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They also have to use the media to do advocacy.
A barrier like knowledge of impact has the most potential to be reduced in order for the venture to realize its goal. Majority of people resort to damping their electronic wastes into landfills or even use earth as a waste basket because they do not know the impact of engaging in such activities. Some even end up burning such waste oblivious of deleterious effects of engaging in such acts. Take an example of the components of a computer motherboard. It is highly probable that they contain heavy metals like mercury and lead.
Scientific research shows how dangerous these heavy metals are to the lives of human beings especially when they find their way into the human diet (UNEP, 2009). Lead is connected with memory loss in human beings (Heylighen & Bernheim, 2000). When key partners like Lower East Side Centre…
Heylighen, F. & Bernheim, J. (2000). Environmental Conditions. Retrieved October 5, 2012 from http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ENVICOND.html
Kozlan, M. (2010). What is E-waste and how can I get rid of it? Retrieved October 5, 2012 from http://www.fourgreensteps.com/infozone/featured/features/what-is-e-waste-a-how-can-i-get-rid -
Russell, M. (2006). Tips and tricks for recycling. Retrieved October 5, 2012 from http://www.smartbiz.com/article/articleprint/1525/-1/58
Political Economy of E-Waste
Introduction to E-Waste
While developed countries and the west, in general, continue to take pride in applying modern technology in their activities, some parts of the world seem to be losing because of the same developments in the west. The countries in the global north are pursuing modern technology in all respects possible. There are hundreds of thousands of electronic waste products that are generated from such pursuits. The electronic devices developed in these countries are largely sold in countries with a ready market to receive them. The devices come with a limited life span. They often stop functioning after their lifespan has lapsed. It follows that such devices and equipment has to be disposed off. It is this aspect of handling the products of technology that causes a major problem in some countries. Most of the devices contain metallic parts and toxic constituents. The toxins…
"Chapter 5 -- Environmental and Health Risks: Unusual Expansion of Waste Incineration in China Needs Attention." Chinese Research Perspectives Online (n.d.). doi:10.1163/2213-6002_crpn_liu_9789004324596_0006.
"FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Accessed February 7, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/video/video_index.html .
Electronic Wasteland" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuGSSuGs9jM
"Watchdog group tracks what really happens to your 'recycled' e-waste" -- PBS News Hour
Most of the world's electronic trash -- especially old computers -- is dumped in the third world countries, resulting severe environmental problems and illnesses among residents. A latest news agency declares that about 80% of the world's electronic trash is imported to Asia every year, and about 90% of which ends up in China (Chandran, 2002). The large amount of electronic trash dumped in Chinese cities has created serious health hazards for residents living across these cities. Although Chinese authorities have listed Guangdong's towns of Guiyu, Longtang and Dali and other areas as the country's major collection and distribution centers for electronic trash, these areas now have become a health hazard. The health problems arise through cathode ray tubes (CTs), and any device that might hold them. CTs contain lead and other chemicals that leach from landfills into groundwater. The pollutants are released into the air during burning.
Bartholomew, Doug (2001). E-Business Commentary -- PC Makers: Haul Your Own Trash. Industry Week, August, pp.21-24.
Berger, Sandy (2004). Recycling Computers & Electronic Equipment. Compu-Kiss, pp. 1-2.
Chandran, Rina (2002). Trash e-trash. Business Line, April 10, pp. 4-5.
Markoff, John (2002). Technology's Toxic Trash Is Sent To Poor Nations. Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, pp.7-8.
The role of the leader is to inspire vision, demonstrate confidence and set examples for the group to follow. Our leader will need to create a positive environment to energize our group towards achieving our objectives. To reach common consensuses, our leader will be given the power of final say after the group has deliberated and debated on an issue. To reach our goal, we will be very careful when choosing a leader. We will choose a leader based on several qualities that our leader must possess and these qualities will include:
Ability to convince other people efficiently and effectively
ased on the strategies that we will use to select our leader, it is envisaged that our leader will assist the group to reach a better decision.
While our leader is to assist the group to reach a better decision…
Environmental Protection Agency . Electronic Reuse and Recycling. EPA WasteWise Update. 2000. Retrieved 14 December 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/smm/wastewise/pubs/wwupda14.pdf
National Research Council .Advancing the Science of Climate Change . National Research Council. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA. 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2012 from http://dge.stanford.edu/labs/caldeiralab/Caldeira_research/pdf/ACC_Science_2010.pdf
Environmental egulations and Industry Best Practice for Efficient Use of esources
The inappropriate disposal of electronic or so-called "e-waste," including office consumables such as laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, represents a major environmental threat. In fact, according to Taylor, "E-waste' is growing in landfills at three times the rate of general refuse."
In the past, identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges was complicated by the fact that these cartridges contain a "complex mix of plastics, metals, foams and toner."
Identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, though, is worthwhile. For instance, "Printer cartridges contain valuable metals such as steel, aluminium and copper, as well as ink, toner powder, plastics, rubber, silica and foam, much of which can be recycled."
Nevertheless, Weissman emphasizes that the fact that, "Disposal of electronics waste is complicated, because many of the more than 1,000 different substances in…
Gray, Gerry. (1999, Spring). "Corporations Go Green," American Forests, 104(1): 3-5.
"Recycle Your E-Waste Today." (2013, June 6). The Old Gympie Times, 37.
Taylor, Rachel. (2006, April-May). "He's Closed the Loop: A Single Environmental
Commitment Turned Steve Morris into an Entrepreneur with a Company That's about to Go Global," Ecos, 130: 8-10.
1. What is e-waste? What is so dangerous about e-waste? Many well-meaning individuals thought that recycling was the answer to the e-waste problem. But why hasn't e-waste recycling yielded the results hoped for?
E-waste (electronic waste) refers to the discarded electronic or electrical devices that are no longer being used, are unwanted, non-working, and obsolete. All used electronics that are destined for resale, reuse, recycling, salvage, or disposal are also considered to be e-waste. E-waste affects nearly every system in the human body mainly because they contain a plethora of toxic components like lead, calcium, mercury, barium, lithium, cadmium, polybrominated and flame retardants (Cucchiella, D’Adamo, Koh, & Rosa, 2015). Recycling of e-waste is still the answer to the e-waste problem, but recycling has to be carried out in a laid-out manner and not just anyone should be allowed to recycle e-waste. Recycling of e-waste is labor intensive and recycling employees…
As scientist come up with new technology for the welfare of mankind in this world they end up producing luxuries. The attitude of the people towards the environment is changing due to the fact that they need more and more luxuries and this makes them destroy the environment, and this make environment to be polluted in different forms.
In the act of mankind living luxuriously, they sometime use instruments such as air conditioners, fridges and others that do release C.F.Cs in the environment leading to deplete of the ozone layer, Paul Kennard (2006). According to researches the depletion of ozone layer during 19th century when there was no much use of such things, is compared with for 20th century, it has been found that there is 50% increase of the depletion. Deforestation uncontrollable for the purpose of building with the aim of accommodation tends to raise the content of…
Reference and Education: Science
Tania Branigan (25 November 2008). "One-third of China's Yellow river 'unfit for drinking or agriculture' Factory waste and sewage from growing cities has severely polluted major waterway, according to Chinese research." London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…
reference: being reused repaired and modernized; being recycled and the most ecologically disadvantageous solution is simply being land filled. But the realization of these practices faces a lot of obstacles mainly of financial character. All of them are quite expensive and do not bring desired return.
That's why scientists and economists agree in the following: recycling of e-waste has to be the concern of electronics manufacturers. Loop industry is the most optimal solution to the problem as the manufacturer becomes responsible for the recycling of the products he makes. Introduction of such practices has the negative outcomes of course. Because technological process becomes more complicated and intensive, requires involvement of additional equipment and facilities on the hand with new labour the net value of the production increases and so the customers would have to pay more for electronics.
Another direction in the solution of e-waste problem is export of e-waste to the developing countries, where the process of recycling is cheaper and the possibility of e-waste to be reused, repaired and modernized is higher. Moreover some third world countries use unpopulated territories for e-waste. Anyways, this kind of solution is not appropriate again, because most of these practices somehow avoid law regulations of these countries and cannot have a mass character. It only creates additional problem which would have to be solved in close future.
As most of experts agree that recycling of e-waste has to be the problem of e-products manufacturers they have to develop different effective strategies and technologies for the most optimal solution of this problem: starting form transportation of e-waste from customer to the process of recycling. At this point global environmental community has to cooperate and share new practices and approaches in solving this problem. It refers both to technology and legislative regulation of the problem.
And in developing own strategy for e-waste management the officials of different countries have to work together and adopt practices of each other that are being effective. Countries of European Union had already made the first steps to the solution of this problem, making manufactures to be responsible for the waste caused by their products. The United Sates and Canada should start to introduce these practices as well, if they want to achieve ecological balance and safe coexistence of scientific and technological progress with health of humanity.
Cross-functional team dynamics require leaders who can be transformational in their ability to communicate compelling missions, goals and objectives for the teams, not just managing by action item lists and project plans (Santa, Ferrer, Bretherton, Hyland, 2010).
The best cross-functional teams then have a level of passionate intensity about them; they see the much greater result they are attempting to accomplish as worth the sacrifices they need to attain them (Feng, Jiang, Fan, Fu, 2010). Nowhere is this more prevalent than in the area of new product development and introduction (NPDI), especially in high tech manufacturing where product lifecycles are so rapid (Boks, Stevels, 2007). In the leading high tech companies including Cisco, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and others, sustainability engineering, product development engineering, packaging, repackaging and remanufacturing all have their experts on cross-functional teams to share their expertise and insight to make sustainability initiatives accomplishable through better use of internal knowledge…
Albino, V., a. Balice, and R. Dangelico. 2009. Environmental strategies and green product development: an overview on sustainability-driven companies. Business Strategy and the Environment 18, no. 2, (February 1): 83.
Barrett, J.. 2007. Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, November 1, 14-19,5.
C Boks, and a Stevels. 2007. Essential perspectives for design for environment. Experiences from the electronics industry. International Journal of Production Research 45, no. 18/19, (September 1): 4021.
Bongsug (Kevin) Chae. 2009. Developing key performance indicators for supply chain: an industry perspective. Supply Chain Management 14, no. 6, (November 1): 422-428.
The net effect of these trends on the environment is mixed. According to Kohler and Erdmann (2004), the expanded use of ICT applications will ultimately result in both benefits to the environment, as well as some new problems associated with their use. The extent to which the negative effects are mitigated will ultimately depend on the foresight that is used today to develop long-term energy and waste management policies that will control the development of ICT infrastructures and how they are used in the future (Kohler & Erdmann, 2004).
According to Lan and Thomas (2009), there is no escaping the fact that information and communication technologies are fundamentally changing the nature of commerce and hold important promise for economic development in the future. These authors are quick at add, though, that proceeding with these technologies is a complex enterprise and there are still a number of unknowns involved concerning how…
Cyr, C. (2007, April/May). E-waste not. Plenty, 31.
Daly, J. (2005, June). ICT and ensuring environmental sustainability. Communication Initiative.
Retrieved from http://www.comminit.com/redirect.cgi?m=7e7425fe10109533767cb66
In particular, it states that Joffe-Walt's proposal of having developed countries take responsibility for their own waste to solve China's e-waste problems won't necessarily work.
Liu explains that China banned the import of e-waste way back in 2000. Thus, the continued import of e-waste is from black market trade fueled by China's abundant, cheap, and skilled labor force. The e-waste is shipped to Hong Kong that then smuggled into China where local authorities are willing to look the other way because it is such a hugely profitable business.
According to Liu, the efforts of developed countries to discontinue the export of e-waste will only serve to make the problem worse. For example, the European Union created the European Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in 2005. This Directive "holds producers responsible for financing the collection, treatment, recovery, and environmentally sound disposal of waste electronics. However, the author contends that,…
Joffe-Walt, Benjamin. (2005) "China's Computer Wasteland." In De Palma, Paul (Ed.), Computers in Society 06/07 (pp. 169-171). Dubuque: McGraw Hill: Contemporary Learning Series.
Liu, Yingling (2006, May 4). "China's E-Waste Problem: Facing Up to the Challenge." Retrieved from http://www.worldwatch.org/node/3921
This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National esearch Council (U.S.), 1)
According to a 1976 EDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at ichland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists.…
Brown, Lester R; Earth Policy Institute. Eco-Economy.
Cember, Herman. Introduction to Health Physics.
McGraw-Hill Professional, 1996.
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…
Brown, V.J. (2004). Electronics, lead and landfills. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Gaba, J.M. (2008). Rethinking recycling. Environmental Law, 38(4), 1053-1054.
Gebrewold, F. (1999). Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators. Journal of Environmental Health, 57(2), 11.
production and consumption of material resources is an often overlooked but very important aspect of human life on earth, as we are increasingly fighting to maintain sustainability of the global population. The capital of natural resources is being drained as economic and political factors influence the production and consumption of material resources. Developed nations have fared much better than poor undeveloped nations in terms of moving towards being able achieve sustainability. Two production habits related to material resources that can be discussed and that are important for the sustainability of the global population; are the production of vehicles for transportation and also the production of electrical appliances. These two types of material resources have great impact on the potential sustainability of the world's population. The production habit of vehicles for transportation, specifically cars is driven by a global economy that demands the production of millions of new vehicles every year.…
Eljarrat, E., Barcelo, D., & Alaee, M. (2011). Brominated flame retardants. Berlin: Springer.
Mulvaney, D. (2011). Green technology: an A-to-Z guide. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Amazon could follow in order to be socially responsible in marketing its Kindle fire family of tablets. This demand for such social responsibility has been coming for sometime for the secretive Amazon to reveal long-awaited information about its environmental compliance in the case of the new Kindle tablet.
Amazon has long been seemingly more secret than that CIA about facets of the company and the Kindle has been no exception to this rule. equests for this information have been repeatedly denied requests for information about the Kindle. Examples of this included an attempt by Joe Hutsko of the New York Times who tried to learn more Kindle's carbon footprint and reported that "phone calls and e-mail messages to Amazon inquiring about the materials in the popular Kindle device have thus far gone unanswered (Godelnik, 2011)." Also, Emma itch of the Cleantech Group wrote that "Amazon declined to provide information about…
Amazon.com. (2011). FAQs. Available: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-.
Godelnik, R. (2011). Why amazon needs to come clean about its carbon footprint. Retrieved from http://www.triplepundit.com/2011/05/amazon-carbon-footprint/ .
Google, mcdonalds and amazon dodge carbon disclosure. (2009, November 25). Retrieved from http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_round_up/369379/google_mcdonalds_and_amazon_dodge_carbon_disclosure.html .
Kaye, L. (2011, July 1). Amazon resists pressure to participate in carbon footprint disclosure project.
Green with Information Technology
There has been a corresponding growth in innovations in information technology and the recognition that companies of all sizes and types must reduce their impact on their environment by adopting so-called green practices. For micro-businesses with just one or a few employees, this may mean something as simple as recycling aluminum cans and paper, but for larger enterprises, going green may mean the investment of significant amounts of resources up front with the expectation that the payback on these investments will be worthwhile, both in terms of energy savings as well as through an improved corporate image. To determine how companies can benefit from going green today, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to provide a definition of going green with information technology, an analysis of the impact of going green with information technology on the environment, and a discussion concerning the pros…
Basile, T.J. (2008, July). A green formula. PM Network, 4, 22.
Chen, A., Dietrich, K.N. & Huo, X. (2011, April). Developmental neurotoxicants in e-waste: An emerging health concern. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(4), 37-39.
Huang, Y-C, Ding, H-B & Kao, M-R. (2009, July). Salient stakeholder voices: Family business and green innovation adoption. Journal of Management and Organization, 15(3), 9-10.
Morey, T. (2012, March/April). Going green beyond the greenhouse. The Agricultural Education
Our organization is considering the replacement of our 500 computers due to the fact that they are outdated and the advancement of computer designs .They have become obsolete and therefore it warrants for their replacement with new cones in the market and in use. Therefore this paper will ok at a plan on how this computers will be disposed and at the same time limiting any environmental impact of the computers when they are being disposed.
First I would ensure that the hard drives of the computers are thoroughly wiped. This is to ensure that no personal data of the organization is stored in the computers prior to their disposal. The biggest concern will be if the old computers are disposed with private data which might end up in the wrong hands. Alternatively the hard drives can be destroyed completely through crushing them. Once the hard drives have…
Meyer, J.M., Young, M.R., & Ella, E.A. (2009).Disposal of old computer equipment. Retrieved December 17, 2012 from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2004/704/essentials/p70.htm
Conjecture corporation. (2012).How do I dispose of my old computers? Retrieved December 17, 2012 from http://www.wisegeek.com/how-should-i-dispose-of-my-old-computer.htm
ethics of discarded computers. Discussed is John Stuart Mill's philosophy.
Response scenario: I have just worn out my fourth computer. I love a high speed computer, but I feel guilty when I buy a new one. A new computer is my top priority for a purchase, and I begin saving for a new one almost as soon as I have purchased one. I know that many people are just like me. There must be junkyards full of computers. hy is there such a waste with hardware and software in the computer industry. Should I try to get by with less? Two sources are used. APA.
Computer trash is certainly becoming a problem for societies everywhere. Some people try to make use of them by creating art, but that is a miniscule use of the millions of old computers one can see set out for the garbage men or…
Bergstrom, Bill. "Junked Computers Are Toxic Nightmare."
AP Online. May 7, 2000. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=AP_Online&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.ap.org&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=BILL+BERGSTROM%2C+AP+Business+Writer&title=Junked+Computers+Are+Toxic+Nightmare++&date=05%2D07%2D2000&query=discarded+computer+&maxdoc=60&idx=3.(accessed07-22-2002).
Fackler, Martin. "Chinese villages poisoned by American high-tech trash." AP Worldstream. March 01, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=AP_Worldstream&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.ap.org~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=MARTIN+FACKLER%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Chinese+villages+poisoned+by+American+high%2Dtech+trash++&date=03%2D01%2D2002&query=discarded+computer+&maxdoc=60&idx=5 accessed 07-22-2002).
iPad -- a Greener Option?
There is much debate on whether the iPad is a greener option than printed books. Where some believe that iPad is the greener option, some still believe print books are still the better option, especially when borrowed from a public library that spreads the carbon footprint over an entire community. Print books use 8.85 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions per book, but only when being produced. The iPad uses much less at production, but carbon dioxide emissions are spread over the lifecycle of the product and are not as easy to calculate due to how consumers use the device, electronic power sources, and the toxins involved in the materials used to produce the device.
Print book waste stems from large print overproduction in manufacturing, editorial error, and how consumers dispose of unwanted print books. Manufacturers print large quantities of books that may are not all…
Are eReaders Really Green? 1 May 2012. article from http://www.themillions.com/2012/05/are-ereaders-really-green.html . 1 May 2014.
Book Buzz - e-reader vs. paper books. 2011. article retrieved from http://ecolibirs.net/bookbuzz.asp. 2 May 2014.
Environmental Impacts of E-Books. 2011. document from http://www.greenpressinitiative.org/ducuments/e_book%20summary.pdf . 3 May 2014.
E-readers, are they Green? 2 Oct 2012. article retrieved from http://www.edissue.cm/e-readers-are-they-green. 3 May 2014.
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…
Ackermannn, T., Soder, L. (2000). Wind energy technology and current status: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(4): 315-374.
Boyle, G. (2012). Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future. UK: Oxford.
City of Tampa. (2013). Solid Waste Recycling. Tampagov.net. Retrieved from http://www.tampagov.net/solid-waste/programs/automated-recycling
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
This practically also pays big dividends for manufacturers as they continue to strive to keep their Energy STA Compliance ratings on products, leading to lower costs for power supply, electrical system integration and less product wear due to more efficient use of energy. Studies also indicate that Energy STA compliance, when designed in as part of the DfE initiatives in a PLM system, can have an exceptionally high accumulative impact as well (Preston, 2001).
Integrating DfE into PLM frameworks then not only alleviates the unnecessary and often high costs of noncompliance to federal and global mandates, this integration has also been shown to reduce the net amount of new product components necessary, further creating higher levels of reliability in products over time (Mascle, Zhao, 2008).
There are many additional benefits to integrating DfE product development practices into the broader PLM frameworks manufacturers use for designing, launching, managing and discontinuing products.…
Abramovici, M. (2007). Future trends in product lifecycle management (plm). Springer-Verlag Publishing, London, UK. (pp. 665-674).
Mike Adami-Sampson. (2007, February). Design for environmental compliance. Control Engineering, 54(2), 12-14.
Vidhi A Chaudhri. (2006). Organising Global CSR: A Case Study of Hewlett-Packard's e-inclusion Initiative*. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship,(23), 39-51.
Deathe, A., MacDonald, E., & Amos, W.. (2008). E-waste Management Programmes and the Promotion of Design for the Environment: Assessing Canada's Contributions. Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, 17(3), 319-334.
Over the last several decades, China has been going through tremendous amounts of economic growth. Since the 1990's, various Chinese cities have seen an increase of 380 million people. hile the economy, has expanded by five times as measured in GDP growth. However, the nation has also been experiencing challenges associated with the need for housing and sustainable development. One possible strategy for dealing with these issues is brownfield development. In the United States, this has been shown to be an effective tool for dealing with urban blight and managing growth inside a particular region. ("Urban Sustainability Index")
To determine if this kind of strategy can be effective in China requires measuring possible benefits. This means looking at specific cities in comparison with each other. Once this takes place, is when specific insights will be provided as to how China can deal with future economic development. Over the…
"Analysis, Tables and Figures." China Profile, 2011. Web. 16 Apr. 2012
"Asia Cities." China Post, 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2012.
"Brownfield and Redevelopment in China." China Environmental Governance, 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2012
"China's Fastest Growing Cities." Nova Southeastern, 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2012
Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation
Status of the Sustainability Movement
The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).
This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…
AT&T investments in sustainability yield results in 2010. (2011) Fierce Telecom. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.fiercetelecom.com/press_releases/att-investments-sustainability-yield-results-2010
Adelman, T. (2010). For telecom industry, energy efficiency is only half the equation. . Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2010/11/08/for-telecom-industry-energy-efficiency-is-only-half-of-the-equation/
Bakrie Telecom is the pioneer of green business. 2011. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://bataviase.co.id/node/648347
Bardelline, J. (2011). ULE creates sustainability standard for cell phones. Greenbiz.com Web site. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2011/01/06/ule-creates-sustainability-standard-mobile-phones
dialogue between theory and praxis has changed since the 60s.
Dialogue between Theory and Praxis since the 1960s
Jeff Koons is among the most controversial and intriguing artists to have emerged in the past decade. Like Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol before him, he is concerned with the transformation of everyday objects into art and takes such post-modern issues as high and low culture, context, and commodification of art as the central focus of his work (erger 1995).
From the November / December issue of At the Modern, the publication of the San Francisco MoMA, "It's the most important visual arts exhibition in San Francisco this year" (The San Francisco Examiner 1992).
Jeff Koons, the self-proclaimed "most written-about artist in the world," now headlining at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, has indubitably attained a certain "star" status. However, the Koons phenomenon - Koons himself, his objects, and the…
Berger, J. Ways of Seeing. New York: Viking Books, 1995.
Burger, P. "Avant-garde." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. 185-189.
Debord, G. The Society of the Spectacle. Zone Books, 1994.
Marcus, G. Lipstick Traces. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Sustainability Process in the Design of Construction of Sports Venues
In the United States, the construction and operation of sports stadiums create certain numbers of environmental problems. The construction projects including the sports projects consume 60% of the U.S. raw materials yearly. Moreover, the physical facilities in the United States consume 14% of the country's potable water, responsible for 38% of CO2 emissions, 30% of waste output, and 72% of electricity consumption. In most cases, construction of sports projects fails to integrate sustainable protocols in their design strategies during and after the constructions leading to the environmental degradations. Many products used to construct the facilities exteriors and interiors after or during the construction affect the environment negatively. Over the years, the U.S. government introduces series of legislations such as the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Clean Air Act (CAA) mandating the sport events stakeholders to integrate sustainability into the design…
Corporate Social Responsibility
Companies use Corporate Social Responsibility to assess their effect on the social and environmental wellbeing and take responsibility. CSR is primarily a mechanism for self-regulation. Firms track and make sure that they comply with the law, actively, including standards of ethics, international and national norms. Occasionally, the efforts by such companies may go beyond the regulatory requirements or the groups for the protection of the environment (Belfiore, 2016).
Apple Inc. has emerged as a leading global manufacturer, marketer and designer of media accessories, communications devices, portable audio players and computers. It was established in 1977 in the state of California. It is now ranked as the largest company dealing with IT; based on revenue and the total number of assets under its ownership and control. It is also ranked second in the mobile manufacturing niche. The CSR activities at Apple are spearheaded by its Vice President in…
As, they will quietly establish different security procedures and tools (i.e. surveillance cameras) to determine what kind of actions staff members are engaging in. This will help EP, to see where are: the biggest weaknesses inside the organization. At which point, they can begin to identify which employees are contributing to the problem. This is important, because one of the biggest issues facing EP is: not having any idea of the overall scope the challenges they are facing. If they can increase their surveillance, they will be able to know how big the problem really is. Once this occurs, they will have identified those individuals that are making the situation worse and can deal with them accordingly. (Kilby, 2005, pg. 41)
Clearly, the biggest problems facing EP is a lack of accountability and transparency. This is troubling, because it means that managers are unaware of the various challenges that are…
Hightower, R. (2009). Internal Controls. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kilby, J. (2005). Casino Operations Management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Next, the board members. The organization would be wise to directly approach a business leader in the community, someone with a charitable reputation who has the time and inclination to participate. Also, a business owner in the eyeglasses field would be perfect for a second board member. Group members can also be considered. Once the new three-member board has its first meeting, the articles of incorporation and bylaws can be worked out. The articles of incorporation are not difficult (viewing other nonprofits' articles can lead the way to preparing EP's articles), and bylaws can be paraphrased from other nonprofits' bylaws, and edited to specifically address EP's mission statement.
A nonprofit attorney must be brought into the meeting to review the bylaws, to help complete the tax-exempt status paperwork, and to oversee the preliminary steps that EP needs to take to become bona fide nonprofit. Once the articles of incorporation have…
Killam, Deborah. (2010) Organizational Structure: What's Right for Your Group? GroupWorks
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