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California --Causes and Impacts
What is drought and why does it occur
The phenomenon of drought is regarded as an inescapable, cyclic hazard, and its build-up is gradual. The quantity of stream flow and precipitation, or degree of deficiency in groundwater that may cause drought in any given area might not have the same consequences in another area. This is because it is dependent of the quantity and type of water required, as well as alternative water supplies found within a region in any given time period. While the development of drought has already had significant impacts in the 21st century, it might now also be turning increasingly frequent. Drought cases across the world have increased, caused possibly by technological advancements in food production and shelter techniques, and in basic service provision, leading to massive food production and human settlement concentrations that are almost reaching or surpassing natural resource sources'…
Deister, Ane D. "Working Toward an Active National Drought Policy." Journal of American
Water Works Association. 93.3 (2001): 48-57. Print.
Diaz, Henry F. "Recent California Water Year Precipitation Deficits: A 440-Year Perspective."
Journal of Climate 28.12 (2015): 4637-4652. Print.
The drought in California is a maddening study in contradictions. The state is an epicenter for drought even as other parts of the United States are awash in rain. At the same time, many of the people of California are subject to strict very strict conditions on the use of water. However, not only are the restrictions rather harsh, they are not being applied in many cases to the people that use up to four fifths of the water in the state. This does not make much sense to many people on a number of levels but yet the problems and uneven enforcement persist. While there must be better ways to address the drought in California, the application of these better methods seems to be uneven at best according to the work of Vice and its reporters.
The clips at the very beginning of the video lay bare the…
psychosocial factors on Faba bean yield: Effect of drought on faba bean yield
The Fababean or Vicia faba L. is now being cultivated as a commercial crop and is valuable to the cash crop segments. However the plant has issues with infestations and low yields in case of droughts and parasitic attacks. Many researches in both these aspects have shown that the yields can be increased by careful monitoring of the soil and water process and while excess water is a problem the deficit causes poor yield. The use of genomes and selective breeding shows a way to cultivate the plant successfully in the drought climate too.
Vicia faba of the family Leguminosae is an annual herb with coarse and upright stems; un branched 0.3-2 m tall, with 1 or more hollow stems from the base and is found naturally in the Central Asia, Mediterranean, and South America. (Muehlbauer; Tullu,…
De Costa, W.A.J.M; Dennett, M.D; Ratnaweera, U; Nyalemegbe, K.1999. Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate fababean (Vicia faba L.). Canopy growth and biomass production. Field Crops Research, vol. 49, no: 2 -- 3, pp: 83 -- 93.
Loss, S.P; Siddiquea, K.H.M. 1997. Adaptation of fababean (Vicia faba L.) to dryland Mediterranean-type environments I. Seed yield and yield components" Field Crops Research, vol. 52, no: 1 -- 2, pp: 17 -- 28.
Minguez, M.I. Ruiz-Nogueirab, A. B; Saub, F. 1993. Fababean productivity and optimum canopy development under a Mediterranean climate. Field Crops Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp: 435 -- 447.
Muehlbauer, F.J; Tullu, Abebe. 1997. Vicia faba L. NewCROP FactSHEET. Accessed Online 26 June, 2012 from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/cropfactsheets/fababean.html
Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long. That being, California has been a different story in more than one way. The high agricultural use of water in the state combined with the lack of rainwater coming into the water table has led to a situation that is already dire and is getting worse by the day. This issue is important because the long-term viability of the water in California is a major concern for everyone that works and lives there or that will do either in the future years and generations. This report shall cover the totality of the problem and then offer solutions. While desalinization and shifting of agricultural priorities are seemingly on the horizon, the current prospects of the water resources and status in California…
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
In this regard, Norton points out that, "Once xeriscaping becomes an element of the community's identity, and citizens encourage a change in the tastes of their neighbors, a trend toward less water use and more native habitat might build on itself, providing increasing returns on a small investment. Investments such as this could pay increasing returns in lowering per capita demand for scarce resources and buffer the economy against shortages and rising prices" (2002: 265). Likewise, Vogel reports that because the technique can help to save water in all types of climates, xeriscaping has become increasingly popular in many regions of the United States.
In reality, xeriscaping is not a mysterious or difficult process, but it does require taking several principles into account that can help reduce water usage. First and foremost, the area to be xeriscaped must be regarded as an interrelated network of soil, plants and water. Despite…
Hepner, Ruth. 2006, October 11. "Selecting Drought-Resistant Plants." The Washington Times:
Hughes, Donald J. An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role
in the Community of Life. London: Routledge, 2001.
globalized context, which of the two issues -- sovereign debt and energy insecurity -- is the greater challenge to U.S. national interests and why?
Globalization is the integration of trade, economic, financial and communication resources. Its primary focus is on the free transfer of goods and services across national borders. However, there are some restrictions which are applied under this philosophy. Most notably: the movement of people across national borders with little to no interference. This is designed to protect the smaller economies and encourage development inside these regions. (Dodds, 2012)
The biggest challenge for U.S. national security interests is energy insecurity. This is because all nations require resources (such as oil and natural gas) to maintain consistent levels of economic growth. The tighter supplies will lead to increased chances of conflicts taking place based upon controlling them. (Dodds, 2012)
A good example of this can be seen with the…
China Japan Island Dispute. (2013). Defense News. Retrieved from: http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130504/DEFREG03/305040006/China-Japan-Island-Dispute-Could-Become-Flashpoint
Burgan, M. (2007). America in World War Two. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library.
Burr, M. (1994). Requiem for Sudan. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dodds, F. (2012). Climate Change and Energy Insecurity. Sterling, VA: Dunstan House.
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ impacts-adaptation/midwest.html
Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
S. would need to pay relatively more U.S. dollars (the imports would be paid in U.S. currency, which would be weaker).
However, there are several other things that need to be taken into consideration when analyzing the profitability of this venture. If an international crisis, such as a drought appeared, it would be essential to analyze how this affects the product that the U.S. is exporting (grain) and the product it is importing (cars). In terms of the first, if the grain production in the U.S. is not affected by the drought, then one can say that the exported grain is relatively more expensive, because of a constant demand compared to the decreasing supply (due to the drought) on the market. The U.S. would then be able to charge more for the product it is exporting. The car industry is not affected by the drought, but it could be affected…
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
99 per one gallon. Although recommended as a coastal plant, we decided to give it a try anyway. We liked the idea of its attracting butterflies. To keep the daisies healthy, Las Pilitas suggested watering and washing them "every couple of weeks." Jay was very pleased to hear that.
Next, we spent some time researching the Verbana lilacina. It is a drought tolerant plant -- good for Jay -- and requires little water. A perennial, its peak bloomtime is in the spring and summer. This would be a good plant for the shade -- which is exactly where we planned to keep it. Native to Cedros Island, off the coast of Baja, this plant should have no problem in the garden. The only problem now is finding it!
Meanwhile, I tried looking for "Creeping Thyme." There were many varieties of creeping thyme available from different outlets, and it was certainly…
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.
The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.
Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…
Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.
Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm .
Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
Dodgers by Stephen G. Haw
Stephen Haw presents an elaborate factual and informative piece on the art of using drought resistant plants to beautify the home and create a Mediterranean garden that will require little or no attention and yet serve the purpose that others that require a lot of attention would still serve. He first outlines the three basic needs of a plant; light, air and water with water being the most difficult need to satisfy hence he presents plants that will have least bother for this commodity.
Some of the highlighted plants are Halimium halimifalium which grows upright with gray leaves and yellow flowers, C. Salviifolius with sage-like leaves and white flowers, Cistus albidus with gray foliage and purplish-pink flowers, Jasminum fruticuns with attractive yellow flowers, Erica multiflora with pink flowers, Coronilla glauca with fragrant yellow flowers, Genista aetnesis which looks like a broom and is resilient.
Stephen G.H., (2013). The Draught Dodgers: Plant Recommendations from a Truly Mediterranean Garden. Horticulture (Hortmag.com).
***Sample Title Page
Consultation eport: Homes' Blue Oaks
Consulting Arborists, Inc. was called by ASAP Enterprises to assess the damage to species Quescas douglasii on the property of Steve and Christine Homes because they have recently become brown and show signs of dying. The initial program was to walk the property and visually examine the trees to determine the extent of the damage and see if any other species are similarly affected. It appears that all Blue Oaks on the property, both those that are in the actual landscape and those in the surrounding forest, have been affected but no other plant species appear to be in distress. The homeowners were then questioned as to their actions to try and alleviate the issue, and they said that they have only pruned the dead branches but have not used any fungicide or other herbicide. The landscape includes irrigation…
Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory. (1999). Plant healthcare program: Blue Oak. Retrieved from http://www.ufei.org/ForesTree/files/collected/Blueoak.pdf
Blue Planet. (2010). Blue Oak. Retrieved from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/blue_oak.htm
Garbelotto, M, & Schmidt, D.J. (2009). Phosphonate controls sudden oak death pathogen for up to two years. California Agriculture, 63(1), 10-17.
NASWC. (2000). Oak tree diseases. Retrieved from http://www.naswc.org/docs/oak_tree_diseases.pdf
It is clear that conservation is needed. If the water that is left in the Southwest asin is squandered, it will disappear completely. Land use planning is also vital, because there are many different things that land around the Southwest asin can be used for - or not used for. When farms expand and urban areas are built, they cut into the water that currently exists, and this cannot continue without some way to get more water. It is necessary for leaders who have control over these types of issues to stop people from continuing to deplete water resources through the use of conservation measures and proper planning for the land that is left. While more land is often needed for development, consideration needs to be given to how fast that development takes place and the resources that are available to support it.
Great asin Water Issues. (n.d.). Great…
Great Basin Water Issues. (n.d.). Great Basin Water Network. http://www.greatbasinwater.net/issues/index.php
Sharp, Jay W. (2008). Part II: Southwest Water Resources - the Problems We Face. DesertUSA. http://www.desertusa.com/mag08/jun08/water-southwest-problems.html
Water Demands (n.d.). http://ibcc.state.co.us/Basins/Southwest/MajorWaterIssues/WaterDemandsProjections/SouthwestBasinWaterDemandsProjections.htm
The second argument used by my uncle was a kind of blend of fuzzy logic and inductive reasoning. The argument essentially looks like this: there is a water problem; keeping a green lawn is not part of the problem; let's find out where the problem lies.
The assumption made here is that the water used to keep lawns green is not part of the water problem. Countering this assumption would require some form of statistical analysis or syllogism. Since my uncle is arguing from a generalization that he apparently discerned at some point, it becomes necessary to correct that generalization. If my uncle is swayed by facts, facts then are what are necessary. One could look to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power -- an authority on the subject -- to find out the statistical analyses.
By doing so, one could also see the benefit of cutting water…
Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)
In the last twenty…
(2007). Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In K. Trenberth, P. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, et al., S. Solomon, & M.M.D. Qin (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project. (1998). What is an El Nino? Retrieved December 1, 2011, from El Nino Theme Page: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/el-nino-story.html
Yeh, S.-W., Kug, J.-S., Dewitte, B., Kwon, M.-H., Kirtman, B.P., & Jin, F.-F. (2009). El Nino in a changing climate. Nature, 511-514.
Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock, it had to be a very beautiful one, such as limestone, the kind of limestone that grew in small crevices on the road leading up to my grandfather's home on the island. I felt then that Prince Charming would come, eventually and when he did he wasn't going anywhere. After all, I am amazing; he must just not have received the memo quite yet. All of this was in the past and the time was now. I had been through enough doubt and feeling that I was some creature living under a rock. I was going to meet him and this situation would be resolved. Tonight was my coming out from under the rock.
Lucas. His name is Lucas Walker. We…
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press
Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…
Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision
Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/
City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html
Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.
reporters from the Economist discuss the possible effects of climate change on corn crops. A researcher from Stanford University, David Lobell, entered into an accidental collaboration with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre in Mexico. The latter organization had been researching the potential for expanding corn production into parts of southern and eastern Africa. In particular, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre "had been running an ambitious set of field trials designed to look at what sorts of maize (corn, to Americans) grow best in various parts of southern and eastern Africa, paying special attention to drought resistance," (The Economist). Lobell and the Stanford University team provided the financial and human resources to help the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre compile data by amassing and aggregating results culled from over one hundred different research stations in the field. The project morphed into one larger than either party…
"One Degree Over." The Economist. 17 May 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.economist.com/node/18386161
Psychology: Environmental Problems
Facing its worst drought in 40 years, the State of California took a number of measures to conserve water. It first used positive consequences to compel a 20% reduction in water usage by homes and businesses. The disappointing results led to the addition of negative consequences to compel conservation. In addition, California is now taking emergency measures against the oil and gas industry, which was previously exempt from some of the State's environmental laws. California has shown that an environmental policy must use positive and negative consequences, along with carefully given exemptions, in order to be most effective.
ater Control During Drought
Evaluate 2 Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
The State of California is currently enduring a 3-year drought that is its worst in 40 years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future (Associated Press, 2014). Californians continued to use water with too little…
Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from sacramento.cbslocal.com Web site: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2014/07/16/california-seeks-to-send-message-to-water-wasters/
Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from www.propublica.org Web site: http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers
McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.
State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from ca.gov Web site: http://ca.gov/drought/
2011, the state of California has been in a drought condition. ecently, the media has been abuzz due to the governor's legislation to curtail domestic water use. The effort to curtail water use is a noble one. However, the governor needs to focus more on the real culprit: agribusiness. Because the state is the nation's largest agriculture producer by far, the governor of California has not imposed any restrictions on agriculture. Yet something needs to be done to change the methods by which the United States supplies itself with food. Because meat is linked to serious health problems, ethical issues, and environmental problems, a new policy should curtail factory farming.
Agro-Business Causes Drought
The drought in California highlights some of the problems related to food production and processing. Agriculture uses more than 80% of the state's total water (Sherman, 2015). Even if the current drought situation can be managed without…
Goldbohm, R.H., et al. (1994). A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer. Cancer Research 54.
Gossard, M.H. & York, R. (2003). Social structural influences on meat consumption. Research in Human Ecology 10(1). Retrieved online: http://storage.globalcitizen.net/data/topic/knowledge/uploads/2011083092023705.pdf
Lurie, J. (2015). 7 key facts about the drought. Mother Jones. 6 April, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2015/04/everything-you-wanted-know-about-california-drought
Sherman, E. (2015). 6 industries hurt by the California drought. Fortune. 9 April, 2015. Retrieved online: http://fortune.com/2015/04/09/6-industries-hurt-the-most-by-the-california-drought/
Whether this is in fact the case will be explored in the next section.
The Case for Mayan Culture
Researchers that do not agree with Haug and others argue that the Mayan culture has continued throughout history and has been passed down to individuals that are still alive today within areas of Central America. There is some agreement regarding this between various researchers that have studied Mayan culture, rituals, and architecture. Certainly, the pyramids that the Mayans built are still around today and can be seen as monuments to the Mayan people and the lives that they lived. While it is impossible to know everything about a people that died out hundreds of years ago, much has been determined about the Mayan culture and lifestyle through a study of artifacts that are still in existence.
What many people do not realize, however, is that what is left of the Mayan…
Blanton, Richard E., Gary M. Feinman, Stephen A. Kowalewski, and Linda M. Nicholas. Ancient Oaxaca. Cambridge: University Press, 1999.
Brachman, P.S., & Friedlander, A.M. (1994). Anthrax. In: Plotkin SA, Mortimer EA, eds. Vaccines. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co.
Braun P.C., & Zoidis J.D. (2001). Treating and preventing anthrax. RT Magazine. October/November,(14),15-21.
Crist, R.E. & Paganini, L.A. (1980). The rise and fall of Maya civilization. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 39(1), 23-30.
However, it was changes in technology that originally made the cultivation of the land possible, and marked a shift from earlier methods of production, as practiced by Native Americans. hile small Okie farmers might have hated the larger agricultural conglomerates, they too had benefited from technology in past and paid the price when technology destroyed the land. And it was, in the end, technology that also saved such subsistence farmers, in the form of new cultivation methods -- introduced by the federal government.
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." itness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and orld ar II. May 1, 2010.
"The Dust Bowl." U.S. History. May 1, 2010.
Egan, Timothy. The orst Hard Time. Mariner, 2006.
"Hugh Hammond Bennett." The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of rath. Penguin,…
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." Witness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and World War II. May 1, 2010.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Environmental determinism has long been out of favor among historians and social scientists, although well into the 19th Century even the majority of Westerners were highly dependent on the climate and environment for their survival. Since the entire world economy was based on agriculture, a shortfall in harvests meant famines, epidemics and death for those who were at or below subsistence level. Such famines were a primary cause for the overthrow of the monarchy in France in 1789, for example, and they led to rebellions, riots and instability wherever they occurred. As late as the 1840s in Ireland, the great potato blight led to the death or immigration of half the population, and the near-destruction of Irish society. In the case of Easter Island, Norse Greenland and the Classic Maya civilization, climate change combined with deforestation and agricultural practices that destroyed the environment led to the total collapse…
Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Penguin Books, 2006).
Demarest Arthur A.. Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History (Basic Books, 2000).
Gill, Richardson B. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death (University of New Mexico Press, 2000).
Between 1950 and 1984, the Green evolution began to influence farming. This saw world grain production improve by 250%, even though much of this gain was non-sustainable. These agricultural technologies temporarily increased crop yields, but there are signs as early as 1995 that not only are these technologies reaching their peak of assistance, but they may now be contributing to the decline of arable land e.g. persistence of pesticides leading to soil contamination and decline of area available for farming. Developed nations have been willing to share these technologies with developing nations that have famine crisis, but there are ethical restrictions in regards to thrusting such technologies on lesser developed countries. This is often accredited to an association of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides with a lack of longevity. It is thought that these technological advances might not be as great in those famines which are the result of war. Increased…
Chossudovsky, Michel. 2008, Global Famine, viewed 11 August 2010,
Harsch, Ernest. 2003, Famine spreads across Africa, viewed 11 August 2010,
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia
Liteatue Review Desciption
A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…
references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.
Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Business Dictionary. [online] available: http://www.business dictionary.com/definition/lifestyle.html.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Dictionary.com. [online] available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/lifestyle .
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Merriam-Webster. [online] available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lifestyle .
Alberta province of Canada is considered one of the strongest economies in North America, being culturally diverse as well as politically and environmentally stable. Its varied landscape, sunny climate and varied geography make it a most ideal locality and provide its people an excellent quality of life. Alberta is endowed with abundant natural resources, natural sceneries, and capable manpower that altogether make it the perfect place to live and work in. These outstanding features are collectively referred to as the Alberta advantage (Government of Alberta 2002). Its people are vibrant, resourceful and productive entrepreneurs, whose goods and services rank among the most excellent in the world. This level of excellence draws from the inherent pioneering spirit of the earliest settlers of the province. The present principal industries of the province are agriculture and related industries, forestry, telecommunications, oil and gas. Its oil and gas industry, which began in the late…
Brown, Jim. 2003: Canada's Chretien Downplays Kyoto Economic Impact. CNEWS. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2003/10/20/23/511-cp.html
CBCNews, 2002: Consumers Will Feel Pinch of Kyoto, Say Opponents. CBC. http://www/cbc/ca/stories/stories/2002/09/03/ab_kyoto020903
CTV News Staff. 2003:Three-quarters of Canadians Support Kyoto: Poll. CTV.ca. http://www/ctv/ca/servlit/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/10340/4051181_29423251/:hub=Canada
Government of Alberta. 2002: Canadians Divided on Kyoto Ratification. http://www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm "Page=332.
The mystery for the collapse of the Mayan civilization has been a major focus for researchers in the field of archaeology for many years. What happened to Mayan people is one mystery that many people have been questioning about; they wondered how such a strong and a stable civilization which had flourished for about twenty-seven hundred years disappear without rational and clear explanation. However, there are different theories that could possibly explain what truly happened to Mayan. These include; drought and climate changes which led to demise of Mayan culture, the warfare from the neighboring cities that caused the Mayans to be become extinct, the ecological collapse theory and many others (Hill, 2012). The paper will discuss the mystery of the Mayan people while analyzing the theories explaining their mystery.
(a) Environmental Change Theory:
Studies show that, during the Mayan era, the climate change was unfavorable; there was…
Hill, S. (2012). The role of weather in the disappearance of the Maya civilization . Extreme weather preceded collapse of Maya civilization.. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://doubtfulnews.com/2012/11/the-role-of-weather-in-the-disappearance-of-the-maya-civilization/
Newitz, A. (2012). Mysterious disappearances of 10 civilizations -- Secret History -- Sott.net. Mayan Disappearance Civilization. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.sott.net/article/248731-Mysterious-disappearances-of-10-civilizations
Thompson, S.C., Thompson, K.S., & Lo-pez, L. (2007). Mayan folktales Cuentos folklo-ricos mayas. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited.
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…
AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.
Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
In 1991 a short-lived coalition of opposition groups seized the capital Mogadishu and ousted aid Barre. By 1992 it is estimated that over half a million people had died through war or from starvation. Between 800,000-1.5m people fled the country to refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen and Djibouti. From there many moved to Nairobi or Addis Ababa before embarking on a journey to the 'West'.
In May 1991, the people of north-west omalia broke away to form the Republic of omaliland.
Although not recognised by the international community, its creation has resulted in relative political stability. Elsewhere, the ruling coalition collapsed resulting in a state of anarchy and civil war that exists today with rival warlords vying for power. ince 1991 most asylum seekers have come from these central and southern regions. In omaliland the voluntary repatriation of refugees from neighbouring countries is now taking place. Return visits to,…
Post-Conflict Identities: Practices and Affiliations of Somali Refugee Children - Briefing Notes, E.S.R.C Economic and Social Research Council, University of Leeds, the University of Sheffield; August 2005 http://www.identities.group.shef.ac.uk/pdfs/briefing%20'Somalia'%20and%20the%20Roots%20of%20the%20Diaspora.pdf
World Bank Org., 'Cry Havoc: Why Civil War Matters';
Causes and consequences of forced migration' http://www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo016/fmo016-6.htm
The student editors continue, "Prior to the appearance of Lake Nasser [...] the Nubians cultivated plots along the shore. Those areas are now completely underwater. Many people have left the settlements that were created for them and returned to the lake's edge, trying to recreate their lost culture."
Sadly, because the dam has affected the flow of the Nile, and because the lakeshore is different from the river's edge, their way of life has been permanently changed. Many nomadic Egyptian tribes were also affected. They did not understand the effect the lake would have on their tribal lands, and these changes altered the way they care for their livestock and make their livings. In short, the dam affected people's lives adversely in many areas, and the human cost of the dam has been extremely high.
The dam added 30% to Egypt's usable agricultural land, but it has had an adverse…
Editors. 2000. The Aswan Dam. Denver, CO: University of Colorado at Denver. Available Online at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/index.html. Accessed 7 May 2007.
Osman, Hassan. Hydro Development in Egypt- Lessons from High Aswan Dam. Dams.org. Available Online at http://www.dams.org/kbase/submissions/showsub.php?rec=opt041Accessed 7 May 2007.
Swain, Ashok. Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. London: Routledge, 2004.
Water Wars: Fact or Fiction?" Futures (2001): 769.
Heinrich events are one of the most discussed and debated phenomena related to global climate change. For each theory proposed related to the cause or effect of a Heinrich event, there is a theory contrary to the concept. Theories relating to the binging and purging of ice sheets, cyclic changes in atmospheric conditions, and the thermohaline circulation disruption of the North Atlantic Ocean all play a part in the discussion of Heinrich events. While the debate of the causes of Heinrich events is still ongoing, the effects of the events are well documented, and are clearly substantial in relation to changes in the global climate.
This paper discusses the history of Heinrich events, and will discuss current theories of their origin. Additionally, this paper will outline the scientific method for discovering more information of Heinrich events, and their relationship to the Bond Cycle, Milankovitch Cycles, and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations. Finally,…
Bond, G., H. Heinrich, W.S. Broecker, L. Labeyrie, J. McManus, J. Andrews, S. Huon,
R. Jantschik, S. Clasen, C. Simet, K. Tedesco, M. Klas, G. Bonani and S. Ivy. (1992).
Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. Nature, 360, 245-249.
Bergeron, L. (1997, Jan. 4). Wobbling world brings iceberg surges. New Scientist, 153(2063), 14.
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…
Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.cryonet.org
Engineering desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli" Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J; helm, Richard F. Pricket, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe. John H. Retrieved at http://www.nencki. gov. pl
Major groups of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.bact.wisc.edu
Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance" Hoekstra, Folkert A; Golovina, Elena; Buitink, Julia. Retrieved at http://www.plantstress.com
ater ars: Georgia, Florida and Alabama
The 'water wars' between Georgia, Florida, and Alabama specifically revolve around the ownership and allocation of water "in two major river basins that cross their borders (the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint basins)" ("Tri-State water wars"). Georgia, an 'upstream user' of these bodies of water is concerned about having enough water to fuel development in the cities of Atlanta and Columbus while also having enough money to support the state's agriculture. Alabama, in contrast, is a downstream user and needs water to support its power industry, to ensure it has enough municipal supplies for residents, and to support its fishing industry ("Tri-State water wars"). Florida is also concerned about the impact that a limited water supply could have upon its fisheries as well as its critical agricultural products such as oranges. "The dispute has involved several local, state and federal agencies, courts and mediators, and…
"Chattahoochee blues." The Economist. 16 Sept 2010. Web. 2 Apr 2015.
Cotterell, Bill. "Water wars between Florida, Georgia advance at U.S. Supreme Court."
Reuters 3 Nov 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2015.
Oforiaa-Amoah, Abigale. "Water wars and International Conflict." Water is Life. 2004. Web.
BibliographyCHAPTER 11 The Black Death A 14Th Century Plague, 2021. https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/share.nanjing-school.com/dist/6/32/files/2012/11/HistAlive8_Ch11-vvyo3r.pdf.DeWitte, Sharon N. Mortality Risk and Survival In The Aftermath Of The Medieval Black Death.Plos ONE9, no. 5 (2014): e96513. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096513.Duncan, C J. What Caused the Black Death?.Postgraduate Medical Journal81, no. 955 (2005): 315-320. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2004.024075.Grousset, R.The Empire of The Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press, 1970.Gyug, R.The Effects and Extent of The Black Death Of 1348: New Evidence for Clerical Mortality In Barcelona. Medieval Stud, 1993.Jedwab, Remi, and Mark Koyama.Negative Shocks and Mass Persecutions: Evidence from The Black Death. Ebook. 4th ed. NW, Suite: Institute for International Economic Policy, 2017. https://www2.gwu.edu/~iiep/assets/docs/papers/2017WP/JedwabIIEPWP2017-4.pdf.Legan, Joseph A. The Medical Response to The Black Death.Senior Honors Projects, no. 103 (2015). https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=honors201019.Siuda, Fabian, and Uwe Sunde. Disease and Demographic Development: The Legacy of The Plague.Journal of Economic Growth26, no. 1 (2021): 1-30. doi:10.1007/s10887-020-09185-4.Sussman, George D. Was the Black Death in India And China?.CUNY La Guardia Community College, no. 85 (2011): 319355. https://academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=lg_pubs.Welford, Mark R., and Brian H. Bossak. Validation of Inverse Seasonal Peak Mortality in Medieval Plagues, Including the Black Death, In Comparison To Modern Yersinia Pestis-Variant Diseases.Plos ONE4, no. 12 (2009): e8401. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008401.Wheelis, Mark. Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege Of Caffa.EID Journal8, no. 9 (2002).Wood, James W., Rebecca J. Ferrell, and Sharon N. Dewitte-Avia. The Temporal Dynamics of The Fourteenth-Century Black Death: New Evidence from English Ecclesiastical Records.Human Biology75, no. 4 (2002).
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
A 200). The poor, members of minority groups with a genetic predisposition to the condition, and the very old are particular vulnerable to extremities of temperature (Bazilchuk 2006: 545) Temperature extremes have changed the way people live their lives, whether it is from famine, the increased rate of deaths from the increase of extremes of hot and cold, illnesses, or even simply the loss of traditional ways of life -- from the Arctic Inuit Eskimos to the Vermont maple syrup farmers who can no longer sustain their trees in warmer temperatures.
It is clear that unless we open our eyes as a nation and as a world, global warming's effects can be catastrophic. Of course it is heartening that there been the greater willingness of people in recent years, partially for self-serving reasons and partially out of the goodness of their hearts, to take proactive actions to reduce their carbon…
Bazilchuk, Nancy (1 Sept 2006). "Lethal Change in the Weather: Temperature Extremes and Premature Mortality." Environmental Health Perspectives. 114. 9: pp. A545- A545.
Driven to Extremes: Health Effects of Climate Change." (Apr., 2007). Environmental Health Perspectives. 115. 4: A196-A203
Green, Heather & Kerry Capell (6 Mar 2008). "Carbon Confusion." Business Week. Retrieved 7 May 2008 at http://www.business week.com/magazine/content/08_11/b4075052454821_page_3.htm
An Inconvenient Truth." Directed by Davis Guggenheim. With Al Gore. 2006.
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…
Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm
Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Jordan, Stuart. "The Global Warming Crisis." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2005: 23+.
Destruction of Bison
The Destruction of the Bison
The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920 by Andrew Isenberg is an account of the near total-extermination of the bison in Great Plains of America. The bison population declined from being around 30,000,000 in the eighteenth century to less than a 1,000 by the end of the nineteenth century. In recounting the fate of the bison population and how it was decimated in Great Plains, Isenberg looks at various historical, cultural, economic, and ecological factors that contributed to the decimation of the animal. Isenberg challenges two conventional explanations of the bison destruction, both of which largely laid blame on the white Euro-American predators. It was believed that the behavior of Euro-American settlers in the Great Plains was characterized by wastefulness, while Native American Indians were conscious environmentalists (Gore) who preyed on the buffalo only out of necessity and did not…
Cronon, William, "The Uses of Environmental History." Environmental History Review, 17 (Fall 1993), 1-22. .
Dolph, James A., and Dolph, C. Ivar, "The American Bison: His Annihilation and Preservation." The Magazine of Western History, 25.3 (Summer, 1975), 14-25.
Gore, Al. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
Isenberg, Andrew. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Levine also notes that the result of the government patchwork of funding is that private firms jump into the technological progress market, with even worse economic results. "Private firms focus their research efforts according to short-term, market-driven priorities, motives which often contradict long-term sustainable development and economic growth" (Levine 1998 675). Result=inequality/scarcity.
Further, Levine (1998 675) notes that large academic institutions that are more likely to consider long-term concerns are put in the position of directing national innovation systems; please see above for the problems inherent in that (turf wars).
Despite all that, Levine does still believe technological progress is the answer to scarcity, at least in environmental arenas. Levine notes that "As far back as 1911, Joseph A. Schumpeter integrated innovation into economic development theory by showing a positive correlation between involvement in a commercial transaction and the generation of new products, devices or systems" (1998 675). But in…
Bakker, Karen J. "Privatizing Water, Producing Scarcity: The Yorkshire Drought of 1995" Economic Geography 76.1 (2000): 4. Questia. 3 Dec. 2004 .
Caselli, Francesco. 'Technological Revolutions." American Economic Review 89.1 (1999): 78-102.
Clark, Charles M.A. 'Wealth and Poverty: On the Social Creation of Scarcity." Journal of Economic Issues 36.2 (2002): 415+. Questia. 3 Dec. 2004 .
Dosi, Cesare, and K. William Easter. "Market Failure and Role of Markets and Privatization in Alleviating Water Scarcity." International Journal of Public Administration 26.3 (2003): 265+. Questia. 3 Dec. 2004 .
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…
Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:
Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
Macroeconomics -- Inflation
Domestic and national news are constantly talking about the rapid changes and increases in prices of basic commodities today. Prime commodities for a specific economy or country are discussed with the same intensity as changes in the global market prices for important, universal necessities such as oil. Prices of basic commodities are not the only ones susceptible to increasing in value. Services, too, particularly wages, are subjected to increases ultimately driven by union power or collective bargaining agreements between manufacturing companies and corporations and its workforce. Changes in the supply of raw materials used to produce products and commodities and services required to mass produce these products or to provide services on a large scale are the drivers that serve as catalysts to price increases. This increase in prices and costs of products and services over time, respectively, is called inflation (Maunder et al., 2000, p. 147).…
Maunder, P. (2000). Economics Explained. UK: Collins Education.
Tymkiw, C. (2012). "Food prices on the rise as drought worsens." CNN Money Website. Retrieved 23 July 2012. Available at: http://money.cnn.com/2012/07/25/investing/corn-food-prices/index.htm?iid=Popular
Hydrogeological eport: Lipan Aquifer, Texas
Lipan Aquifer in Texas
Located in the Lipan Flats area of the counties of Tom Green. western Concho, and southern unnels, the Lipan is a minor aquifer according to classifications of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) the Lipan aquifer is used primarily for irrigation with limited consumption for livestock and rural domestic purposes (Lee 1986). However, the chemical quality of the Lipan aquifer water does not meet drinking water standards (Lee, 1986). Drinking water may contain radon at rates just above safety levels provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Upwards of 125 feet of saturated alluvial deposits of the Leona Formation of Quaternary age make up the aquifer (Lee 1986). Part of the aquifer constitution (see Figure 1.) is comprised of the "updip portions of the underlying dolomites, limestones, and shale of Permian age" (Lee 1986). These structures, which are hydrologically continuous with…
Aquifers in Paleozoic Rocks, Ground Water Atlas of the United States, HA 730-E. http://pubs.usgs.gov/ha/ha730/ch_e/gif/E118.GIF (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Beach, James A. And Stuart T. Burton, "The Lipan Aquifer," in Ground Water Reports, R360AEPC. (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Beach, James A., Stuart Burton, and Barry Kolarik. Groundwater Availability Model for the Lipan Aquifer in Texas. (2004, June). http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/gam/lipan/
Lipan_GAM_Final%20Report_Part1.pdf (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Epic of Gilgamesh
In a time when natural disasters were the whims of the Gods, when hunger, disease, and death stalked ones life as surely as the wild beasts of the land, the epic poem of Gilgamesh found its way across the ancient landscape. It was unearthed as part of a library collected thousands of years before our time, yet "reflects an ancient range of human experience and emotion not so far removed from our own" (Jackson, xi). In a cultural context of nomadic life and city-states, ancient Iraqis worshipped numerous gods. Every aspect of their life depended upon the favor their gods bestowed. The Epic of Gilgamesh illustrates an understanding of the human spirit unbent by fickle gods and powerful kings. This is a story of human growth and acceptance for a difficult life and violent time in human history.
The ancient Iraqi society was "mostly illiterate," passing on…
Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+. Questia. 25 Apr. 2004
Urbanization, population growth, and environmental degradation are among the most pressing problems in the world today (Coleman & Kerbo, 2009). Until recently, these issues would have been dealt with on local, national, or regional levels. When the Industrial Revolution began, the results of urbanization, population growth, and pollution were experienced mainly on a local level. Yet now, these are problems shared by every person on the planet. Urbanization means that many rural communities are struggling, as they lose young people who seek opportunities in cities. It also means that cities struggle to accommodate for the influx of people, leading to infrastructure problems, overcrowding, and poor quality of life. Industrial growth and development worldwide has also led to widespread problems that are no longer localized. Climate change impacts even those areas with the least infrastructure or industrialization. Wind and water currents know no geo-political boundaries, and nor does the ozone layer.…
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.
As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"
Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya
Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…
Adams, Gillian. 2004. "16 Ancient and Medieval Children's Texts." pp. 225-238 in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, vol. 1, edited by Hunt, Peter. London: Routledge.
Ancient Babylonia - Gilgamesh Tablet. 2009. Bible History. Retrieved 2 August 2010 ( http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaGilgamesh_Tablet.htm .).
Bell, Robert H. 2005. "Inside the Wardrobe: Is 'Narnia' a Christian Allegory?." Commonweal, December 16, pp. 12-15
Bible Maps. 2009. Genisis Files. Retrieved on 6 August 2010 ( http://www.genesisfiles.com/Mtararat.htm )
S. History, 2011).
Only after aggressive government intervention did the Dust Bowl conditions improve. The government, even before the drought was broken in 1939, was able to reduce soil erosion by 65% through the actions of the Civilian Conservation Corps, which planted 200 million trees to "break the wind, hold water in the soil, and hold the soil itself in place" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). Farmers received instruction by the government on "soil conservation and anti-erosion techniques, including crop rotation, strip farming, contour plowing, terracing and other beneficial farming practices" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). For the first time, the government took an interest not simply in preserving some of its land from development in the form of national parks, but gave counsel to farmers how to use the land.
The gap between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' already wide even before the Great Depression, grew into…
"Disasters: The 1930s." U.S. History. February 20, 2011
"The Great Depression: What happened and how it compares with today." The Great
Depression. February 20, 2011.
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
The land was already suffering from the eradication of grass because of cattle-farming, the natural balance of the ecosystem had been destroyed as a result of the tyranny and greed of man, and now the land, starving, ate the farmers alive. Dust pneumonia killed men and women living on soil that only a few years ago had yielded wild profits during the wheat boom, when the rest of the world had suffered a wheat shortage.
There is something poignantly human about the attitude towards money and profit in the farmers that everyone can relate to -- how can something that once was so profitable suddenly evaporate, after all? How could the climate change so quickly -- it seemed impossible? Also, vibrant settlements had been built up around the area, after all. These were not small, isolated farming towns in many cases, but true communities that had been enriched by the…
Egan, Timothy. The Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great
American Dust Bowl. Houghton Mifflin, 2005
This adds to the understanding of development of the Third World- which is shown in reality as a result of a combination of factors and not just climate changes or other 'natural' causes.
Central to the argument in the article by Davis is the view the ritish colonial empire in the 1800s, as the dominant economic power, influenced and affected other less-developed countries negatively and resulted ion the creation of the Third World. As the author states, the logic of Capitalism and the susceptibility of colonized nations led to the origins of the present division between the developed and less-developed countries. There is a certain moral criticism of these events in the Davis' article. "The route to this "new world order" is thus paved with the bodies of the poor" (Davis 29).
While there are of course many other aspects and answers to the question of the origins of the…
Davis M. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso: London and New York. 2001.
experienced a series of extreme and devastating weather events including Hurricane Katrina's destruction of New Orleans, Louisiana and other parts of the south in 2005, flooding in Europe in 2005, heavy snowfall in Europe in 2010 and 2011, and flooding throughout Asia from 2005 to the present. Many of these weather patterns are related to El Nino or La Nina storms, which are two-to-eight-year weather patterns where changing wind streams pick up warm surface water from the oceans and increases humidity, according to Tim Flannery in his 2005 book The Weather Makers. When the clouds reach a saturation point, they release horrific storms and subsequent floods in some parts of the world and parching droughts in others.
Extreme weather caused by warming oceans is one of the many environmental disasters scientist link to global warming, which is the increasing warming of the planet. In the midst of a cold winter,…
Climate & Topology Analysis Woolworth Limited - Australia (home country) - Host Country: Norway 1) Does climate affect factor conditions natural resource availability
Climate & topology analysis for Woolworths Limited:
Australia (home country); Norway (host country)
As a supermarket, Woolworths Limited is continually facing the challenges posed by the availability of natural resources. A cool season can prevent a crop from properly flourishing; the price of petrol can cause transportation costs to escalate. High fuel costs, because they have such a spiraling impact upon all aspects of the transportation of consumer goods, such as imported produce, can be particularly damaging, given the extent to which this can increase the costs of goods and services. This does not only hurt the average Australian consumer, but also can negatively impact Australia's food exports, causing them to rise in price due to transportation costs.
In Australia, climate may have more of an…
Food. (2011). About Australia. Retrieved July 29, 2011 at http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/foodindustry.html
Roxas, Rickey. (2011).Senate announces probe on raging milk controversy.
International Business Times. Retrieved July 29, 2011 at http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/110844/20110210/senate-announces-probe-on-raging-milk-controversy.htm
Snapshot. (2011). About Australia. Retrieved July 29, 2011 at http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/snapshot.html