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The findings of National Center at Columbia University on Addiction and Substance Abuse are that the entire American children population resides with an adult or parent who uses illegal drugs or is involved in heavy consumption of alcohol. When one of the family members is involved in drug abuse, their families always tend to be ruined and might even have harsh consequences on members of the household, particularly children.
Family issues on drug abuse
Addiction and Substance abuse National Center indicates that drug abuse facilitates the possibilities of divorce. Even if it does not reach the extent of divorce, it affects the quality of marriage. This is well evidenced in men who usually have lower quality relationships with their spouses as compared to non-alcoholic men. Moreover, alcoholic males are known for having low sexual function as compared to non-alcoholic males (Natalie Grace, 2012).
Psychologically effected Children
Adam Johnson, (2012). Groups for Relatives With Drug Problems.
Retrieved March 26, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7878765_groups-relatives-drug-problems.html#ixzz1qERGSfCZ
eHow Contributor, (2012). Results of Drug Addiction. Retrieved March 26, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/about_4778913_results-drug-addiction.html#ixzz1qENYlCcf
Natalie Grace, (2012). Family Issues in Drug Abuse. Retrieved March 26, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/about_5472693_family-issues-drug-abuse.html#ixzz1qEKHok4i
Individuals who use drugs have difficulties defeating their addiction and often are pulled back into a reoccurring cycle. The euphoria a person experiences through the use of certain drugs causes the individual to continue their use in order to maintain their excited state. Eventually through continued use a person can develop a tolerance, which can cause increase use to substitute the effect.
The most common illegal drugs on the market include marihuana, heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine. They are considered illegal due to the fact that they are acquired through illegal practices by drug dealers and sold at highly expensive rates. Due to the high cost to obtain these drugs, many addicts go to grave lengths to get their daily dose. Individuals will engage in sexual activity and even steal from family members in order to purchase these highly addicted drugs. People high on meth or heroins…
Drug Abuse is Costly . (n.d.). National Insitute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 15, 2012, from archives.drugabuse.gov/about/welcome/aboutdrugabuse/magnitude/
Drug Addiction Treatment. (n.d.). How Does Addiction Affect the Family. Retrieved April 15,
2012, from www.drugaddictiontreatment.com/addiction-in-the-news/addiction-news/how-does-addiction-affect-the-family/
Prescription Drug Addiction. (n.d.). Illegal drugs and family recovery. Retrieved April 15, 2012,
Drug and substance abuse is one of the most serious dilemmas in the world today. One aspect of the issue is the growing number of teenage drug users and the increasing incidents of prescription drug abuse. According to the statistics of the National Institute on Drug Abuse prescription drugs misuse is far greater than the abuse of narcotics. Among teenagers alone, accepted cases of drug use increased from 27 to 30% in a year between 2001 and 2002. The actual number is also reported to have increased by one percent (The Evening Standard 2004) but prescription drug abuse is rated higher then narcotics abuse. As in 2010 prescription drugs intake stood at 2.4 million one third of which were users between 12 and 17 years of age (National Institute on Drug Abuse, n.d.).
The magnitude of the issue has lead to a plentitude of research and experimentation being…
Abadinsky, H (2008) Drug Use and Abuse: A Comprehensive Introduction. Retrieved August 12th, 2012, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=OtC5FjRsE78C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Al'Absi, M (2007). Stress and Addiction: Biological and Psychological Mechanisms. Retrieved August 13th, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/119971439/stress-and-addiction-biological-and-psychological
Landry, M.J. (1994). Understanding Drugs of Abuse: The Processes of Addiction, Treatment, and Recovery. Retrieved August 13th, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/96875207/understanding-drugs-of-abuse-the-processes-of-addiction
National Institute on Drug Abuse (n.d) Drugs, Brains and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. Retrieved August 13th, 2012, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/science-addiction/drug-abuse-addiction
Drug Abuse Affects Families
• Analyze the issues related to the affects of drug abuse on families
Families are affected by the addictions of the young people in the family in more than one way. Adolescence is the time when most people become addicts. The young person is more prone to take to intoxicant abuse. Adolescents begin experiments with drugs and alcohol. This usually is in the age group of 15 to 19 years. There are the largest group of new drinkers and over 50% of young people use marijuana. (Gordon, 2003)
It is available and peer pressure makes it acceptable and it is easy to buy drugs at school. The youth have more income to purchase drugs and the young person is often lured into it by the peers and older role models. This is true for both the genders. Laws have been thus passed to supress the use…
Barnard, Marina. (2007) "Drug Addiction and Families."
Jessica Kingsley: Philadelphia.
Feigelman, William. (1990) "Treating Teenage Drug Abuse in a Day Care Setting."
Praeger: New York.
Drug abuse is a menace in the modern world. The action of over using drugs or inappropriate application of substance wipes both old and young generations within the society. Drug abuse involves excessive use of substances such as alcohol, cigarette, heroine, and cocaine among other drugs. Excessive consumption of these drugs leads to addiction. This refers to the state in which an individual is in constant need of the substance. The person addicted on drugs cannot perform without the enhancing drugs. The individual in context do not live off the drugs because of the increasing need for satisfaction of the substance thirst. Some might argue that these substances help in eliminating stress. They also contribute towards treatment of certain diseases and disorders. Example of such diseases might be down to cancer. In the real sense, excessive consumption of drugs is dangerous in relation to the life of the person in…
Rapaka, Rao S, and Wolfgang Sade-e. (2008). Drug Addiction: From Basic Research to Therapy. New York, NY: Springer.
DeSena, J.A. (2005). Overcoming your alcohol, drug and recovery habits: An empowering alternative to AA and 12-step treatment. Tuscan., Arizona: See Sharp Press.
Daley, D.C., & Marlatt, G.A. (2006). Overcoming your alcohol or drug problem: Effective recovery strategies: therapist guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nordegren, T. (2002). The A-Z encyclopedia of alcohol and drug abuse. Parkland, Fla: Brown Walker Press.
This despite how much money is being wasted on "the war on drugs." Making "war" militarily on a medical/social problem makes no sense. In addition to the psychological problems of individuals, social conditions contribute greatly to the problem. People who are alienated from society become addicted to drugs, as Sen. obert Kennedy pointed out back in 1965. Solving the drug problem means "solving poverty and broken homes, racial discrimination and inadequate education, slums and unemployment" (cited in Goldberg, 2005 p. 11), not to mention child abuse. Instead, we treat prostitutes as though they were scum. A New York study has shown that the police, the courts, and their clients (johns) routinely mistreat them in a manner that violates civil liberties and human rights. This is "mirrored at the judicial level, where sex workers bear the brunt of the criminal justice system while johns usually get off relatively lightly" (Facts about…
America's drug abuse profile web site. Retrieved 23 April 2007 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/htm/chapter2.htm .
Facts about prostution web site. Sex Workers and Civil Rights. Retrieved 22 April 2007 from http://www.rapeis.org/activism/prostitution/sexworkerscivilrights.htm
Goldberg, R. (Ed.) (2005). Taking sides: Clashing views in drugs and society, 7th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
Goldstein, P.J. (1979. Prostitution and drugs. Lexington, MA: Lexington
Drug abuse of both legal and illegal substances has a devastatingly negative impact on American society as a whole.
Definition of Drug Abuse
Prevalence of Drug Use
Impact of Drug Use
Impact in the orkplace
Costs of Incarceration
Pregnancy and Health of Children
Alcohol and Traffic-Related Injuries
Initiatives to Combat Drug Use
Legalization and Decriminalization
Drug abuse of both legal and illegal substances has a devastatingly negative impact on American society as a whole. Drug use and abuse are prevalent in American society, and the financial costs of drug and alcohol abuse are profound. Perhaps even more important, however, are the social costs that come from drug abuse. Drug abuse is linked with increased crime, particularly increases in violent crime, and subsequent increases in the cost of law enforcement, legal issues, and incarceration. The health-related…
Anderson, Kirby. Teen Drug Abuse. Probe Ministries. 14 June 2004. http://www.probe.org/docs/teendrug.html
About.com. What Are the Costs of Drug Abuse to Society? From National Institute on Drug Abuse. 14 June 2004. http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/drugs/f/drug_faq10.htm
Alcoholics Victorious. The Impact of Alcohol Abuse on American Society. 15 June 2004. http://www.av.iugm.org/faq/impact.html eMedicine.com. Drug Dependence & Abuse. Drug Dependence & Abuse. 15 June 2004. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/18907-1.asp
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Costs to Society. 14 June 2004. http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/costs.html
To date, multidimensional family therapy has been tested in a number of controlled outcome studies within a variety of treatment and prevention settings and has been shown to be a cost effective approach when compared to standard treatment options (Dennis, Babor, Diamond, Donaldson, Godley, Titus & Tims et al., 2000).
Burrow-Sanchez, J.J. (2006). Understanding adolescent substance abuse: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(3), 283- 284.
Coombs, .H. (2005). Family therapy review: Preparing for comprehensive and licensing examinations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dennis, M.L., Babor, T.F., Diamond, G., Donaldson, J., Godley, S.H., Titus, J. C, Tims, F., et al. (2000). The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Experiment: Preliminary findings. A report to H. Westley Clark, Director, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services in Coombs at p. 387.
Essau, C.A. (2003). Conduct…
Burrow-Sanchez, J.J. (2006). Understanding adolescent substance abuse: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(3), 283- 284.
Coombs, R.H. (2005). Family therapy review: Preparing for comprehensive and licensing examinations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dennis, M.L., Babor, T.F., Diamond, G., Donaldson, J., Godley, S.H., Titus, J. C, Tims, F., et al. (2000). The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Experiment: Preliminary findings. A report to H. Westley Clark, Director, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services in Coombs at p. 387.
Essau, C.A. (2003). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders: Epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Drug Abuse and Families
esults from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the latest survey available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, estimated that 21.8 million Americans, ages twelve and up, were current (past month) drug users. The figure represented an increase of .7% over the previous year. Families of substance abusers can find themselves in crisis, experiencing a range of emotions from helplessness to frustration, fear, and anger. "Loved ones struggle with extraordinary questions about loyalty, love, support, and limits" (Denning, 2010, p. 164). There is considerable evidence in the current literature that families are often devastated by drug use and employ various means to cope. The purpose of this paper is to review three articles that discuss the challenges families face when one or more members have an addiction to drugs.
As pointed out by Saatcioglu, Erim and Cakmak, abuse is a…
daSilva, E.A., Noto, A.R., Formigoni, M.L.O.S. (2007). Death by drug overdose: Impact on families. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 39(30), pp. 301-306.
Denning, P. (2010). Harm reduction therapy with families and friends of people with drug problems. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session 66(2), pp. 164-174.
Saatcioglu, O., Erim, R., and Cakmak, D. (2006). Role of family in alcohol and substance abuse. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 60, pp. 125-132.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2010). Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-38A, HHS Publication No. SMA 10- 4856 Findings). Rockville, MD. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k9NSDUH/2k9Results.htm
Drug Abuse and Gang Membership: isk Factors
Generally, a vast majority of juveniles do not do drugs or participate in gang activity. For those who indeed end up engaging in such activities, only a small number eventually repeat the offenses. However, there exists a number of risk factors that, if present could increase the likelihood of a juvenile offender joining a gang or engaging in drug abuse.
When it comes to gang membership and drug abuse, a risk factor can be said to be an experience, activity or event that increases the likelihood of engagement in either drug abuse or gang membership. According to Butts and oman (2004), "other sources suggest that drug use among juvenile offenders may be two or three times higher than among youth in general." This could also be the case for gang membership amongst juvenile offenders. In regard to drug use and gang membership, social…
Butts, J.A. & Roman, J. (2004). Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse. Washington: The Urban Institute.
Loeber, R. & Farrington, D.P. (1998). Serious & Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. California: SAGE.
Drug Abuse: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy)
Drugs abound and they consist of legal and illegal drugs. There are legal drugs that become illegal as a result of abuse and sale without prescription. Other drugs though are manufactured strictly for illegal purposes and one of which is Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy). Developed in the early 1900s as an aid to psychiatric counseling though never used widely, Ecstasy came in vogues again in the club scene in the late 20th century and became even more popular in the early 2000s. Users prefer Ecstasy for the rapture and euphoria it provides; however, there are adverse side effects thereof as in any illicit drugs used. The paper deals with these side effects as well as the prevalence of the used of MDMA not only in the United States but Europe as well.
Drug Abuse: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy)
Drugs and medicines have been developed…
Campbell, G.A. & Rosner, M.H. (2008, November). "The agony of ecstasy: MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and the kidney." Clin J. Am Soc Nephrol, 3(6): 1852 -- 1860. doi: 10.2215/?CJN.02080508. Retrieved September 2, 2011 from http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/3/6/1852.full.pdf
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). (2010, August 16). Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy'). Retrieved September 2, 2011 from http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/mdma
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2010, December). NIDA info facts: MMDA (Ecstasy). Retrieved September 2, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/Infofacts/MDMA10.pdf
In addition, the data suggest that younger arrestees were less inclined to use heroin (Baumler et al. 2002)."
This research also found that variables such as geographics, ethnicity, and age provide some explanation for heroin-use patterns (Baumler et al. 2002). All of these variables contribute to drug usage. Counselors and Law enforcement agents must address these variables if they desire to get to the root of the problem of heroin abuse. The report also suggests that counselors should concentrate on understanding these variables so that heroin addicts can be treated appropriately.
Discussion and Conclusion
The purpose of this discussion was to focus on the drug usage as a multicultural issue. We found that the drug usage is prevalent at all levels of our society. The research also suggests that drug abuse cost billions of dollars each year. We found that much of this expense is derived from drug related crime.…
Baumler Elizabeth R., Regina J. Johnson, Ronald J. Peters Jr., Michael W. Ross, George S. Yacoubian Jr. (2002) Heroin Use among Southern Arrestees: Regional Findings from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. 2250+.
Kolody, B., Amanda Noble Pat Porter, William a. Vega. Effects of Age on Perinatal Substance Abuse among Whites and African-Americans. Contributors. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 23: 431+.
Rosenfeld, R., & Decker, S. (1993). Discrepant values, correlated measures: Cross-cities and longitudinal comparisons of self-reports and urine tests of cocaine use among arrestees, Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 223-230.
Drug Use Among Ethnic Minorities (2003) Retrieved November 20, 2004 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/minorities03.pdf
(Fletcher; Inciardi; Tims, 1993)
This may be the reason that there is today a new concept in the treatment of drug abuse, and this is the creation of 'Mobile Health Services'. In Maryland, for example, this mobile clinic has successfully treated about 30,000 to 40,000 drug abusers, about 25,000 abusers of cocaine, and more than 70,000 users of alcohol. If this idea of serving the community by the deployment of mobile clinics were to catch up, like for example, if these clinics were to be parked for a few hours each day in previously designated spots like churches or in certain city owned facilities, then more patients would be treated, and there would be a considerable reduction in the numbers of drug users. (Fletcher; Inciardi; Tims, 1993)
Yet another treatment method is the '12 Step Program' for combating drug abuse, and this program is seen as being 'phenomenally effective' in…
Alcoholism Addiction and Mental Health Help" Retrieved at http://www.adirondackleadership.com/ . Accessed on 5 May, 2005
Center for Treatment Research on Adolescent Drug Abuse" Retrieved at http://www.miami.edu/ctrada/ . Accessed on 5 May, 2005
Challenges, what is Addiction Treatment?" Retrieved at http://www.challenges-program.com/addiction-treatment.asp . Accessed on 5 May, 2005
Challenges, What is Drug Treatment?" Retrieved at http://www.challenges-program.com/drugtreatment.asp . Accessed on 5 May, 2005
hile previous studies have indicated that parental use of prescription drugs facilitates addiction through availability, it would also be valuable to see if parental use of such drugs normalizes seeking pharmaceutical solution to problems on a psychological level. This could be determined through an attitudinal questionnaire following the fill-in-the-blank yes/no demographic questionnaire in the survey. The attitudinal questionnaire can prompt agreement to disagreement with statements on a 1-5 scale such as: "Because they are prescribed by doctors to some people, prescription medications are not as dangerous as illegal drugs." "I feel less guilty about taking prescription drugs, even though they are not prescribed to me, because they are not illegal for everyone." Or "I feel that because my parents take these drugs, they cannot be entirely bad for me."
One interesting issue that is by the fact that girls more than boys abuse all kinds of prescription drugs, both sedatives…
Harmon, Amy. (2005, November 16). Young, assured, and playing pharmacist to friends. The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/16/health/16patient.html
Teens and prescription drugs. (2007, February). Office of Drug National Drug Control Policy of the President. Retrieved February 16, 2009 at http://www.theantidrug.com/pdfs/TEENS_AND_PRESCRIPTION_DRUGS.pdf
Over the years, marijuana abuse has continued to be regarded as being damaging to the well-being of our society and, in most countries, it is illegal to possess marijuana. In spite of being generally rejected by the public, marijuana also has numerous supporters. Its supporters usually claim that the plant is not dangerous for its consumers and that it actually shouldn't be called a drug. For several decades, the drug has been considered to be harmless and not to have any long-term consequences.
However, recent studies have proved otherwise, that the drug is very damaging to its consumer. After having consumed the drug for longer periods of time, its users have been reported to experience memory problems.
Those that militate for the legalization of marijuana believe that the drug has been made illegal because of the massive propaganda from the early 20th century. (Scienceblog)
Apparently, one of the most disastrous…
Gonsalves, Sean. (2000, May 23). Drug War Advocates Are Immune to Facts. Cape Cod Times.
James P. Gray. Why Our Drug Laws Have Failed and what We Can Do about it. Temple University Press: 2001.
Thomas W. Clark, "Keep Marijuana Illegal - for Teens," the Humanist May-June 1997, Questia, 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002233523 .
2001). "DRUG POLICY and the CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM." Retrieved February 28, 2009, from the Sentencing Project Web site: http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/dp_drugpolicy_cjsystem.pdf
Drug Abuse in Nursing
Nurses and other medical professionals are tasked with taking care of their patients, of healing the body and saving lives. It is the job of these healthcare workers to literally stay death and make the individual well again. They are life givers and life savers. Every day, nurses and doctors have to go to work knowing that they will witness some sort of despair and trauma. A nurse must be both compassionate and competent. They must feel for the patient, but they must also remain emotionally distant enough that they can still do their job accurately and efficiently, otherwise the staff metaphorically bleeds for everyone who is physically doing so. This profession leads men and women into high-stress situations wherein poor choices can be made. If the individual is able to release their stress in healthy manners such as time with family or hobbies, they are…
Copp, Mary Ann (2009). "Drug Addiction Among Nurses: Confronting a Quiet Epidemic."
Gnadt, Bonnie (2006). "Religiousness, Current Substance Use, and Early Risk Indicators for Substance Abuse in Nursing Students." Journal of Addictions Nursing. 17. 151-58.
Hrobak, Mandy L. (2001). "Narcotic Use and Diversion in Nursing." University of Arizona
Drug Abuse and Pregnant Women
Proposed Title for the paper: Using for Two: Pregnancy and Drug Abuse
The broad paper topic is drug abuse by pregnant women. However, a narrower focus for this paper will deal with the physical and psychological effects on the fetus (and the child) that are associated with drug abuse during pregnancy. The paper will also address the efficacy of various proposed solutions, including treatment methods, sociological and philosophical implications, and criminal justice approaches as well.
Because drug abuse by pregnant women can lead to the infant developing severe medical problems, learning and emotional disabilities later in life, and can be potentially fatal, the Federal Government and Child Protection Services should acknowledge that drug abuse by pregnant women is a form of child abuse.
The Federal Government and Child Protection Services should acknowledge that drug abuse by pregnant women is akin to child abuse because an…
In their efforts to put an end to the presence of drugs on U.S. territory, authorities have implemented tougher drug laws. "Congressman Barr has described the "ar on Drugs" as a war for the very lives of our children." (illiams, Juan 2001)
Even if there have been divergences in the past between the American government and drug abusers, it has not been until the 1970s that the actual war against drugs started. In 1971 President Nixon had made it clear that authorities are determined to stop drugs from having anything to do with the U.S.
The drug war continued in the years following Nixon's administration with even harsher policies. Coming at the U.S. presidency, President Reagan started a massive anti-drug campaign with the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988. The campaign involved the government giving a set of actions meant to finance money for drug-related incidents.
The Bush Administration…
1. Gordon, Diana R. (1994). Drugspeak and the Clinton Administration: A Lost Opportunity for Drug Policy Reform. Social Justice, Vol. 21.
2. McWilliams, John C. "Drug Control Policy." Penn State Press, 2004.
3. Timberlake, Jeffrey M., Lock, Eric D., Rasinski, Kenneth a. (2003). How Should We Wage the War on Drugs? Determinants of Public Preferences for Drug Control Alternatives. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 31.
4. Williams, Juan. (2001). The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time? Law Review, Vol. 38.
Also a widely accepted point-of-view is that people use drugs to relieve stress, but a review of the empirical evidence indicates that such tension reduction models have not always been supported (e.g., see Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2008) and at least many instead use drugs for the euphoric feelings they produce. How can society or the government change this tendency? Or can it?
If we look at history the answer to the second question is it probably cannot be changed by the government. It then falls to those losing money as a result of lost productivity to attempt to implement measures to deal with the drug problem. Workplace employee assistance programs can be beneficial to reducing the individual suffering and loss of productivity that accompanies use of drugs of all types. Employee assistance programs (EAP) that follow a program of empathy and availability can help these individuals. The Department of Labor…
Brown, L.S. (1981). Substance abuse and America: Historical perspective on the Federal response to a social phenomena. Journal of the American Medical Association, 43(6), 497-506.
DeGrandpre, R. (2006). The cult of pharmacology. Durham, C.C.: Duke University Press.
Kandel, D.B. And Andrews, K. (1987). Process of adolescent socialization by parents and peers. International Journal of the Addictions, 22, 319-342.
Marlatt, G.A. & Witkiewitz, K. (2008). Relapse Prevention for Drug and Alcohol Problems. in,
As indicated by Miller & ollnick (1991), confronting a client might leave them with a feeling of being under attack. This may then reduce their urge of being treated. Zweben, Miller, ychtarik, DiClemente (1992) indicated that most people would resist the advice of a counselor by constantly reacting as well as acting in the opposite manner to what the counselor wants them to act.
The other principle of motivational thinking requires the counselor to express some form of empathy. This is indicated by Miller & ollnick (1991) to be an essential as well as defining characteristic of motivational therapy. Through this process, the therapist should seek to comprehend the client's feelings as well as see things through their eyes. This would make the client to trust the counselor/therapist. The client would also be more open in the entire process of therapy. The principle of empathy basically involves seeing the situation…
American Society of Addiction Medicine (2011) The Definition of Addiction
Carlson, M (2001). Physiology of Behavior, Allyn and Bacon, Boston.
Feltenstein MW, See RE (2008 May). "The neurocircuitry of addiction: an overview." Br J. Pharmacol 154 (2): 261 -- 74. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.51. PMC 2442446. PMID 18311189.
Leshner, AI (1997).Addiction Is a Brain Disease, and It Matters, Science 3.Vol. 278. no. 5335, pp. 45 -- 47
Drug Use and Abuse
Caetano (1997, 58) in his studies describe drug abuse as the poor pattern of substance or drug consumption that results to harm on one's health and when you think about the word drugs, what comes to mind? It's in our human nature to instantly think about someone using crack or codeine. So therefore; we just stereo-typed someone we knew nothing about, it's what makes us humans. On the other hand, what about those people who using drugs prescribe to them by their doctor. This paper is going to talk about the good and bad of drug from the writer point-of-view. In the end hopefully you will see it as I see it through my eyes.
The thesis statement for this essay is that drugs consumed over a long period of time is dangerous since it has been proven that it damages the brain and…
Anthony, J. C and Helzer, J.E. (1995) Epidemiology of drug dependence Textbook in psychiatric epidemiology New York: Wiley & Son..
Bachman, J.G., O'Malley, P.M., and Johnston, L.D. (2004) Drug use among young adults: The
impacts of role status and social environment Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Caetano, R. (1997). Prevalence, incidence and stability of drinking problems among whites,
As a whole, human beings are insatiable and are can never seem to get enough of a good thing. If an individual experiences a good thing, he or she is often inclined to return again and again to its source. ecause drugs often provide intense, temporary feelings of elation or relaxation, many people become physically and psychologically addicted to drugs. As a result, these people are subject to the negative physical, mental and sociological effects that go hand in hand with drug abuse. The major effects of drug abuse are failed marriages, addiction, and crime.
Drug abuse is one of the most serious social problems that destroy individuals, cause family disruption and threaten the security and stability of the country. Drug abuse has been proven to tear families apart, cause pain and injury, and lead to domestic violence and child abuse, which often result in failed marriages. Recent…
Levinthal, Charles. Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
Impact of Drug Abuse on School Children Aged 10 To 18 in Developed Countries (U.S., Canada, France, England, Germany, Italy, Russia, Australia, Japan and China): Narrative Literature Review
The problem addressed in this literature review is that in developed countries around the world, drug abuse among school children between the ages of 10 and 18 is on the rise (UN, 2018). School children are particularly vulnerable because their bodies and minds are still developing and when drugs are introduced to their systems, the impact can be devastating to them personally in physical and mental health terms (Stockings et al., 2016). Yet all around the developed world this is happening. Children are being brought into and exposed to drug culture because drug use, particularly marijuana use is on the rise through vaping, which was meant as a tool to wean tobacco smokers off cigarettes. Instead it is allowing young and…
Eastern Kentucky: Prescription and Illicit Drug Addiction
Although the epidemic of prescription drug abuse has left few corners of the United States untouched—according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 183,000 people died from overdosing on prescription opioids in the years 1999-2015—the state of Kentucky has been particularly hard-hit (Galewitz). In Clay County alone, pharmacies annually fill prescriptions for 2.2 million doses of hydrocodone and 617,000 doses of oxycodone, or about 150 doses for every man, woman, and child resident in the county (Galewitz). High unemployment, high rates of conditions such as obesity and diabetes which are often accompanied by pain, and poverty have all conspired to fuel the county’s dependence on prescription drugs (Galewitz). Although the rate of prescription drug abuse was always high in Kentucky, there has been a spike in addiction over the past three years given the Medicaid expansion has made drugs more affordable to the area’s…
Dope Like a Pound
One of the more notable facts in the documentary Chasing Heroin is that usage of this narcotic has considerably increased in the last several years. There are numerous reasons to account for this fact. One of the most important is that there are several different ways people can consume heroin. They can either choose to inject it into their veins, smoke it, or snort it. Each of those different ways of taking this drug is associated with different connotations. For instance, hard core drug users tend to inject heroin. Those just becoming acclimated with the drug may smoke it, while those more acclimated to hard drugs may snort it. Because of the different types of users involved with this substance, its adoption rates are likely to become higher and continue to increase. This trend is also impacted by the greater availability of prescription medicine to reduce…
Jones, C., Logan, J., Gladden, M.R., Bohm, M.K. (2015). Vital signs: demographic and substance use trends among heroin users—United States, 2002-2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 64(26), 719-725.
Novak, S.P., Bluthenthal, R., Wenger, L., Chu, D., Kral, A.H. (2016). Initiation of Heroin and prescription opiod pain relievers by birth cohort. The American Journal of Public Health. 106(2), p. 298-299.
Title: Opioid Epidemic in America
While many people are aware that there is an opioid epidemic in America, they may not understand exactly what that means. While opioids are drugs, the term does not just refer to any type of drug. Instead, it refers specifically to the types of drugs that interact with a specific type of receptor in the brain. This article discusses what opioids are, what the opioid crises is, what caused the opioid epidemic, opioid deaths, and what can be done to help stop the epidemic.
The opioid epidemic refers to the rapid increase in opioid drugs that has occurred in the United States since the late 1990s. It is considered a epidemic for a number of reasons. The most obvious reason is that it is linked to an increase in opioid overdose deaths that has been so dramatic that it has impacted average life…
Michigan Medicine. “What is an Opioid?” University of Michigan Medical School. 2019. https://medicine.umich.edu/dept/pain-research/what-opioid. Accessed 15 August 2019.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Federal Efforts to Combat the Opioid Crisis: A Status Update on CARA and Other Initiatives.” NIH. 25 October, 2017. https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/legislative-activities/testimony-to-congress/2017/federal-efforts-to-combat-opioid-crisis-status-update-cara-other-initiatives. Accessed 15 August 2019.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Opioid Overdose Crisis.” NIH. January 2019. https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/opioid-overdose-crisis. Accessed 15 August 2019.
World Health Organization. “Information Sheet on Opioid Overdose.” WHO. August 2018. https://www.who.int/substance_abuse/information-sheet/en/. Accessed 15 August 2019.
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…
About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.
About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .
About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.
About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on restoring the self dignity and also impacting the participant with the prerequisites to self-manage the drug abuse issue once the probation and treatment duration ends (Tara, 2007).
The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system. This is realized by the reduced recidivism cases among the graduates from the treatment facilities recommended by the drug court systems (Daniel, 2003).
In general, the drug use is very addictive and a problem that dealing with it in the U.S. society is very difficult. This is…
Amanda B.C., & Michael R., (2005). The State of Drug Court Research. Retrieved may 30, 2010
Belenko, S. (2001). Research on drug courts: A critical review 2001 update. National Drug Court
Institute Review, 4, 1 -- 60 www.20.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/2001drugcourts.pdf
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not
Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).
Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…
Ajzen, I. (2010). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 2005. MMWR 2006, 55.
Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A., & Munoz, A. (2005). Trends in abuse of OxyContin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain, 6, 662-672.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals and law enforcement personnel. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19(1), 71-104.
There is a gradual move in considering that the combination of both these explanations is what should be the actual position to take on the issue of alcoholism and drug addiction. This mode of thinking suggests the acceptance of the gene explanation on one side in that the research does confirm that genes that are inherited goes a long way in explaining the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcoholism and drug addiction, yet at the same time it also suggests that the lifestyle pattern that is adopted by the individual could also be a major factor in the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcohols and drugs. (Frequently Asked Questions)
This means that not only is a hereditary factor only a predisposition but the behavior of the individual in social situations where the consumption occurs and the maintenance of control on these situations. This also…
Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Men" Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/mens/men.cfm?page=110&mtitle=alcoholAccessed on 20 March
Balch, Burke, J; O'Bannon, Randall, K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide"
Retrieved form http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid1.html. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Frequently Asked Questions" National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
The absence of such support could mean a quick relapse to the old habits. Indeed, those patients who prefer to battle their addiction alone are much more likely to relapse more quickly than those with a strong social and family network to support them. In this, open communication among family members, the physician an the patient is of vital importance. Support is directly related to effective communication, especially among family members.
In terms of social support, the narrator appears to be a little out of his depth when it comes to helping Sonny. This becomes clear in the way in which the narrator is unable to openly approach the issue of the abuse with his brother. Indeed, it is Sonny who volunteers the information about his habit to his brother, who does not seem entirely willing to listen. The narrator has to almost force himself to listen to his brother,…
Aftandilians, Tania. "Stimulants and Society." The Mind. Fall 2008. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/items/1k13k7p1
Mullen, Tom. "Drugs drag im back; He beat heroin -- until now." Evening Chronicle (Newcastle, England). 1 Dec. 2009. Retrieved from FindArticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6783/is_2009_Dec_1/ai_n42476603/
Nida. "Diagnosis and Treatmnet of Drug Abuse in Family Practice." 2009. Retrieved from http://www.nida.nih.gov/Diagnosis-Treatment/Diagnosis6.html
Substance Abuse Programs in Prison
The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." (p.vi) It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…
Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.
Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Whereas the harms associated with some illicit (and prescription) drugs is cumulative, some of the most popular recreational drugs such as ecstasy actually destroy neurons each and every time they are used.
Each time you take ecstasy, for example, neurons dedicated to respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine lose their ability to do so. As a result, ecstasy use in particular is known to interfere with the natural neurotransmitter reuptake mechanism. This impairs your ability to maintain a healthy mental frame of mind because dopamine reception and reuptake is fundamentally important to perceiving pleasure and to experiencing happiness. Ultimately this is a major cause of clinical depression in young people, requiring life-long treatment with antidepressant medications which are associated with negative side effects of their own. Suicide is also directly attributable to the psychological effects of clinical depression. Therefore, if you hope to achieve your academic potential and to avoid causing…
Inhalants refer to the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. There are many household products that are misused as inhalants. Some of these products include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They can be sniffed directly from the containers. In most cases when an individual is under the influence of such inhalants one is likely to engage in anti-social or criminal behavior (Ksir, 2002). This report endeavors to explain the theoretical and empirical literature regarding theories of drug information and addiction.
The intoxicating inhalants that have volatile vapors are ingested through the trachea and nose. However, some inhalants are used for medical reasons as in the case of nitrous oxide. The inhalation…
Dick, DM & Bierut, LJ (2006). "The Genetics of Alcohol Dependency." Current Psychiatric Reports 8 (2): 151 -- 7
Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th Ed.). Boston
Morse, RM & Flavin, DK (August 26, 1992). "The definition of alcoholism, The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism." The Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (8): 1012 -- 4
Since my verbalization of the subject matter was prepared in line with the presentation material, I must admit that the presentation was delivered in a dry, clinical, albeit well -paced tone of voice. Thus, even though my verbal communication of the material was effective, on reflection, I believe that I could have achieved a more animated presentation by bringing alive the causes and consequences of drug abuse. Indeed, an honest self-evaluation of the presentation under discussion would have to conclude that I failed to take into account the import of tailoring a subject to an audience's concerns in order to gain their attention, involvement and empathy.
Further, if I were to be really objective, I think that I also failed to use non-verbal communication cues effectively, although I did speak on the subject with clarity and confidence. For instance, I now realize that I could have dramatized the ill-effects of…
Chapman University. "Nonverbal Communication." Accessed Oct. 24, 2004:
Adolescent Obesity and Drug Abuse -- Literature eview
The work of Brownson, et al. (2010) states that childhood obesity "…is a serious public health problem." In fact, "obesity rates have increased threefold among U.S. children and adolescents. Approximately 16% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 29 years are obese." (Brownson, et al., 2010) isk factors include hypertension and high cholesterol as well as increased risk of cardiovascular disease and incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. (Brownson, et al., 2010, paraphrased) Health professionals identify overweight and obesity through use of the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by measuring the proportion of weight to height. (Eisenberg, adunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) The criteria used for categorizing BMI for children are both age and sex-specific and often referred to as BMI-for-age. BMI-for-age weight status categories and the corresponding percentiles are listed in Appendix 'A' following this study.…
Rates of youth obesity is reported to vary among different groups with African-American, non-Hispanic girls and Mexican-American boys being the groups most likely to be obese. (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) African-American females are reported to "remain at the highest risk, and have substantial rates of obesity-related diseases and causes of death." (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007) It is reported that there is "no assessment of body composition inherent in BMI" as "BMI identifies people who are at risk for having high levels of excessive body fat but it does not actually determine body fat. Anthropometric measurements, such as subscapular and triceps skinfolds and bioelectrical impendence are commonly used to assess body fatness in clinical settings." (Fleming and Towey, 2003) The causes of adolescent obesity are stated to include: (1) parental influence; (2) school influence; and (3) community influences. (Fleming and Towey, 2003)
Discipline II & Integration
Drug addiction among adolescents is a problem that requires the benefit of more research as new findings have shed light on the origins of addiction. The work of Nestler (2004) reports that one of the mechanisms that result from drug abuse and that serves to induce relatively long-lasting changes in the brain resulting in the addictive state is the mechanism of regulation of gene expression. In other words, addiction is in reality a disease directly related to the individual's genetics. The two transcription factors are stated by Nestler to be those as follows: (1) CREB (CAMP response element binding protein); and (3) ?FosB, which contributes to drug-induced changes in gene expression. (Nestler, 2004) Both of these are reported as of the nature that are activated "…in the nucleus accumbens, a major brain reward region, but mediate different aspects of the addicted state." (Nestler, 2004) CREB is stated to be the mediator of a type of tolerance and dependence of the nature that dulls the individual's sensitivity to "subsequent drug exposure) as well as contributing to an emotional state characterized by negativity during early withdrawal stages. FosB on the other hand is the mediator of "a state of relatively prolonged sensitization to drug exposure and may contribute to the increased drive and motivation for drug, which is a core symptom of addictive disorders. There is stated to be a need to better understand how CREB and ?FosB, acting together in other various drug-induced nucleus accumbens changes and other regions
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…
Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2
DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up
Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289
Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
Breaking the Cycle of Addiction
Breaking the Addiction Cycle
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the addictions and drug use faced by obert Downey Jr., and discusses the effects these abuses had on Downey Jr. And his career. The paper will also analyze alternative courses Downey could have taken, and propose potential advice for Jr.
obert Downey Jr. purportedly began using drugs at just eight years old, when his father began dispersing drugs to the child. This is not uncommon among young child stars that face much pressure and often grow up in homes where drug abuse and addictions are common. It was not until the age of 22 however, that Downey would first enter a drug rehabilitation facility for cocaine and heroin abuse. Many of his first films during this time, approximately during the late 80s and early 90s won much acclaim, even Academy Award nominations.…
"Biography for Robert Downey Jr." 2011. Retrieved:
Deans, D.A. 1997. "Drug addiction." California State University, Northridge Retrieved:
One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.
It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.
Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…
Allen, T., the Iraq war-on drugs, 2006, March 20, 2008 http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2670/
Alcohol and other drugs plague soldiers in Iraq, March 20, 2008 http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/summaries/2005/alcohol-and-other-drugs-in.html
Kelly, R., U.S. soldiers in Iraq suffer horrific brain and mental injuries, 2004, March 20, 2008 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/sold-n20.shtml
Millitary Drug Programs, March 20, 2008 www.jackson.army.mil/Directorates/Asap.htm
All participants filled out questionnaires with adolescents and their mothers in separate rooms. The mothers' questionnaire included question on topics such as parental monitoring habits, parental academic expectations, and on the nature and extent of drug-related activity and crime in the family neighborhood. The adolescents were asked questions on such topics as whether and to what extent they used drugs and whether and to what extent their friends used drugs.
The results of the study confirmed the results of prior studies in several significant respects. The principal finding of the study was that absentee fatherhood was a strong predictor of adolescent drug use in adolescent African-American males. Another important finding of the study was that this apparent effect did not apply to adolescent African-American females. Prior studies had determined that absentee fatherhood was a predictor of early drug and alcohol use as well as aggression and other forms of…
There are a number of different instruments that are used to diagnose substance disorders. One of these NIAMED, which has an online screening tool, the NIDA Drug Screening Tool. This test is used for screening. The patient is surveyed with respect to his/her use of various drugs, both illegal and prescription, with the focus on non-FDA approved uses of the latter. The tool was launched in 2009 as an aid to help physicians quickly and easily screen their patients for drug abuse risk (NIAMED, 2009).
This test is typically administered online, but it can be administered in offline format. The test is a survey. The results are provided at the end of the survey when the test is administered online. The test is one of the more basic tests, in that it is a single source, single method test that only focuses on frequency of usage and on…
Brown, R., Leonard, T., Saunders, L, & Papasouliotis, O. (1997). A two-item screening test for alcohol and other drug problems. Journal of Family Practice. 44 (2) 151-160.
NIAMED (2009). NIDA launches drug use screening tools for physicians. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nida-launches-drug-use-screening-tools-physicians
NIDA Drug Screening Tool. (2016). Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/nmassist/
Rahdert, E. & Czechowicz, D. (1995). Adolescent drug abuse: Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions. NIDA Research Monograph. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from http://digisrv-2.biblio.etc.tu-bs.de:8081/docportal/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/DocPortal_derivate_00001904/Monograph156.pdf#page=152
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…
Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.
Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.
On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…
The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.
5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.
The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
"Prevention is better than cure" is an age-old and time-tested maxim. It has been proved correct in many different situations. None more so than in the area of drug abuse: it being far easier and more cost effective to prevent drug use than drug treatment. This essay explains why drug treatment is far more expensive than drug prevention.
A study by the Lewin Group for the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimated the total economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the U.S. was $245.7 billion for 1992. ("NIDA InfoFacts" 2005) This includes productivity losses (losses from premature death, drug abuse-related illnesses), health costs, and other, primarily crime-related, costs such as losses due to incarceration and criminal careers. If we consider a hypothetical case in which we prevent all alcohol and drug abuse in the United States, we would theoretically save $245.6 billion.
On the other hand,…
"Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study." (2004). The DASIS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k4/costs/costs.htm
'NIDA InfoFacts: Costs to Society." (2005) National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/costs.html
Keen, Judy. "Bush Plans Hit on Drug Abuse" (2002). USA Today. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.usatoday.com/educate/ondcp/lessons/Activity5.pdf
The 1992 cost estimate had increased 50% over the cost estimate from 1985; hence the current economic cost due to drug abuse must be much higher.
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998
Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.
Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.
The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…
Lennings, C.J., Copeland, J., Howard J. (2003). "Substance use patterns of young offenders and violent crime." Aggressive Behavior. 29(5), 414-422. This study's hypothesis was that alcohol use is a significant predictor of violent crime in committed by the youth. Researchers studied 300 juveniles that had been incarcerated in the prison system of New South Wales. Of the 300, more than 70% admitted to having committed violent crimes. Most correlated with the onset of violent crimes was alcohol use followed by cocaine use. The findings accounted for the correlation that exists between the use of substabce and aggressive, violent crime and so, further supported the "Goldstein hypothesis" which believes that substance abuse facilitates violent behavior directly.
White, H.R., Widom, C.S. (1997). "Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 7(4), 287-310. The report discussed the correlation of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, non-violent crime and violence concerning children who were abused and neglected during the course of their development through childhood. The study was longitudinal (the subjects were studied over time into adulthood). It was found that abused and neglected females and males have a higher correlation in substance abuse and non-violent arrest. Abused and neglected females were found to be at a higher risk for both drug abuse or dependency diagnosis as well as arrests for violent crime.
Zarkin, G.A., Dunlap, L.J., Hicks, K., Mamo, D. (2005). "Benefits and costs of methadone treatment: results from a lifetime simulation model." Health Economics. 14(11) 1133-1150. Research examined prior studies that included the cost and benefits of methadone abuse treatment. These papers have often been written on single case studies. While valuable to society, the sample size limitation also limits the research because they view heightened problems as being able to be treated in one incident of treatment. A simulation model was created to embody the longitudinal study of the heroine use, criminal behavior, health care and employment of a population between the ages of 18-60. It was found that the model (which takes into account the dynamics of heroine use and views it as a, acute and reoccurring circumstance) finds that the benefits of treatment using this model far outweigh those produced by static models.
Third interesting fact reported in the reported is that looking into this demographic, it was found out that past month illicit drug abuse occurred most commonly among individuals aged 18- to 20-year-old. Among the underaged (not of legal age) group (12-17 years old), marijuana abuse among females lowered this year, while this figure has increased by 0.7% among males. ithin the 12-year-old or older demographic, American Indians or Alaskan Natives have the highest reported illicit drug abuse in the past month, at 13%. Although there were distinct differences in the profile of drug users in terms of age group, gender, race, and even on the type of drug abuse, there were no distinct differences in the geographical locations of users, scattered among the following counties: large metropolitan, small metropolitan, non-metropolitan urbanized, and non-metropolitan less urbanized areas.
Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007…
Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings." Available at: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7Results.pdf.
Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.
Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…
Nadelmann, Ethan a. (Jan. -- Feb. 1998). Common sense drug policy. Foreign Affairs.
Vol. 77 no. 1, 111-126.
Drug Law Reform (Pro)
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.
Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:
C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…
InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003. http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/nationtrends.html .
The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html .
Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.
Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change
The decades that followed ockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.
Effective Solutions to the Debate…
Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html
The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm