436+ documents containing “drought”.
California --Causes and Impacts
What is drought and why does it occur
The phenomenon of drought is regarded as an inescapable, cyclic hazard, and its build-up is gradual. The quantity of stream flow and precipitation, or degree of deficiency in groundwater that may cause drought in any given area might not have the same consequences in another area. This is because it is dependent of the quantity and type of water required, as well as alternative water supplies found within a region in any given time period. While the development of drought has already had significant impacts in the 21st century, it might now also be turning increasingly frequent. Drought cases across the world have increased, caused possibly by technological advancements in food production and shelter techniques, and in basic service provision, leading to massive food production and human settlement concentrations that are almost reaching or surpassing natural resource sources' capacities….
Deister, Ane D. "Working Toward an Active National Drought Policy." Journal of American
Water Works Association. 93.3 (2001): 48-57. Print.
Diaz, Henry F. "Recent California Water Year Precipitation Deficits: A 440-Year Perspective."
Journal of Climate 28.12 (2015): 4637-4652. Print.
Identifying Opportunities to Improve a Local Farming SystemSustained droughts in many parts of the country have devastated badly needed agricultural production for 2022, and this has certainly been the case for Western Oklahoma where the states winter wheat is projected to decrease by as much as one-half (Boswell-Gore, 2022). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the sustainability of the current production of winter wheat in Western Oklahoma and to identify strategies that can be used to improve its sustainability in the future. Following this analysis, the paper summarizes the findings from the research in the conclusion.What is the Big-Picture problem you are trying to solve or improve?The western part of Oklahoma, including the Panhandle region, is experiencing a sustained drought that is devastating the winter wheat crop (Boswell-Gore, 2022) that is worth nearly half a billion dollars (Hefton, 2021).Is it a water quality problem?Water quality is not the….
Boswell-Gore, A, (2022, May 23). Western Oklahoma faces wheat crop devastation. Oklahoma State University. Retrieved from https://news.okstate.edu/articles/agriculture/2022/ western-oklahoma-faces-devastating-wheat-crop.html.
Hefton, B. (2021, September 14). State wheat crop worth $478.4 million. Enid News & Eagle. Retrieved from https://www.enidnews.com/news/ag_energy/state-wheat-crop-worth-478-4-million/article_888bf99e-14d3-11ec-8c5c-13905f0edaf0.html .
Water law and management in Oklahoma. (2020). Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Retrieved from https://www.owrb.ok.gov/supply/ocwp/pdf_ocwp/WaterPlanUpdate/joint_ committee/WATER%20LAW_MANAGEMENT%20IN%20OKLAHOMA.pdf.
The drought in California is a maddening study in contradictions. The state is an epicenter for drought even as other parts of the United States are awash in rain. At the same time, many of the people of California are subject to strict very strict conditions on the use of water. However, not only are the restrictions rather harsh, they are not being applied in many cases to the people that use up to four fifths of the water in the state. This does not make much sense to many people on a number of levels but yet the problems and uneven enforcement persist. While there must be better ways to address the drought in California, the application of these better methods seems to be uneven at best according to the work of Vice and its reporters.
The clips at the very beginning of the video lay bare the rather silly….
psychosocial factors on Faba bean yield: Effect of drought on faba bean yield
The Fababean or Vicia faba L. is now being cultivated as a commercial crop and is valuable to the cash crop segments. However the plant has issues with infestations and low yields in case of droughts and parasitic attacks. Many researches in both these aspects have shown that the yields can be increased by careful monitoring of the soil and water process and while excess water is a problem the deficit causes poor yield. The use of genomes and selective breeding shows a way to cultivate the plant successfully in the drought climate too.
Vicia faba of the family Leguminosae is an annual herb with coarse and upright stems; un branched 0.3-2 m tall, with 1 or more hollow stems from the base and is found naturally in the Central Asia, Mediterranean, and South America. (Muehlbauer; Tullu, 1997)….
De Costa, W.A.J.M; Dennett, M.D; Ratnaweera, U; Nyalemegbe, K.1999. Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate fababean (Vicia faba L.). Canopy growth and biomass production. Field Crops Research, vol. 49, no: 2 -- 3, pp: 83 -- 93.
Loss, S.P; Siddiquea, K.H.M. 1997. Adaptation of fababean (Vicia faba L.) to dryland Mediterranean-type environments I. Seed yield and yield components" Field Crops Research, vol. 52, no: 1 -- 2, pp: 17 -- 28.
Minguez, M.I. Ruiz-Nogueirab, A. B; Saub, F. 1993. Fababean productivity and optimum canopy development under a Mediterranean climate. Field Crops Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp: 435 -- 447.
Muehlbauer, F.J; Tullu, Abebe. 1997. Vicia faba L. NewCROP FactSHEET. Accessed Online 26 June, 2012 from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/cropfactsheets/fababean.html
Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long. That being, California has been a different story in more than one way. The high agricultural use of water in the state combined with the lack of rainwater coming into the water table has led to a situation that is already dire and is getting worse by the day. This issue is important because the long-term viability of the water in California is a major concern for everyone that works and lives there or that will do either in the future years and generations. This report shall cover the totality of the problem and then offer solutions. While desalinization and shifting of agricultural priorities are seemingly on the horizon, the current prospects of the water resources and status in California is….
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from 3….
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
In this regard, Norton points out that, "Once xeriscaping becomes an element of the community's identity, and citizens encourage a change in the tastes of their neighbors, a trend toward less water use and more native habitat might build on itself, providing increasing returns on a small investment. Investments such as this could pay increasing returns in lowering per capita demand for scarce resources and buffer the economy against shortages and rising prices" (2002: 265). Likewise, Vogel reports that because the technique can help to save water in all types of climates, xeriscaping has become increasingly popular in many regions of the United States.
In reality, xeriscaping is not a mysterious or difficult process, but it does require taking several principles into account that can help reduce water usage. First and foremost, the area to be xeriscaped must be regarded as an interrelated network of soil, plants and water. Despite….
globalized context, which of the two issues -- sovereign debt and energy insecurity -- is the greater challenge to U.S. national interests and why?
Globalization is the integration of trade, economic, financial and communication resources. Its primary focus is on the free transfer of goods and services across national borders. However, there are some restrictions which are applied under this philosophy. Most notably: the movement of people across national borders with little to no interference. This is designed to protect the smaller economies and encourage development inside these regions. (Dodds, 2012)
The biggest challenge for U.S. national security interests is energy insecurity. This is because all nations require resources (such as oil and natural gas) to maintain consistent levels of economic growth. The tighter supplies will lead to increased chances of conflicts taking place based upon controlling them. (Dodds, 2012)
A good example of this can be seen with the territorial dispute….
China Japan Island Dispute. (2013). Defense News. Retrieved from: http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130504/DEFREG03/305040006/China-Japan-Island-Dispute-Could-Become-Flashpoint
Burgan, M. (2007). America in World War Two. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library.
Burr, M. (1994). Requiem for Sudan. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dodds, F. (2012). Climate Change and Energy Insecurity. Sterling, VA: Dunstan House.
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse impact….
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/midwest.html
Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
S. would need to pay relatively more U.S. dollars (the imports would be paid in U.S. currency, which would be weaker).
However, there are several other things that need to be taken into consideration when analyzing the profitability of this venture. If an international crisis, such as a drought appeared, it would be essential to analyze how this affects the product that the U.S. is exporting (grain) and the product it is importing (cars). In terms of the first, if the grain production in the U.S. is not affected by the drought, then one can say that the exported grain is relatively more expensive, because of a constant demand compared to the decreasing supply (due to the drought) on the market. The U.S. would then be able to charge more for the product it is exporting. The car industry is not affected by the drought, but it could be affected by….
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water resources….
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
99 per one gallon. Although recommended as a coastal plant, we decided to give it a try anyway. We liked the idea of its attracting butterflies. To keep the daisies healthy, Las Pilitas suggested watering and washing them "every couple of weeks." Jay was very pleased to hear that.
Next, we spent some time researching the Verbana lilacina. It is a drought tolerant plant -- good for Jay -- and requires little water. A perennial, its peak bloomtime is in the spring and summer. This would be a good plant for the shade -- which is exactly where we planned to keep it. Native to Cedros Island, off the coast of Baja, this plant should have no problem in the garden. The only problem now is finding it!
Meanwhile, I tried looking for "Creeping Thyme." There were many varieties of creeping thyme available from different outlets, and it was certainly considered a….
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.
The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.
Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide. American farmers are….
Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.
Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm .
Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
Dodgers by Stephen G. Haw
Stephen Haw presents an elaborate factual and informative piece on the art of using drought resistant plants to beautify the home and create a Mediterranean garden that will require little or no attention and yet serve the purpose that others that require a lot of attention would still serve. He first outlines the three basic needs of a plant; light, air and water with water being the most difficult need to satisfy hence he presents plants that will have least bother for this commodity.
Some of the highlighted plants are Halimium halimifalium which grows upright with gray leaves and yellow flowers, C. Salviifolius with sage-like leaves and white flowers, Cistus albidus with gray foliage and purplish-pink flowers, Jasminum fruticuns with attractive yellow flowers, Erica multiflora with pink flowers, Coronilla glauca with fragrant yellow flowers, Genista aetnesis which looks like a broom and is resilient.
The writer further….
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Consultation eport: Homes' Blue Oaks
Consulting Arborists, Inc. was called by ASAP Enterprises to assess the damage to species Quescas douglasii on the property of Steve and Christine Homes because they have recently become brown and show signs of dying. The initial program was to walk the property and visually examine the trees to determine the extent of the damage and see if any other species are similarly affected. It appears that all Blue Oaks on the property, both those that are in the actual landscape and those in the surrounding forest, have been affected but no other plant species appear to be in distress. The homeowners were then questioned as to their actions to try and alleviate the issue, and they said that they have only pruned the dead branches but have not used any fungicide or other herbicide. The landscape includes irrigation lines and hardscape which….
Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory. (1999). Plant healthcare program: Blue Oak. Retrieved from http://www.ufei.org/ForesTree/files/collected/Blueoak.pdf
Blue Planet. (2010). Blue Oak. Retrieved from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/blue_oak.htm
Garbelotto, M, & Schmidt, D.J. (2009). Phosphonate controls sudden oak death pathogen for up to two years. California Agriculture, 63(1), 10-17.
NASWC. (2000). Oak tree diseases. Retrieved from http://www.naswc.org/docs/oak_tree_diseases.pdf
California --Causes and Impacts What is drought and why does it occur The phenomenon of drought is regarded as an inescapable, cyclic hazard, and its build-up is gradual. The quantity…Read Full Paper ❯
Identifying Opportunities to Improve a Local Farming SystemSustained droughts in many parts of the country have devastated badly needed agricultural production for 2022, and this has certainly been the…Read Full Paper ❯
The drought in California is a maddening study in contradictions. The state is an epicenter for drought even as other parts of the United States are awash in rain.…Read Full Paper ❯
psychosocial factors on Faba bean yield: Effect of drought on faba bean yield The Fababean or Vicia faba L. is now being cultivated as a commercial crop and is…Read Full Paper ❯
California Drought Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long.…Read Full Paper ❯
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change. The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment…Read Full Paper ❯
In this regard, Norton points out that, "Once xeriscaping becomes an element of the community's identity, and citizens encourage a change in the tastes of their neighbors, a…Read Full Paper ❯
globalized context, which of the two issues -- sovereign debt and energy insecurity -- is the greater challenge to U.S. national interests and why? Globalization is the integration of…Read Full Paper ❯
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented…Read Full Paper ❯
S. would need to pay relatively more U.S. dollars (the imports would be paid in U.S. currency, which would be weaker). However, there are several other things that need to…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle…Read Full Paper ❯
99 per one gallon. Although recommended as a coastal plant, we decided to give it a try anyway. We liked the idea of its attracting butterflies. To keep the…Read Full Paper ❯
Genetically Modified Crops Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits…Read Full Paper ❯
Dodgers by Stephen G. Haw Stephen Haw presents an elaborate factual and informative piece on the art of using drought resistant plants to beautify the home and create a…Read Full Paper ❯
Consultation eport ***Sample Title Page Consultation eport: Homes' Blue Oaks Observations Consulting Arborists, Inc. was called by ASAP Enterprises to assess the damage to species Quescas douglasii on the property of Steve and…Read Full Paper ❯