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Drug Policies Major Policies History
Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8012701
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14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…

References

1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .

Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral
Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64185510
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Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics

A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and…

References

Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Drug Legalization as the Country
Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89122943
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"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()

Socio-economic effects

Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…

References

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.

Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.

Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.

Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .

Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That
Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255
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Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…

References

Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Drug Control Policy as Ethan
Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94756731
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Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.

Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…

Bibliography

Nadelmann, Ethan a. (Jan. -- Feb. 1998). Common sense drug policy. Foreign Affairs.

Vol. 77 no. 1, 111-126.

Drug-Related Crime Many People Who
Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33725497
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One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.

Reurer 170)

orks Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…

Works Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.

Drug Legalization of Drugs Legalization
Words: 3087 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44577201
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Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.

From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…

References

Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.

Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.

Drug Education
Words: 3833 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1213854
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Drug Education

he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).

Is D.A.R.E. Effective?

If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…

The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.

5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.

The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?

Drug Use Survey That I
Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11900021
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In the age group of eighteen to twenty-five, over fifty-five percent reported having used drugs sometime in their lives. In terms of drugs of choice for high school seniors, nearly half of all drug users prefer marijuana, although such drugs as amphetamines, hallucinogens and ecstasy all report surprisingly high numbers also.

What can be concluded from this study is that drug use begins at an early age, most often during one's high school years. However, the statistics show, as the number of regular users drops off as they age, the trend is more towards experimentation and not creating a drug-dependent lifestyle.

ibliography

National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.

Bibliography

National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.

Drug Enforcement Administration DEA in
Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94911591
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The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).

As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…

References

DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml

DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.

Drug Screening Is Used More
Words: 3363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39455260
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In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.

Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…

Works Cited

Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.

Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.

Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008.  http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .

French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.

Drug Enforcement of the U S
Words: 1570 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82357957
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All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.

1. PBS (2009). The Border

Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/

2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.

Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html

3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…

6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.

Last accessed March 2010:  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/ 

 http://articles.sfgate.com/2007-01-28/news/17227058_1_san-diego-tijuana-border-initiative-crossings-at-san-ysidro-drug-trade

Drug Free Workplace
Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61731661
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Drug Free Workplace

Substance abuse in the workplace is a serious issue. Employees who are under the influence of a drug on the job compromise an employer's interests, endanger their own health and safety and the health and safety of others, and can cause a number of other work-related problems, including absenteeism and tardiness, substandard job performance, increased work loads for co-workers, behavior that disrupts other employees, delays in the completion of jobs, inferior quality in products or services, and disruption of customer relations (Drug-free workplace policy, 2004). These reasons explain why it is so important for an employer to support a drug free workplace. Key components of this initiative are to publish clearly defined policies, establish a drug awareness and education program, train supervisors to detect and manage substance abuse issues and offer an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

Clearly defined written policies lay the groundwork for a drug free…

Bibliography

Drug-free workplace policy. (2004, January) SDSU Foundation Human Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site:  http://www.foundation.sdsu.edu/hrpage/pol_form/polform_notice_drug.html 

elaws -- drug free workplace advisor. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site:  http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen16b.asp?selection_list= 

The role and responsibilities of supervisors. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://workplace.samhsa.gov/DrugFreeWP/suptrng.html

Utah Valley State College policies and procedures. (1992, June 18) Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.uvsc.edu/policies/hr/c-3_08.html

Drug Crime the Influence of
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35932459
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Many of these influences are indirect. Especially among male juveniles, the incidence of drug crime is much higher amongst those who do not attend school than it is amongst those who do regularly attend (Office of National Drug Policy 2000). Family structure, in turn, has a huge effect on school attendance. In two parent homes, especially where both biological parents of the juveniles are married and in a healthy relationship, children are much more likely to attend school and to refrain from drug use (U.S. Department of Justice 2001; Office of National Drug Policy 2000). In addition, families with fewer children tend to have fewer issues with criminality altogether and drug use especially than families with more children (Masters & Shear 1998).

Though causality has not been fully determined, the correlation between these aspects of family structure and the incidence of drug crimes among juveniles is very strong. It is…

References

Masters, B. & Shear, M. (1998). "As suburbia surges, violence tags along." Accessed 24 April 2009.  

Drugs Legal Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems
Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2553211
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Drugs Legal

Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems Than it olves

This is a paper on drug prohibition and its disadvantages. It has 1 source.

During Prohibition, Americans discovered that making popular substances unlawful cause more problems than it solves. Like alcohol and tobacco, drugs should be legal in this country as most of the problems related to drug use arise from the fact that they are illegal and hence more tempting.

Imagine this: Your fifteen-year-old son is going out to a fast food store, suddenly two gangs start shooting at each other, your son gets shot and dies in a cross fire.

The government of the United tates spends more than $18 billion of tax payer's money on the drug war. The increased expenditure finances the Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of National Drug Control Policy and is used to build a new prison every week. Add to this the financial…

Sources:

Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001.  http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1282/2_53/69388682/p4/article.jhtml?term=Accessed  4/3/04

Drug Courts on Drug Abuse
Words: 2106 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86343601
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The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on restoring the self dignity and also impacting the participant with the prerequisites to self-manage the drug abuse issue once the probation and treatment duration ends (Tara, 2007).

The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system. This is realized by the reduced recidivism cases among the graduates from the treatment facilities recommended by the drug court systems (Daniel, 2003).

In general, the drug use is very addictive and a problem that dealing with it in the U.S. society is very difficult. This is…

References

Amanda B.C., & Michael R., (2005). The State of Drug Court Research. Retrieved may 30, 2010

from www.courtinnovation.org/_.../state%20of%20dc%20research.pdf

Belenko, S. (2001). Research on drug courts: A critical review 2001 update. National Drug Court

Institute Review, 4, 1 -- 60 www.20.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/2001drugcourts.pdf

Drugs and Terrorism in Germany
Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70884211
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Germany Illicit Drugs and Terrorism Issues

Germany's illicit drugs range from use of ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, and heroin. Germany has made recent efforts as of February, 15th 2012 with the adoption of a National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy through the Federal cabinet that has the main aim of aiding individuals in reducing and avoiding their overall consumption of illicit and licit substances and associated addictive behaviors. Through prevention, addiction help, counseling/treatment, harm minimization efforts, and repression Germany hopes to provide the necessary changes to reduce drug usage. Germany is also making efforts towards battling terrorism through the creation of the BFE. The anti-terrorist unit aims to react quickly to potential or actual terrorist attacks through five locations and 250 security operatives.

Disputes

Drug Possession and injection does not make up most drug disputes within Germany. Drug dealing, purchasing drugs online has become a big problem and that is…

References

EMCDDA,. (2016). Germany country overview - www.emcdda.europa.eu. Emcdda.europa.eu. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from  http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/countries/germany 

Foster, A. (2016). Terrorism in Germany: Past terror attacks and plots. Express.co.uk. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from  http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/652765/Terrorist-attacks-Germany-Terrorism-Foiled-plots-Threat-Security-Islamic-State-ISIS 

OSAC,. (2016). Germany 2016 Crime & Safety Report. OSAC. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from  https://www.osac.gov/pages/Contentreportdetails.aspx?cid=19030 

Tzanetakis, M., Kamphausen, G., Werse, B., & von Laufenberg, R. (2016). The transparency paradox. Building trust, resolving disputes and optimising logistics on conventional and online drugs markets. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 35, 58-68.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.12.010

Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System
Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4814440
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Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…

Works Cited:

Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.

DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.

Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.

Legalizing Drugs
Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62692066
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Drug Legalization

This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…

Works Cited

Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.

'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. <  http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/ >.

Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. <  http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.

'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. <  http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/demand/speakout/ >.

Criminal Policy of Drug Court
Words: 3736 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85191739
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Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts

For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…

Bibliography

Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.

A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.

Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm

Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.

federalism and'states rights regarding drugs
Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12634111
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Drug Enforcement Administration, the Controlled Substances Act, and the War on Drugs all show that drug prohibition has been framed as a federal issue. Recent state-by-state legalization of cannabis (marijuana) has challenged and undermined the efficacy of federal drug laws and anti-drug policies. Almost half the states have now legalized marijuana for either medical or recreational use (Hill, 2015). The state-by-state legalization scheme creates legal and ethical conundrums. For example, Hill points out that federal anti-drug legislation prohibits legal marijuana businesses operating in states like Colorado to use national financial institutions for banking. Without access to the usual range of financing options, cannabis dispensaries and other related businesses are driven to a cash-only business which can "attract thieves and tax cheats," (Hill, 2015, p. 597). Other problems include the inability of Americans to legally transport cannabis over state lines, even between two states that both legalized the drug. Canada recently…

Drug Pregnant
Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96701852
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Drugs and Pregnancy

The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.

The central issues identified during the entire session include…

References

Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.

Retrieved June 2, 2013 from  http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse

Policy Networks a Prevalent Feature Democratic Governanc
Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4598035
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Policy Networks a Prevalent Feature Democratic Governanc

The issue I have selected related to policy networks pertains to utilizing marijuana for medicinal purposes in the state of Florida. At present, the usage of marijuana within this state is illegal -- regardless of the purpose. There are staunch advocates against legalizing marijuana or any other illegal substance which may be used as a recreational drug within this state. The most eminent form of opposition more than likely comes from current Florida governor ick Scott, which not surprising considering that networks frequently involve "local and national governments" (Thatcher, 1998, p. 389). However, the issue of medical marijuana has recently come to the attention of state legislators and government officials due to a form of marijuana known as "Charlotte's web," which is exceedingly low in THC (the active ingredient in the substance that produces euphoric "highs") yet high in cannibidiol, which is known…

References

Jordan, G. (1990). Sub-governments, policy communities, and networks: refilling the old bottles? Journal of Theoretical Politics. 2(3), 319-338.

Klas, M.E. (2014). Florida house to propose bill to legalize strain of marijuana for seizures. www.miamiherald.com. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/2014/01/09/3861541/state-house-to-propose-bill-to.html

Thatcher, M. (1998). The development of policy network analyses. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 10(4), 389-416.

Drug Law Reform Pro According to the
Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26420633
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Drug Law Reform (Pro)

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.

Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:

C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…

Bibliography

InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003.  http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/nationtrends.html .

The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003.  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html .

Drug Laws Changes in Drug
Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42977176
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Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.

Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change

The decades that followed ockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.

Effective Solutions to the Debate…

References

Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html

The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm 

Drug Laws

Drug Intervention Annoted Bibliography Anglin
Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82854004
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" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.

Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.

The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…

Lennings, C.J., Copeland, J., Howard J. (2003). "Substance use patterns of young offenders and violent crime." Aggressive Behavior. 29(5), 414-422. This study's hypothesis was that alcohol use is a significant predictor of violent crime in committed by the youth. Researchers studied 300 juveniles that had been incarcerated in the prison system of New South Wales. Of the 300, more than 70% admitted to having committed violent crimes. Most correlated with the onset of violent crimes was alcohol use followed by cocaine use. The findings accounted for the correlation that exists between the use of substabce and aggressive, violent crime and so, further supported the "Goldstein hypothesis" which believes that substance abuse facilitates violent behavior directly.

White, H.R., Widom, C.S. (1997). "Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 7(4), 287-310. The report discussed the correlation of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, non-violent crime and violence concerning children who were abused and neglected during the course of their development through childhood. The study was longitudinal (the subjects were studied over time into adulthood). It was found that abused and neglected females and males have a higher correlation in substance abuse and non-violent arrest. Abused and neglected females were found to be at a higher risk for both drug abuse or dependency diagnosis as well as arrests for violent crime.

Zarkin, G.A., Dunlap, L.J., Hicks, K., Mamo, D. (2005). "Benefits and costs of methadone treatment: results from a lifetime simulation model." Health Economics. 14(11) 1133-1150. Research examined prior studies that included the cost and benefits of methadone abuse treatment. These papers have often been written on single case studies. While valuable to society, the sample size limitation also limits the research because they view heightened problems as being able to be treated in one incident of treatment. A simulation model was created to embody the longitudinal study of the heroine use, criminal behavior, health care and employment of a population between the ages of 18-60. It was found that the model (which takes into account the dynamics of heroine use and views it as a, acute and reoccurring circumstance) finds that the benefits of treatment using this model far outweigh those produced by static models.

Drug Reimportation the Need for
Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14738507
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While it is definitely true that these companies spend a great deal of money on research and development, for which they certainly deserve and in fact need to be compensated (not to mention their right to make a profit, and the fact that profit potential is a major driver in innovation), the amount of profit and compensation that comes solely from the United States is inordinate when compared to that provided by other countries. Nearly half of all revenue going to pharmaceutical companies every year comes from United States' consumers (Sawkar, 2005). The argument that drug reimportation would damage companies' innovation and profit potentials implies that it is the United States' sole responsibility to provide funds for these goals; if reimportation were allowed then prices would even out, meaning other countries would start paying a fair share towards research and development costs while the United States would experience a savings.…

References

Choudhry, N.K., & Detsky, A.S. (2005). A perspective on U.S. drug reimportation. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(3). Retrieved from  http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/293/3/358 

Sawkar, M. (2005, March). High U.S. drug prices: Causes and cures. Paper presented for The Drug Reimportation Debate. Retrieved from www.sawkar.net/blog/high_drug_prices.doc

Wu, M.Y, Kennedy, J., Cohen, L.J., & Wang, C.C. (2009). Coverage of atypical antipsychotics among Medicare drug plans in the state of Washington: Changes between 2007 and 2008. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 11 (6), 316- 321.

Drug Free Workplace in Favor
Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15910707
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What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…

References

Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68

Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998

Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.

Drug Enforcement Strategies
Words: 2653 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22350168
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In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.

The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…

Works Cited

Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm

Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006  http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content 

National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.

McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.

Drug Survey the National Survey
Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55595651
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Third interesting fact reported in the reported is that looking into this demographic, it was found out that past month illicit drug abuse occurred most commonly among individuals aged 18- to 20-year-old. Among the underaged (not of legal age) group (12-17 years old), marijuana abuse among females lowered this year, while this figure has increased by 0.7% among males. ithin the 12-year-old or older demographic, American Indians or Alaskan Natives have the highest reported illicit drug abuse in the past month, at 13%. Although there were distinct differences in the profile of drug users in terms of age group, gender, race, and even on the type of drug abuse, there were no distinct differences in the geographical locations of users, scattered among the following counties: large metropolitan, small metropolitan, non-metropolitan urbanized, and non-metropolitan less urbanized areas.

ork cited:

Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007…

Work cited:

Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings." Available at: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7Results.pdf.

Drug's Legalization Pros Cons Own Position
Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61873781
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Drug Legalization

Pros

Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).

There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…

Works Cited

Ghosh, P. (2010, October 19). The pros and cons of drug legalization in the U.S. . Retrieved from International Business Times:  http://www.ibtimes.com/pros-cons-drug-legalization-us-246712 

Lowy, J. (2014, September 1). Driving stoned? States prep for marijuana DUI. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor:  http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0901/Driving-stoned-States-prep-for-marijuana-DUI 

Miron, J., & Waldock, K. (2010, October 3). Making an Economic Case for Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved from CATO Institute:  http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/making-economic-case-legalizing-drugs

Drug Sentencing in the U S Criminal Justice
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 54369199
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Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System

The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in order to determine if the sentencing used is effective in bringing about a reduction in drug offenses and the rehabilitation of prisoners in successful return to society following incarceration.

(1) Is drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System effective in reducing repeat offenses?

(2) Are individuals successful returned to society following incarceration and rehabilitation programs?

(3) Is the U.S. Criminal Justice system succeeding or failing and are drug sentencing laws negatively or impacting the success of the U.S. Criminal Justice system in regards to drug sentencing laws?

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study.

Methodology

The…

Bibliography

Clickman, Rubin (2011) Sentencing Guidelines in the American Justice System. FindLaw. Retrieved from: http://knowledgebase.findlaw.com/kb/2010/Nov/203582.html

Kansal, T. And Mauer, M. (2005) RACIAL DISPARITY IN SENTENCING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. JANUARY 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/disparity.pdf 

Stevens, John Paul CJ (2011) Our Broken System of Criminal Justice. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from:  http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/nov/10/our-broken-system-criminal-justice/?pagination=false

Policies and Practices
Words: 1174 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93961909
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Policy and Practice

acial disparity in arrests and convictions in Georgia are is a significant and growing social problem. Yet, legislation and policy seems to be lacking in an attempt to solve or even begin to reverse the increasing trend. Georgia has been a special focus of several human rights organizations for some time with regard to the disparity associated with arrests, convictions and sentencing but especially with those having to do with drug laws. In 1996 Human ights Watch (HW)a nonprofit organization that seeks to bring awareness to legal and policy issues that are applied unfairly to minorities determined that Georgia has one of the worst race records in the nation with regard to new drug enforcement laws as well as extremely disproportionately applied mandatory sentencing laws with regard to those laws.

HW determined through careful examination that between 1990 and 1995 3% of whites who qualified for mandatory…

References

Georgia's Supreme Court Chief Justice's Commission on Indigent Defense, 2002, www.georgiacourts.org/aoc/press/idc/idchearings/idcreport.doc

Human Rights Watch, 1996 Human Rights Violations in Drug Law Enforcement in Georgia.  http://ndsn.org/sept96/hrw.html 

Human Rights Watch, 2008, Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States.  http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0508_1.pdf 

Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.

Drug and Alcohol the Effects
Words: 2365 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79848069
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And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…

References

Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/ 

Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway

Books.

Drug addiction. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Drug:addiction.htm

Drugs at a Friend's House the Ethical
Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23004239
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Drugs at a Friend's House

The ethical dilemma of this scenario revolves around the question of what an officer's duties are when he or she is technically 'off-duty.' There is little question that when someone's life is at stake, such as during an armed robbery, that an officer has a moral obligation to intervene. However, the terms of this scenario are far more ambiguous. There is no immediate, obvious risk to life but persons are engaged in illegal drug use.

In this situation, it is unlikely that the officer's friend knows there is drug use going on at his house -- he would probably not invite a police officer into his house and allow his friends to use drugs. However, making an arrest would be profoundly disruptive and embarrassing to the friend's party. According to police protocol, "remember, you have NO LEGAL O DEPATMENTAL obligation to get involved, especially if…

References

Berry, Steve. (1991). Most departments prohibit accepting gifts. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved:

 http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1991-08-28/news/9108280520_1_police-department-gratuities-accepting-gifts 

Ryan, Jack. (2007). Model policy: Off-duty action. Legal and Liability Policy Institute.

Retrieved:  http://www.llrmi.com/articles/legal_update/off-duty.shtml

Drug Rehab Reimbursements Drug Rehabilitation
Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81333096
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However, not all facilities are prohibitively costly. Serenity Lane in Eugene, Oregon, proclaims as part of its marketing and advertising plan that it accepts almost all insurance plans, and trumpets the fact that it offers value deals like the "ExSL (Long-Term Program)" that requires only a relatively modest fee of $6,495 per 30 day period, with a 60 day recommended minimum stay" and "partial financing available and a $500 discount for paying cash up front" (Treatment Costs at Serenity Lane," Official ebsite, 2007). In contrast, a stay of the same duration at the more famous Betty Ford Center is $23,000 ("Programs," the Betty Ford Center, 2007).

Quality forms of rehabilitative assistance exist for individuals in a variety of income brackets. Also, for individuals who qualify, there are Medicaid assistance programs provided by the federal government. However, less costly programs often have longer waiting lists and offer less comprehensive, quality, and…

Works Cited

Health Insurers Block Mental Health Parity Bill." Drug Rehabs.com. 23 Sept 2007.  http://www.drug-rehabs.com/health-insurers-block.htm 

How Do I pay for a Drug Rehab?" Therapist Unlimited. 23 Sept 2007. http://therapistunlimited.com/rehabs/Articles/Drug+Rehabs/How+Do+I+pay+for+a+Drug+Rehab

Oregonians Gain Benefit of Parity MH Coverage." Psychiatric News.

40(19): 2. 7 Oct 2005. APA Website.  http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/19/12

Policy and Politics
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70841231
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Policy and Politics

Policy and decision-making are complex issues. Even for what might appear to be a simple decision, there many underlying factors that influence the final outcome. Some of these factors are obvious, but some can be elusive and hidden from all of the parties. Policies are not instituted in a flash and the process of policymaking should not be taken lightly. This makes the process of policy making a slow one at best. The many facets of the issue must be discussed and debated for often long periods of time. Policymaking is wrought with many problems for which there is no obvious right or wrong answer. Deborah Stone addresses these paradoxes in The Art of Political Decision-making.

Stone's work stands apart from many authors that focus on the application of their model in only a few specific applications. One example is einhart and einhart (2011) who recently discussed…

References

Reinhart, C. & Reinhart, V. (2011). Limits of Monetary Policy in Theory and Practice. Cato Journal. 31 (3): 427-441.

Stone, D. (2001). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making, W.W. Norton, third edition.

Thorson, K.(Producer) (2002-2008). The highlights of 100 [Television series episode]. HBO.

Retrieved from  http://www.hbo.com/the-wire

Policy of Choice Patient Safety
Words: 1298 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56839984
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Policy of choice: Patient Safety
The provision of healthcare services is a complex responsibility that the professionals in healthcare risk management must never take lightly. Hospital regulations and accreditation standards make the safety requires complex and inevitable (PSQH, 2014). With formal procedures and policies, it is possible to promote and encourage compliance with regulation and high safety standards in the workplace. These policies also make quality healthcare and patient safety easier to deliver. Well articulate policies will alleviate variability in nursing practice that is likely to lead to compromises in care and eventual harm to the patient. The financial situations that require more attention for patient care may make it difficult to continuously review procedures and policies. Failure to update and develop policy can cause negative consequences for the patients (PSQH, 2014).
Patient safety policy is significant for the fulfillment of several professional requirements including:
· Adherence with the set…

Trafficking of Drugs Has Been
Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13757187
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The main reason why legalizing all types of drugs will bring more good than harm is because regulation could be put into effect. Things could be more under control. The current system is not working, and that is apparent in the rates of crime that are still high, and the number of people still using, and putting themselves into very well-known danger. Either way, whether it is legal or not, people are still accessing these drugs. They are still able to go out and purchase something that is supposed to be illegal and it will continue to occur if nothing productive and progressive is done. The government, economy, and everyday folks could benefit if these substances are legalized. The policies should be based on actual effects on communities, people, and the country, not on moral and ethical grounds.

eferences:

(1) Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. How goes the 'war on…

References:

(1) Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. How goes the 'war on drugs'?: An assessment of U.S. Drug problems and policy. Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation 2005. Print.

(2) Hartstein, Max. The war on drugs -- the worst addiction of all. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse Inc.

2003. Print.

(3) Courtwright, David T. Forces of habit: drugs and the making of the modern world. Boston,

Government - Federal Policy National
Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15886792
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Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).

III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…

Bibliography

Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)

Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html

Argument for or Against the Debate on Ending or Continuing the War on Drugs
Words: 2198 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56994078
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War on Drugs

The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.

Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…

References

Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.

Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.

Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm

Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.

Legalization of Drugs in the
Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20792335
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Perhaps it is ironic that one of Bennett's weaker arguments relates to the Prohibition during the 1920s.

The author claims that, contrary to many existing arguments and evidence, the Prohibition was not necessarily the instigator of soaring crime rates. Furthermore, he also claims that alcohol usage diminished drastically as a result of its illegalization. Although this may well be, Bennett provides no statistical or research evidence as proof of these claims. Indeed, he addresses the topic only briefly, as a springboard for his counter-arguments. It is almost as if the issue was addressed only for the benefit of those who would use the events surrounding the Prohibition as an argument in favor of legalizing drugs. I feel that the author could have made his argument much stronger by providing research evidence for his claims.

Nevertheless, the general logic of his arguments against legalizing drugs is compelling. Considering the effect, as…

Gore Vidal -- Drugs in
Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97778036
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ouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.

The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more." He claims that this psychological insight is obvious and yet denied by our government. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis. He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them.

The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…

Works Cited

Caruso, David B. "Higher Cigarette Taxes Lure Buyers to Black Market." The Huffington Post.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/10/higher-cigarette-taxes-lu_n_96094.html  April 10, 2008

"Number of Adult Smokers." Smoking from All Sides.  http://smokingsides.com/docs/us_adults_bystate95 . November 8, 1996

"Richard M. Nixon." United States History.  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html .

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse
Words: 2744 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61703736
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That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).

It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).

Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…

References

Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006  http://proquest.umi.com .

An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006  http://find.galegroup.com .

Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006

Women and Drugs
Words: 3809 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82766704
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Female Substance Abusers and Addicts

Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…

References

Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.

Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'

International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190

Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.

Gambino Drug Family Their Entire Drig Business
Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63848743
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Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.

National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business

The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…

References

Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from  http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html 

Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf 

Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.

Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html

Criminalization of Drugs Criminalization
Words: 3284 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7281672
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war on drugs has been an unmitigated disaster that has fallen short of its intended objectives, and done nothing but blotted up taxpayers' money, opened up avenues for organized crime, and filled up the prison systems with mere drug users and possessors as the real traffickers and drug lords get enriched. Four decades since the launch of the war on drugs, violent crime caused by the drug trade continues to be a serious social concern. Four administrations have personally waged a war on drugs, characterized mainly through the criminalization of drugs and other harmful substances; yet these efforts have done little to decrease the availability and use of drugs in America. The country still tops the world in illegal drug use. A recent report by CNN, for instance, showed that approximately 500, 000 persons were in prison for drug-related crimes in 2012, compared to only 40,000 in 1989 (Branson, 2012).…

References

ACLU. (2015). Against Drug Prohibition. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Retrieved August 6, 2015 from  https://www.aclu.org/against-drug-prohibition 

Branson, R. (2012). War on Drugs -- A Trillion Dollar Failure. CNN. Retrieved August 6, 2015 from  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/branson-end-war-on-drugs/ 

California NORML. (2015).Guide to California's Marijuana Law. California NORML. Retrieved August 6, 2015 from  http://www.canorml.org/camjlaws.html 

Dillon, Z. (2012). Symposium on Overcriminalization. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(3), 525-527.

Punitive Drug Prohibition
Words: 2323 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71282780
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Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve the health of Americans. According to research, alcohol consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, but then it subsequently increased. "Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant." Instead of measurable gains in productivity or reduced absenteeism, Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to more dangerous substances such as opium, marijuana, patent medicines and cocaine that they would have been unlikely to encounter in…

Bibliography

Harm Reduction in the U.S.: A Movement for Change." Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy & Law Newsletter. Vol 3 No 4 & Vol 4 No 1, Winter 1997/98. Canadian HIV / AIDS Legal Network, 11 May 2004. http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/otherdocs/Newsletter/Winter9798/20GREIGE.html

McDougall, Steven. "The War on Drugs." 03 June 2001. 10 May 2004.  http://world.std.com/~swmcd/steven/rants/war.html 

Overview of drug use in the United States. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from Web site:  http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html 

Nadelmann, Ethan, Cohen, Peter, Drucker, Ernest, Locher, Ueli, Stimson, Gerry, and Wodak, Alex. "The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress." Apr. 1994. Lycaeum Drug Archives. 11 May 2004. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/war.on.drugs/debate/harm-reduction.html

Classical Argument Drug Prohibition Has
Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53741639
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Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.

Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to…

Works Cited

Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

Jones, Paul and Mortin, John. Marijuana: Early Experiences with Four States' Laws that Allow Use for Medical Purposes. United States General Accounting Office, 2002.

Kleiman, Mark. Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. Greenwood Press, 1989.

Legalization of Drugs Laws Against
Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98421142
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Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea.

ibliography

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…

Bibliography

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm 

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/druguse/ 

Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm

Columbian Drug Trade

If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.

However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.

We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.

It is certainly…

References

 http://www.colombiaemb.org/colombian_economy.htm 

 http://www.globalexchange.org/colombia/spTimes120201.html 

 http://www.gwu.edu/~clai/Commentary%20on%20Colombia.htm 

 http://www.mapinc.org/tlcnews/v02/n101/a03.htm?203

Legalizing Drugs the Government Creates
Words: 1877 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37845826
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It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.

The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce…

Works Cited

Block, W. "Drug Prohibition: A Legal and Economic Analysis." Journal of Business Ethics 12.9 (1993): 689-700. Print.

Cussen, M, and W. Block. "Legalize Drugs Now! An Analysis of the Benefits of the Legalized Drugs." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.3 (2000): 525-536. Print.

"Drug War Clock | DrugSense." DrugSense. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .

"Economic Consequences of the War on Drugs." Drug Policy Alliance: Alternatives to Marijuana Prohibition and the Drug War. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .

Criminal Justice Agency Administration Drug
Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39529548
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" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)

The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.

Sources…

Bibliography

DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at  http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm 

Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at  http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html 

The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.

Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at  http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm

the effect of a public policy on an individual
Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34354326
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Individual is a 23-year-old African-American male. Although this individual is from a middle class background and was raised in a suburban area that included a majority white population, his story reveals the ways public policy can be discriminatorily applied. This individual is defined as at risk based on several factors including race, class, and gender. His race puts the individual at a systematic disadvantage vis-a-vis his white neighbors because of several factors. One is that law enforcement officials in his and surrounding communities are more likely to stop and interrogate him versus his white peers. As second issue is that the individual was treated differently from his white counterparts in school. A third is that his parents had experienced discrimination and their experiences have had an influence on the individual's worldview and his belief in the possibility for change.

Policy: The War on Drugs

The War on Drugs has been…

Education Autobiography on Drugs
Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22997906
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Life gives people choices. These choices can lead to circumstances where people may feel lost. Tobacco, alcohol, legal and illegal drugs are part of life. Their influence is everywhere from social media to movies and even at home. What they may teach us is that sometimes when we choose to escape or to feel good, that is when we are our most vulnerable, that is when we may make mistakes. Because life isn't about being perfect, but rather what the imperfections teach us.

I have a sister who likes to drink. She's not your typical lush. She drinks only when she has the time to. This is usually at night and her drink of choice is a bottle of dry, red wine. She, like most people, has experimented with marijuana. The more marijuana lost its stigma, the more she felt it was okay to partake in it. She would get…