www.the-artists.org/Artists/Vesna.html
30. Wilson, Cintra (2000) "Joel-Peter Witkin" Salon [Online] available at http://dir.salon.com/people/bc/2000/05/09/witkins/index.html
Reuters News (3 May 2000) "London Gallery's Apocalypse Could Rival Controversial Sensation" [Online] available at http://www.cnn.com/2000/style/arts/05/03/britian.apocalypse.reut/
Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices
Vehicle-born improvised explosive devices are intended to kill and nothing else. -- Chris Greenwood, 2008
Despite the investment of enormous amounts of national blood and treasure, the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan failed to prevent the resurgence of terrorist activity, and the Afghan government remains unable to cope with the growing threat. Some of the more effective tools that were used by insurgents in the asymmetric warfare in Afghanistan that helped achieve this undesirable outcome were improvised explosive devices, or IEDs, in general and vehicle-borne IED (or BVIEDs) in particular. To determine how these weapons emerged, the manner in which they were deployed, the problems that are associated with defusing them and the other counter-measures taken against them, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning these issues, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Background and Overview
Insurgents create improvised explosive…
Blankenship, J. (2015, June/July). Men perform feats of valor under extreme pressure. VFW Magazine, 102(9), 42-44.
Bless, S. J., Wilson, B. A., Pederson, L., Wienman, L. & Garnier, J. (2008, September). National Institute of Justice Final Report: Development of nanothermite projectile for improvised explosive device (IED) and vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) neutralization. The University of Texas at Austin: Institute for Advanced Technology.
Caudill, S. W. & Jacobson, B. R. (2013, May/June). Nowhere to hide: The growing threat to air bases. Air & Space Power Journal, 27(3), 30-35.
Dowle, J. (2006, September). Improvised explosive devices. Law & Order, 54(9), 28-31.
1. Influence of Air Force New Equipment Development on Operation
Having been incepted in 1947, the United States Air Force (USAF) is effectively the country’s youngest military formation. It is important to note, from the onset, that USAF came to be as a consequence of the need to ensure that the U.S. has a decisive advantage as far as the character of warfare is concerned. This is more so the case in reference to long-range bombing. The USAF has, since then, continued to be seen as the force of the future. It therefore follows that the relevance of modernizing USAF and equipping it with new tools of engagement cannot be overstated as far as the further enhancement of its operational capabilities is concerned.
3.1. The Relevance of USAF from an Operational Perspective
In basic terms, USAF has immense maneuver advantages as a result of its vertical…
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
The 501st Combat Support Wing
The 501st Combat Support Wing is a U.S. Air Force unit based in AF Alcon Bury in England (501stCSW, n.d). The organization has its headquarters at the 3rd Air Force, amstein Germany. It served a community of more than 14,000 people. As a wing, it was able to provide combat support to facilitate communication, intelligent as well as global strike operations. The wing can trace its history to the World War II bombardment group, which operated and served the Pacific and was mostly used to bomb Japan's mainland. Between 1944- 1945, the tactical missile unit that carried the 501st served in Europe during the cold war. The combats objective was to ensure that the Norway and the UK based airbases were resourced, trained, and equipped. It was also supposed to ensure that it is sustained, and served well so that they could easily…
501st Combat Support Wing. (n.d.). Colonel Kevin P. Cullen, 501st Combat Support Wing (CSW) Commander. Retrieved from The Official Web Site of the 501st Combat Support Wing: http://www.501csw.usafe.af.mil/library/leadership/501stcswcommander.asp
501st Combat Support Wing. (2016, September 2). 501st Combat Support Wing. Retrieved from 501st Combat Support Wing: http://www.501csw.usafe.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=10607
The United States has leased 45 square miles of land and water at Guantanamo Bay from Cuba for more than a century. Commonly known as “Gitmo,” the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay has been the source of increasing calls for its closure as no longer necessary or appropriate in the 21st century. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning Guantanamo Bay to provide the background of the issue and an analysis of this issue to determine whether the U.S. interests in Guantanamo Bay justify its continued operations. A summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue are provided in the conclusion.
Background of Issue
The U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is 45 square miles in size and is located on the southeast end of Cuba (see map at Appendix A) (Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, 2014). The naval base at Guantanamo Bay…
This indicated a significantly higher intent to return to the institution the following semester. While more study was necessary, it was clear here that even amongst university students, their motivation was focused on analytical rather than intuitive types of thinking (Luke, iv).
Constantine Sedikides and John J. Skowronski proposed what they called the "Law of Cognitive Structure Activation." This was presented in the journal called Psychological Inquiry in 1991.
In the first part of the study, sufficient already existing studies showing that a mental stimulus that is ambiguous enough to be encodable in response to multiple cognitive structures (such as constructs, scripts, events, or specific objects). The stimulus was to be encoded as an instance of a structure that is the most highly active in memory and the most semantically similar to the stimulus. Luke parameters for his law in the first part of the article. In the second part,…
Gruber, H.E., and J.J. Voneche. The Essential Piaget. Anv ed.. New York: Jason
Aronson, Inc., 1995. 651. Print.
Luke, C.C. "An Examination of Psychological Factors That Predict College
Student Success and Retention." Dissertation. University of Tennessee.
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…
Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.
23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.
Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
Deterrence in the Post-Cold War Era
The same types of deterrence strategies that were used to good effect in the Cold War may not be as effective against non-state actors as with nation states in the 21st century. This paper discusses the factors involved in developing timely and effective responses to non-state actors to determine whether the concepts of cumulative deterrence and/or tailored deterrence can also be effective against non-state actors today. A summary of the research and important findings concerning security and deterrence in the post-Cold War era are provided in the conclusion.
Many military and political strategists today may lament the "good old days of Communism" when the actors were well-known and their geographic locations were established with certainty. At that time, it was a straightforward matter to convince political leaders in Western Europe of the need for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to counter the Soviet-led…
Definition of Modernism and Three Examples
Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:
First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop…
Preminger, Alex and Brogan T.V.F. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.
Summary of the Organization
Comcast Corporation, a leading cable, telecommunications, and entertainment public company, was incorporated in 1969 (Funding Universe, 2014). The fourth largest cable company in the United States, it enjoys the patronage of 4.4 million subscribers in 21 states with its cable, cellular and wireless telephone products, which bring in enormous revenues. It also accounts for 26% of the entire manpower in the industry (Comcast, 2013). It boasts of a diversified workforce selected only from choice applicants, which come from drones of almost 5,000 every single day. Its executive vice president for human resources proudly stated that its employees are highly selected for their innovativeness. This excellence is needed to deliver company products and experiences to the homes of their millions of customers (Comcast)
Its employees design and invent new technologies and applications, develop innovative products, create new television programs and shows and movies, report news…
Brennan, N. (2011) Comcast race discrimination complaint. Brennan and Brown Ltd.
Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.comcastdiscrimination.com
CAP (2014). Democracy at Comcast, free choice. Center for American Progress.
Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://americanprogress.org/issues/labor/news/201/07/903/democracy-at-comcas-free-choices-at-work
Mass Media & Values
The author of this report has been asked to answer a rather broad but still important question. The question at hand is whether the mass media is simply a representation of the broader cultural values, attitudes and stereotypes of a society or whether the mass media is involved with shaping the same rather than just being a reflection or representation. The author of this response does not mean to be non-committal or waffling but the answer is actually a little of both. There are some instances where mass media is simply just groveling to the masses but there are some instances where narratives are being established and cultural trends are being written. What is true in a given situation usually depends on the situation but it is not entirely hard or difficult to tell which is happening in a given instance. While mass media output is…
ABC News. 'Fox's Temptation Island Draws Fire'. ABC News. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Al-Jazeera. 'Hungary Journalist To Sue Syrian Refugee She Tripped'. Aljazeera.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Cassell, Paul. 'The Physical Evidence In The Michael Brown Case Supported The Officer [Updated With DNA Evidence]'. Washington Post. N.p., 2014. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Darren O. 'What's In A Name: Do MTV, History, And TLC Have Branding Issues?'. starcasm.net. N.p., 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Criminal Justice in Todays SocietyAbstractThe modern-day society has evolved, and so are the security and social issues that face it. To determine the specific challenges that face todays society and thus, the criminal justice system, it requires a critical and analytical research study that will filter through the information available and determine the thematic areas that emerge as critical for modern-day criminal justice. Research for this study was done through a systematic literature review method. This research method was considered to be the most appropriate for the current research and the research question. Analysis of the information presented through the reviewed materials showed that several issues are characteristic of todays society that the criminal justice system has to address or factor in its operations to realize its mandate. These issues emerged as common from the reviewed materials; i) rehabilitative and restoration, not just punitive criminal justice, ii) racial equality, iii)…
BibliographyArgun, U. & Daglar, M. (2016). Examination of routine activities theory by the property crime. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 1188.Bennett, M. W., & Plaut, V. C. (2017). Looking Criminal and the Presumption of Dangerousness: Afrocentric Facial Features, Skin Tone, and Criminal Justice.UCDL, Rev.,51, 745.Daly, K. (2012). Aims of the criminal justice system.Crime and justice: A guide to criminology, 289-406.Epperson, M., & Pettus-Davis, C. (Eds.). (2017).Smart decarceration: Achieving criminal justice transformation in the 21st century. Oxford University Press. LeClerc, B., & Savona, E. U. (Eds.). (2016).Crime Prevention in the 21st century: insightful approaches for crime prevention initiatives. Springer.Lee, N., & Loton, D. (2019). Capstone purposes across disciplines.Studies in Higher Education,44(1), 134-150.Manaliyo, J.C. (2016). Barriers to community participation in crime prevention in low-income communities in Cape Town. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 8(1).Matthews, R. (2020). New times, new crimes: Notes on the depillarization of the criminal justice system. Critical Criminology.Owusu-Bempah, A. (2017). Race and policing in historical context: Dehumanization and the policing of Black people in the 21st century.Theoretical Criminology,21(1), 23-34.Ransley, J., & Mazerolle, L. (2009). Policing in an era of uncertainty.Police Practice and Research: An International Journal,10(4), 365-381.Schmalleger, F., Donaldson, S., Kashiwahara, K., Koppal, T., Chase, S., Brown, A., ... & Marash, D. (2014).Criminal justice today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Tompson, L., & Belur, J. (2016). Information retrieval in systematic reviews: a case study of the crime prevention literature.Journal of experimental criminology,12(2), 187-207.