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Alcohol intake, getting high, cocaine addiction and withdrawal symptoms are some of the terms widely heard by everyone in their day-to-day lives. Although they may sound interesting, habitual or a source of entertainment, they can transform into serious illnesses. Due to this fact, substance-related disorders are listed in the DSM IV-T which includes the disorders associated with drug intake, related to the side effects of a medicine and also to the exposure of toxins.
The symptoms of substance related disorders commonly occur due to high dosage of medication. However, it may lower down as soon as the dosage reduces or is put to an end. The examples of some of these medicines include anesthetics, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, anti-depressants, and more (Durand, M. 2009).
As mentioned earlier, apart from medications, there are a number of other chemical substances which might also be the factor in causing the…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Text Revision. Washington DC
Brooks, B. (2006). "DSM-IV-TR for Clinicians: Accurate Diagnosis and Treatment
Planning." Pesi Training.
Durand, M. (2009). Abnormal Psychology. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
DSM IV Disorders
DSM IV-T - Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Disorders
American Psychological Association has compiled and published DSM IV-T, which is a diagnostic manual of mental disorders. This manual not only categorizes mental enormities but also provide guidance and assistance to medical practitioners about the suitable and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the included mental illnesses. Moreover, specific codes have been assigned to each disorder in DSM IV-T with a purpose of providing an effective method for medical documentation. Additionally, this manual serves as a valuable resource for teaching the technicalities of psychopathology. DSM IV-T extensively discusses wide range of mental disorders such as anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative disorders.
The person who experiences frequent fear and panic about different things is believed to be suffering from anxiety. Acute state of anxiety is conducive to various other mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsion disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and so forth. Furthermore,…
Weiten, W, Dunn, D & Hammer, E.Y. (2010). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustments in the 21st Century. Tenth Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
DSM-IV as a Classification System
Systems of classification for psychiatric diagnosis have several purposes: to distinguish one psychiatric diagnosis from another, so that clinicians can offer the most effective treatment; to provide a common language among health care professionals; and to explore the causes of the many mental disorders that are still unknown (Kaplan, Sadock, 1998, p. 287, from client's essay request).
Diagnosis is the foundation of all medical practices (errios, 1995). In recent years, the medical industry has experienced a revolution in medicine's ability to identify and treat the illnesses that burden humanity. The psychiatric industry, which specializes in treating mental illnesses, has been a key participant in this revolution, identifying new diagnostic measures and systems of classification for many psychiatric disorders.
As a result, modern psychiatrists rely on accurate and efficient diagnostic tools to help them identify the specific mental illnesses their patients suffer. Identifying these illnesses enables…
Frances A, Pincus H, Widiger T, Wakefield Davis W, First M. (1990). "DSM-IV: Work in Progress." Am J. Psychiatry 147:11.
Frances A, Wakefield Davis W, Kline M, Pincus H. First M, Widiger T. (June, 1991). "The DSM-IV Field Trials: Moving towards an Empirically Derived Classification." Eur Psychiatry.
Kline M, Sydnor-Greenberg N, Wakefield Davis W, Pincus H, Frances A. (1993). "Using Field Trials to Evaluate Proposed Changes in DSM Diagnostic Criteria." Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44:7.
Wakefield Davis W, Bauer M, Severino S, Spiegel D, Widiger T. (1993). "MacArthur Data Reanalyses: Examples from the Second Stage of Empirical Review." Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44:5.
Generally, mood disorders are influenced by both biological and environmental factors. In order words, these disorders can be inherited. The bipolar and cyclothmic disorders generally include both euphoric and depressive feelings, while the dysthymic and major depressive disorders only include depressive feelings. The bipolar and major depressive disorders have received most attention in terms of research. These disorders are generally treated by a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Being more severe than the other two mood disorders, they may also at times require hospitalization to ensure the safety of the patient.
The cyclothmic and dysthymic disorders are both less severe than the other two, but can also be disruptive if not appropriately treated. The prognosis for both of these are good in terms of functioning effectively in society. The more severe disorders may hamper functioning effectively in social and workplace situations, although the correct combination of psychotherapy and medication can…
AllPsych. (2003). Psychiatric disorders. http://allpsych.com/disorders/index.html
Hsiung, Robert. (2008, March 3). DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes. http://www.dr-bob.org/tips/dsm4a.html
Psychnet.uk. (2009). Complete List of DSM-IV Codes. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/_misc/complete_tables.htm
Conduct an initial scenario cost analysis that will determine the optimal location for the new contract manufacturer
Decision analysis can be utilized to ascertain a suggested decision alternative or an optimal decision strategy when a decision-maker is encountered with an indeterminate and risk-full configuration of forthcoming happenings. The objective of decision analysis is to pinpoint the best possible decision alternative or the optimal decision strategy provided information regarding the indeterminate events and the potential consequences or payoffs (Anderson et al., 2012). In delineation, scenario analysis is the practice of approximating the anticipated portfolio value subsequent to certain period. This takes into account the supposition of particular variations within the portfolio's securities values or major factors come about; for instance, a variation in the interest rate. Scenario assessment is frequently employed to approximate variations to a portfolio's value as a reaction to an negative occurrence, and might be utilized to study…
DSM-IV-TR & Differential Diagnosis)
The client, Marie is a single, 25-year-old white female who is employed in an emergency room in a large urban hospital. Marie came to treatment on her own because of an inability to sleep, feeling down, and problems functioning at work.
Major depressive disorder
Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
Other psychosocial problems
Rating Level of Symptoms
Transient, slight symptoms that are reasonable responses to stressful situations; more than a slight impartment I social, occupational, or school functioning.
A differential diagnosis in this case must take into consideration other factors that may be a focus of clinical attention including conditions or problems for which the client may seek or be referred for professional help including: (1) relational problems; (2) problems related to abuse or…
Substance use disorders including alcohol use disorder are defined in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) by the presence of several time-dependent subjective and behavioral criteria. Diagnostic criteria vary depending on the substance being used or abused. Alcohol abuse disorder is among the most significant of the diagnoses given the legality of alcohol and the prevalence of alcohol use in the general population.
According to the National Institutes of Health, the vast majority (upwards of 86%) of all people in the United States drink at least sometimes, with more than half drinking monthly (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2015). It is estimated that about seven percent of the adult population in the United States have an alcohol use disorder: more than 16 million people. Of those, only 1.3 million people receive formal treatment in a specialized facility (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and…
American Psychological Association (2015). Understanding alcohol use disorders and their treatment. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/alcohol-disorders.aspx
Burke, D. (2012). Alcoholism. Healthline. Retrieved online: http://www.healthline.com/health/alcoholism/basics#Overview1
"Causes," (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alcohol-use-disorder/basics/causes/con-20020866
COPAC (2015). Criteria for substance dependence. Retrieved online: http://www.copacms.com/resources/recovery-101/criteria-for-substance-abuse/
Psychotherapy: The client will benefit from ongoing and in-depth psychoanalysis to attempt to discover some of the root causes of the issues. Because Belfort did not exhibit his behavioral problems prior to working in the Wall Street sector, it is likely that talk therapy will help elucidate some of the core reasons why he changed.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Once talking therapy has clarified some of the core issues Belfort is facing, cognitive-behavioral therapy can help him to identify the irrational, unreasonable, and untenable thought processes and biased beliefs that lead to his dysfunctional behaviors. The goal of the cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention will be behavioral change but also shifts in the ways Belfort views himself, other people, and his values.
Volunteer work and selfless service: Because Belfort has been consumed with an identity linked to money, power, and prestige, it may be helpful for him to shift focus to working with…
DSM-5 Case Study Answers
Using DSM-5 criteria, it appears Allyson may be suffering from social anxiety disorder, known as social phobia under DSM-IV (dsm5.org, 2016a). There are 7 symptoms listed under 300.23, the first is a fear of social or permanence situations, where there may be the scrutiny of others, and there is a fear of embarrassment (DSM5.org, 2016). Under DSM-IV, there was no timeframe, under DSM-5 this must be for at least 6 months, which we may assume is the case with the ongoing medication. There may also be reason to consider substance abuse, with increasing use of the drugs.
Karen should be considered under the substance use disorder. Two - three symptoms out of 11 listed, in DSM-5 there is no differentiation made between abuse and dependence (dsm5.org, 2016b). If Karen was drinking all the time, it is likely she was craving, or had…
Bergland, C. (2015). What Are the Eleven Symptoms of "Alcohol Use Disorder"? Psychology Today. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201506/what-are-the-eleven-symptoms-alcohol-use-disorder dsm5.org. (2016a). Social Anxiety Disorder. Available at http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Social%20Anxiety%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf
dsm5.org. (2016b). Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Available at http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf
dsm5.org. (2016c), Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders, Available at http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Obsessive%20Compulsive%20Disorders%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf
OCD-UK, (2016). Treatments for OCD. Available at http://www.ocduk.org/ocd-treatments
According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
First, the assignment of an arbitrary time period where bereavement is "normal" and after that particular time frame it becomes dysfunctional has no empirical basis. Secondly, the exclusion criteria in the DSM -- IV -- T most likely resulted in individuals who would have benefited from treatment not receiving treatment for their depressive symptoms until this particular time period expired. That is inexcusable. Finally, the research indicates that there may be some minor differences between bereavement and major depression; however, the two are not often clinically distinguishable aside from noting that in one case there was a loss of a loved one and yet individuals who are experiencing severe symptoms in bereavement are at risk for more serious issues. By eliminating the exclusion criteria clinicians are given much-needed room to treat their patients in individualized basis as opposed to a standardized cookie-cutter protocol.
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(3rd Ed.). Washington DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th Ed. -- Text Revision). Washington DC: Author.
There is injustice done to the ratepayers through higher rates. Some others will benefit by the subsidized energy efficient products such as light bulbs, refrigerators, consultation services, and to cap it is argued that a utility service provider is in no position to fix the benefits as much as the customers and since it depends on many individuals and therefore the energy efficiency and the interest rates and the price of electricity are all subjective.
Thus the allowing of corporations to fleece the customer on their interpretation of the Demand analysis is wrong because the Corporations often attempt to have a very high rate exceeding 12% for capital Such irreversible investments would often require a rate of return of over twenty percent that makes the service affordable only for the very upper class leaving the rest in darkness. Since the investment cannot be reversed, there is a risk of the…
Haugland, Torleif; et al. (1998) "Energy Structures and Environmental Futures." Oxford
University: New York.
Edge, Chris. (2009) "Demand Side Management Progress Energy Overview"
Retrieved 4 March, 2012 from http://www.asiapacificpartnership.org/pdf/PGTTF/ddsm/presentations/DSM_at_Progress_Energy_-_Chris_Edge.pdf
These include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Haloperidol (Haldol), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Mesoridazine (Serentil), Perphenazine (Trilafon) and Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
(b). Atypical Medications-is the newer medication to schizophrenia. The atypical drugs affect different areas from those affected by the antipsychotic drugs. These include Clozapine (Clozaril) -particularly effective in younger people, isperidone (isperdal) and Olanzapine (Zyprexa).
(c). other significant medication-these can also help suppress the symptoms and include Antidepressants, Antianxiety drugs, Lithium (for bipolar disorder) and Antiepileptic drugs.
(d). Electroconvulsive ("Shock") Therapy-where low voltage electric current is induced into the patient to cause seizure. It is of late considered to be safer than drug therapy.
(e). Psychotherapy- this is where the different professionals like the psychologists, some nurses, psychiatrists and social workers work together to study and help treat the patient along side using drugs. It exploits the cognitive behavior of the individual where the normal positive behavior is emphasized. It follows on the…
All Psych, (2004). Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/dsm.html
Health Information Publications, (2011). What Is Schizophrenia? Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://ehealthmd.com/library/schizophrenia/sch_whatis.html
Grohol, M., (2006). Schizophrenia Treatment. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm
DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies
Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.
Gillespie, B. (2016). Substance or Medication Induced Psychotic Disorder DSM-5 (Alcohol-292.1, Drugs-292.9). Retrieved from Theravive: http://www.theravive.com/therapedia/Substance-or-Medication-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-DSM--5 -(Alcohol--292.1,-Drugs -- 292.9)
Hruska, B., Sledjeski, E., Fallon, W., Spponster, E., & Delahanty, D. (2011). Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 405-411. doi:10.1037/a0022439
Iribarren, I., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence-based research for the third millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) states that schizophrenia is a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience
hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss of willpower/motivation, a possible catatonic state at times, and more.
This broad spectrum of symptoms should be seen for at least a month, with behavior being monitored for up to six months.
Who is Affected ?
According to the World Health Organization, about 24 million people around the world are affected by schizophrenia.
Men are 1.4 times more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than women
The prime age group for individuals who suffer from schizophrenia are ages 20-32
Schizophrenia is not typically found in children or in older aged individuals.
What is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder.
Exaggerated or distorted perceptions, beliefs or actions
Confused or disordered thinking
According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).
The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…
James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.
House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.
Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.
Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
By rejecting the correspondence theory of truth (namely, as truth corresponding to reality) and postulating instead a relative strata of truth as consisting of a construction of the human mind, the axes are a set of subjective opinions formulated by a socially privileged and credentialed class of individuals who are separate from their prescribed reality (Duffy, et al. (2002). Caplan (2001) (in (Duffy, et al. 2002) provides an instance of social wrongs that can consequent from this with the DSM recommendation for a new category called "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder." Not only is there no hard evidence to support this category, but also the symptom could have been caused by environmental, instead of biological, causes. emove the environmental stressor and no such 'disease' exists. Instead the DSM axes, created by socially privileged individuals, only harm these women and teens and destroy their socioeconomic status still further by labeling them with an…
Cooksey, E. & Brown, P. (1998). Spinning on Its Axes: DSM and the Social Construction of Psychiatric Diagnosis, International Journal of Health Services, 28, 525-554
Duffy. M., et al. (2002). A critical look at the DSM-IV. Journal of Individual Psychology, 58, 363-373.
Gergen, K., Hoffman, L., & Anderson, H. (199) Is Diagnosis a Disaster?: A Constructionist Trialogue Relational Diagnosis, Wiley.
Gillig, S. (1995). Warning: this diagnosis can be hazardous to your health. Counseling Today, 38, 36-37
Tori J. is a 12-year-old girl who was removed from her family at the age of 8, when she was placed with a foster family. Although her foster mother discussed some episodes of violence and defiance in the home, Tori was not initially violent or defiant in school. However, she frequently failed to complete her assignments, instead spending hours simply looking into space. She also spoke frequently to social workers and school counselors about problems in her foster home including allegations that she was not being fed sufficiently, that they would not purchase school supplies for her, and that there was emotional and physical abuse in their current home. These allegations were reported and determined to be unsubstantiated, but allegations of emotional and physical abuse and neglect in her family home were substantiated. The children were removed because of physical abuse and neglect. Interviews with Tori J.'s older brother reported…
AllPsych. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
AllPsych. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
, 2011). Since hoarders are less likely to be married, it is possible that help for a hoarder who has fallen or otherwise become injured may be severely delayed. Sometimes, it can be too late. Fire is another danger faced by a hoarder. Such a large number of items can make a house more flammable, and also make it highly difficult to escape if a fire does get started (Saxena, et al., 2011). That is something that should be taken into consideration.
Impairment and Insight
The levels of impairment and insight vary with hoarders. Some of them see that they have a serious problem for which they need to get help, and some of them do not see what is wrong with the way they are living (Steketee, et al., 2010). They are generally very reluctant to part with any of their things, and they can become resentful of family…
Anderson, S.W. Domasio, H., & Domasio, A.R. (2005). A neural basis for collecting behaviour in humans. Brain, 128, 201-212
Frost, R. & Gross, R. (1993). The hoarding of possessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 367-382
Saxena, S., Ayers, C.R., Maidment, K.M., Vapnik, T., Wetherell, J.:. Brstritsky, A. (2011). Quality of life and functional impairment in compulsive hoarding. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 475-480
Steketee, G., Frost, R.O., Tolin, D.F., Rasmussen, J. & Brown, T.A. (2010). Waitlist-controoled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for hoarding disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 275, 476-484
Mary shows: A. Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase in a way that is less than would be reasonable for Mary's age, sexual experience, and the adequacy of sexual stimulation she receives from her husband. B. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty, as Mary is disappointed with her sex life and marriage. C. The orgasmic dysfunction is not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder or to drugs, medication, or physical factors. Mary has suffered this problem all of her sexual life, thus the diagnosis specified as life long, and she has suffered this with all persons she has been intimate with, thus it is generalized, and as Mary has no physical complaints that might explain her lack of ability to achieve an orgasm, it is psychological.
3a. & 3b.
Possible causes might include John's physical and…
The individuals with the condition often face a series of exclusions and rejections (Widiger 2011). There are many scenarios that have been denied basic needs such as housing on the basis of their mental status. People are denied loans, job opportunities and health insurances on the basis of mental health. The stigmatization cases are so prevalent that many people affected or who suspect they have the condition fear to seek professional assistance.
Stigmatization causes the person to have low self-esteem the strong social, religious and cultural beliefs have greatly distorted views of people on mental illness. Media portrays most of the characters with aggressive behavior and other negative traits as suffering from mental illness. This has created the impression that mental sickness is a sign of inferior character.
The basics of mental health include examination of theories of psychology, sociology, health psychology and transitions of life in relation to mental…
Jensen-doss, a., & Hawley, K.M. (2011). Understanding clinicians' diagnostic practices:
Attitudes toward the utility of diagnosis and standardized diagnostic tools. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(6), 476-85. doi:
Widiger, T.A. (2011). Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: A proposal for DSM-V. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 338-63. doi:
DSM diagnostic criteria have long been a source of criticism. McGorry, Hickie, Yung, Pantelis, and Jackson (2006) point out some basic deficiencies of the DSM diagnostic system. First the authors state that the function of a diagnosis is to state what treatment should be applied or predict the prognosis of the condition. These are certainly functions of a diagnosis, but a diagnosis has broader implications. First and foremost the idea of having a diagnosis is to take a series of related signs and symptoms that hang together consistently and label them so as to facilitate communication between health care professionals. A diagnosis alone is useless unless it allows professionals to communicate about the same entity. Then descriptions of course, treatment, and prognosis can follow.
McGorry et al. charge that in the DSM system the clinical features that occur early in the course of the disorder are not distinguished from those…
Fava G.A. & Kellner, R. (1993). Staging: a neglected dimension in psychiatric classification. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 555-558.
Fava, G.A. & Tossani, E. (2007). Prodromal stage of major depression. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1, 9-18.
Hetrick, S.E., Parker, A.G., Hickie, I.B., Purcell, R., Yung, A.R., & McGorry, P.D. (2008).
Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: Towards a clinical staging model. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 263-270.
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…
"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online: http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm
Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.
Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.
Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
Most doctors that prescribe italin today caution patients to talk with them prior to discontinuation, and most will use a tapering system to wean patients from the medication so they do not experience withdrawal symptoms.
What I would like to see presented in the DSM-V work group committee members is a change in language so that italin is classified as an agent that can result in dependency, misuse and abuse. This is especially true given the fact that it is often used as a street "drug" that has an amphetamine like reaction in individuals that use it without the need for it. People that use italin that have a justified need for it may feel nothing except they are better able to concentrate, if the medication is working properly; however the medication is not tolerated the same in all people that use it. The work group committee members need simply…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision.
Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
16), an indication that the brain and the body are sorts of partners when it comes to thought, emotion and psychopathology.
The next section discusses descriptive syndromal diagnosis, "a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or in combination" (Lambert, 2005, p. 332) versus a well-established and knowable disease. For example, an illness like Alzheimer's has a "sufficiently well-established pathogenesis," while the symptoms of an illness/disorder like a specific phobia is often circumscribed, i.e., a mixture of various traits and characteristics (DSM-
IV Guidebook, 1995, p. 16). Following this section, the guidebook goes into exploring seven specific modes of diagnosis -- "Nosology: Categorical vs. Dimensional Diagnosis," "Polythetic vs. Monothetic Criteria," "Multiple Diagnoses and Comorbidity," being "a combination of abnormal condition and quality" (Glanze, 2000, p. 770), "Clinical vs. esearch Criteria," "Core vs. Discriminating Features," "Level of Clinical Inference in Criteria Sets," and lastly, "Diagnostic Tests as Criteria."…
(1995). Conceptual issues in psychiatric diagnosis. Chapter 2. DSM-IV Guidebook. American Psychiatric Press.
Denison, M.J. (2003). The science of knowledge and knowing. New York: Blackwell
Glanze, Walter D. (2000). Mosby's medical, nursing and allied health encyclopedia.
Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Contemporary Approaches Used for Assessment and Diagnosis
The Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health relates screening tools used for screening for bipolar disorder to include the 'Mood Disorder Questionnaire' (MDQ); the 'Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale'; Differential Diagnosis of ipolar Disorder I & II vs. Major Depressive Disorders; and Obtaining a Family History Through the Use of a Genogram. The MDQ is designed for use as a tool to aid in screening for present and past incidences of mania and hypomania and includes 13 questions related to the symptoms of bipolar disorder in addition to items that assess the clustering of symptoms as well as any functional impairment. (CQAIMH, 2014, paraphrased) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale' can be used to make accurate identification of "both threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder." (CQAIMH, 2014, p. 1)…
Bipolar Disorder (2014) Mayo clinic. Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20027544
Bipolar Disorder (2014) University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from: http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder
Bipolar Disorder Screening (2014) Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIHM). Retrieved from: http://www.cqaimh.org/tool_bipolar.html
Bipolar Disorder Treatment (2014) NHS. Retrieved from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bipolar-disorder/Pages/Treatment.aspx
Millon Test Summary
Counseling Test eview
What follows in this report is a summary of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III, often referred to as the MCMI-III. One of the sources (but certainly not the only one) is the creator of the test, Mr. Million himself. Four other sources covering the Millon test are covered as well. There are a number of sections to this report and they are, in order, general information about the test, a description of the test, a technical evaluation of the test, a practical evaluation of the test and a summary evaluation of the test. A conclusion will wrap up the report.
General Test Information
As noted in the introduction, the title of the test involved here is the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory III. There is a "sister" test that is very similar and is known as the Millon College Counseling Inventory, with the main…
Grove, W.M., & Vrieze, S.I. (2009). An exploration of the base rate scores of the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory -- III. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 57-67.
Millon, T. (1994, January 1). Product - Millon® Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Welcome to Pearson Assessments & Information / Clinical Assessments. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=PAg505
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
' These stressors are distinct and separate from the stressors related to understanding one's own identity and gender orientation which, if treated properly, should be reconciled without ever attacking the core 'rightness' or 'wrongness' of one's gender orientation.
This denotes, and Bryant supports this interpretation, that therapy has not only failed gender variant individuals through its application of past DSM classification but that it has been destructive to the mental health and identity reconciliation of many gender-variant individuals. Bryant "shows how critiques have been central in shaping both the diagnosis and the evaluation and treatment practices associated with it, but that these critiques have often been incorporated in ways that jettison their most important critical components. Further by focusing on adult sexual outcomes (homosexuality), a frame initially developed by the gender researchers themselves, critics have largely missed an opportunity to rethinkl menta health support for gender-variant children in terms of…
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Conrad, P. & Angell, a. (2004). Homosexuality and Remdicalization. Society, July/August 2004.
Grush, L. (2013). The DSM-5 is Here: What the controversial new changes mean for mental health care. Advocate.
318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.
An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).
An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric
Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic
With medical terms, even though they explain little, we then have a reason to implement strong institutional controls such as the use of drugs and hospitalization.
The Medicalization of Deviant ehavior
Our discussion of DSM shows us clearly that the categories of deviant behavior voted on from time to time reflect social and political conventions. Depending on the disorder, the sociopolitical role played by diagnoses is either great or small, but the application of a diagnosis is always, to a greater or lesser degree, embracing political and social values. Diagnostic labels define what limits of difference society can tolerate.
Whenever a culture decides that it will define a set of behaviors as "sick" rather than "immoral" or unwitting, it is enacting a social value that favors illness over the view that such destructive or unusual behavior is volitional. Armed with this view of behavior as illness, we can justify forced…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). (Washington, DC: Author. 2008).
Robinson K, ed. Advances in School-Based Mental Health Interventions. (Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute; 2004).
Seligman, L. Selecting effective treatments: A comprehensive guide to treating mental disorders (Rev. ed.). (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2009).
US Census Bureau. Current population survey, (October 2009).
Fisher King was a 1991 movie that starred Robin illiams and Jeff Bridges and was directed by Terry Gilliam. The movie provided a unique insight into the world of abnormal psychology. It depicted accurate per trails of a few psychological disorders and psychosis that were brought on by a single stressor for both of the leading roles as well as a plethora of disorders by lesser characters brought on by life. Neither illiams nor Bridges earned grandiose Hollywood awards for their roles and the movie itself did not rake in billions, but it does serve as a very good example of just how delicate human nature is and what can happen to each and every one of us without a moment's notice. At the time of the stressor in this movie, Bridge's character was on top of his game in the world of radio and was about to 'add a…
About.com. "Depression." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://depression.about.com/cs/brainchem101/a/brainchemistry.htm .
Quicksilver. "The Fisher King: starring Robin Williams and Jeff Bridges." Dir. Terry Gilliam. 1991. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://ipb.quicksilverscreen.com/lofiversion/index.php/t100510.html .
Schizophrenia.com. "Schizophrenia." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.schizophrenia.com/disease.htm .
There is disagreement as to whether CSB is an addiction, a psychosexual developmental disorder, an impulse control disorder, a mood disorder, or an obsessive-compulsive disorder, however most scientists dispute the idea that someone can become addicted to sex in the same way they become addicted to alcohol, thus abstinence as a treatment is viewed as an oversimplification of the problem (Compulsive).
Samantha Jones might be the first to admit that she has CSB, or not. But as long as it does not harm anyone, then "ho cares what you are just enjoy it."
Compulsive Sexual Behavior. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.uc.edu/psc/sh/SH_Compul_Sexual_Behav.htm
Quotes: Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://en.thinkexist.com/quotes/by/character/samantha_jones/
Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.hbo.com/city/cast/character/samantha_jones.shtml
Stein, Daniel J. "Sexual Addiction: An Integrated Approach." Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/51/1/123
Vukadinovic, Zoran. "Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model." The…
Compulsive Sexual Behavior. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.uc.edu/psc/sh/SH_Compul_Sexual_Behav.htm
Quotes: Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://en.thinkexist.com/quotes/by/character/samantha_jones/
Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.hbo.com/city/cast/character/samantha_jones.shtml
Stein, Daniel J. "Sexual Addiction: An Integrated Approach." Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/51/1/123
Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy
Diagnostic Statement for Nancy
Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.
DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis
The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:
(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder
296.xx Major Depressive Disorder
301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder
Antonovsky, A. And Sourani, T. (1998) Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50. No. 1 Feb 1998. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved from: http://psych.wfu.edu/furr/362/Family%20Sense%20of%20Coherence%20Scale.pdf
Connell, Cindi (2010) Multicultural Perspectives and Considerations Within Structural Family Therapy: The Premises of Structure, Subsystems and Boundaries. Rivier Academic Journal. Vol. 6. No. 2 Fall, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.rivier.edu/journal/ROAJ-Fall-2010/J461-Connelle-Multicultural-Perspectives.pdf
Fischer, J. And Cocoran, K. (1994) Measures of Clinical Practice. Social Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=y2C9YvSU53sC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Ruiz, MA (nd) Transgenerational and Structural Family Therapy, An Analysis of Both Schools. Retrieved from: http://miguelangelruiz.webs.com/Transgenerational%20and%20Structural%20Family%20Therapy.pdf
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.
Title of paper
A diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder is usually determined through the observation and evaluation of the person's own self-reported experiences. No form of testing, including laboratory tests can determine if a person has this kind of disorder. It is only through analysis of the person's behavior and communication can a psychiatrist identify the disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder tends to exhist in people who have had depression for quite some time or have had recurring depression. Although it is difficult to identify it can be determined and identified. Treatment usually involves cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Mood- Incongruent psychotic features is a term used to describe the characteristics of psychosis. The psychosis usually consists of delusions and hallucinations. They tend to be consistent with an elevated mood such as experienced in Bi-Polar disorder or in depression such as Major Depressive Disorder.
Something such as Schizophrenia is a Mood-Incongruent Disorder. Mood- Incongruent psychotic features tend…
Fink M, Taylor MA: Catatonia: A Clinician's Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2003
Fink M, Abrams R, Bailine S, et al.: Ambulatory electroconvulsive therapy. Task Force Report of the Association for Convulsive Therapy. Convulsive Ther 12:42-55, 1996
Husain M, Rush AJ, Fink M, et al.: Speed of response and remission in major depressive disorder with acute ECT: a Consortium for Research in ECT (CORE) report. J Clin Psychiatry (in press)
Kantor SJ, Glassman AH: Delusional depressions: natural history and response to treatment. Br J. Psychiatry 131:351-360, 1977
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is classified under the rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders in the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders is itself relatively new, starting only with the DSM-5, with previous editions classifying the disorder as an anxiety disorder (Sascher & Goldbeck, 2016). Unlike anxiety disorders, all disorders classified under the Trauma and Stress umbrella are differentiated by the presence of a precipitating traumatic event (McGraw-Hill Education, 2012). In other words, one of the main diagnostic criteria of PTSD is exposure to a traumatic or stressful event: such as “death, threatened death,” violence or violation: witnessed or directly experienced (National Center for PTSD, n.d.). Military veterans are of course repeatedly exposed to such traumatic events, which is why the prevalence of PTSD is relatively high among this population cohort. In…
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.
DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.
Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…
American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.
Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press
Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:
• Demographic facts
• Employment history
• Medical history
• Educational history
• Social history and • Several specific facts.
Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:
• Trauma nature and level of exposure
• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms
• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms
• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior
• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment
• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…
hile neither of his parents were substance abusers, they were also normal dogs. It is possible that Brian's abnormal nature as a dog with human qualities may leave him with underlying identity issues, however. These issues may manifest as narcissistic personality disorder in Brian. The character has a strong sense of entitlement and feels superior to others. Yet his outcomes are seldom successful and this may in fact reinforce Brian's underlying feelings of inferiority. The fact that he is superior to other dogs but as a dog is inferior to humans is a potential root cause of narcissism but there is insufficient evidence for a full diagnosis.
Brian's behavior patterns represent abnormality in that he at times finds his drinking becoming an obstacle to achieving his goals, and because his drinking is a mechanism by which to medicate his underlying issues. At no point does the drinking actually help him…
DSM-IV: Narcissistic personality disorder. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/personality/narcissism.html
DSM-IV: Substance abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/substance/substanceabuse.html
DSM-IV: Substance dependence. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/substance/substancedependence.html
psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.
Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.
hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…
Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.
Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)
Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
Discussion -- Textbook approach gives a great deal of theory; value of the article is in taking the material and applying it to situations that are relevant to one's current profession and/or understanding different approaches to conflict.
Review -- the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) - the MCMI is a psychological assessment tool that was written to provide information on psychopathology including specifics outlined in the DSM-IV. It is intended for adults over 18 who have at least an 8th grade reading level and who are seeking mental health services. The test was actually developed and standardizes on clinical populations in psychiatric hospitals or individuals with current existing mental health issues. The authors are quite specific about it not being used with the general population or with adolescents, as values will likely not be appropriate for extrapolation (Pearson, 2012).
History -- Published in 1977 by Theodore Millon based on his…
Million, T., et.al. (2006). MCMI-III Manual. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.
Pearson Educational Services. (2012). The Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.
Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/pai/ca/research/resources/faqs/MCMI-III_FAQs
Widiger, T., et.al. (1985). The MCMI and DSM-III. Journal of Personality Assessment.
antisocial personality disorder (APD) as displayed by serial killer Belle Gunness. The essay discusses her behaviors with reference to the DSM IV criteria and reviews theoretical perspectives on APD.
Belle Gunness, who immigrated to the U.S. In 1881, was born Brynhild Paulsdatter Strseth in November 1859 in Selbu, Norway. Following her immigration, a series of suspicious fires and deaths resulting in insurance awards ensued. Shortly after marrying Mads Sorenson in 1884, the couple's store and home mysteriously burned down, with them claiming the insurance money for both. Sorenson died soon after of heart failure on the very day that his two life insurance policies overlapped, and Belle received about $8,000 from his life insurance. Even though his family demanded an inquiry, no charges were filed, nor were the couple's two children accounted for. They were believed to have been poisoned in infancy for the insurance money as well (A+E Networks,…
A+E Networks. (2011). Belle Gunness biography. Retrieved December 21, 2011 from: http://www.biography.com/people/belle-gunness-235416
BehaveNet. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved December 21, 2011 from: http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/antisocialpd.htm
Black, D. (2006). What Causes Antisocial Personality Disorder? Psych Central. Retrieved December 21, 2011, from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/what-causes-antisocial-personality-disorder/
Gabbard, G.O. (2004, January 02). Antisocial personality disorder: When is it treatable? Psychiatric News, 39(1), 25. Retrieved December 21, 2011, from: http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsarticle.aspx?articleid=107089
Frank seemed to consider that there might be a problem and that change might be necessary. So, beginning treatment should be focus on emphasizing awareness and environmental reevaluation.
A combination of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) is the recommended treatment.
Frank, a 33-year-old African-American man, came to the caseworker of record after relating negatively to an initial caseworker. His came for treatment because he and his attorney hoped it would favorably influence the judge who would consider the case stemming from Frank's shooting his wife, who had startled him out of a restless sleep. Frank claimed that his alcohol use was not relevant. The first caseworker's probing about alcohol use prompted Frank's referral to the caseworker of record.
The caseworker established rapport early in the first session by remarking on Frank's cowboy boots -- which were distinctive in contrast to his plain clothing. When asked about any…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: Author.
Banarjee, S., Clancy, C., & Crome, I. (2002) Co-existing Problems of Mental Disorder and Substance Misuse (dual diagnosis). Retrieved from http://www.web.archive.org/web/20040309142330/www.rcpsych/
Hanson, M. & El-Bassel, N. (2004). Motivating substance-abusing clients through the helping process. In S.L.A. Straussner (Ed.), Clinical Work with Substance-Abusing Clients (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Schizophrenia can begin as early as infancy but more often starts during adolescence or early adulthood (Prinel, 2006, 449). It is communicated genetically but is also aggravated by environmental factors, such as stress (Kring, et al., 2006). elatives of patients with schizophrenia are more predisposed to the disorder (Ibid). Further, they may not only have the same genes but may also share the same experiences (Ibid). Studies have shown that while schizophrenia may only affect 1% of the population, the incidence of inheriting this disorder rises to 10% among close biological relatives (i.e., in a parent, a child or a sibling) (Prinel, 2006, 450).
However, the development of schizophrenia is not attributed merely to genetic factors. Even though a person may be predisposed to the disorder, the environment in which he lives in plays a defining role in the activation of the disorder (Prinel, 2006). Family related factors, such as…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition). Washington DC: Author
Konstantareas, M., & Hewitt, T. (2001, February). Autistic Disorder and Schizophrenia: Diagnostic Overlaps. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 19-28. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal
Psychology (10th Edition). Chapter11 (pp. 349- 385). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Scientists need to do much more research in the area of female alcohol abuse, and sounder methods of treating this debilitating disease need to be developed. Society treats women alcoholics differently from men - there is still a stigma that alcoholic women are weak, unfit for work or family, and even more sexually active. Until this stigma is removed, many women will not seek out treatment, and who knows how many will die as a result. Women alcoholics still need research, but they also need understanding and support to treat and conquer their disease.
Carter, C.S. (1997). Ladies don't: A historical perspective on attitudes toward alcoholic women. Affilia; 12; 471-485.
Editors. (1995). Diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 30 PH 359.
Grant, B.F.; Dawson, D.A.; Stinson, F.S.; Chou, S.P.; Dufour, M.C.; and Pickering, .P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends…
Carter, C.S. (1997). Ladies don't: A historical perspective on attitudes toward alcoholic women. Affilia; 12; 471-485.
Editors. (1995). Diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 30 PH 359.
Grant, B.F.; Dawson, D.A.; Stinson, F.S.; Chou, S.P.; Dufour, M.C.; and Pickering, R.P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991-1992 and 2001-2002. Drug Alcohol Depend, 74(3):223-34.
Hanson, D.J. (2007). Puritans to prohibition. Retrieved from the State University of New York Web site: http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/PuritansToProhibition.html16 June 2007.
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…
Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder - gamma-knife
Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.
Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf
Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632. http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
Greiving Case Study
Grief is a powerful, and somewhat self-regulating condition which we face having experiences a traumatic event. The wonders of our human ody respond with pre-programmed efficiency in order to help us adjust to the reality of the new situation. In the face of a traumatic occurrence, when our emotional or mental reaction may e to shut down, or run and hide, the grieving response gives a person the needed oundaries in which they can continue to function. However, some time after the events have past into the distance, the need exists for the person to process through the grief. Only y processing the grief can the person reenter a healthy relationship with the daily responsiilities of life, and healthy relationships with others in their life.
Charley's current situation in life is a function of poor decisions in his adult life. However, these decisions are also a response…
Lindemann, Erich. (1994) "Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief." In Essential Papers on Object Loss. New York: New York UP, 1994.
Major Depressive Episode. (2004) Bravenet clinical Capsule. Accessed 18 Feb 2004. Available from: http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/mjrdepep.htm
Alcorn Jr., M. (2001, Spet. 22) Ideological Death and Grief in the Classroom: Mourning as a Prerequisite to Learning. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society/
Manveet, K. (2002, June 4) Children and grief New Straits Times;
.....individual's level of sexual identity development relates to their level of job satisfaction depends on numerous variables -- such as the confidence with which one identifies their sexuality, the degree to which that identity is accepted among peers, and the extent to which that identity places one as a minority. As the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n.d.) indicates, "Minorities also tend to be at a disadvantage in terms of job rewards, which no doubt has an impact on their job satisfaction as well as career advancement in the long run" (p. 62). The issue therefore is one of whether the individual's sexual identity is a cause of tension or stress both for the individual and for colleagues. To the extent that it is an issue, the individual's job satisfaction is likely to be comparably impacted.
The functions of heterosexual privilege are 1) to enable heterosexuals to maintain a high…
Dawn's presenting problems, such as a sleep-related disorder and anxiety symptoms, it is possible that she may be diagnosed with a mild depression, or to use the DSM-V code, F32.0 Major depressive disorder, single episode, mild. Measured on the Ham-D scale of depression, Dawn's score will likely fall between 9-12 (Weissman, Markovitz & Klerman, 2007). However, monitoring Dawn over time will be necessary to see if the depression is recurrent.
It is unclear when her "feeling stressed" about her grades began, exactly, or when her sleep patterns started to be disrupted. Therefore, if a DSM-V diagnosis is necessary, the F32.0 diagnosis is the most sensible for now. As Hayes, Pistorello & Levin (2012) also point out, the DSM diagnoses are limited in applicability and accuracy. They have "failed to give rise to functional diagnostic entities, which is a major goal of syndromal diagnosis," (p. 976). The process of diagnosis also…
A secondary psychological problem that should be addressed is the man's evident agoraphobia, or fear of spending time in public or in wide, open spaces. Although this is not uncommon with individuals suffering panic disorders, special treatment as part of the therapeutic process might be valuable. The patient also has a history of previous mental disorders, including depression that should be monitored. Social isolation brought forth by panic and agoraphobia combined with depression could pose a serious risk to his personal safety, should the symptoms worsen. This is another reason that medication seemed to be the most advisable choice.
Identifying panic attacks as severely incapacitating the man's life, rather than occurring as a 'one-time' incident attached to a physical incident was only determined through intense but empathetic probing. Individuals may often misidentify the symptoms of a heart attack and feel frightened of what is mere indigestion. The more severe psychological…
This term seems to have been coined in the 1990s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional. The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse." (Khan, 2007) Kahn additionally relates that: "Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…
Hauge, Marny R. And Gentile, Douglas a. (2003) Video game addiction among adolescents: associations with academic performance and aggression - Presented at Society for research in child development conference, April 2 -- 3 Tampa Florida.
Special Report: Video Game Addiction (2005) New Orleans WDSU.com. 24 Feb 2005. Online available at http://www.wdsu.com/news/4160216/detail.html .
Khan, Mohamed K. (2007) Emotional and Behavioral Effects, Including Addictive Potential, of Video Games. Report of the Council on Science and Public Health. CSAPH Report 12-a-07
Computer Games Addiction (2005) National Institute on Media and the Family. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml
Psychological Testing and Assessment
There is a distinct relationship between psychological testing and assessment in conjunction with the DSM-IV. First, testing provides a systematic means of assessments that provide insight into the potential mental complications of a patient. Further, psychological testing provides a means of flexible evaluation which can better conform to the changing needs of the public. By providing flexibility in its approach to assessment, psychological testing can better adapt to changing and varying conditions within the mental health profession. Much like the internet, new health issues arise yearly with profound implications for the general public. Psychological testing and assessment attempts to abate or diminish the influence of these changing dynamics on the health profession and the community at large.
What is case history data?
The American Heritage Medical Dictionary defines case history data as, "A detailed account of the facts affecting the development or condition of a person…
1) "Clinical Interview (psychology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. .
2) "Psychological Report Format." Untitled 1. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. .
Antwone Fisher Story
Antwone Fisher was a young black man with a disruptive family history. His emotional development was severely affected as he matured, which created situations and difficult choices for the first 25 years of his life. The middle child in a family of foster children, Antwone never knew his father, and was abandoned by his mother into the foster care system at the age of two. At the time he was given to the 'system' his mother was a prostitute, or at least a bar made who rarely stayed in an employed status for a long period of time. It could be assumed that she never returned for her first born son, to retrieve him from the foster care system because of her own unstable living conditions. As a result, Antwone became part of a religious, but abusive foster family where he endured the degradation of beatings, threats,…
Mr. H case study
What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.
Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…
Alzheimer's disease: Treatment and drugs. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:
Diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. (2013). BehaveNet. Retrieved from:
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
Eliza, a patient aged eighteen, is enrolled at the City University and resides in a dorm with friends. The patient is currently seeking treatment for stress/anxiety and low self-image (Eliza Intake Document Provided by Customer). Eliza has not indicated any life stressors. Her father, Burt, drives a truck for a living, whereas her mom, Joan, is an elementary school secretary. While the father-daughter relationship appears to be quite strong, Eliza appears to have issues that need working on, when it comes to her relationship with her mother. As of now, Eliza is not taking any mental health medication.
Psychosocial assessment forms a key component of all nursing evaluation, as it aids nursing professionals by informing the disorder management and patient care plan. Individuals usually display diverse kinds of surgical or medical issues. Further, social or psychological aspects might impact their adherence to therapy and their recovery (Conducting…
Jen is a 19-year-old female of mixed ethnic background. When asked what her therapeutic goals are, Jen states that she wants to "get over" the physical abuse she was subjected to her from her mother's ex-husband (her stepfather). In the third therapy session with Jen, she abruptly claims that she may not be continuing with therapy because she is just "therapist shopping."
Also in this session, Jen mentioned for the first time that she works as an exotic dancer. She asks with a belligerent tone, "You don't have a problem with that, do you?" Even though there was no response, Jen quickly defends herself, saying, "I love my work. I make so much money. There is nothing else I can do to make this much money. All my friends work harder than I do but they make less than me! I mean, I not only pull in what I make…
Acceptance and Commitment Theory
It largely appears as though Jacob is experiencing signs of depression. There are a number of telltale signs which point to this assessment. One of these signs is he has recently experienced a life-altering event with the loss of his business. Such a loss is especially devastating for this individual because it was his sole source of income, which lends a degree of pragmatism to the sort of anxiety which can rapidly lead to depression (Cadigan and Skinner, 2015, p.293). This notion is compounded by the reality that he seems somewhat unilateral in his interests, claiming his former business was his sole hobby. As such, it appears he feels he has nothing else to turn to in such a time, which might heighten any feelings of depression. It is important to realize such perceptions on his part are likely aggravated by the frustration of being in…