Early Childhood Education Essays (Examples)

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Early Childhood Edu the Importance

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47514862

Porch (2002) points out that research unequivocally shows that early childhood education paves the way for later educational success.

As of now, few states offer fully funded early childhood education programs. As of 2002, only three states offered fully-funded pre-kindergarten programs (Porch 2002). The fundamental purpose of the Early Childhood Development Initiative was to increase awareness of the importance of early childhood education. Yet more work needs to be done to ensure government support of early childhood development programs and not just lip service.

Kagan (2004) suggests some possible solutions to the lack of comprehensive funding for early childhood education programs for every American. Urban areas should be the number one recipient for federal and state funding, given that most of the nation's disadvantaged students live in urban centers and attend urban schools. Furthermore, wise investments into appropriate early childhood education programs will ensure that the taxpayer funds are spent well and on the type of education that young children need most to succeed.

Until early childhood education programs are universal in the United States, programs need to seek outside support from charitable donations. However, those donations are limited and often tied into special interest groups that should not be…… [Read More]


Early Childhood Cognitive Development." The White House. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/firstlady/initiatives/education/readingprograms.html

Kagan, S.L. (2004). Improving Urban Student Achievement Through Early Childhood Reform: What State Policymakers Can Do. Early Childhood Reform. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/50/07/5007.htm

Porch, S. (2002). Early Childhood Education Issues. Educational Research Service. Spring 2002. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.ers.org/spectrum/spg02a.htm
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Education -- Childhood Education Issues

Words: 497 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77822994

Your props and games should have some connection to the software and the lessons and CDs should be easily accessible. Finally, you should use an appropriate desktop management program such as InternetSafe or KidDesk.

3. Imagine that you're interviewing for a position as a preschool teacher and are speaking with the program Director. Explain the second component of the Creative Curriculum to the program director and describe how it will help you to promote children's development and learning.

I am a firm believer in the Creative Curriculum approach and I hope to implement it to promote optimal student learning and educational experience at this institution. In particular, I have found that the second component, the Learning Environment, is tremendously important because it is crucial that we meet all of the developmental needs of all of our students. Toward that end, the learning environment must be a safe and comfortable place for them and it must make all of our students genuinely feel that they belong in the learning group. More particularly, the learning environment must be set up in such a way that it incorporates different interest areas that allow learners to experience the full range of their potential interests.…… [Read More]

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Childhood Education Skills and Career-Related

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13022464

To the extent possible, childhood educators should try to identify the learning styles of their individual students so that they can help them maximize their absorption of subject matter in accordance with their fullest and truest intellectual potential instead of allowing their maximum progress and most positive long-term attitude toward education (Lloyd, 2005). Having studied learning theory and educational psychology, I am confident that I will be able to fulfill this responsibility as a childhood educator.

Future Career-Related Skills and Experience

One of the most interesting aspects of educational theory that I have encountered in my studies relates to the concept of Multiple Intelligences introduced by Harvard School of Education theorist Howard Gardner (2006). Early childhood education is actually the perfect opportunity to apply that theory (together with other learning theories) to determine each child's greatest potential academic strengths and weaknesses (Gardner, 2006). My familiarity with Gardner's work is only superficial but it would be my hope to understand it in greater detail for the express purpose of applying it in the early childhood classroom to help inspire my students to learn in the manner that is most natural for each of them. Ultimately, my goal is simply to provide…… [Read More]


Gardner, H. (2006). The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests:

The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves. New York: Penguin Putnam.

Lloyd, S. "Evidence-based educational methods." Educational Psychology in Practice,

Vol. 21, No. 3; (2005): 252-253.
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Early Childhood Issues Since the

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44176235

Findings from several research studies show that when computer software and classroom manipulatives were compared, "the computer software was found to be the more effective means of skill building in young children" (Hitchcock and Noonan, 2000). The key, it appears, is the judicious use of technology and the timeframe in which computers are used. Computer software can be used as a learning tool, but disguised as a game. Further research found that computers are motivating and promote teacher-student interaction, which allows the teacher to encourage, prompt, and point to display items. While more research is clearly needed, the computer can be programmed to meet individual learning needs and to adapt regular curriculum issues in a more robust manner (Spencer and Baskin, 1997).

Part 4 -- The literature shows us that there are five major ways in which computers enhance learning in early childhood education:

Enhancing Learning -- There is a positive link between children's development, teaching practices, and the use of computers in the early childhood education classroom.

Young Children and Technology -- Technology changes so fast and children are exposed to it at home, on television, and in the popular media to the point that it is part of…… [Read More]


Cesarone, B. (2000). Computers in Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Childhood Education. 77 (1): 54-63.

Department of Education. (2003). Benefits of Technology use. Retrieved from:


Hitchcock, C. And Noonan, M.J. (2000). Computer-Assisted Instruction of Early Academic
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Education - Early Childhood Early

Words: 2839 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14816495

Conversely, where the exhibit is actively incorporated into a lesson on the moral basis for sensitivity to animals, the existing educational environment contributes to the formation of a moral conscience even where direction of that kind is lacking at home.

In very much the same way, the preschool and primary grade school environment is conducive to teaching other important moral values that are often postponed until much later, despite the fact that early introduction to those concepts is much more likely to result in their absorption than later introduction. Racism, sexism, and other forms of bias that are no longer condoned in American society are also capable of being addressed in the preschool years so that those important lessons take root before contradictory messages are received from the external environment.

Informal Assessment of Social and Emotional Well-being in Children:

All too often, educators and other caregivers perform their professional responsibilities in a vacuum, concentrating strictly on their narrow tasks of teaching the alphabet or providing meals at the appropriate time. Both the classroom setting and the day care environment actually present numerous opportunities to assess the social development and emotional well-being of children, albeit in a very informal capacity.

The…… [Read More]


Bimonte, R. (2005) "If your class were optional, would anyone attend?" Momentum, 36(4), 6.

Byerly, S. (2001). "Linking classroom teaching to the real world through experiential instruction." Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 697.

Cookson, P. (2005). "The enriched classroom." Education Module, 35(4), 10.

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
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Early Childhood Literacy

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7586266

Alternative Methods in Reading Assessment for Young Learners

Reading is one of the arduous tasks to teach in the early childhood subject. At the same time, it is also a very interesting process. As mostly believed, the beginning of the language learning process always involves enthusiasm and the joy of the subject going through trial and error, recognizing the closest parts of their life. It goes through that way - until one day the process becomes a real and conscious workshop.

As children start getting their formal education, they need to go through the development process with a series of goals, which mostly are carefully set up for them, in order to obtain an addressed achievement in a given time schedule. As the result, they may look a little bit nervous and reluctant to show their real competence, as the process of assessment considered threatening.

This issue has been a long time discussions among teachers and educational institutions to decide on types of applicable assessment to test the competence of the young students. As young learners may find school test puzzling sometimes as it is drawn way from their daily circumstances, including in learning how to read.

Questions also arise…… [Read More]


Beck, J.W. (1999). How to Raise a Brighter Child: The Case for Early Learning. Pocket Books. 352

Katz, L.G. (1997). A Developmental Approach to Assessment of Young Children. Retrieved November 6, 2002 from ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL. Web site: http://ericps.ed.uiuc.edu/eece/pubs/digests/1997/katz97.pdf.

Latha, R.H. (1999). A Reading Programme for Elementary Schools. The English Teaching Forum. Vol. 37. No. 4. pp. 12-15.

Meisels, S.J. (1995). Performance Assessment in Early Childhood Education: The Work Sampling System. Retrieved November 6, 2002 from ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL. Web site: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed382407.html.
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Early Childhood Special Education Lesson

Words: 2192 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91801311

[I also had my students write how they would say it out loud when naming it. Example: "Line AB or line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."] Below is information on how students should label rays, lines, etc.

1. Ray - the endpoint letter first, then a second point with a line ending in an arrow over the two letters, pointing to the right.

2. Point - a dot and then the point's letter.

3. Line - Two points on the line with a line with arrows in both directions above the letters.

4. Segment - the two endpoint letters of the segment with a line, no arrows, above the two letters

5. Intersecting - (AB x BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The x stands for intersects.

6. Parallel - (AB / / BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The / / stands for parallel.

7. Perpendicular - (AB _|_ BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above…… [Read More]


Baiker, K. And J. Robinson. (2004). Origami Math: Easy-to-Make Reproducible Activities that

Build Concepts, Skills, and Vocabulary in Geometry, Fractions, measurement, and More.

Minneapolis: Scholastic Books.

Bedford, M. (2007). Memorization: The Neglected Key to Learning. Efficacy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.efficacy.org/Resources/TheEIPointofView / tabid/233/ctl/ArticleView / mid/678/articleId/84/Memorization-the-Neglected-Key-to-Learning.aspx
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Early Childhood Intervention Promising Preventative for Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13538397

seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.

When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he or she develops behavior that remains permanent on his adult personality. Consequently, there are drifts in personality noted that would not have been present if child development hadn't been done in a proper way.

Another psychologist Erik Erikson proposed the theory of development that looked over human growth over the…… [Read More]


Bornstein, D. (2013). Protecting Children from Toxic Stress. New York Times.

Felitti, M., Vincent, J., Anda, M., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M., & Williamson, M. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245 -- 258.

Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, --151.

Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: a promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997.
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Early Childhood

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98796047


When data collection is reliant on teacher reporting and therefore the "...perception and rating of the Kindergarten teacher" (Guhn, Guderman, & Zumbo, 2007, p. 456), how would you suggest best controlling for or adjusting for perception bias?

Teacher reporting is understandably used in studies like that of Guhn, Guderman & Zumbo (2007). In the Guhn, Gederman & Zumbo (2007) study, the Kindergarten teachers rated their own students on the EDI. It is difficult to conceptualize other means by which the students could be evaluated. Researchers could use third-party observers, such as Kindergarten teachers from other schools. This might reduce perception bias in that teachers are somewhat likely to develop personal likes or dislikes during the course of instructing their students. A teacher from another school who has not been in contact with the students might have less personal bias toward the population being measured, but would be lacking in the ability to evaluate the students on the EDL survey parameters. Therefore, it would be preferable to retain the teacher reporting but try and adjust for perception bias in some way. One method would be to supplement the teacher reporting with a third party objective observer. This would create a…… [Read More]

Guhn, Guderman and Zumbo (2007), Oliveri, Ercikan and Zumbo (2013), and readings from the text all illuminate some of the ways diverse classrooms function. Early childhood educators face a multitude of issues during the course of their work. One of the greatest challenges to early childhood educators is assessment, and finding the most appropriate, least biased, and least invasive methods of assessing students from diverse populations. Assessments should certainly be comprehensive and refer to the whole child, as Guhn, Guderman and Zumbo (2007), Oliveri, Ercikan and Zumbo (2013), and readings from the text all show. Behavioral issues need to be taken into account, as to issues related to social learning and emotional maturity. Yet concrete learning tasks, ranging from language development to specific knowledge, also need to be measured in ways that are sensitive to different learning styles. One way to ensure a fair assessment is simply to use multiple methods of assessment for each child, and to assess for as many factors as possible to avoid overlooking key areas of strength or weakness. Moreover, administrators or coworkers can monitor assessments or perform independent ones to correct for and address potential biases related to gender or ethnicity. Ideally, observing children in a naturalistic setting over a long period of time would help provide a comprehensive picture of their development. Video recordings might also come in handy for review purposes.

3. Does the prospect and understanding of differential item functioning (DIF) change your perception of reported scores and rankings on tests such as the PISA? Explain how DIF may have changed your perception or did not and why?

Measurement biases like differential item functioning (DIF) has changed my perception of reported scores and rankings on tests like the PISA. The plethora of learning that takes place at home and in communities can often supplant or enhance the learning that takes place in the classroom. Social learning in diverse communities also complicates matters related to DIF. Understanding DIF enhances my personal appreciation for early childhood education methods. Many tests do take place in settings that might enhance DIF, whereas more naturalistic assessments might minimize DIF. Specific methods of controlling for DIF can also be used in more complex data analyses. While I understand the need for assessments, I do believe that standardized systems like PISA can be seriously flawed in their design and interpretation. Learning more about DIF has helped me envision how to design more appropriate assessment methods while still recognizing the role that specific learning plays in education. Assessments that acknowledge cultural bias, allowing more nuance and greater reliance on holistic teacher observations, will be preferable in early childhood education. In many cases, multiple assessment methods can be combined to provide a complete picture of a child's development.
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Childhood Education Within the Field

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29953738

Men are now moving towards engaging in more child care within the family structure. This is not yet adequately reflected in early childhood education, in teacher recruitment, and in most district employment practice. Society continues to evolve, men are more actively engaged in caring for their own children; yet the early childhood workforce seems stuck in the 1970s family model.

During their formative years of early learning and development, children 0-5 years are placed for up to 50 hours per week in childcare environment for education -- in an almost exclusively female environment. Children's time with adult males and their contact with positive male role models in the family/community is thus reduced. This is exacerbated with the high rate of divorce in the developed world, and the fact than many children grow up with no male figures in their lives (Sumison, 2005).

Most early childhood programs have goals of teaching children to be non-sexist in their attitudes, behaviors, and choices of play activities, sports, and friends. The composition of the workforce that these children observe does not meet these criteria.… [Read More]

Women have more career choices open to them, thus are not always inclined to teach at the preschool or elementary level. It is more difficult to find qualified teachers, and school systems should actively engage in finding the best fit.

Within developed countries, the high concentration of women in any single occupation, including early childhood teaching, is problematic for women's overall economic and career advancement. The clustering of women in a narrow range of traditionally female-intensive lower-paying occupations has been noted to be a problem by government agencies concerned about women's equality and status in their work. But there is also a lack of awareness of the negative consequences of the early childhood profession, in particular, continuing to be strongly protected for females (Farquhar, et.al., 2006).

As noted, males teaching young children, even grades 1-3, is a relatively rare occurrence in contemporary education. However, since the 1960s, traditional gender-based practices have been questioned more and more, partially due to a more egalitarian workforce and cultural bias, partially as a backlash to the feminist movement. The study under review was launched in 1998 with several objectives: 1) to provide a more robust understanding of the issues male students experience when enrolling in early childhood programs; 2) to provide a support network among males who have already
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Early Childhood Norm-Referenced vs Criterion-Referenced Test a

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50992852

Early Childhood

Norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced test

A norm-referenced test is an assessment that usually brings out an estimate of the position of the person who is being tested in a population that is predefined with the focus being the trait that is being measured. The estimate is normally obtained from analyzing the test scores as well as other data which is got from the population and is relevant .in this type of assessment there is identification of whether the person who is taking the test is better or worse than the other people who are also taking the test. However this assessment is not used to determine whether the person who is taking the test knows more or less than the requirement. Criterion referenced test is an assessment involves translating test scores into statements regarding the expected behavior of an individual who has attained a particular score or how they relate to the subject matter that has been specified. Most of the quizzes and tests that are written by school teachers are placed under this category. The main objective in these assessments is finding out whether a student has learned the study material (Danielle, 2008).

Standardized and non-standardized, informal assessments…… [Read More]


Dannielle.(2008). Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Testing.Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://www.altalang.com/beyond-words/2008/05/22/norm-referenced-vs.-criterion-referenced-language-tests/

Robert, C.(2013). Differences Between Standardized & Non-Standardized Assessments. Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://classroom.synonym.com/differences-between-standardized-nonstandardized-assessments-4442.html

Klotz, M.B & Canter, A.(2013). Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents. Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/15857/
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Early Childhood Development -- Curriculum

Words: 322 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1457222

Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.

Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.… [Read More]

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Early Childhood Activities My Creative Activities Portfolio

Words: 1170 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69682406

Early Childhood Activities

My Creative Activities Portfolio

My Name

CE230 Creative Activities for Young Children Final Project

Activity #

Creating a Leaf Character

Ehlert, L. (2003). Leaf man. New York: Harcourt Children's Books.


wks-1 yr ages 2-4

ages 5 -- 7

ages 8 -- 10

ages 10-12

Time Required:


After completing this activity, students will be able to sort leaves by attributes (shape, color, size) and assemble them to create an original art project which they can then use as a story prompt for a subsequent writing lesson.


Brown paper lunch bags, assorted autumn leaves, collected outdoors by students, 9X12 sheets of construction paper, white school glue, plastic "google" eyes

Highlight (all) Related Developmental Area(s):


Creative Play





Small Group

Large Group






Procedure: Explain in detailed narrative form using complete sentences how this activity is accomplished. Include the skills that are required and learned and what will be necessary for the instructor to successfully accomplish this task with his/her students.

The teacher will read aloud to the whole class Leaf Man, by Lois Ehlert. The teacher will guide the students in noticing the different sizes, shapes and colors…… [Read More]


"Responsive Classroom morning meeting activities." (2008). Northeast Foundation for Children. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.responsiveclassroom.org/sites/default/files

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Early Childhood

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78825660

Early Childhood

The educational setting I have selected in my community to deconstruct within this document is called Thriving Minds (formerly Muskal Assessment and Learning Clinic). I was able to contact two long-term staff members of this organizations for a fairly candid interview revolving around their educational philosophy as specifically applied to parental involvement. Since this particular learning clinic exists outside of the formal constructs of any public or private school educational system, parental involvement is integral to the relationship fostered between clinicians, parents and students since it is usually the parents who decided to enroll their children. As such, the degree of parental involvement actuated at Thriving Minds is perhaps considerably more than that at traditional educational institutions such as schools or learning academies.

Parental involvement is defined at Thriving Minds in a variety of ways, all of which relate to the basic concept of keeping parents informed about their students' progress in many different fields including academics, social development and cognitive development. At the bare minimum, parents are kept abreast of student progress through informal chat sessions with clinicians between student visits. Thriving Minds is a highly specified learning clinic in which practitioners are encouraged to tailor their…… [Read More]

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Early Childhood Ages 3 To 7

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74119411

Early Childhood (Ages 3 to 7)

Early childhood (3-7)

Development of prefrontal cortex

By early childhood, areas such as sensory areas of the brain are already myelianated and after that the motor areas begin myelination. During childhood, myelination of the prefrontal cortex takes place and the pattern of development goes on until adolescence. The prefrontal cortex is at the front of the brain that is involved in complex and cognitive regulatory behaviors. This rate of development and myelination differs from one child to another hence the differences in their skills and abilities. This part of the brain is evidently one that has the most prolonged development period as its development occurs throughout childhood and into adolescence.

This section of the brain plays a role in different types of functions; goal setting and the planning of a sequence of actions, inhibiting inappropriate reposes and working memory meaning that it keeps information available and accessible for short periods while being used. Therefore, the continued development of the prefrontal cortex area of the brain has an effect on a child's readiness to enter more structured environments of kindergarten and primary grades. This is especially because of its function as working memory (Tsujimoto1, 2009).…… [Read More]


Tsujimoto1, S.(2009).The Prefrontal Cortex: Functional Neural Development During Early Childhood. Retrieved February 15, 2014 from  http://nro.sagepub.com/content/14/4/345.abstract 

Bergen, D.(2002). The Role of Pretend Play in Children's Cognitive Development. Retrieved February 15,2014 from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/bergen.html
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Standards for Early Childhood Professionals Early Childhood

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59718816

Standards for Early Childhood Professionals

Early Childhood

There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated as well as what kind of expectations exists for the successful Early Childhood professional. This paper will explore how professionalism, personal characteristics, responsibilities, and roles have altered over the course of the history of Early Childhood. The paper attempts to explain some of the new roles that Early Childhood professionals…… [Read More]


Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.

Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
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Infancy Early Childhood Include Explain Families Affect

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57382789

infancy early childhood. Include: Explain families affect

Early Childhood and Adulthood

There are a number of key facets and processes that occur during infancy and early childhood that profoundly affect an individual's growth and development. Some of these factors include early childhood education, a variety of parenting styles, as well as familial involvement in cognitive and physical development. All of these factors indicate that parents and surrounding family members play a highly important role in the development of infants and young children.

One of the most eminent ways in which families produce a direct influence on their children is through the establishment and implementation of rituals or routines. The repetitive nature of these daily constructs provides a valuable structuring for activities that has been linked to cognitive and emotional processes in children and infants -- most discernibly when there is a break or a shifting in a particular ritual that a young person has become accustomed to (Spagnola & Fiese, 2007, p. 284). The establishment of routines helps to provide a firm foundation which supports a child's emotional and cognitive development. By being able to rely on a sense of the familiar via routine, children are better prepared to take…… [Read More]


Spagnola, M., Fiese, B.H. (2007). "Family routines and rituals: a context for development in the lives of young children." Infants and Young Children. 20 (4): 284-299.
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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. By doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it is chaotic or structured, whether it is governed by law, or whether it is subject to chance. They see the world merely as existing and do not concern themselves with how it got here, why it is here now, or what will happen to it in the future. This is…… [Read More]


Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Male Teacher Retention in Early Childhood Programs Why They Stay

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78386095

Male Teacher Retention in Early Childhood Programs: Why They Stay.

quick glance into any elementary, preschool or child care center quickly reveals that very few men work with young children. This cursory observation is solidly supported by the fact that fewer than five percent of all early childhood teachers in the United States are male (U.S. Department of Education, 1994).

There are a wide variety of reasons why so few men remain in the field of early childhood education. These reasons include suspicion, subtle discrimination, social isolation, pressure to move into administrative position away from children, and a double standard for behavior and performance (Sargent, 2001).

Importantly, the recent upsurge of reports of sexual and physical abuse in schools has made many male teachers feel vulnerable to unfounded charges of sexual or physical abuse against children in their care. Certainly, our societal tendency to see males as perpetrations of violent and sexual crimes has fueled this fear, and thus helped to discourage men from taking jobs where they are charged with the care of young children.

Further, our society has a wide-spread and overwhelming belief that men are not as adept at educating and caring for young children as are…… [Read More]


Kennedy, N.M. 1991. Policy issues in teacher education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72: 658-665.

Neugebauer, R. 1994. Recruiting and training men in your center. Child Care Information Exchange, May: 8-11.

Robinson, B. Vanishing Breed: Men in Child Care Programs, Young Children, Sept 1988.

Sargent, P. 2001. Real men or real teachers: Contradictions in the lives of men elementary school teachers. Harriman, TN: Men's Studies Press.
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Effective Communication Skills for Early Childhood Educators

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35663435

Effective Communication Skills for Early Childhood Educators

In any organizational setting, there is an overarching need for effective communication, making the need for effective communication skills an important asset in virtually any workplace setting. Consequently, some practitioners maintain that effective communication skills are the most essential skill for early childhood educators as well. To determine the accuracy of this assertion, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the importance of effective communication skills for early childhood educators, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Because all organizations are comprised of people, the need for effective communication skills is clear but this need is even more acute for early childhood educators. In her text, Leadership in Early Childhood, Rodd (2006, p. 70) reports that, "Effective communication skills are the tools that underpin the ability to act in an emotionally intelligent and competent manner." The concept of emotional intelligence relates to the ability of early childhood educators to ask appropriate questions, listen effectively and respond in meaningful ways (Rodd 2006). For early childhood educators, then, the importance of possessing effective communication skills involves successfully engaging others, irrespective…… [Read More]


Beck, I., & McKeown, M. 2001. 'Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children.' The Reading Teacher, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 10-20.

Curtis, A. & O'Hagan, M. 2003. Care and Education in Early Childhood: A Student's Guide to Theory and Practice. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Harms, L. 2007. Working with people: Communication skills for reflective practice. Melbourne,

Vic.: Oxford University Press.
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Images and Ideas Using Videos and Reflections to Guide Instructional Change in Early Childhood Classrooms

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650977

Disrupting by Imagining: Rethinking Early Childhood Research

Early Childhood Research

This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school; and, 3) Images & Ideas in Practice: offers ways that this can be replicated to help other programs to begin using videos and reflection as a way to guide instructional change.

Images & Ideas:

Using Videos and Reflections to Guide Instructional Change in Early Childhood Classrooms


Teachers face a…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.

Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.

Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.

Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
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Diversity Into Early Childhood Despite

Words: 2164 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45794893

35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.

Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).

For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2). Moreover, quality children's literature can facilitate a better understanding of others, "thus providing exposure to models of pro-social behaviors and opportunities to engage in reasoning, discussion, and debate," Potter concludes.

Multicultural activities: In the Diversity Council Web site the writers offer ideas for teachers in multicultural classroom settings. One project…… [Read More]

Reference List

Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved

January 26, 2011, from  http://www.pbs.org/ .

Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.

Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
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Teacher of Early Childhood the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19229411


It is necessary that the teacher of early childhood individuals understand that different individuals develop at different rates and that this is due to "differing physiological factors and differing experiences." (Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood, nd) in a 2005 news report of the National Academies Education & Research entitled: "Timeout for Child Policy" relates that the United States "has not made the most of scientific knowledge about children's development between birth and age 5 - a period that sets the stage for their intellectual and emotional growth. By and large, what currently exists for America's children is a mixed bag of policies and practices...." (National Academies, 2005)


In the case where a teacher does not understand the stages of development of children and where the teacher fails to understand that children develop at different rates there exist a danger that a teacher will label a child as learning disabled and that the child, as a result, will be directed into special education classes thereby nulling their chance for a regular education and simply because they were developmentally different than their peers at the same age.…… [Read More]


Growth Stages: Infancy and Early Childhood - Science for All Americans (nd) online available at http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/growth1_teachsheet.pdf

What Early Language Teachers Need to Know About Language (2000) Center for Applied Linguistics? November 2000. online available at http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0007bredekamp.html

Timeout for Child Policy (2005) NewsReport Online. The National Academies. Online available at  http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/newsrpt/fal00edr.htm
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Australian Early Childhood Literacy

Words: 2098 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29105209

Curriculum Early Childhood Education

Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).

The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for a person to function in today's world. As such, there is a need for a broader concept of literacy in education, to best prepare students for the real world (

Improving literacy outcomes begins with effective curriculum. In the context of early childhood learning, it is important to build the…… [Read More]


Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale

Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179

Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf

Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
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Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development

Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82658447

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support and assistance to the family, and to maximize the child's and family's benefit to society. Child development research has established that the rate of human learning and development is most rapid in the preschool years. Timing of intervention becomes particularly important when a child runs the risk of missing an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
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Education NAEYC Accreditation What Is

Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6227990


The idea of developmentally appropriate practices was made popular by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) when the published their Position Statement on Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Programs in 1987. NAEYC developed this position statement in order to support its early childhood program accreditation system, which recognizes and sanctions programs that offer appropriate early childhood practices. Because of this system, early childhood educators can have a clear idea of suitable early childhood practices. This way they might not use inappropriate developmental and academic expectations to prepare children for public school kindergarten programs (Houser and Osborne, n.d.).

Having regulations such as the CA State licensing Regulations, Title 22, helps to make sure that all of the fundamental elements of DAP and NAYEC are in place and are supporting the early childhood programs philosophies. These regulations are needed in order to make sure that quality programs are developed and carried out.… [Read More]


Accreditation of Programs for Young Children. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2010, from NAEYC

Web site:  http://www.naeyc.org/academy/ 

Bolen, Ed. (2008). Analysis of Title 22 and Title 5 Regulations Affecting Preschool Programs.

Retrieved May 12, 2010, from Web site:
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Early Childhood and Literacy

Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99088721

Language Development in Young Children

Early Childhood and Literacy

Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.

This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic career and life ahead. It discusses the features of environment in which a child can learn to talk, understand and communicate. The paper quotes certain studies related to the subject in question and devise ways by which language development can be improved.

Why Language development is critical for a young…… [Read More]


Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.

Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf

CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf

fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
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Education of Young Children John

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2363274

" [EU: I.III, 3]

Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.

However Rousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in Rousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. Rousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a child must not form habit so to "prepare him early for the enjoyment of liberty and the exercise of his powers; leave his body its natural habits; enable him always to be master of himself and, as soon as he acquires a will, always to carry out its dictates."

Locke…… [Read More]


Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.

Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
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Earlier Child

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20434408

Social Change and Positive Outcomes for Young Children and Families

As an individual who has been involved in learning about and enacting various measures to implement early childhood education, I have entertained several different philosophies and methodologies on this subject. Therefore, I believe that I am more than qualified to identify what the aims of early childhood education are. Prior to denoting what those aims are, I believe it is relevant to discuss some of my experience within this field, which has encompassed working with small and large groups, individuals, and partaking in a number of conferences and conversations with both teachers, administrators and parents, which is a part of "school accountability" (Wong and Wang, 2010, p. 163). What I have learned from my experience within this field is that the principle objectives of this particular discipline are to provide the foundation for children to effectively mold and shape the future in a positive way. I have learned that my implementing some core values to these children at an early age instructors can actually help to foster positive social change by helping to cultivate the next individuals of society in a balanced, disciplined way so that they can positively impact…… [Read More]


Hardin, B.J., & Hung, H.F. (2011). A cross-cultural comparison of services for young children with disabilities using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA). Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(2), 103-114.

Wong, M.N.C., Wang, X.C., (2010). Accountability and quality in early childhood education: Perspectives from Asia. Early Education and Development, 21(2), 163-166.

World Forum Foundation
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Education and Spiritual Development of Children

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87810501

Spiritual Development of Children and Education

Ruth Wilson (2010) in the work entitled "The Spiritual Life of Children" writes that there is an expanding body of evidence which "indicates that children have spiritual capacities and experiences which shape their lives in powerful and enduring ways." (p. 24) Included in these capacities and experiences are those of: (1) wonder; (2) wondering; (3)relational spirituality; and (4) wisdom. (p. 24) It is suggested in the theories relating to development of cognition that young children do not have the necessary "intellectual capacity for meaningful reflection and thus cannot have a genuine spiritual life." (Wilson, 2010, p. 24)

In countries such as England, Australia, the United States and New Zealand there is a growth in the interest of ensuring that "spirituality is addressed within the curriculum of both primary and secondary education in both state and church related settings." (Hyde, 2008, p. 16)The National Curriculum Council and the Office for Standards in Education both relate in their handbooks that the curriculum should contribute to the student's spiritual development. The focus of the spiritual dimension in the United States has been on the idea of "holistic development" (Hyde, 2008, p. 16) and as such education is…… [Read More]


Grajczonek, J. (2010) Spiritual Development and Religious Education in the Early Years: A Review of the Literature. Queensland Catholic Education Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.qcec.catholic.edu.au/upload/publicsite/Education/Final_Spiritual%20Development%20%20Religious%20Education%20in%20the%20Early%20Years_A%20Review%20of%20the%20Literature.pdf

Hyde, B. (2008) Children and Spirituality: Searching for Meaning and Connectedness. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 15 Jan, 2008. Retrieved from: Jhttp://books.google.com/books?id=dcPuw2pwqQgC&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Myers, Joyce Eady (nd) Children's Spiritual Development: Analysis of Program Practices and Recommendations for Early Childhood Professional. Early Childhood Education.

Richardson, R. (2010) Spirituality and Education. Mills River Educational Cooperative. Italy, Jan 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.campcaravan.org/d_about_us/ed_and_spirituality.html
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Education Training for Teachers in Technology

Words: 1274 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57526392

integration of computer technology (and especially reading software) into classrooms vis-a-vis improvement of reading development in early childhood education. For the purpose of this study, reading development includes a range of skills, including letter recognition, sound identification and basic comprehension and retrieval. The age ranged focused on in this study is birth through age eight, and is focused on a range of educational setting.

The primary source of information on this topic came from a survey of the literature, but this secondary information was supplemented by observation and surveying of two teachers with different approaches to teaching reading. The results of this observational study that I performed are somewhat inconclusive, due in large measure to the significant limitation placed on the story by the size of the group being studied.

However, while certainly more could have been learned if the sample had been larger than two (the sample had originally included a third teacher, who had to withdraw because of time constraints) there was a great deal of insight to be acquired from the results of this limited study. Because only two teachers were studied, a very high degree of detail could be obtained in each set of observations.

Overall,…… [Read More]

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Early Education

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42111953

Once this occurs, is when their horizons are expanded from taking this kind of focus. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)

Authentic inclusion of children with varying abilities

The educator will take into account the child's abilities and will steer them in a direction that enhances them. This takes place by sparking their interest in a variety of areas. When this happens, the student will have a desire to want to learn more. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)

Building parent / family relationships

Family relationships are built by working with the parents and children to create curriculum which is supporting these objectives. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)

How do you think your findings on this research compare with Global Quality Guidelines?

Why is it important to be critical about the research you read, especially as it relates to the experiences of young children and families who cultures may differ.

The findings from the research are showing how the program is meeting the various guidelines on Global Quality. This is occurs by focusing on developing their knowledge early on. Once this happens, the student will be more effective in reaching out to each other and learning key concepts. This…… [Read More]


Global Guidelines. (2014). World Forum Foundation. Retrieved from:  http://worldforumfoundation.org 

Burger, K. (2010). How does Early Childhood Care and education affect cognitive development? An International review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140-165

Harcourt, D. (2012). Standpoints on quality: Listening to children in Verona, Italy. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 19-26

Howes, C. (2010). Culture and Child Development in Early Childhood Programs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Education Childhood

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1069022

family probably feels occasional loneliness and isolation due to the parents being migrant workers. To strengthen family and community bonds in a way that respects the family's privacy, I would first approach them to offer a warm welcome gift. If the family seemed receptive to socializing and integrating with the community, then I would be able to take the relationship a step further. Otherwise, it would be wrong to assume that the family is interested in immediately engaging in social activities that are artificial, structured, and potentially of no interest to them. It is important to understand the cultural variables that are at stake too. If the family speaks different languages than the ones already spoken in our community, it might be helpful to find some way of learning about that family's language and culture. The children should be encouraged to talk about their background, their way of life, and use their mother tongue to educate the other children about their way of life.

Unit 7 Discussion

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is essential to the understanding of early childhood education. Decades of research on child development has yielded a body of knowledge that can be individualized and applied to unique…… [Read More]


National Education Association (2014). Code of ethics. Retrieved online:  http://www.nea.org/home/30442.htm 

"Twelve Principles of Child Development and Learning that Inform Practice," (n.d.). NAEYC. Retrieved online: https://www.naeyc.org/dap/12-principles-of-child-development
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Special Education & Early Childhood Special Education

Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30541908


Special Education

Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood

Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof

Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills."

This is use and definition of the term mental retardation is acceptable to this author. Mental retardation is an accurate term when considering the etymology of the individual words that compose this phrase. Schalock et al. explain:

The noun retardation…… [Read More]


Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.

Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.

Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.
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Development in Early Childhood Play Years

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19394624

Early Childhood: Play Years

Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.

Biology and Language

Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and allows them to communicate (Sousa, 2005). This bundle of nerves allows information to travel back and forth between the two hemispheres of the brain more efficiently. Another reason is found in the way male and female brains develop. Female brains develop more quickly than males (Phinney, 1988 as cited by…… [Read More]


Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.

Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175

Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
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Literacy Development for Early Childhood Learners

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30823033

Literacy Experience

CE310 Children's Literacy

Comprehensive Early Literacy Experience

Teachers and educators are constantly faced with the need to make instructional decisions depending on their knowledge of every learner. The process entails consideration of every learner's entry point into a certain instructional experience, evaluation of the learner's experience, and constantly changing the instruction to enhance the learner's achievement. This has led to the development of different instructional measures in attempts to enhance students' achievements. A comprehensive approach to literacy instruction means that students or learners must be good readers and good writers. This approach incorporates aspects of meaning-based and skills-based techniques through two components i.e. reading and written expressive language (Neuhaus Education Center, n.d.). The benefits of this blended approach include providing students opportunities to read and write, ensure learners have direct instruction, ensures necessary skills are taught, and enables students to develop accuracy and authenticity.

Parts of the Reading Workshop

The Reading Workshop is described as the framework for reading instruction that provides learners with a supportive learning environment in which they are engaged in authentic reading experiences that emphasize on the strengths and needs of every individual learner. There are four major parts of the Reading Workshop i.e.…… [Read More]


Ford, K. (n.d.). 8 Strategies for Preschool ELLs' Language and Literacy Development. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/8-strategies-preschool-ells-language-and-literacy-development

Neuhaus Education Center. (n.d.). A Comprehensive Approach to Literacy Instruction. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://library.neuhaus.org/lessonets/comprehensive-approach-literacy-instruction

Newingham, B. (2009, October 17). Reading Workshop: What it Looks Like in My Classroom. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top_teaching/2009/10/reading-workshop