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liability during private secondary student excursions away from the campus and classrooms. The writer examines the many issues surrounding the need for such excursions and how possible liability is impacting such excursions and the professors' willingness to have them. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Students spend many years preparing for their secondary education and arrive at university anticipating a lifetime of experiences in the next four to six years. Higher education is more than sitting in a classroom and taking notes and it is more than passing a midterm and a final. University learning is supposed to stretch and expand the mind in the direction of higher level thinking skills, thereby preparing the student to think and create once he or she gets out into the world. One of the things that professors have used to enhance the quality of learning for university students is the…
PARTNERSHIP WITH PARENTS http://www.pgrnet.org.uk/information/backread.htm
Excursions Supervision Australian Teachers and the Law, Tronc K & Sleigh D, 1989
Lowe, C. (1996). The school governor's legal guide. Kingston upon Thames: Croner.
Lowe, C. (1997) Teacher's rights, duties and responsibilities. Kingston upon Thames: Croner House
In addition the effect of bill has changed the documentation awarded through the state as of a certificate toward a license and authorizes a doctor to pass on duties to a PA with the purpose of managing physician's scope of performance however Another effect of bill has enabled Indiana's doctor assistants to widen their area of the health care services and also provided an innovative average of patient care (Stephanie, Matlock (27 April, 2007). Health care bills gives right to patient to know what health care should be known by the plan as well as several limits on care, kinds of health care be not enclosed, any treatment diagram required to endorse in advance. Yearly planning about on disburse to physician and health providers, file a complaint regarding any, disagreement between patient and the plan, and also procedure to make complaint, allowance to access emergency room twenty four hours a…
American-Speech Language Hearing Association. (2007) Characteristics of Licensure Law. Retrieved on November 29, 2007 from www.asha.org
New York State. (April 2007) Managed Care Bill of Rights. Retrieved on November 29, 2007 from www.health.state.ny.us
Federal Trade Commission. (October 21, 2002) FTC staff opposes Ohio Bill to Allow Physician Collective Bargaining. Retrieved on November 29, 2007 at http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2002/10/physicians.shtm
Girardin, Pierre. Internet Health Services: A Case Study. Retrieved on November 29, 2007 from https://www.isoc.org/inet96/proceedings/h5/h5_2.htm
Duty to Warn and Protect
The situation I have chosen assumes a subject of twenty years old who has attempted to commit suicide because his parents passed away in an accident recently. The subject has been under severe depression due to a string of traumatic experiences in his life. He feels despondent and is unaware of what to do. He feels that he is living without a purpose in this life and assumes himself as being unwanted and unaware. He has just lost the two people who according to him were the only two people who actually loved him and cared for him. He tried to kill himself recently by having sleeping pills. After being rushed to the hospital and having been saved, he is now sitting in front of me as my client waiting to be counseled.
Legal, ethical, and clinical issues of being a counselor
Schoener, G.R. (2009). A High Risk Situation: The Suicidal Client. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from Walkin.Org: http://www.walkin.org/sites/default/files/SuicidalClient_0.pdf
Schwartz, R.C., & Rogers, J.R. (2004). Suicide Assessment and Evaluation strategies: a primer for counselling psychologists. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 89-97.
White, J. (2003, February). Suicide-Related Research in Canada: A Descriptive Overview. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from Centre for Suicide Prevention: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/mh-sm/suicide-research/pdf/suicide_research_e.pdf
There are, of course, many individuals besides nurses that are essential parts of medical teams when it comes to providing effective and efficient care to patients. General practitioners (GPs) are primarily tasked with determining diagnoses and developing treatment plans for their patients, and with coordinating the efforts of the rest of the medical team (Thomas & Corney 1993). Specialists such as dieticians, diabetes educators, and physicians that practice in highly specialized fields all have their own niches that most patients require service in at some point in their lives. Nurses can support all of these roles without assuming them themselves.
From a nursing perspective, teamwork in the provision of medical services and overall patient care is heavily predicated upon mutual respect amongst the team members and acknowledgement of the competencies and skills brought to the group by each team member (Thomas & Corney 1993). Teams function most effectively when the…
ANMC. (2006). "National competency standards for the registered nurse."
Goliath. (2007). "Don't neglect the nurse's duty of care: Nurses serve as advocates for their patients." Accessed 21 October 2010. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-7218514/Don-t-neglect-the-nurse.html
Thomas, R. & Corney, R. (1993). "Teamwork in primary care: The practice nurse perspective." Journal of interprofesssional care 7(1), pp. 47-55. Accessed 21 October 2010. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13561829309014958?journalCode=jic
In other cases, preserving confidentiality or entrusting the doctor with treatment-related decisions may be in the best interest of the patient and his or her family or community. Health care workers should carefully weigh consequences, in light of deontological ethics and institutional regulations.
Health care professionals working with patients with HIV / AIDS must be careful to temper consequentialism with deontology, to balance the psychological needs of the patient for confidentiality and autonomy with the practical needs of public health; or to balance the physical needs of a patient with HIV / AIDS with medical paternalism. Furthermore, discrimination against patients with HIV / AIDS is commonplace and often occurs inadvertently. Health care workers are obliged to confront their own biases regarding HIV / AIDS because to withhold adequate treatment is to violate a series of ethical principles including those based on deontology and on utilitarianism. For example, a health care…
Johnston, Carolyn and Slowther, Anne. "Patient Information and Confidentiality." UK Clinical Ethics Network. Sept 2003. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.ethox.org.uk/Ethics/econfidential.htm
Hamblin, Julie. "People Living with HIV: The Law, Ethics, and Discrimination." UNDP Issue Paper No. 4. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.undp.org/hiv/publications/issues/english/issue04e.htm
Ruddick, William. "Medical Ethics." Encyclopedia of Ethics. Lawrence and Charlotte Becker, Eds. 2nd edition. Garland, 1998. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/ruddick/papers/medethics.html
Irrespective of whether or not AC Apartments satisfied its duty of reasonable care with respect to the safety of its tenants, the harm for which liability is claimed must relate directly to any failure to satisfy that standard. More particularly, to establish liability, the plaintiff must also establish that any negligence of AC in failing to exercise reasonable care was the proximate cause of the harm that resulted (Freidman 2005).
For example, had the apartment complex manager previously been sentenced for rape as a juvenile, even a thorough criminal background check performed by AC Apartments would have failed to disclose that information, through no fault of AC Apartments. A more interesting factual situation arises if AC failed to satisfy its duty of care owed to its tenants by neglecting to perform any pre-employment criminal background check of the manager but where the only relevant information available would have required…
Feliu, a., Johnson, W. (2002) Negligence in Employment Law. Washington, DC: BNF, Inc.
Friedman, L. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies
Schmalleger, F. (1997) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
Third Party Patient
The Doctrine of Apparent Agency
June, a 34-year-old divorced woman diagnosed with severe anorexia, is hospitalized. Her doctors feel she may need to be placed on a feeding tube soon to save her life. Initially June agreed to the feeding tube. However, in the evening (before the tube has been placed), she became combative, disoriented, and refused to have the feeding tube placed. Her mother and father insisted that the feeding tube be inserted despite her refusal to allow it. Her ex-husband wishes to uphold June's decision. The hospital administrators seek risk management for legal counsel.
Explain how the Patient Bill of ights applies to this situation.
The Patient Bill of ights articulates U.S. federal law on the doctor-patient relationship, and is consistent with laws on informed consent where licensed professional practice respective to patient well being is in order. Confidentiality of patient record is perhaps…
Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.
Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Patient Bill of Rights (2010). NIH. Retrieved from: http://www.cc.nih.gov/participate/patientinfo/legal/bill_of_rights.shtml
How is shared decision-making different from informed consent? (2010) American Cancer Society. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/FindingandPayingforTreatment/UnderstandingFinancialandLegalMatters/InformedConsent/informed-consent-shared-decision-making
The government should provide health care, because the economic characteristics of health care make it ripe for abuse in a market environment. Government should provide as a service to its population those goods that, for one reason or another, are open for abuse in a normal market economy. Normally, the main condition is natural monopoly, which makes the case for government involvement in commodities like electricity, water, or policing. Health care is not a natural monopoly in that there can reasonably be a number of different providers, but it has other characteristics that make it a strong candidate for government intervention.
In even the freest capitalist economies, there are public goods that the government provides. The government provision of certain services is accepted by populations because the alternative -- total anarchy -- results is a severely degraded quality of life. No government services at all is a failed…
Besley and Gouveia write about different modes of health care provision. They discuss in particular some of the cost drivers in the American system, and evaluate some other systems in order to come to some conclusions about what other options exist. They note that insurance is a key issue for a private health care system, and because of this most countries opt for public health care systems, typically with mandatory insurance.
Gupta and Davoodi seek to understand how corruption affects the provision of government services, including health care. Unfortunately, their analysis has significant bias, as they begin with the assumption that government-run programs are inherently corrupt.
Transparency International is an organization that measures the level of government corruption in all the countries of the world. This source was required to examine the claims of Gupta and Davoodi. It was found that in the West there is very little government corruption. While the U.S. has more than most Western nations, it remains a spurious claim on the part of Gupta and Davoodi that corruption is inherent in government programs. Further, the line between corruption (accepting payment in return for favors) and capitalism (accepting payment to provide a service) is not explored.
Lloyd and Sreedhar wrote about Hobbes' moral and political philosophy. Hobbes' seminal discussion about the state of nature is relevant because societies have evolved different forms of governance specifically to avoid the state of nature; an argument that government should not be involved in health care must consider the implications of having such a weak government -- these range from the state of nature to poor health outcomes and quality of life measures.
Duty and public notice in the UK, PLC
The audited financial statement prepared by Bumble & Co, on behalf of Horizon PLC 'made public' the performance of the corporation: reporting earnings of £10 million. Where published, shareholders and other stakeholders may 'assume' official and final writing according to the Statute of Frauds, which stipulates that public notice of the company's profit and loss constitutes reliability to the shareholders and other stakeholders, and assumes that those parties are in agreement to those activities. Analysis of Horizon, Plc v. Bumble & Co. will be subject to decision based on UK laws on Misrepresentation and unfair commercial practices under the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC ("UCPD") which came into force 26 May 2008. The 2008 law on misrepresentation is preceded by the UK Misrepresentation Act of 1967 (OPSI, 1991).
Preface to the discussion is what rule elements are not at play…
Beale, H., Fauvarque-Cosson, B. And Rutgers, J. et al., 2010. Contract Law (Ius Commune Casebooks for the Common Law of Europe). Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Gullifer, L. And Payne, J., 2010. Intermediated Securities: Legal Problems and Practical Issues. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Misrepresentation Act of 1967, 1991. UK Office of Public Sector Information. Available At: http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?&parentActiveTextDocId=1185735&ActiveTextDocId=1185735
Misrepresentation and unfair commercial practices, 2008. Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC ("UCPD"): The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations. Scottish Law Commission. Available at: http://www.scotlawcom.gov.uk/law-reform-projects/joint-projects/misrepresentation-and-unfair-commercial-practices/
goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.
Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…
Katz, Laura L. And Marshall B. Paul. When a Physician May Refuse to Treat a Patient. Physician's News Digest, 2000. http://www.physiciansnews.com/law.202.html
Levin, Aaron. Doctors Willing But Not Ready to Treat Deadly Bio-terror Agents. Health Behavior News Service: Center for the Advancement of Health, 2003. http://www.cfah.org/ubns/news/bioterror09-17-03.cfm
Murray, Terry. Health Care Staff Have a Duty to Treat. The Medical Post: Rogers Media, 2003. http://www.medicalpost.com/mpcontent/article.jsp.jsessionid=NJCJNDCEAGHH?content=20020515_09
Schulman, David I. The Dentist, HIV and the Law: Duty to Treat, Need to Understand. Dental Treatment Consideration, 2000. http://www.hivdent.org/dtcblaa082001.htm
Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).
Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret
The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…
Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.
Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.
Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
The emphasis is on normal, everyday activities provided for residents. According to the authors, however, little research has been conducted to investigate the actual effect of such activities and settings upon residents. The assumption is that such settings have a better effect that traditional institutions, but there is little empirical research to support this.
Hence, Verbeek et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare small-scale living with regular care in nursing homes in the Netherlands. Interestingly, they found no significant difference between the quality of life experienced by residents in traditional institutional settings and those in small-scale living facilities. Furthermore, there was also no significant difference in the job satisfaction levels of nursing staff between both types of institution was found. Another important aspect, namely neuropsychiatric symptoms and agitation were also significantly similar for both institution types. According to the authors, a difference was found in the satisfaction level of…
Gaugler, J.E. (2005, Mar.). Family Involvement in Residential Long-Term Care: A Synthesis and Critical Review. Aging and Mental health, Iss. 9, vol. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2247412/
Lyness, J.M., Yu, Q., Tang, W., Tu, X., and Conwell, Y. (2009, Dec.). Risks for Depression Onset in Primary Care Elderly Patients: Potential Targets for Preventive Interventions. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982671/
Simonazzi, a. (2009, Jun). Home care and cash transfers. Effects on the elderly care-female employment trade-off. Retrieved from: http://www.aiel.it/bacheca/SASSARI/papers/simonazzi.pdf
Verbeek, H., Zwakhalen, S.M.G., Van Rossum, E., Ambergen, T, Kempen, G.I.J.M., and Hamers, J.P.H. (2010, Nov.). Dementia Care Redesigned: Effects of Small-Scale Living Facilities on Residents, their Family Caregivers, and Staff. American Medical directors Association. Retrieved from: http://www.unimaas.nl/hcns/websiteVW/publications/Publication%20scans/Verbeek.%20Dementia%20care%20redesigned.pdf
Naturally, there is also some overlap because some legal duties (such as the duty not to sell or serve spoiled food) would also be ethical duties irrespective of legal issues. Others, (such as specific refrigerator temperature requirements) would not necessarily also correspond to ethical duties if the purpose of the law (i.e. avoiding food spoilage) could be accomplished even at slightly higher temperatures. In theory, organizations have no ethical duty not to discriminate by race (etc.) unless those duties are defined by law. However, a very strong argument could be made that there is indeed an ethical duty to treat people equally even without any such laws specifically mandating it.
Legal and Ethical Duties of Hospitals
Hospitals have both extensive statutory and ethical duties that go far beyond those of less essential or less important services such as grocery stores and restaurants (Judson & Hicks, 2003). Hospitals (and all healthcare…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Judson, K, and Hicks, S. (2003). Law & Ethics for Medical Careers. New York:
Ethical Scenario: Skills as a Nurse Practioner
Nurses and other health care suppliers are the ones that are continuously confronted to make ethical choices in regards to things like life and death matters in giving out care to individuals, communities and families. To be pertinent and ethical, these choices need to be measured in the larger context of personal, societal, cultural and professional values and ethical ideologies. As scientific and medical technology advance, persons and society look at dilemmas and hard ethical choices. Nurses, as part of society and as frontline health care specialists, day-to-day face ethical dilemmas connected to life and death and fairness in health care. With that said, this paper examines the scenario of patient and nurse utilizing ethical principles.
As a nurse, the first thing to do is to understand that an unintended pregnancy further confuses the already confusing physical and mental changes of teens. Adolescents…
Begley A.M., 2. (2008). Truth-telling, honesty and compassion: a virtue-based exploration of a dilemma in practice. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 8, 336-341.
Lawlor, A. (2015, July 29). Morning-after pill poses moral dilemma for some MDs. Retrieved from http://www.consciencelaws.org/background/procedures/birth008.aspx
Marsh, B. (2015, July 29). Nurses' fear for morning-after pill. Retrieved from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-179092/Nurses-fear-morning-pill.html
RN, M.S. (2013). The Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Experiences. LWW; 1 edition.
Caring, Professional Identity, and Professional Organizations
Nursing remains one of the careers that demand uncompromised levels of both ethical and professional ethics. The fundamental values that govern nursing include social justice, integrity, uprightness, selflessness, self-governance, and human dignity. These fundamental ethics are constant across the world, and they are aimed at maintaining a high level of humanity while practicing. Definition of different core values may vary between different cultures, religions, or countries. Therefore, it is essential to study the community of interest to apply the ethics that are considered best.
Explanation of caring in nursing
The act of caring happens every time a patient seeks the services of nursing. Patients are full of expectation that a nurse is there to support them through the healing process, and any disappointment usually causes heartbreak. Nursing is an essential element of healing, and it should always occur before curing since it contributes…
Blasdell, N. D. (2017). The meaning of caring in nursing practice. Int J Nurs Clin Pract, 4(238), 2.
Maginnis, C. (2018). A discussion of professional identity development in nursing students. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice| Vol, 6(1).
Matthews, J. (2012). Role of professional organizations in advocating for the nursing profession. Online J Issues Nurs, 17(3).
Poorchangizi, B., Borhani, F., Abbaszadeh, A., Mirzaee, M., & Farokhzadian, J. (2019). The importance of professional values from nursing students\\\\' perspective. BMC nursing, 18(1), 26.
Vance, T. (2003). Caring and the professional practice of nursing. RN Journal.
Here, criminal law is of course preemptive in all jurisdictions, yet enforcement is restricted to agencies dedicated to law enforcement investigation and apprehension of individuals.
In spite of billions of dollars spent on homeland security, in the aftermath of Katrina pediatric-specific preparations continue to lag behind. Lack of disaster readiness for hospitalized children and for those undergoing reunification process sheds light on the disjuncture of public administration duty to rescue of minors; regardless of state intervention as 'duty' in all other areas of their lives (i.e. foster care). Children's advocates argue that,
"federal and state policy makers should dedicate research funding for the development of redundant strategies for implementation in states to assure timely reunification of infants, toddlers, and children and with their correct parents and caregivers" (Dolan and Krug, 64).
Articulation of those terms and the implications of not doing so are inflected in a broader discussion that is…
Dolan, M.A. And Krug, S.E. Pediatric Disaster Preparedness in the Wake of Katrina: Lessons to be Learned. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Elsvier, 2006, 59-66.
Handfield, R. In the Wake of Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned through the Lens of Supply Chain Disruptions - Part 1. Supply Chain Management 08 Sept 2005.
Implementation of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act And Other Organizational Changes. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2006. Web.
Laws and Regulations. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2010. Web.
In actuality, through helping the needy, we actually help ourselves and the well-being of our society in a variety of ways. By giving a poor person an opportunity or assistance to avoid homelessness, that person can oftentimes begin the ascent out of poverty and in the long-term, eventually, become a productive, tax-paying consumer, which then actually becomes a contributor to the overall economic welfare of society as opposed to an economic drain. As noted by Andrea B. Schleshinger of the all Street Journal, "It is a rare public policy initiative that promotes fairness and social justice and, at the same time, promotes productivity in the economy and in society at large. Investing in disadvantaged young children is such a policy" (Schleshinger). The United States, indeed, has several policy interests to promote by helping the poor.
Another critical policy reason to help the poor is that an investment in helping the…
Carrol, Charles. "On Morality." Letter to James McHenry. 4 Nov. 1800. MS.
Dornhoff, Prof. William. "Wealth, Income, and Power in America." Who Rules America? (2005). University of California at Santa Cruz. Web.
Phillips, Peter (2006). Censored 2007:the Top 25 Censored Stories. Seven Stories Press. P. 207.
Schlesinger, Andrea B. "The Wall Street Journal Advocates for Helping Poor Children." The Wall Street Journal [New York] 10 Jan. 2006. Print.
Palese et al. (2011). According to Wood & Haber (2014) " the critique is process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice." Using the text's understanding of this examination this essay will explore the article and examine it for practical use and valid argument.
The problem that this research is premised upon is the idea that nurse's caring has gone mostly under examined in relation to patient's view of quality of care. The role of caring within the nursing profession is described as the factor which inspired this research. The variables within this examination are the patients' satisfaction measured against the practice of caring executed by nurses in their professional duties.
This problem is clearly identified and can be empirically tested as the article revealed in its conclusions. To help lessen the distortion of the ideas and values…
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Palese, A., et al. (2011). Surgical patient satisfaction as an outcome of nurses' caring behaviors: A descriptive and correlational study in six European countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 341-350.
Caring for the Old
The End of Life Care
End of life care refers to the total care of a person that has an advanced illness that is incurable and does not equate with death. This end of life care can last for a number of weeks, months or even years depending on the state an individual is.it is usually the care which helps those that have advanced, progressive and illnesses that can not be cured to live life as well as possible until they meet their death. End of life care makes it possible for the patient and their family to get supportive and palliative care needs identified and met throughout the last phase when they are living and into the bereavement period. Supportive care is care which helps a patient and the family to cope with the condition and the treatment of that condition right from the pre-diagnosis…
Boswell, Kahana & Worth-anderson, 2006). Spirituality and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Stress Counter-balancing Effects on the Well-being of Older Adults. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.case.edu/artsci/soci/documents/Spiritualityandhealthylifestylebehaviors.pdf
U.S. Department of State, (2012).Legal & Financial Issues In Caregiving for Older Adults. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.state.gov/m/dghr/flo/142266.htm
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), (2014). Caregiving Considerations. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/older-adults/caregiving-considerations
The Joanna Briggs Institute, (2011). Age-friendly nursing interventions in the management of older people in emergency departments. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewSourceFile.aspx?0=7127
Role Boundaries in Care ork
Role boundaries are a critical component in a health care setting. Much of this is a response to how the system is organized. The health care industry is composed of many different roles that specialize in different areas and expertise. Therefore, the individuals in the system must honor their role boundaries to ensure that the collective efforts of the individuals in the system can work together to provide high levels of patient care. The care experienced by Anwar Malik in hospital was defined by the collective effort that each individual gave to Anwar. Each team member has a range of tasks that can be organized with various role boundaries. If any of the members violate their roles, then this can lead to the team's effort not being effective and could also compromise the level of care provided to the patient.
Diabetic Anwar Malik was admitted…
Caplan, A., McCartney, D., & Sisti, D. (2004). Health, Disease, and Illness. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
Hewa, S., & Hetherington, R. (1995). Specalist without Spirit. Theoretical Medicine, 129-139.
Medi Lexicon. (N.d.). Definition: 'Biomedical Model'. Retrieved from Medi Lexicon: http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=55643
The Open University. (n.d.). K101 Block 1. Faculty of Health & Social Care.
The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential
Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF
Prepare Your Facility…
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
Medical Care Services
The current delivery of health care services represents one of the most important subjects for discussion both in the Obama Administration as well as the epublican one and the Administrations that preceded the Bush one. egardless of political color, it must be pointed out that the health care system in the United States does not only depend on the ideological orientation, but also on the people and their own beliefs in terms of human action and interaction. It is a clear fact that "Ten years ago, the U.S. healthcare system was declared "broken," and it has not improved. Fixes promised by managed care have not materialized. Premiums are rising. Hassles for patients and physicians abound. Nearly 45 million Americans are uninsured." (Garson, 2000)
One of the most severe problems facing the health care system in the United States is the discussion that is being held between those…
Garson, Arthur. "Current Perspective. The U.S. Healthcare System 2010. Problems, Principles, and Potential Solutions" 2000. Available at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/16/2015.full#sec-7
ImpediMed. "Pre-emptive vs. Reactive Models of Care: Pre-emptive Care Model Prospectively Managing Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Patients" 2012. Available at http://www.impedimed.com/knowledge-center/health-insurance-providers/pre-emptive-versus-reactive-models-of-care.htm
Yale School of Medicine. "The PA Profession." 2013. Available at http://medicine.yale.edu/pa/profession/index.aspx
Innovative Nursing Care Delivery Models a.This website detailed profiles 24 successful innovative nursing care delivery models. These profiles developed part a research project conducted Health Workforce Solutions LLC (HWS) funded obert Wood Johnson Foundation (WJF).
Innovative nursing care model: The Care Transitions Intervention
Innovative nursing care model
I chose the Care Transitions Intervention Model on which to focus because of the increasing importance of geriatric care in the field of nursing. Although my organization serves the needs of persons of all ages, elderly patients are an increasingly large proportion of the patient base. The Model stresses the need for the empowerment and self-care even of patients with high-risk conditions. The Care Transitions Intervention Model allows elderly patients the maximum amount of mobility and autonomy possible given the limits of the patient's condition and enables them to stay in a home setting as long as possible. As its name suggests, the…
Care Transitions Intervention. (2013). Innovative Care Models. Retrieved:
Kurt Lewin Change Model. (2013). Change Management Coach. Retrieved:
health care debate that has been going in the United States. It discusses the Obama Care Act and how it impacts the society. Functionalist perspectives and theories are utilized in analyzing the situation and what outcomes are expected. The major themes and concepts of the functionalist theory are discussed in detail.
The Health Care reform proposed by the Obama Administration has long been the area of debate in America and in countries all over the world. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act go on to cut down the number of people who are not insured. It requires small businesses to provide medical insurance to all the people working in the business. The employers are obliged to provide a good quality medical insurance. Failure of the small business to provide a good health care system will result in a penalty for any employee that goes uninsured. This act applies to…
Berkman, L. et al. (2000) from social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science & Medicine 51 (2000), 51 p.843-857.
Gerhardt, U. (1979) The Parsonian paradigm and the identity of medical sociology. The Sociological Review, 27 (2), p.229-251.
Napsha, J. (2011) Small Business Owners Fret over Health Care Law's Fallout . Tribune-Review/Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24th March.
Unknown. (2012) Supreme Court Ruling Dooms Small Business; Obamacare Increases Taxes and Red Tape Burden . The Washington Times, 29th June.
Hand-held devices and portable digital assistants (PDAs) are being integrated into the health care setting in the United States. It is important to understand which devices are being used, how they are being used, what they are being used for, and why. Understanding the role that hand-held devices and other portable electronics play in health care can help to inform organizational policy, and help health care administrators better implement electronic medical records.
History of use
The first documented PDA was the Newton MessagePad, issued by Apple in 1993. It was described as being "revolutionary" (Wiggins, 2004, p. 5). Palm, Inc. developed the next big handheld device: the Palm Pilot, in 1996. By the late 1990s, PDAs were equipped for Internet access, and memory capacity and other features improved with each product release. Microsoft also entered the portable electronic devices marketplace in the 1990s. The devices were not yet being…
Alerndar, H. & Ersoy, C. (2010). Wireless sensor networks for healthcare. Computer Networks 54(15): 2688-2710.
Fornell, D. (2008). PDAs bring hand-held solutions to healthcare. Acuity Care Technology. Retrieved online: http://www.soti.net/PDF/PDAsBringHandHeldSolutionsToHealthcare_Article.pdf
Garritty, C. & El Emam, K. (2006). Who's using PDAs? Journal of Medical Internet Research 8(2).
Huang, V.W. (n.d.). PDAs in medicine. Power Point Presentation Retrieved online: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CF4QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cs.princeton.edu%2Fcourses%2Farchive%2Fspr02%2Fcs495%2Fpda.ppt&ei=xxqAUsq_NtTFqQG25IHwAQ&usg=AFQjCNE4Wf4YrX7slTbcdYJwxujV3rwgog&sig2=Uee9rvdDYwY0uYM33n1ZBg&bvm=bv.56146854,d.aWM
Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business
Ethics in the health care industry spans a wide spectrum of activities and most of the obligations are cast by law on the professionals and the second by the common practice and morals of the profession. Both are important to the progress of the institution and also the health care industry. Compliance of statutes is of primary importance.
There are many rules and statutes that must be complied with by all organizations and one such recent legislation is the hospital information access system. The HIPAA rules apply to all personnel in the system and extend to laboratory technicians, and lawyers and insurers. The culpability comes if the information was disclosed to a third party who did not have an association with the entity -- the clinic and was permitted to access the information. In such cases where the physician discloses information to another…
Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel. (2013) "Aged-Based Health Care Rationing" Retrieved 8
June, 2013 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/age.html
Chaikind, Hinda R. (2004) "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT
(Hipaa): Overview and Analyses" Nova Publishers.
Care for Populations
When it comes to the well-being of the overall population, community and public health are both vital areas to consider. However, how the community rallies around its members and how it bands together in times of crisis are not the only kinds of issues that have to be looked at. Those are important, but it is the day-to-day workings of a community that provide more indication as to how it treats the population and whether an overall sense of well-being can be expected. How that same community responds to public health issues is also worthy of consideration. If a community does not take public health seriously, that could be very disastrous for the overall population. Sickness can spread quickly when people are not taking care of themselves and one another.
It also spreads when the people in a community are not focused on the severity of the…
Barzilai, G. (2003). Communities and law: Politics and cultures of legal identities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Chipuer, H.M., & Pretty, G.M.H. (1999). A review of the sense of community index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6): 643-658.
Cohen, A.P. (1985). The symbolic construction of community. Routledge: New York.
Garrett, L. (2000). Betrayal of trust: the collapse of global public health. New York: Hyperion.
Delegation of Duties
In the civilized and fast industrializing word, there are mounting duties and responsibilities each and every day. There is always the pressure to meet some deadline or finish some contract that one won within a given period that the commitment was made. This call for a helping hand and sharing of the duties among the people concerned and are capable of handling the duties.
In the bid to delegate duties, there is a lot of care that must be taken so that the delegation is properly done. Even so, there are several obstacles that are experienced especially in the heath care department. This paper will be focusing on the best possible ways of delegating duties within the health care department and looks at the possible challenges that may come up and how to minimize or eliminate these barriers in duty delegation in the nursing department.
Business Dictionary, (2011). Delegation: Definitions. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/delegation.html
Human Resource Knowledge (2009). Barriers to delegation. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://hrknowledge.blogspot.com/2009/01/barriers-to-delegation.html
Michelle Randall (2010). The Six Steps to Delegation. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/the-six-steps-to-delegation
Merriam Webster, (2011). Delegation. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.merriam-
S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Civil Rights. (2011). Your health information privacy rights. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services Civil Rights:
http://www.hhs.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Organizational esponsibility and Current Health Care Issues
Ethics is the assessment and research of the human habits in regard to moral concepts, particularly those in a certain team, occupation, or specific organization (The Free Dictionary, 2012). People deal with lots of ethical/moral problems everyday and how they react might result in significant and legal ethical/moral ramifications. In the healthcare market, having approaches for making ethical/moral choices is a necessary part of the task. This paper will provide a circumstance that happens in a medical workplace and if the choice of the medical assistant will have an effect on the decision-making procedure, which can bring about legal and honest complexities.
The situation provides a skillfully experienced medical assistant and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) working in a clinic or medical workplace as a workplace assistant. Alone in the workplace and in charge of the phone calls throughout lunch, the assistant gets…
Bagheri, A. (2012). Elements of human dignity in healthcare settings: the importance of the patient's perspective. Journal of Medical Ethics; 38:12-729.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Medical Assistants. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from, http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos164.htm
Buzzle. (2010). Medical Assistant Job Description. Retrieved on November 1, 2010 from, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/medical-assistant-job-description.html
Fremgen, B.F. (2009). Medical Law and ethics (3rd. ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
To analyze and compare the U.S. healthcare, internationally, it is important to know what really constitutes a good health care system. The U.S. Institute of Medicine describes this quality as, "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." This system, in its broad sense, should comprise of two main branches of preventative and curative medicine, both of which should cover different aspects of health, such as travel medicine, school health, occupational health, mental health, reproductive health and so on. Furthermore, a well established health care system does not act independently but in co-ordinance with other industries, such as the agricultural industry. Therefore, since a well developed nation has better access to proper sanitation, housing and adequate nutrition, it is more likely to have a better developed health care system. Other factors,…
Atrash, H.K., Alexander, S., & Breg, C. (1993, Feburary 05). Maternal mortality in developed countries: not just a concern of the past Obstetrics and Gynecology, 15(3), Retrieved from http://www.inamay.com/?page_id=86
Docteur, E. & Berenson, R.A. (2009, August). How does the quality of u.s. health care compare internationally?. Timely Analysis Of Health Policy Issues, Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/411947_ushealthcare_quality.pdf
Health care for all: a frameworkfor moving to a primary care-based health care system in the United States. (2011). American Academy Of Family Physicians, Retrieved from Kurt, H. (2008). A success story in american health care: eliminating infections and saving lives in michigan. Healthreform.gov
Mark A., S., McGlynn, E.A., & Brook, R.H. (1998). How good is the quality of health care in the United States? The Millibank Quarterly, 76(4), retrieved from http://www.milbank.org/760401.html
ole of Family Physician
It is important for us to understand the role of a family physician before we begin our discussion on the importance of family physicians in any health care system of the community. Many reforms have been made in the health care systems of various communities all over the world. Almost all of these reforms lay their focus on the prevention as well as the treatment of any disease along with the promotion of health and management of conditions that have become a chronic problem for the patients. All of these areas are the center of the family physicians and therefore family medicine has a huge role to play in here.
In this paper, we shall look at the current health care system in Libya and see how the government and other organizations like WHO are playing their role to improve the health care system in the…
(2005). Libya country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (April 2005).
(2004). Pfizer Clear Health Communication Initiative. What it Health Literacy? [Online].
(2004). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition; 2000. [Online].
Kates N. (1997). Psychiatry and family medicine: sharing care. Can J. Psychiatry. Vol. 42:913-14.
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
Personal Professional Healthcare Communication Paper
What is Healthcare Communication?
Communication can be generally defined and the method of imparting information from a source to targets. The process of sharing thus has its own set of rules and for human communication the written and spoken words are used. There is also a series of communication called non-verbal which is also significant. There are behaviors that show what a person thinks or feels is also communication. (Berry, 2007)
These types of communication applies in the health care settings too. Health communication may be defined as the study of the means of communication and its strategies not only to communicate to individuals but to the community thus creating decisions on health questions. Thus for the health service the communication within itself and the society concerned with individual and public health, is a very important field that requires specialization and research in medical information…
Berry, Dianne. (2007) "Health Communication: Theory and Practice." Open University Press:
Diebold Institute for Public Policy Studies. (1995) "Healthcare Info structures: The
Development of Information-Based Infrastructures for the Healthcare Industry." Praeger: Westport, CT.
Health Care Reimbursement and Billing
Both Mrs. Zwick and Mr. Davis face significant issues in the presented scenarios. Mrs. Zwick has multiple considerations under Medicare Parts A, B and D, in addition to her hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. Meanwhile, Mr. Davis must address the severe time constraints and costs of COBRA in light of his job termination. These two scenarios underscore current difficulties and complexities of current health care in the United States.
Discussion of Mrs. Zwick's coverage under Medicare Parts A, B and C
Medicare Part A (often called "hospital insurance") (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011, p. 15) assists in covering inpatient hospitalization and skilled nursing facilities, hospice and home health care (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011, p. 14). There is usually no monthly premium if you and/or your spouse paid Medicare taxes while employed (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011,…
Ethical implications of Mrs. Zwick's incurring costs related to her hospital-acquired condition are applicable despite the rehabilitation facility's exemption from POA/HAC Medicare laws. Having no first-hand knowledge of the cause of the urinary tract infection, no clear indication that I work at the rehabilitation facility and neither the privilege nor the duty of diagnosis, it would be unethical for me to tell Mrs. Zwick about my suspicions. Rather, a nurse is required to maintain his/her professional boundaries (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 6). Simultaneously, a nurse is supposed to assure "responsible disclosure of errors" to patients and act to stop bad practices and promote best practices (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 6). Consequently, a nurse in my position faces a dilemma: lack of personal knowledge and authority vs. my concern for the patient's well-being and constant improvement of the profession. In the face of this dilemma, I would: contact the rehabilitation facility's newly-hired nurse and advise/remind him/her of the duty to report to the appropriate supervisor and responsible disclosure to Mrs. Zwick; contact Mrs. Zwick's personal physician and explain the entire situation; direct Mrs. Zwick to discuss her health issues with her personal physician, who can review, diagnose and discuss the ramifications of her medical records, including but not limited to the urinary tract infection (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 7). The desired outcomes would be: the rehabilitation center's absorption of Mrs. Zwick's costs related to her hospital-acquired infection through pressure exerted by its own nursing staff and Mrs. Zwick's personal physician; Mrs. Zwick's awareness of the true cause of her infection by health care providers who are directly responsible and capable.
Explain how the COBRA will allow Mr. Davis to continue his insurance coverage while he is out of work.
Due to Mr. Davis' termination from an employer of more than 20 employees, he can obtain coverage for himself, his spouse and his dependent children for up to 18 months (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012). In addition, due to his chronic cycle cell anemia, he may be entitled to an additional 11 months' extension for disability (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012). His employer is required to give a qualifying event notice to COBRA; then, COBRA sends a notice of the right to elect to continue coverage and an explanation of the steps that must be taken to continue coverage; Mr. Davis, his spouse and either or both of them in behalf of dependent children may elect for continuation of coverage
The ACA does not by any means fully resolve this, but it makes strides towards addressing this critical issue of morality. The individual mandate is similar -- where the profit of one individual leads to the suffering of another, the suffering takes precedence -- the money is not as important. Not doing harm to others is the more important imperative, so the sacrifice for the greater good in this case would be the moral course of action according to Kant.
Locke's moral philosophy comprises two parts. The first is natural law, in that there are divine laws, they are obligatory and humans can understand these. The second is more hedonistic, that pleasures and pains serve to "provide morality with its normative force" (Sheridan, 2011). That these two views seem to contrast is well-established and indeed they lead to different interpretations of the key tenets of the Affordable Care Act.…
HHS.gov (2014). About the law. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from http://www.hhs.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The union thus acts as an advocate for worker's legal rights, including their right not to be subject to drug tests as well (although this issue is far more contentious, given that Xanitos also argues that testing is required from the point-of-view of patient safety.
A more controversial drug testing issue is prohibiting all workers from using tobacco, a controversial practice that has become increasingly common amongst healthcare establishments. "More hospitals and medical businesses in many states are adopting strict policies that make smoking a reason to turn away job applicants, saying they want to increase worker productivity, reduce health care costs and encourage healthier living" (Sulzberger 2011: 1). However, the union argues "such policies are a slippery slope -- that if they prove successful in driving down health care costs, employers might be emboldened to crack down on other behavior by their workers, like drinking alcohol, eating fast food…
Green, Laura. (2010, November 5). Housekeepers union files lawsuit against St. Mary's Medical
Center. The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2010-11-05/news/fl-nurses-lawsuit-20101105_1_hospital-workers-housekeepers-union-contract
Runkel, Ross. (2006, January). Disparate impact. Law Memo. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://www.lawmemo.com/101/2006/01/disparate_impac_1.html
Service Employees International Union. (2011). Official website. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://www.seiu.org/splash/
This is the strategy used in Canada, where drug costs have been substantially reduced.
The challenges presented by this law have spilled over into the current health-care reform debate. Many people and many legislators who might have been more open to engage in productive dialogue during the current debate were no doubt made more leery of the process and of the possibility that there could be significant reform that would bring benefits to more people while bringing down the federal deficit.
The fears of opponents of the bill were correct in their fears that the bill would been even more expensive than originally budgeted. The initial estimate for the net cost was $400 billion for the period from 2004-2013. However, only a month after the bill's passage, that estimate was raised to $534 billion. It has since been raised to over $550. The cost over-runs in this bill will no…
A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.
The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).
Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…
Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44
Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9
Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow, http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009
Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11
Even with all of this federal intervention, however, the issue of Americans being able to afford healthcare would rear its ugly head time and time again in the succeeding decades. This issue would be tossed about like a political hot potato until the election of President Bill Clinton, when then First Lady Hillary Clinton embraced the issue of affordable healthcare for all Americans and made an attempt to institute a nationalized healthcare system, much like the ones that have worked in nations like Canada and Great Britain. The Clintons unfortunately met with intense resistance to the plan on the federal level, and their system never came to full fruition. Ironically, however, the Clintons did manage to make meaningful change in American healthcare through their proposed plan. The mere threat of federal control over the monopolies that many American healthcare companies enjoy led in many cases to the freezing of rates…
Behreandt, D. (2005, September 5). The Best Healthcare in the World: Our Healthcare, Though Impeded by Government Intervention, Is Still the World's Best. Adopting a Single-Payer Socialized System Would Lead to Shortages, Frustration, and Failure. The New American, 21, 21+.
Dionne, E. (1997, January 17). The Democrats Are More United Than They've Been for Years. But They Still Cannot Suppress Deep Divisions on Fundamentals. New Statesman, 126, 26+.
Gottschalk, M. (2000). The Shadow Welfare State: Labor, Business, and the Politics of Health-Care in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Heirich, M. (1998). Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Leadership and Management in Healthcare
Models of management and leadership in health care contexts
As when it comes to modern company structures, management and leadership play a main function in health care as well, specifically focusing on reform motions, kinds of services offered, quality of services and capital use. As we specified earlier, there is no universal dish for effective management and leadership, contextual aspects like political system and socio-economic elements play a substantial part in the results.
In basic terms, a health care system has to complete 2 standard things (adjusted from Dorros, 2006):
Enhance the wellness condition of the population (according to specific requirements and targets);
Provide services in the most reliable method possible in order to achieve the first objective.
Furthermore despite the condition of the economy and nation, when attempting to reform health care systems, governments have to ask themselves 3 standard concerns: Who spends for…
Collins, J.C. (2001). Good to Great. New York, NY: HarperCollins: 17 -- 40.
Collins, J.C. And Porras, J.I. (1997). Built to Last. New York, NY: HarperCollins; 173 -- 174.
Contino, D.S. (2001). Budget training: it's overdue. Nurs Manage; 32:16 -- 17.
Contino, D.S. (2004). Leadership Competencies: Knowledge, Skills, and Aptitudes Nurses Need to Lead Organizations Effectively. Critical Care Nurse; 24: 52-64.
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
IS Off your Health Care Act of 2013 - [H..2009]
KEEP THE IS OFF YOU HEALTH CAE ACT OF 2013-1
KEEP THE IS OFF YOU HEALTH CAE ACT OF 2013-2
It has been two months since they have introduced H.. 2009, the Keep the IS Off Your Health Care Act. During this time, people have been watching seen a growing amount of support from people living all over the nation for this common proposal seen as just common sense by many. Thanks to that drive, it has been proclaimed that the House of epresentatives will have a vote on the Keep the IS Off Your Health Care Act before deferring for the August egion Work Period. In this essay, it touches on how this simple, two-page bill barricades the Internal evenue Service (IS) from imposing or applying President Obama's health care law. This essay makes the point of how in…
H.R. 2009, Keep the IRS Off Your Health Care Act of 2013. (2012, May 4). Retrieved from Congressional Budget office: http://www.cbo.gov/publication/44466
House Vote 447 - H.R.2009: On Passage. (2012, May 2). Retrieved from The New York times: http://politics.nytimes.com/congress/votes/113/house/1/447
King votes for Keep the IRS Off Your Health Care Act . (2013, September 23). Retrieved from NorthIowaToday.com: King votes for Keep the IRS Off Your Health Care Act
Kibble, M. (2012, May 3). Tell Your Representative to Co-Sponsor the "Keep the IRS Off Your Health Care Act"! Retrieved from Freedom Works: http://www.freedomworks.org/blog/mkibbe/tell-your-representative-to-co-sponsor-the-keep-th
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
10). While basically valid, this claim is disingenuous and actually self-defeating. While we might not have a "right" to any of these things, the government does provide food, shelter and clothing to those in need, and not just on an emergency basis (as is the case with health care). Health goes to basic security of life, and the government has an inherent duty to protect its citizen's lives.
The Qulity Chasm report has been used to change healthcare by advocating a shift in primary care to a more developed infrastructure via systems demonstrations. The report affected both policy and ethics in its finding on lowered safety levels due to insufficient staffing capabilities (IOM). Nursing education has changed due to the enhanced standards and new methodologies suggested by the report.
IOM. (2009). "Crossing the Quality Chasm: The IOM Health Care Quality Initiative." Accessed 18 September 2009. http://www.iom.edu/CMS/8089.aspx
Piper, S. (2008).…
IOM. (2009). "Crossing the Quality Chasm: The IOM Health Care Quality Initiative." Accessed 18 September 2009. http://www.iom.edu/CMS/8089.aspx
Piper, S. (2008). Top Ten Myths of American Health Care and Crisis. Pacific Research Institute. Accessed 18 September 2009. http://liberty.pacificresearch.org/docLib/20081020_Top_Ten_Myths.pdf
Attorneys, however, note that the suits are reflective of an increase in negligent doctors, who are hard pressed to serve a larger and more demanding patient load. Medical care is more costly and it is true that doctors fail to establish bedside relationships with their patients. Others point out that problems lie at the door of the insurance industry and management of hospitals (Committee, p. 1).
Because we discovered the problem in time, Mr. Jones was able to apologize and explain to the patients affected concerning the true nature of his outbursts. They did not have to pay for their treatment and none of them brought lawsuits against Mr. Jones or the hospital. We retained Mr. Jones, but advised him to notify the management if it appeared that there might be future outbursts. It is true that hospitals are much more diligent today because of risk management practices. Because of…
Abbott, R.L., Weber, P. And Kelley, B. (2005). Medical professional liability insurance and its relation to medical error and healthcare risk management for the practicing physician. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 140(6).
Committee to Study Medical Professional Liability and the Dellivery of Obstetrical Care, Institute of Medicine. (1989). Medical Professional Liabilityand the Delivery of Obstetrical Care: Vol I. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Grol, R. (2001). Improving the quality of medical care: Building bridges among professional pride, payer profit, and patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 286(20). 28 Nov 2001.
Harris, G. (2006). Senators to unveil new drug safety proposals. The New York Times. 21 Jun 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/21/health/policy/21fda.html?_r=2&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1200373850-0PNMhVh8RDTFqV4OOSZCpQ .
While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.
As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…
Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).
Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM
Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,
Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.
Legal medical measures that had to be taken in advance so that people's live would not be at risk, because individuals would actually postpone treatment for the fear of being judged about something that a patient was embarrassed about. It became more of a public health issue to not enforce the rights of individuals who sought medical attention for a pertinent matter.
Although the privacy, safety, and comfort level of patients are impacted by the application of HIPAA, the medical industry was also directly impacted as well. Pharmaceutical industries were no longer able to direct their products directly at patients, since under this policy, they no longer had the right to look at anyone's information. Medical information was no longer up for grabs for the business industry to exploit its usage. Having absolute confidentiality meant that money that was once made from direct tailored advertisement, could no longer be made.…
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (undefined). Understanding Health Information Privacy. In http://www.hhs.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Health Care Situation: Medical Error Due to Doctors' Bad Handwriting
Identify a health care news situation that affects a health care organization such as a hospital, clinic or insurance company.
I have identified the following health care news situation as the topic of my paper: "Poor Handwriting of Doctors and its implied risks for the Patient, Hospital and Medical Malpractice Insurance." Poor handwriting of physicians resulting in poor legibility of entries into patients' medical records carries very dramatic risks for all above-mentioned interest bearers. It can result in severe health danger for the patient and - in extreme situations - even cause a patient's death. Doctors' bad penmanship has long been seen a problem within organized medicine and the patient safety movement. Three American Medical Association (AMA) policies dating back to 1992, urge doctors to "improve the legibility of handwritten orders for medications" and review all orders for accuracy and…
Berwick, Donald M. & Winickoff, David E. (1996). The truth about doctors' handwriting: a prospective study. BMJ Vol. 313 (21-28 December 1996). 1657-1658. www.bmj.com/content/313/7072/1657.full, accessed 21 August 2011.
Bruner, Anne & Kasdan, Morton.L. Handwriting Errors: Harmful, Wasteful and Preventable.
1-4. www.kyma.org/uploads/file/.../Harmful_wasteful_and_preventable.pdfSimilar, accessed 22 August 2011.
Gallant, Al. (22 November 2009). For a secure electronic health record implementation, user authentication is key. 1-2). searchhealthit.techtarget.com/.../User-authentication-is-critical-for-pl.., accessed 24 August 2011.
Regulatory Issue in Institutional Health Care
It is reported that a medical doctor licensed to practice in Florida, Zoher, applied for a staff position at Naples Community Hospital (NCH) which is a facility operated by defendant NCH Healthcare System Inc. (NCHS). The board of trustees at NCH are reported to have "denied Zoher's application." (National Association Medical Staff Services [NAMSS], 2011) The board of trustees is reported to have made an adverse action report later to the NPD, which indicated that Zoher "was denied an initial appointment and privileges." (National Association Medical Staff Services [NAMSS], 2011)
Suit Filed Against NCH and NCHS
Zoher is reported to have filed a suit against both NCH and NCHS, "seeking, in part, injunctive and declaratory relief under the HCQIA. Zoher contended that the NPD Guidebook states that the denial of medical privileges based on a physician's failure to meet a hospital's established criteria is…
Interesting Case - Federal Health Care Quality Improvement Act Doesn't Allow Doctor to Sue for NPDB Report (2011) National Association Medical Staff Services. NAMSS. 16 Nov 2011. Retrieved from: http://namss.blogspot.com/2011/11/interesting-case-federal-health-care.html
National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (2011) Report to Congress. March 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcare.gov/law/resources/reports/nationalqualitystrategy032011.pdf
The Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 (nd) HCQIA. Retrieved from: http://www.hcqia.net/
Neuman Health Care Systems Model:
Preventative Care for Mr. H
The Neuman Health Care Systems Model was created by Betty M. Neuman in an effort to help nursing students focus on wellness for the client system (McHolm & Geib, 1998). In order to create wellness for a client system, the nursing students use an Assessment and Analysis Tool, which will help in identifying Mr. H's problems (McHolm & Geib, 1998).
First, a nurse must find out Mr. H's profile and define his stressors. This must be done by the nurse and by the concerns expressed by the client (NeumanSystemsModel.org, 2011). It is clear that stressors in this 72-year-old widower's life are affecting his overall health. ecent changes in his life, such as the loss of his wife of 45 years, are a factor in his health changes. It is good that Mr. H is still trying to maintain his normal…
A.D.A.M. (2011). Hypotension. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Hypotension .
McHolm, F.A. & Geib, K.M. (1998, January-March). Nursing diagnosis: Application of the Neuman systems model of teaching health assessment and nursing process. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3836/is_199801/ai_n8792656/?tag=content;col1
NCBI. (2010, July 1). Pubmed health - Atorvastatin. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH
NCBI. (2008, September 1). Pubmed health -- Furosemide. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from
Discuss relationship systems theory healthcare deliver U.S. - What current concepts healthcare explained helped a system theory approach? - What system theory? - How researchers (Ludwig von Bertalanffy Everett M.
Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory was not specifically designed to cope with the challenges of the U.S. healthcare system, although it has been frequently applied to some of its issues. Systems theory was originally coined by the scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to sum up his idea that the 'whole' of systems -- both biological and otherwise -- were larger than the sum of their parts. According to von Bertalanffy, "in the past, science tried to explain observable phenomena by reducing them to an interplay of elementary units investigable independently of each other, conceptions appear in contemporary science that are concerned with what is somewhat vaguely termed 'wholeness', i.e. problems of organization, phenomena…
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2013). University of Twente. Retrieved:
This website contains excerpts from E.M. Rogers' work on diffusion of innovation theory, along with a helpful graphical representation of how the information is disseminated.
Kaminski, J. (Spring 2011).Diffusion of innovation theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing.
U.S. Healthcare Delivery
What is your evaluation of the effectiveness of the U.S. health care system in the context of delivery, finance, management, and/or sustainability? What are the issues that prompted a need for health care reform?
healthcare system is effective at delivering state of the art services and cutting edge solutions for patients. This helps to make it one of the best in providing various services and treatment options. The result is that more people will come and utilize the American healthcare system because of these benefits. This is why institutions such as the Mayo and Cleveland Clinics are so popular. They are known for delivering the best treatment options in the world to patients. (Anderson, 2011) (Shi, 2009)
However, the financing and management are two major issues which impact the needs of different stakeholders. In the case of financing, many people cannot afford to pay the high premiums…
Key Features of the Affordable Care Act. (2014) HHS. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The Surgeon General remains a respected figure, but the job is ill-defined, budgetless, and subject to the whims of political appointees at the Department of Health and Human Services and the hite House.
The Surgeon General is widely considered to be the doctor for the nation and an ombudsman for the public's health. But in reality, modern holders of the office are tightly constrained by the increasingly politicized environment of ashington. It is difficult to imagine a modern Congress creating the office of Surgeon General. Politics wouldn't allow it to happen. Fortunately, and to our nation's great benefit, the position and the tradition already exist. But the job needs help (Mullan 2007).
According to Mullan, legislation is needed to do three things: provide an independent budget for the currently mendicant position; mandate an annual Surgeon General's Report on the state of the nation's health; and, essential to all else, insulate…
Bouffard, Jo Ivey and Philip R. Lee. "Health Policy Making: The Role of the Federal
Government." In Danis, Clancy and Churchill (eds.) Ethical Dimensions of Health Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Mullan, Fitzhugh. "Plight of the Surgeon General." Science 318 (2007): 169.
Profiles in Science. "The Reports of the Surgeon General." National Library of Medicine.
Workarounds in Healthcare Facilities
Workarounds refer to the alternative methods "of accomplishing an activity when the usual system / process is not working well" (Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory, 2013). In as much as workarounds may temporarily solve existing problems, they also indicate inefficiencies and deficiencies in the current system. Workarounds may at times be effective and more convenient, compared to the system in existence, but a regular use of the same could endanger both the safety of patients and the facility's reputation. A workaround can, therefore, be termed as an at-risk behavior that does not yield concrete long-term solutions to existing problems. Therefore, "workarounds perceived as necessary by the user for patient care, efficiency or safety, may be beneficial, neutral, or dangerous for patients' safety" (Koppel, Wetterneck, Telles & Karsh, 2008, p. 1).
A description of Workarounds in a Selected Facility
Workarounds can take a variety of forms. For instance,…
Flanagan, M.E., Saleem, J. J., Millitello, L.G., Russ, A.L. & Doebbeling, B.N. (2013). Paper- and Computer-Based Workarounds to Electronic Health Record Use at Three Benchmark Institutions. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 20(e1): e59-66.
Intel (2013). Workarounds in Healthcare, a Risky Trend. Retrieved from http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/healthcare-it/workarounds-in-healthcare-risky-trend.html
Koppel, R., Wetterneck, T., Telles, J.L. & Karsh, B. (2008). Workarounds to Barcode Medication Administration Systems: Their Occurrences, Causes, and Threats to Patient Safety. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15(4), 408-423.
Merrill, M. (2009). Using Pen and Paper Workarounds Could Boost EMR Efficiency. Retrieved from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/using-pen-and-paper-workarounds-could-boost-emr-efficiency
Malpractice in Patient Care
Nurse A is assigned to Mr. Jones and is tasked with ensuring that the patient is protected at all times. The patient cannot do certain things that will assure him a protected and assured health process. The nurse provides every necessary help and support so that Mr. Jones can recover as expected. Presently, the nurse has been doing well on the shift. Additionally, the nurse should ensure that the patient has received equitable medical service. In the case presented, the nurse is doing well since he is at the touching distance between him and the patient. The nurse should offer an immediate observation on the health situation of the patient throughout the nursing process, which is throughout the night shift. The nurse has the duty to ascertain the feelings and changes within the patient to be accurate on what is happening and what is likely to…
Technology gives us more capabilities than we ever had before, and health care organizations need to ensure that their staff members are aware of the regulations surrounding the use of technology in the workplace, both for work-related activities and private activities. The prompt was of a nurse who took photos of a celebrity and texted them to her friend. This action constitutes a violation of HIPAA, wherein the Privacy ule holds the health care providers must safeguard information from your medical records, any information that is recorded by the health care provider, billing information and any other health information (HHS.gov, 2015). Furthermore, there has clearly been an ethical violation committed with regards to the recording of the patient without their consent, and the distribution of that material. Patient information is always confidential in nature, by ethics even if not by law (Mulholland, 1994). This paper will examine the situation…
HHS.gov (2015) Guidance materials for consumers. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.hhs.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Health care, and that too, a quality health care is one of the most basic needs of any human being. In current times, where the fast paced lives are getting faster each day, work stresses are increasing, streets are being storm with junk foods and fast foods, and pollution and congestion is increasing, human lives are getting more and more prone to physical and mental diseases. As a result, the importance of health care systems and health care facilities increases. While, surgeons and doctors are generally seen as the captain of the ship as far as health sector is concerned, very important personnel of the health sector are the nurses. Once quite ignored, the importance of the nursing profession was highlighted by Florence Nightingale, one of the nursing pioneers. Florence Nightingale broke the conventional perceptions associated with the profession of nursing and took it to a new level, explored various…
Lee, H. & Winters, C. (2006). Rural nursing: concepts, theories and practice. New York:
Joel, A. & Kelly, L. (2002). The nursing experience: trends, challenges and transitions. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical Challenges: focus on nursing. St. Leonards, N.S.W: Allen and Unwin.
functional roles healthcare organizations. Quality isk Management levels understand roles order interface
One of the most important functional roles within any healthcare organization is quality management and quality control. In a sense, the individuals who work in quality management have one of the most pivotal jobs in such an organization for the simple fact that they interact with others in virtually every other aspect of their organization. Quality management is responsible for ensuring adherence to quality measures in the administrative, care-delivery, and convalescing aspects of a healthcare organization. As such, those who work within this department are responsible for three primary job duties that are directly responsible for the deliverance of quality measures in an organization. These functions are the development, implementation, and the evaluation of quality initiatives that may pertain to specific departments, but which certainly affect the operations of a healthcare agency in its entirety.
In many respects,…
Brownlee, K., Minnier, T.E., Martin, S.C., Greenhouse, P.K. (2013). "A Paradigm Shift Toward Systemwide Quality Improvement Education: Meeting the Needs of a Rapidly Changing Health Care Environment: Meeting the Needs of a Rapidly Changing Health care Environment." Quality Management in Health Care. 22(1): 25-35.
Haupt, A. (2011). "The era of electronic medical records." USNews and Health. Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/most-connected-hospitals/articles/2011/07/18/most-connected-hospitals
Moss, F. (1995). "Risk management and quality of care." Quality in Health Care. 4 (2): 102-107.