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Early childhood educators need to make a thorough study of the background family and community relationship in which a child is growing up. The findings of such investigations can then be used to optimize the teaching process and dissolve any negative connotations that may work to the child's detriment. On the other hand, both the family and community can work concomitantly towards the child's success later in life. The educator therefore needs to cultivate healthy parental and community relationships for the children in his or her care.
Early childhood educators also need to be aware of legislation that could profoundly affect the structure of classes, as well as the demographic and number of students that they can reasonably be expected to teach. One such bill is the 2008 chool Finance Act, signed by Gov. Ritter (Dreyer, 2008). The bill involves allowing a large number of at-risk children aged between 3…
Committee on Education and Labor. Early Childhood Education. http://edlabor.house.gov/issues/earlychildhood.shtml
Dreyer, Evan. (2008, May 14). Landmark Education Bills Signed. http://www.colorado.gov/cs/Satellite/GovRitter/GOVR/1210756524030
OECD (2006). Starting Strong II: Early childhood education and care. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/14/37423831.pdf
130). Interestingly, the research suggests that there is no specific early childhood pedagogy that is inherently superior rather what is important is that children receive exposure to learning as soon as possible. "hile no single curriculum or pedagogical approach can be identified as best, children who attend well-planned, high- quality early childhood programs in which curriculum aims are specified and integrated across domains tend to learn more and are better prepared to master the complex demands of formal schooling" ("Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers," 2000, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, p.307).
One of the problems in demonstrating the efficacy of early childhood education programs such as Head Start, is that they are almost by definition measured for their ultimate efficacy in a long-term fashion. Experimental studies are less valuable than correlational studies because of their short duration, but studies in the field can be affected by…
Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers." (2000). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Retrieved 13 May 2008 at http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068363/html/index.html
Explain what the research suggests about childhood development that supports the need for early childhood development programs.
Analyze to what extent and in what manner early childhood development programs are made available throughout the U.S.
Determine, based on current trends and empirical research (above), if this current status is sufficient. Explain.
Early Childhood Education
One of the key roles of childhood care providers is to prepare children for school through curricula that assist children nurture their individual cognitive, physical, emotional, and social skills, and at the same time helps instructors respond to the needs, interests, and abilities of each child under their care. Cognitive development is of particular importance in this case, equipping children with knowledge on, among other things, measurement and patterns; shapes and numbers; and counting techniques (Childcare Aware, 2014). This area of child development is best built through play. A report by the Manitoba Early Learning and Childhood Curriculum framework, for instance, recommends the development of children's cognitive and intellectual skills through related experiences - such as allowing them to experiment with a variety of cardboard boxes and tubes.
Furthermore, such play activities nurture a child's social skills, equipping them with the skills necessary for interacting, negotiating, and…
Childcare Aware. (2014). Child Care Providers. Childcare Aware. Retrieved 19 September 2014 from http://www.childcareaware.org/child-care-providers
Manitoba Childcare Program. (n.d.). Early Returns: Manitoba's Early Learning and Childcare Curriculum Framework. Manitoba Childcare Program. Retrieved 22 September 2014 from http://www.gov.mb.ca/fs/childcare/pubs/early_returns_en.pdf
NAEYC. (2014). Our Mission. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Retrieved 22 September 2014 from http://www.naeyc.org/about/mission
Smith, M.K. (2008). Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved 19 September 2014 from http://infed.org/mobi/howard-gardner-multiple-intelligences-and-education/
In its most basic sense, play provides a mechanism for a young child to address him or herself and engage with others in a way that precludes feelings of immaturity and inferiority. "Play" invokes a world not limited by temporal boundaries of age and accomplishment and forces a child to relate to the world around him or her. In dramatic, physical, and celebratory play, children are able to develop social skills that help them in both structured and unstructured environments as it is incorporated into the early childhood curriculum.
Allen and Marotz, K.E. And L.R. Developmental Profiles. 3rd Edition. anada: Delmar Publishers, 1999.
Berk, Laura E. Infants, hildren, and Adolescents. 5th Edition. Boston: Allen & Bacon, 2005.
urriculum ouncil. "Phases of Development: Early hildhood." The Scope of urriculum. Seattle: University of Washington, 2004.
King, Nancy. "Play: The kindergartner's Perspective." The Elementary School Journal. Vol. 80, No. 2. Nov., 1979.
Curriculum Council. "Phases of Development: Early Childhood." The Scope of Curriculum. Seattle: University of Washington, 2004.
Olsen and Sumsion, A. And J. "Early Childhood Teacher Practices Regarding the Use of Dramatic Play in the Classrooms." Australia: Macquarie University Institute of Early Childhood, 2005. p. 5.
Spodek, p. 213.
".. other living species,... also with the total environment in which we live." They explain the human ecosystem to include three fundamental organizing conceptions: the human environed unit (HEU); the natural environment (NE); the human constructed environment (HCE).
The following diagram portrays "The Human Ecosystem":
Bubolz, Eicher, and Sontag (1979, p. 29)
The human environed unit (HEU) displayed in the center is located in a specific space in time and can be a sole person or a group, i.e. A family; village; town, etc. The natural environment (NE) constitutes the environment.".. formed by nature with spec-time, physical, and biological components." (Ibid) The human constructed environment (HCE) is described as an environment that humans have constructed, created or changed and includes.".. cultural patterns, such as technology, language, laws, values and aesthetic standards...." (Ibid) These cultural patterns provide the foundation for communication; order, etc.
The human behavioral environment (HBE) is defined as…
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2000).
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Asmal, Kader. (2001). "Meeting the Challenge of Early Childhood Development in South Africa." Education White Paper 5 on Early Childhood Education. Retrieved at (http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:0GxuaEQIyu0J:www.info.gov.za/whitepapers/2001/educ179.pdf+%E2%80%9CMeeting+the+Challenge+of+Early+Childhood+Development+in+South+Africa.%E2%80%9D+(2001).Education+White+Paper+5+on+Early+Childhood+Educat&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1.
Bubolz, Margaret M.,Eicher, Joanne B. & Sontag, M. Suzanne / (1979). Michigan Agricultural
Early Childhood Diverse Learners Project
ECE (early childhood education) programs include all sorts of academic programs used to educate children in pre-school years. The early educational system in America experienced significant growth during the latter half of the 20th century. This particular trend allowed most of the children in America to at least have access to some sort of ECE. There are different kinds of ECE programs, and they go by a variety of names such as pre-kindergarten and pre-school. (Advameg, 2020).
Name of Public School Selected for the Project: Chicago Public Schools – Bennett Elementary
Demographic overview of the early childhood setting
The school is meant for pre-school kids (aged between 3 to 5 years). The school’s physical surrounding is specially designed to meet the needs of all children, and it has two pre-school classrooms. One classroom has 18 students (aged…
meeting DAP standards while developing your educational program.
Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) standards reflect research in developmental psychology, showing how educators and program directors can adapt an evidence-based practice to meet the needs of all students. While developing my own educational program, knowledge of the DAP philosophy and standards will help me reduce achievement gaps in my classrooms, while remaining a flexible and responsive leader. Learning about DAP standards will impact future human resources decisions as well as all decisions related to resource allocation.
Moreover, DAP standards are particularly effective for educators and administrators like me, who work in challenging environments with a diverse student body. I will continue to work with parents and members of the community to promote DAP standards in culturally appropriate and sensitive ways, with the overall goal of helping each child attain maximum achievement throughout the course of early childhood education. A firm foundation in…
California Department of Education (2015). Preschool learning foundations, Vol. 1. Retrieved online: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/psfoundationsvol1intro.asp
NAEYC (2009). Key messages from the position statement. Retrieved online: http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/KeyMessages.pdf
Childhood Education Proposal
Location: Anywhere, America
Family Childcare & Preschool Center
Hours: 7am -- 7pm
Ages Served: Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers from 2 to 6
EcoCare is a complete family-supportive facility designed to build learning and growing resiliency into the children and parents we serve. Children who are resilient have self-control and self-regulation, which will allow them to learn and use learning skills as they move into a formal classroom setting. We believe this will enable the children to be comfortable in their natural explorations while at the same time being equipped to handle the frustrations that come with taking in new ideas, knowledge and the acceptance of learning in general. Our unique approach achieves its appeal by using recognized learning approaches and integrating them into a safe setting where environmental awareness and respect always point to a better future for all.
EcoCare Vision Statement: Encouraging resiliency in…
Boschee, M. And Jacobs, G., (1998). Ingredients for Quality Child Care, National Network for Child Care. Viewable at http://www.nncc.org/choose.quality.care/ingredients.html.
Food Safety, (n.d.). Food Safety in a child care setting: Self-Learning Module. Viewable at http://www.theeducationteam.com/education/food_safety.htm.
NAEYC, 2008. Teacher-Child Ratios within group size. National Association for the Education of Young Children. Viewable at http://www.naeyc.org/files/academy/file/Teacher-Child_Ratio_Chart_9_16_08.pdf .
Oswalt, A. (n.d.). Child & Adolescent Development Overviews: Lawrence Kohlberg and Jean Piaget. Gulf Bend Center. Viewable respectively at http://www.gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7928&cn=28 and http://www.gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7929&cn=28 .
Science may not be able to absolutely determine laws of human social development for all groups. In fact, a large majority of studies focus on a white, middle class population sample and therefore cannot be generalized to the entire population. Science is in itself a social construction, reflecting the biases, values, and beliefs of its practitioners. Because of its role in our society, science also perpetuates existing social hierarchies and power structures.
Postmodern theorists have responded with two suggestions for change. First, educators should include ideas and concepts from multiple disciplines to ensure an expansive set of knowledge and to validate multiple forms of human experience. Second, educators should discuss childhood development in context and with references to social and cultural realities.
Because childhood developmental theories continue to predominate, researchers lack consensus regarding developmentally appropriate practices. Incorporating postmodern theories in early childhood education training can held future educators and current…
Alloway, N. (1999). Surveillance or personal empowerment? Macro and micro politics of gender and schooling, in B. Kamler (Ed.), Constructing gender and difference: Critical research perspectives on early childhood (pp. 153-166). Cresskill: Hampton.
Browne, N. (2004). Gender equity in the early years. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.
Goffin, S. (1996). Child development knowledge and early childhood teacher preparation: Assessing the relationship -- A special collection. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 11, 117-133.
Goldstein, L.S. (1997). Teaching with love: A feminist approach to early childhood education. New York: Peter Lang.
This helps both groups understand disabilities and deal with them. Blind children use their remaining senses to navigate their surroundings and interact with others. Some may even rely on seeing-eye dogs that come into the classroom. This can help bond the blind child with the other children, and help them understand disability and rehabilitation. Blind children may also use adaptive devices, such as optical readers, or they may learn Braille. The teacher should explain how these devices work to the other children so they understand how they aid the blind child in the learning process.
Many states offer vision services to help screen children for vision problems at a young age. In addition, there are many Websites with resources for the teacher and blind student. Some of the best include:
American Federation for the Blind:
What Families Need to Know:
Early Childhood Services:
Intervention may include interaction…
Dunlap, Linda L. An Introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1997.
K. And the U.S. can both learn from these emerging nations and their dedication to improving the lives of their children.
Brazil, for example, leads the E-9 countries in per-capita expenditures for young children (Levin 2005, p. 198). China has committed to the universalization of preschool education (children ages 3-6) in urban areas by 2015, to increasing enrollment in one-year programs in rural areas, and increasing overall enrollment in preschool education. India has likewise committed to improved programs and access for its 3- to 6-year-olds, but has not established a timeframe in which to accomplish its goal. Indonesia has no standardized a preschool program, although there is a curriculum for public kindergartens. Schooling for preschoolers tends to emphasize creativity and good hygiene, and strongly support informal playgroups and parent education (Levine 2005, p. 199). In many ways, these programs do not compare with programs in the U.K. And the U.S.…
Bertram, T & Pascal, C 2002, 'Early years education: An international perspective' International
Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks (INCA). Retrieved from http://inca.org.uk
Bracken, B & Crawford, E 2010, 'Basic concepts in early childhood educational standards: A
50-state review' Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 421-430.
children and I have been privileged that most of the focus of my work experience has been in this field. At present I have completed my A.A. In early childhood education and I am seeking the deeper and more in-depth understanding of the field that only a four-year undergraduate degree can provide. The Early Care and Education program of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst is ideally suited to my professional needs, orientation, and aptitudes.
The UMass program in Early Care and Education was specifically created to help childcare workers already in the field of practice obtain a degree while still working full-time. Many Head Start and other educational programs for young children now require a B.A. As part of the requirements of the job, or will do so in the future. This is understandable -- it is an acknowledgement of the knowledge needed of psychology, early development, and other…
Lunenburg offers a series of suggestions for parents than can effectively aide the parent in home teaching, an essential aspect of child development and school readiness. Those which are applicable tot the ECE classroom are as follows:
1. ead to preschool children at least 20 minutes a day. egular reading to children is one of the most important activities parents can do with their children to improve their readiness for school, serve as their child's first teacher, and instill a love of books and reading.
2. Keep good books, magazines, and newspapers in the house; the home can mirror the school in this respect. Make it easy - both for adults and children - to find something interesting to read.
3. Add to children's enjoyment of reading by discussing each book they read. Discussing the book familiarizes children with story components such as character, plot, action, and sequence and…
Dahlberg, G., & Moss, P. (2005). Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Domrowski, S.C., & Gischlar, K.L. (2006). Supporting School Professionals through the Establishment of a School District Policy on Child Maltreatment. Education, 127(2), 234.
Edwards, C., Gandini, L., & Forman, G. (Eds.). (1998). The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach -- Advanced Reflections (2nd ed.). Greenwich, CT: Ablex.
Etscheidt, S. (2006). Least Restrictive and Natural Environments for Young Children with Disabilities: A Legal Analysis of Issues. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26(3), 167.
Nature versus Nurture
Nature versus nurture discussion is the psychological conversation that has been around for so many years, and the definition given to nature is that of pre-wiring which is mostly influenced by people’s genetic inheritance plus other biological factors. Nurture, on the other hand, is an influence that comes from external forces after the conception of an individual. That is, it looks at the exposure of the product, experience, and individual learning processes. Therefore, the debate of nature versus nurture has major concerns that are relative to the contribution that would influence both human behaviors. Therefore, the debate is centered on the relative influences of genetic makeup and the environment factors responding to human development. In concert, one has to look at nature and nurture because it shapes the developmental pathways and outcomes of an individual, from health to behavior to competence (Keating, 2011).
Teacher’s Goals and Objectives…
Hong, S. Y., Torquati, J., & Molfese, V. J. (2013). Theory-guided professional development in early childhood science education. In Learning Across the Early Childhood Curriculum (pp. 1-32). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Keating, D. P. (2011). Nature and nurture in early childhood development. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Nutbrown, C., & Clough, P. (2014). Early childhood education: History, philosophy, and experience. Thousands Oak, California: SAGE Publications.
Investigating Balls, Investigating Trees, Investigating Nature, Investigating Babies, K-Stem, Language Arts
1. Investigating Balls
a. Briefly describe the classroom setting and summarize the virtual lesson
The virtual lesson used physical balls to teach children a litany of exercises and behavior. Per the video, the teachers used balls to instruct students on principles related to physics and also physical fitness activities such as basketball. Teachers were initially hesitant as they believe children would use the balls to simply play. Instead the children used the ball to learn varied activities such as dribbling a basketball or the power of gravity.
b. Discuss the teaching approaches, methods, techniques and strategies were used in the classroom.
Teaching approaches were varied. The primarily teaching method was that of hands on learning. Teachers, for example, brought in university basketball players to demonstrate techniques related to the ball. They also build real life model that children could use when learning about gravity…
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…
Early childhood education is instrumental in a child’s life because it facilitates the developmental process. Children learn to develop relationships outside their immediate family; they acquire language, reading, mathematics and science skills even if on only a rudimentary fundamental level; and they begin the process of self-actualization, even at this young age. Early childhood education impacts the child be providing a safe and stable environment in which the child can explore, learn, interact with teachers and peers and observe model behavior that can shape the child’s psychological and behavioral development. Early childhood education impacts society by providing a foundation for life-long learning at an early age that can carry over throughout the years as the child grows.
Families benefit from early childhood education by being given educational support and training that can ease them of the burden of providing lessons for their children and leave it in the hands of…
Conversely, where the exhibit is actively incorporated into a lesson on the moral basis for sensitivity to animals, the existing educational environment contributes to the formation of a moral conscience even where direction of that kind is lacking at home.
In very much the same way, the preschool and primary grade school environment is conducive to teaching other important moral values that are often postponed until much later, despite the fact that early introduction to those concepts is much more likely to result in their absorption than later introduction. acism, sexism, and other forms of bias that are no longer condoned in American society are also capable of being addressed in the preschool years so that those important lessons take root before contradictory messages are received from the external environment.
Informal Assessment of Social and Emotional Well-being in Children:
All too often, educators and other caregivers perform their professional responsibilities…
Bimonte, R. (2005) "If your class were optional, would anyone attend?" Momentum, 36(4), 6.
Byerly, S. (2001). "Linking classroom teaching to the real world through experiential instruction." Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 697.
Cookson, P. (2005). "The enriched classroom." Education Module, 35(4), 10.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
Orientation will be held in a similar way, with parents exposed to Hahn's philosophy and rationale of the school curriculum, introduced to each of the teachers and invited to participate in joining in the various activities. Monthly reports will summarize the monthly events. Yearly reports will summarize the institution's annual achievement.
Description of assessment process used to document children's progress.
The Work Sampling System will be used which is a comprehensive assessment system for children in preschool though third grade. This consists of:
1. A modified Developmental checklist, arranged by 4 of the customary 7 domains: social development, language, art and music, and physical development.
2. Portfolios of children's work collected three or more times and year
3. Summary reports, written by teachers three times a year based upon their observations and ongoing records (Valeska Hinton early childhood educational center, Peoria, Illinois).
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn.…
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn. Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/sixdeclinesofmodernyouth.html
Esquith. R. (2009) Lighting their fires: raising extraordinary kids in a mixed-up, muddled-up, shook-up world. New York: Viking
Four antidotes to the declines of modern youth -- Kurt Hahn Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/fourantidotes.html
Dr. Kurt Hahn www.wilderdom.com/KurtHahn.html
Education in Early Childhood
Early childhood programs are the first source of information and knowledge for the young minds that have just started to explore the world. It is high time when the child's brain and thoughts would be steered in any direction as they are raw and hungry for knowledge. The future development is based on the foundations set in this age as a strong base would help in lifelong learning and social and cognitive development.
One key trend that is transforming early childhood programs is the increased use of technology, which has proved useful in current pandemic times. Children of today are already living in a digital age since the previous generation thought television was the newest form of technology (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2012). Now, children are well-aware of mobiles, laptops, and tablets that have been increasingly used in schools for better knowledge…
Blackwell, C.K., Lauricella, A.R. & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers and Education, 77, 82-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.013
Cassidy, J., Jones, J.D. & Shaver, P.R. (2014). Contributions of attachment theory and research: A framework for future research, translation, and policy. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4 Pt 2), 1415-1434. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579413000692
Cherry, K. (2020, March 31). The 4 stages of cognitive development. Very Well Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/piagets-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457
Delgado, P. (2019, October 22). The importance of parental involvement in teaching. Observatory. Retrieved from https://observatory.tec.mx/edu-news/the-importance-of-parental-involvement-in-teaching
Edarabia. (n.a.). 7 domains of early childhood development. Retrieved from https://www.edarabia.com/7-domains-of-early-childhood-development/
Horsburgh, J. & Ippolito, K. (2018). A skill to be worked at: Using social learning theory to explore the process of learning from role models in clinical settings. BMC Medical Education, 18(156). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1251-x
Kelly. (2016, January 13). Childcare qualifications needed to work in childcare. Early Years Careers. Retrieved from https://www.earlyyearscareers.com/eyc/qualifications-and-training/childcare-qualifications-needed-to-work-in-childcare/
Kharrazi, S.K. & Delgoshaee, Y. (2010). Cognitive approach towards education and its impact on social responsibility of pre-school children. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 2174-2177. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.432
[I also had my students write how they would say it out loud when naming it. Example: "Line AB or line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."] Below is information on how students should label rays, lines, etc.
1. ay - the endpoint letter first, then a second point with a line ending in an arrow over the two letters, pointing to the right.
2. Point - a dot and then the point's letter.
3. Line - Two points on the line with a line with arrows in both directions above the letters.
4. Segment - the two endpoint letters of the segment with a line, no arrows, above the two letters
5. Intersecting - (AB x BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The x stands for intersects.
6. Parallel - (AB…
Baiker, K. And J. Robinson. (2004). Origami Math: Easy-to-Make Reproducible Activities that
Build Concepts, Skills, and Vocabulary in Geometry, Fractions, measurement, and More.
Minneapolis: Scholastic Books.
Bedford, M. (2007). Memorization: The Neglected Key to Learning. Efficacy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.efficacy.org/Resources/TheEIPointofView / tabid/233/ctl/ArticleView / mid/678/articleId/84/Memorization-the-Neglected-Key-to-Learning.aspx
seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.
When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he…
Bornstein, D. (2013). Protecting Children from Toxic Stress. New York Times.
Felitti, M., Vincent, J., Anda, M., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M., & Williamson, M. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245 -- 258.
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, --151.
Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: a promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997.
Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.
Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.
Mr. Cardot is doing a great job using extrinsic motivation, but what would really help his students to grasp the concept of setting in stories would be to increase the use of intrinsic motivation. Increasing intrinsic motivation requires Mr. Cardot to connect with this second grade class, understanding their needs and creating lessons that are responsive to their needs to be "competent, connected, and in control," (Chapter 12, p. 451). Being competent, connected, and in control simply means that the students need to be challenged just enough. As Woolfolk puts it, "Moderate difficulty provides a challenge, but not an unreasonable one," (p. 452). Lessons that are too difficult might end up creating long-term problems in the classroom including learned helplessness and frustration.
Perhaps the lessons on setting have been over their heads, offering concepts or vocabulary that they are unfamiliar with and so are not responding. It is also possible…
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
infancy early childhood. Include: Explain families affect
Early Childhood and Adulthood
There are a number of key facets and processes that occur during infancy and early childhood that profoundly affect an individual's growth and development. Some of these factors include early childhood education, a variety of parenting styles, as well as familial involvement in cognitive and physical development. All of these factors indicate that parents and surrounding family members play a highly important role in the development of infants and young children.
One of the most eminent ways in which families produce a direct influence on their children is through the establishment and implementation of rituals or routines. The repetitive nature of these daily constructs provides a valuable structuring for activities that has been linked to cognitive and emotional processes in children and infants -- most discernibly when there is a break or a shifting in a particular ritual that…
Spagnola, M., Fiese, B.H. (2007). "Family routines and rituals: a context for development in the lives of young children." Infants and Young Children. 20 (4): 284-299.
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Male Teacher etention in Early Childhood Programs: Why They Stay.
quick glance into any elementary, preschool or child care center quickly reveals that very few men work with young children. This cursory observation is solidly supported by the fact that fewer than five percent of all early childhood teachers in the United States are male (U.S. Department of Education, 1994).
There are a wide variety of reasons why so few men remain in the field of early childhood education. These reasons include suspicion, subtle discrimination, social isolation, pressure to move into administrative position away from children, and a double standard for behavior and performance (Sargent, 2001).
Importantly, the recent upsurge of reports of sexual and physical abuse in schools has made many male teachers feel vulnerable to unfounded charges of sexual or physical abuse against children in their care. Certainly, our societal tendency to see males as perpetrations of violent…
Kennedy, N.M. 1991. Policy issues in teacher education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72: 658-665.
Neugebauer, R. 1994. Recruiting and training men in your center. Child Care Information Exchange, May: 8-11.
Robinson, B. Vanishing Breed: Men in Child Care Programs, Young Children, Sept 1988.
Sargent, P. 2001. Real men or real teachers: Contradictions in the lives of men elementary school teachers. Harriman, TN: Men's Studies Press.
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.
Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).
For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2).…
Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved
January 26, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/ .
Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
II. DEVELOPMENT TIMING VARIED AMONG INDIVIDUALS
It is necessary that the teacher of early childhood individuals understand that different individuals develop at different rates and that this is due to "differing physiological factors and differing experiences." (Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood, nd) in a 2005 news report of the National Academies Education & Research entitled: "Timeout for Child Policy" relates that the United States "has not made the most of scientific knowledge about children's development between birth and age 5 - a period that sets the stage for their intellectual and emotional growth. y and large, what currently exists for America's children is a mixed bag of policies and practices...." (National Academies, 2005)
III. RESULT WHEN TEACHERS DOES NOT UNDERSTAND
In the case where a teacher does not understand the stages of development of children and where the teacher fails to understand that children develop at different rates…
Growth Stages: Infancy and Early Childhood - Science for All Americans (nd) online available at http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/growth1_teachsheet.pdf
What Early Language Teachers Need to Know About Language (2000) Center for Applied Linguistics? November 2000. online available at http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0007bredekamp.html
Timeout for Child Policy (2005) NewsReport Online. The National Academies. Online available at http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/newsrpt/fal00edr.htm
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
The idea of developmentally appropriate practices was made popular by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) when the published their Position Statement on Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Programs in 1987. NAEYC developed this position statement in order to support its early childhood program accreditation system, which recognizes and sanctions programs that offer appropriate early childhood practices. Because of this system, early childhood educators can have a clear idea of suitable early childhood practices. This way they might not use inappropriate developmental and academic expectations to prepare children for public school kindergarten programs (Houser and Osborne, n.d.).
Having regulations such as the CA State licensing egulations, Title 22, helps to make sure that all of the fundamental elements of DAP and NAYEC are in place and are supporting the early childhood programs philosophies. These regulations are needed in order to make sure that quality…
Accreditation of Programs for Young Children. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2010, from NAEYC
Web site: http://www.naeyc.org/academy/
Bolen, Ed. (2008). Analysis of Title 22 and Title 5 Regulations Affecting Preschool Programs.
Retrieved May 12, 2010, from Web site:
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…
Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.
Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf
CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf
fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
" [EU: I.III, 3]
Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.
However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.
Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
Social Change and Positive Outcomes for Young Children and Families
As an individual who has been involved in learning about and enacting various measures to implement early childhood education, I have entertained several different philosophies and methodologies on this subject. Therefore, I believe that I am more than qualified to identify what the aims of early childhood education are. Prior to denoting what those aims are, I believe it is relevant to discuss some of my experience within this field, which has encompassed working with small and large groups, individuals, and partaking in a number of conferences and conversations with both teachers, administrators and parents, which is a part of "school accountability" (Wong and Wang, 2010, p. 163). What I have learned from my experience within this field is that the principle objectives of this particular discipline are to provide the foundation for children to effectively mold and shape the…
Hardin, B.J., & Hung, H.F. (2011). A cross-cultural comparison of services for young children with disabilities using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA). Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(2), 103-114.
Wong, M.N.C., Wang, X.C., (2010). Accountability and quality in early childhood education: Perspectives from Asia. Early Education and Development, 21(2), 163-166.
World Forum Foundation
Spiritual Development of Children and Education
Ruth Wilson (2010) in the work entitled "The Spiritual Life of Children" writes that there is an expanding body of evidence which "indicates that children have spiritual capacities and experiences which shape their lives in powerful and enduring ways." (p. 24) Included in these capacities and experiences are those of: (1) wonder; (2) wondering; (3)relational spirituality; and (4) wisdom. (p. 24) It is suggested in the theories relating to development of cognition that young children do not have the necessary "intellectual capacity for meaningful reflection and thus cannot have a genuine spiritual life." (Wilson, 2010, p. 24)
In countries such as England, Australia, the United States and New Zealand there is a growth in the interest of ensuring that "spirituality is addressed within the curriculum of both primary and secondary education in both state and church related settings." (Hyde, 2008, p. 16)The National Curriculum…
Grajczonek, J. (2010) Spiritual Development and Religious Education in the Early Years: A Review of the Literature. Queensland Catholic Education Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.qcec.catholic.edu.au/upload/publicsite/Education/Final_Spiritual%20Development%20%20Religious%20Education%20in%20the%20Early%20Years_A%20Review%20of%20the%20Literature.pdf
Hyde, B. (2008) Children and Spirituality: Searching for Meaning and Connectedness. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 15 Jan, 2008. Retrieved from: Jhttp://books.google.com/books?id=dcPuw2pwqQgC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Myers, Joyce Eady (nd) Children's Spiritual Development: Analysis of Program Practices and Recommendations for Early Childhood Professional. Early Childhood Education.
Richardson, R. (2010) Spirituality and Education. Mills River Educational Cooperative. Italy, Jan 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.campcaravan.org/d_about_us/ed_and_spirituality.html
integration of computer technology (and especially reading software) into classrooms vis-a-vis improvement of reading development in early childhood education. For the purpose of this study, reading development includes a range of skills, including letter recognition, sound identification and basic comprehension and retrieval. The age ranged focused on in this study is birth through age eight, and is focused on a range of educational setting.
The primary source of information on this topic came from a survey of the literature, but this secondary information was supplemented by observation and surveying of two teachers with different approaches to teaching reading. The results of this observational study that I performed are somewhat inconclusive, due in large measure to the significant limitation placed on the story by the size of the group being studied.
However, while certainly more could have been learned if the sample had been larger than two (the sample had originally…
Once this occurs, is when their horizons are expanded from taking this kind of focus. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Authentic inclusion of children with varying abilities
The educator will take into account the child's abilities and will steer them in a direction that enhances them. This takes place by sparking their interest in a variety of areas. When this happens, the student will have a desire to want to learn more. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Building parent / family relationships
Family relationships are built by working with the parents and children to create curriculum which is supporting these objectives. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
How do you think your findings on this research compare with Global Quality Guidelines?
Why is it important to be critical about the research you read, especially as it relates to the experiences of young children and families who cultures may…
Global Guidelines. (2014). World Forum Foundation. Retrieved from: http://worldforumfoundation.org
Burger, K. (2010). How does Early Childhood Care and education affect cognitive development? An International review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140-165
Harcourt, D. (2012). Standpoints on quality: Listening to children in Verona, Italy. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 19-26
Howes, C. (2010). Culture and Child Development in Early Childhood Programs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
family probably feels occasional loneliness and isolation due to the parents being migrant workers. To strengthen family and community bonds in a way that respects the family's privacy, I would first approach them to offer a warm welcome gift. If the family seemed receptive to socializing and integrating with the community, then I would be able to take the relationship a step further. Otherwise, it would be wrong to assume that the family is interested in immediately engaging in social activities that are artificial, structured, and potentially of no interest to them. It is important to understand the cultural variables that are at stake too. If the family speaks different languages than the ones already spoken in our community, it might be helpful to find some way of learning about that family's language and culture. The children should be encouraged to talk about their background, their way of life, and…
National Education Association (2014). Code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.nea.org/home/30442.htm
"Twelve Principles of Child Development and Learning that Inform Practice," (n.d.). NAEYC. Retrieved online: https://www.naeyc.org/dap/12-principles-of-child-development
SPECIAL EDUCATION & EALY CHILDHOOD
Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood
Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof
Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
ising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families
My goal is to make a positive change in the lives of young children, families, and the early childhood field by targeting childhood poverty.
Poverty is increasing most rapidly in families with young children. While poverty only rose by 1.3% in the childless 30-64 age bracket, it rose by nearly 8% in families with a head under 30 years old with one or more children in the home (Sum, 2011). In fact, young families with children are more than six times as likely to be impoverished as older families (Sum, 2011). This marks a shift in communities at-risk for poverty, from the elderly to children (Sum, 2011). In addition, this wealth disparity is not only visible among the impoverished. "By 2010, slightly more than one-third of the nation's young families were poor or near poor, up by nearly 10 percentage points from…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx
Engle, P. & Black, M. (2008). The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243-256. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from Digital Commons website: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=psycd_fac
Salopek, J. (2010). Homelessness: Creating a welcoming classroom for homeless students.
Association for Staff and Curriculum Development, 52(6).
EC Assessment & Intervention
Background Information elated to Diagnostic Test
Diagnostic Test -- Developmental Area of Concern
At the Playground.
Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Goals
Cognitive Instructional Goal
Motor Instructional Goal
Physical Instructional Goal
Language Instructional Goal
The purpose of early childhood assessment is to document the present status of the child with regard to developmental milestones and to identify any developmental areas that require follow-up assessment or follow-along. Assessment of very young children needs to be integral to their daily activities. Children change very rapidly and it is too easy to assume that they have reached developmental milestones in all areas: marked development in one area can distract caregivers and therapists from a deficit or an area in which development is occurring at a slower rate than typical. ecording the developmental progress of children is not an onerous task if it is…
____. (2010, May). Developmental Checklists Birth to Five, The Early Childhood Direction Center. ASQ-SE-Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Retrieved http://ecdc.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/Developmental_checklists_Updated2012.pdf
____. (2014). The HighScope Difference. HighScope. Retreived http://www.highscope.org/
Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Thinking and speech. In R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume 1: Problems of general psychology (pp. 39 -- 285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934.) Retreived http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a number of questions relating to child psychology and the development thereof as a child ages and grows. The primary source of answers that shall be used for the answers shall be the tenth chapter of the Berger book. However, the text itself offers other sources and there is a wealth of information on the topics to be discussed in the scholarly sphere. While every child is different and thus develops in their own way, there are tried and true patterns and standards that most children are held to based on the development and progress of millions of prior children.
Emotional development is indeed something that is very strong and in motion when it comes to the early childhood time. As a young child grows, this is when their emotional regulation comes into focus and this in…
Berger, K. (2012). The developing person through childhood. New York: Worth Publishers.
Enright, T. (2015). Encouraging Your Child's Socio-Dramatic Play. Child Development Institute. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from https://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-activities/encouraging-your-childs-socio-dramatic-play/
McLeod, S. (2016). Psychosexual Stages - Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychosexual.html
Snow, K. (2016). Bullying in Early Childhood - National Association for the Education of Young Children - NAEYC. Naeyc.org. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://www.naeyc.org/blogs/bullying-early-childhood
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.htm)
It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63
Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54
California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254
John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
Early Child Learning
What is the basic meaning of the term data-supported (or data driven) instruction?
The basic meaning of the term data-supported instruction is that individuals should utilize practices that are supported by data as the foundation for their teaching methods to use with students. There are a number of different teaching methodologies that one can employ that are either corroborated or unsubstantiated by quantifiable data. Data-driven instruction is largely based on analytics and various forms of analyzing data. Many of these different forms are based on statistics. However, the point of these analytics is that instructors can actually determine -- in advance to using them in their own classrooms -- best practices for teaching that are demonstrable due to findings that are rooted in data. As such, there is less need to rely on instinct and it is becoming mor readily available to utilize data to influence any…
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.
There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.
Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…
Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., Unruh, D., & Waintrup, M. (2004). Sustaining Secondary Transition Programs in Local Schools. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 39+.
Field, S., & Hoffman, a. (2002). Lessons Learned from Implementing the Steps to Self-Determination Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 23(2), 90+.
Education Project Proposal (Nursing)
This study is intended to educate the patients (within the age group of 8-12) about the post operative treatment approaches and to prepare them to face the situation. As the main audience is the pediatric patients who have gone trough a kidney transplant, we will focus on the recovery issues with respect to this audience. This study will help these patients to learn about the general issues related to recovery of their wounds, the nutrition they are supposed to adopt during the recovery stage and the physical activity that is expected to be maintained by them. This educational activity is important for the patients because a thorough understanding of the recovery process is very important for the patient.
With an understanding of the process the patient will be able to cooperate with the nursing staff and will more actively participate in the process. From this program,…
Barbara A. Nilsen: Week by Week: Plans for Observing and Recording Young Children: Delmar Learning, January 1997
Evelyn A. Petersen: Practical Guide to Early Childhood Planning, Methods and Materials, A: The What, Why and How of Lesson Plans: Allyn & Bacon, November 1995
Linda M. Bambara & Tim Knoster: Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans: Amer Assn Mental Retardation: January 1998
Barbara Stevens Barnum: Teaching Nursing in the Era of Managed Care: Springer Publication Company, March 1999
his is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. his also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. here are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in…
This is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. This also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. There are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in adulthood (Evans & Kim 2007). The prolonged stress that this can lead to has been linked to many health problems, like any other form of prolonged stress, but the cumulative effects of continued conditions of poverty often exacerbate the problem still further (Evans & Kim 2007). It can even lead to a lack of ability to fully regulate stress, and this leads to many issues in the employment world, including memory issues, the ability to handle work-related stress including deadlines and other common features of modern jobs, which simply leads to more stress and again, reduced productivity (Evans & Schamberg 2009). The problems of childhood poverty easily become self-perpetuating due to the reduced productivity of adults that grew up in poverty.
This is not merely evidenced from a medical and psychological perspective, but by direct economic research as well. Writing in the New York Times, Eckholm (2007) details recent findings that adults who were raised in poverty not only end up less productive, but typically also have higher costs associated with health problems and other issues. Intervention, then, must occur early and must come form an outside source if the cycle is to be broken. It is, of course, unfortunately impractical to think that poverty could simply be alleviated, but there are ways to mitigate the effects of childhood poverty so that they are not as exposed to risks either in childhood or in adulthood, giving greater