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Earthquake mitigation measures in Japan case
Bearing that the phenomena of earthquakes is very common in Japan, there is need therefore to ensure that the people living in this region have enough mitigation measures that will enable the security of human life, and if possible of structures. The earthquake mitigation measures are considered to be the simple skills that can lead to the safety of non-structure components and the items in a house with an aim of saving lives in the event of a disaster (Emergency Food Supply, 2012).
The mitigation measures run from the precautions that one takes as an individual to the measures taken to secure houses. According to the research conducted on the 1994 Northridge earthquake, 55% of the injuries were found to have been caused by falling furniture or objects within the households and only 1% were caused by the collapsing buildings (Emergency Food…
Emergency Food Supply, (2012). Earthquake Preparedness and Mitigation. Retrieved March 9, 2012
Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness (U.S. Federal Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages)
The confrontations and prospects for the reduction of hazards/disasters have never been greater than in the current period. In theory, the challenge is to do away with all disasters that cause the loss of life or injury to people along with the property and environment damage. On the other hand, such a goal is not possible to achieve practically. Although it is possible to avoid certain risks but the elimination of environmental hazards seems to be an idealistic task (Smith, 2004, p. 268).
The evidence signals that there is a need to do more today for tomorrow. Though investment in hazard mitigation has increased, there are few signs that show the effectiveness of the sustainability plans. In United States of America, several plans are outlined that have lessened the number of casualties and scale of destruction (Smith, 2004, p. 268).…
About FEMA. (2011, November 14). In FEMA. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://www.fema.gov/about/index.shtm
"About the National Dam Safety Program." (2010, August 11). Retrieved December 09, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/damfailure/ndsp.shtm
Bernard, E.N. (2005). The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: A Successful State -- Federal Partnership. Springer, 35, 5-24. Retrieved December 07, 2011 from http://www.hawaiistateassessment.info/library/Hawaii_Coastal_Hazards/Document_Library/GENERAL MITIGATION/Bernard USA Tsunami Mitigation.pdf
Edwards, F.L., & Afawubo, I. (2008). Show Me the Money: Financial Recovery after Disaster Professional Emergency Management, Physical Mitigation, Public Education, and Financial Assistance Can All Lessen the Impact of Post-Disaster Community Recovery Costs. The Public Manager, 37(4), 85+. Retrieved December 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035928141
21). When pressed, the ed Cross said they did not know if any of their recipients had received aid from other agencies, or even actually lived in the affected areas (O'Meara, 2004, p. 21). There was a controversy after the facts became known, and after the controversy hit the news, the President of the organization, Dr. Bernadine Healy resigned in October 2001 after allegations that the organization did not use all the funds collected for victim relief. In December 2005, Marsha J. Evans also resigned her position as the President And CEO, after new allegations surfaced over the terrorist attacks and problems with the relief effort in the Gulf Coast area after the 2005 hurricane season. Today, the organization posts their tax returns and annual reports on their Web site, and has a list of commonly asked questions about where their funding comes from and where it goes.
Editors. (2006). American Red Cross. Retrieved from the RedCross.org Web site: http://www.redcross.org/index.html1 Dec. 2006.
Editors. (2006). Northern Nevada Chapter American Red Cross. Retrieved from the NevadaRedCross.org Web site: http://www.nevada.redcross.org/1 Dec. 2006.
O'Meara, Kelly Patrick. Are They Cheating on 9/11 Payouts? (2004, March 15). Insight on the News 21.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Disasters and Their Management
egional Disaster Analysis
Both natural and human caused disasters have been an issue in the safety of human beings all over the world. Fortunately, there are international agencies that are created for the purpose of mitigation purposes and assist in the prevention of disaster effects that would be more adverse. State governments also have the obligation of adopting the right preventive and counter actions to assist in cushioning citizens from the effects of disasters. This paper, therefore, analyzes the types of disasters in Africa, and the theoretical approaches in the management of the disasters. Under management of disasters, different factors are discussed including response, preparedness and recovery and mitigation practices. There is also a review of both the International Agencies and Local Governments, relating to their preparedness in responding to disasters. Finally, there is an analysis on the partnership relationships between public and private…
Christopher, M. & Tatham, P. (2011) Humanitarian Logistics: Meeting of Challenge of Preparing for and Responding to Disasters. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Congress (2006) congressional Record, V. 149, Pt.2, January 21, 2003 to February 11, 2003. Congress.
Holden, S. (2003) AIDS on the Agenda: Adapting Development and Humanitarian Programs to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS. New York: Oxfam Publishers.
Oniang'o, R. (2009) Food and Nutrition Emergencies in East Africa: Political, Economic and Environmental Associations. New York: International Food Policy Restoration Institution.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas. The system stores, edits analyses and shows topographic information that is critical in decision-making. GIS applications enable creation of interactive queries, analysis and editing and then present results. This is beneficial in management of disasters.
Disaster management signifies preparedness involving a chain of measures incorporating disaster prevention, emergency response as well as reconstruction. Many organizations federal, state and non-governmental as well as businesses, public health benefit from GIS technology. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is actively involved in improving and publicly availing geo-processing specifications using Web Map Service and Web Feature Service protocols. OGC divides GIS products or software into two categories, compliant and implementing products, based on their level of compatibility with OGC specifications, which aid them in communication. In recent times, an explosion of online mapping applications has given the public enormous geographic information. The…
Battista, C. (1994). Chernobyl: GIS model aids nuclear disaster relief. GIS World, 32 -- 5.
Cova, T.J. (1999). GIS in emergency management. In P.A. Longley, & D.J. Goodchild, Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management (pp. 845-858). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Grif-th, D.A. (1986). Hurricane emergency management applications of the SLOSH numerical storm surge prediction model. In S.A. Marston, Terminal disasters: computer applications in emergency management. Boulder: Boulder Institute of Behavioral Science.
Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century
Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.
I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?
Bellamy, J.S. (2009) Cleverland's Greatest Disasters!: 16 Tragic True Tales of Death and Destruction: New York: Gray and Company.
Ec-Council (2010) Disaster Recovery: New York, Cengage Learning.
Kapucu, N. & Alpaslan, Z. (2011) Managing Emergencies and Crises: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing.
Oliver, J. & Aldcroft, H.D. (2007) Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century: New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
A 2006 study that examined the rates of depression and other mental health disorders following the December 2004 tsunami found that large numbers of people still faced significant health impairment from the event, and that treatment had been negligible when compared to relief and rebuilding efforts in other areas (CDC 2006). These efforts would likely be made far more effective and efficient, however, if mental health issues were dealt with. Addressing the depression and other mental health maladies that the people suffered from following the tsunami would have led to a better adjusted and more productive (as well as healthier) population.
There was an effective degree of trauma care provided immediately after the tsunami struck, but preventative care measures could have been stepped up during this time to forestall and mitigate the spread of infectious diseases that often comes after a major disaster event (WHO 2005). Obviously, trauma care was…
CDC (2006). "204 South Asia tsunamis." Center for disease control. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/tsunamis/
WHO (2005). "South Asia earthquake and tsunamis: Inter-agency rapid health assessment." World health organization. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.who.int/hac/crises/international/asia_tsunami/final_report/en/index.html
At a minimum, the emergency plan should outline the respective risks capable of being anticipated along with appropriate procedures for implementing necessary response procedures and resource allocation. The emergency plan must include procedures for ensuring continual communication among responders as well as alternate means of communication; procedures for contacting entities outside the immediate area affected by the emergency; and multiple means of providing essential response to every foreseeable type of emergency and every foreseeable type of malfunction or breakdown of primary processes along with secondary plans for each.
Effective emergency response requires training and practice implementing procedures and resources and that practice is also essential for communicating awareness of the plan among first responders. Non-first responders should also be informed of all elements of the plan that pertain to them specifically.
4. What role, if any, should emergency managers play in ensuring emergency medical care for a mass-casualty incident? In…
Disasters of the Twentieth Century
Most of the great disasters of the twentieth century became truly "great" precisely because there were not appropriate levels of planning or mitigation processes in place, and the San Francisco Fire of 1906 was no exception. Caused by an earthquake that disrupted what mitigation components that were a part of the city -- rupturing water lines to make fighting the fires all but impossible, ad breaking the city's alarm system to make warnings less effective -- San Francisco was nearly leveled by the two concurrent and directly related disasters that struck (Popular Mechanics, 2012). A lack of planning in the city's design made the buildings susceptible to the earthquake and the fire, with densely packed wooden structures and man-made ground both exacerbating the problem immensely (Popular Mechanics, 2012). With the mitigation systems compromised from the outset, there was little to be done.
The Spanish Flu…
JFK Library. (2012). The Bay of Pigs. Accessed 1 May 2012. http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx
Popular Mechanics. (2012). The top 10 worst disasters of the last century. Accessed 1 May 2012. http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/survival/stories/10-disasters
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
ecovery: Disaster and Crisis
Disaster recovery has become an important aspect of a company's strategic plan. The main reason for an increased concern can be attributed to the fact that integration and alliances at an international level have increased so that there are more linkages and higher interdependencies that have increased the exposure of people to international risk. This also means that companies are more prone to be affected by a force majeure impacting a vendor located in another part of the world. Some cases that have recently come to light in the spate of the Japanese Earthquake are the impact on General Motors leave alone Nissan. Moreover, giants such as Sony have been impacted in the wake of natural disasters in Thailand where a Tsunami impacted the Integrated Chip provider, making it difficult for Sony to continue to manufacture its products.
In light of these vulnerabilities it…
Jones, V.A. (2011). How to Avoid Disaster:RIM's Crucial Role in Business Continuity Planning. Information Management Journal .
Keenan, G. (2011). After a year of disasters, Japan's auto sector fights back. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from CTV News: http://www.ctv.ca/generic/generated/static/business/article2284601.html#ixzz1k0x14zsf
Momani, N.M. (2010). Business Continuity Planning: Are We Prepared for Future Disasters . American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 272-279.
Omar, A., Alijani, D., & Mason, R. (2011). Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plan: Case Study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal .
Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature
Long-term Implications of 2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Long-term effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster
2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Indian Ocean is the third vastest water body in the world wide, casing an average of 68.556 million km2. It is the mass of water body around Africa, Asia, the Southern Ocean and Australia. It has four main accessible waterways, the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (along Djibouti and Yemen), the Strait of Hormuz (along Iran and Oman), and the Strait of Malacca (Indonesia and Malaysia) among other minor ones. The ocean has been attributed to many economical advantages ranging from providing a means of transportation, food, recreation and for the extraction of valuable mineral resources. However, the ocean has major confluences with terrific and adverse water disasters such as disasters, tsunamis, aftershocks, earthquakes among others.
In 2004, the Indian registered the worst…
Ramalanjaona, G. 2011. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned. Emergency Medicine International. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-3.
Daly, P., Feener, M. R and Reid, A.J.S. From the Ground up: Perspectives on Post-Tsunami and Post -- Conflict Aceh. Chicago: Institute of Southeast Asian.
The Chinese government believes that construction of the Three Gorges Dam has helped produce solutions to the country's energy needs, and to flood control (of the Yangtze, the third largest river in the world). The arguments used by the Chinese as to flood control have some validity when a researcher realizes that over the past 2,000 years, there have been "200 catastrophic floods along the Yangtze's banks" (Watson, 2005). Also, because 70% of China's electricity comes from the burning of coal -- which causes choking smog in the big cities and contributes to the greenhouse gases that are causing climate change -- hydroelectric development seems like an alternative to coal-fired power plants.
Six Specific Risks with the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in China
Meanwhile, what are six risks that the Chinese were willing to take when they built the dam? Certainly one is environmentally related, and Chinese scholars…
Alberts, Henry C., Alberts, Renee M., Bloom, Mitchel F., LaFlamme, A. Dianne, and Teerikangas, Satu. 2004. 'The Three Gorges Dam Project from a Systems Viewpoint.' Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 21, 585-602.
Campbell-Hyde, Blake. 2009. 'Breaking Ground: Environmental and Social Issues of the Three Gorges Dam in China.' American University. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www1.american.edu .
Watson, Stephanie. 2005. 'Why could China's Three Gorges Dam cause an environmental disaster?' Discovery Company. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com .
Yardley, Jim. 2007. 'Chinese Dam Projects Criticized for their Human Costs.' The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Hurricane Katrina and the Plan Efforts to educe elated Disaster Impacts in Future
The hurricane Katrina is one of the deadliest hurricanes to occur in the United States. The hurricane hit Louisiana, Florida, and New Orleans amongst other places. It led to losses, evacuation of people, loss of lives and many businesses came to stand still. New Orleans had flood preparedness systems, which did not help, and floods persisted for weeks. The tragedy was contributed to by the lack of risk preparedness systems. Scientists have estimated lower storm surges and small coverage of wetlands in the 20th century. The winds, surges, and wetlands help to weaken the powerful winds. The areas are still vulnerable to hurricanes and storms in the future due to the geographic location. New Orleans city is also sinking geologically rapidly. Lessons learned from the hurricane Katrina should be used for disaster preparedness.
Department Of Homeland Security Appropriations. (2008). New York: DIANE Publishing.
Daniels, R.D. (2006). On Risk And Disaster Lessons From Hurricane Katrina. New York: University of Pennslyvania.
Huddow, G.J. (2010). Introduction To Emergency Management. Atlanta: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Jenkins, O. (2009). National Preparedness. New York: DIANE Publishing.
role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.
With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…
Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.
Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.
Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers
Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
Vandalism is a major concern because of the nature of the products manufactured by the organization and the high rate of theft generally associated with motor vehicles and motorcycles. It is recommended that the organization conduct a thorough perimeter and site security audit for the purposes of ensuring the maximum mitigation of any risks of vandalism and theft. To the extent that internal vandalism is a concern, it is recommended that the organization invest in security cameras to monitor critical areas. Additionally, employee physical access to specific areas on the grounds of the company should be restricted appropriately based on responsibilities. Likewise, it is recommended that different degrees of it system access be assigned to employees on the basis of need instead of allowing universal system access to all authorized it system users.
Modern it systems are inherently vulnerable to many types of malicious attempts at unauthorized…
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…
Auf der Heide, E. (1989). Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St.
Louis: C.R. Mosely.
Britton, N. (1999). Whither the emergency manager?" International Journal of Mass
Emergencies and Disaster, 17(3), 223-36.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
Seaside Tsunami Awareness Program
Saving an indefinite and undeterminable number of lives has proven to depend on effective education and emergency management in tsunami events in the U.S. -- and likely, everywhere else (NAS, 2011). Safety and survival ultimately depend on communities and individuals at risk with the precise knowledge and capability to decide correctly and act promptly and preferably before the event. This knowledge and this capability can only be gained and developed through education before the event. Prolonged shaking of the ground and the drawing down of the shoreline are the natural indications, especially in local communities. These are hints of arriving waves within minutes. No assistance is likely in the early moments or even days, so knowledge and capability are the only things to rely on. There are better opportunities for those communities and individuals at risk to distant tsunamis. Official warnings may be able to…
Connor, D. (2005). The city of seaide's tsunami awareness program. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. Retrieved on October 29, 2015 from http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/ofr/o-95=10_onscreen.pdf
FEMA (2015) FEMA federal emergency management agency. Retrieved on October 29, 2015
---------- -- -- . Chapter 12: Standards and Evaluation. Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…
Acutech Consulting (2009). The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Method
American Petroleum Institute (August 2009). Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage. p26
Stafford Act can rightly be considered the principle legislation governing emergency and disaster management in the U.S., spelling "out - among other things - how disasters are declared, the types of assistance to be provided, and the cost-sharing arrangements between federal, state, and local governments" (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007, p. 3). FEMA is, essentially, charged with implementing the Act and overseeing its two incident levels - major disasters and emergencies. However, despite the fact that it is put into place several times every year, during declarations of catastrophes and emergencies, the Stafford Act is not without its critics who have outspokenly called for an overhaul to some of is fundamental provisions. The author posits that in its present state, the Stafford Act lacks standardized mitigation procedures, and ought, therefore, to be "reformed to aggressively encourage the reconstruction of improved infrastructure, in addition to providing funding for mitigation projects" (Moss &…
Bea, K. (2003). Federal Disaster Policies after Terrorists Strike: Issues and Options. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers.
Hunter, N.D. (2009). The Law of Emergencies: Public Health and Disaster Management. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann
Moss, M.L. & Shelhamer, C. (2007). The Stafford Act: Priorities for Reform. New York University Library. Retrieved 4th July 2014 from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Report_StaffordActReform_MitchellMoss_10.03.07.pdf
Avoid dangerous spots near a window, hanging objects, mirrors, or merchandise fixtures
If you take cover under a piece of furniture, be sure to hold onto it. If the furniture moves be prepared to move and navigate along with it
Hold the position until the aftershock abates and it's safe to proceed further.
A pandemic or other people disaster has struck, and people resources (employees) have been impacted.
Being located in South Florida, heavy rains will undoubtedly occur. These rains coupled with the high prevalence of winds increases the likelihood of a flood. This problem is further compounded as the hurricane season is south Florida is predicated with high winds and rain. Floods can be troublesome for XYZ personnel as merchandise is damaged, the threat of electrical damage is increased, and the water damage to the facility can be substantial (United States Department of Commerce, 2006). In…
1) Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. "Time. August 28, 2006.
2) Burgos, Jr., Nestor P. (11/07/2010). "Iloilo power firms asked to explain brownouts." Philippine Daily Inquireir. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/regions/view/20101107-301974/Iloilo-power-firms-asked-to-explain-brownouts. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
3) Dobson et al. Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems. System Sciences 2003. July 20, 2011
4) Petroski, Henry (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7 -- 18..
p Executive briefing on current emerging issues in emergency management to brief a local executive
Executive briefing of emerging issues in emergency management:
Capabilities, vulnerabilities, and needs for Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha, Nebraska is subject to the specific geographic and meteorological conditions to its region that give it a unique profile for emergency managers. Unlike the major coastal cities of Los Angeles and New York, for example, it is not identified as a high-priority target for potential terrorists because of its cultural significance. But although it is not proximate to a national border, Homeland Security issues are still of great importance as reflected in the recent rebuilding of its Homeland Security office to LEED (environmentally sustainable) standards. This ensures that the building can be energy-efficient and can answer the needs of the community in the future (Omaha Department of Homeland Security, 2008, CBE Berkeley).
egarding natural disasters common to Omaha,…
Douglas County, NE local emergency operations plan (2010). Nebraska.gov. Retrieved:
Duggan, J. (2013). Plan for the worst with the Keystone XL pipeline. Omaha.com. Retrieved:
particularly using multicriteria analysis model of land use planning and land use management and how it affects the future of land management. It has 10 sources in APA format.
Issues pertaining to land use management, and land use planning are as varied in nature as their challenging existence. Taking diversity as one challenge, it is noticed that ascertaining the various goals, values and techniques of the land user have remained a crucial task. The intention of this paper is to detail some methodologies on selected issues of land use management and land use planning, and present relevant literature review that give credence to these methodologies.
The determination of how our land is or will be used is coined as land use planning and land management. Seeking to create a vision for use and management of lands and the natural resources, the land and resource management plans requires the involvement of…
Toit, D.C. du.[July 2001]. Wise Land Use, White Paper On Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Ministry Of Agriculture And Land Affairs, available at: http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/white_papers/landdev.html?rebookmark=1
Author not available, . United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, Chaper 10, Agenda 21, available at: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/land.htm
Author not available, . United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission on Sustainable Development http://ods-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/312/96/PDF/N0131296.pdf-OpenElement
O'Callaghan, M. . Global Vision, Sustainable City, available at: www.global-vision.org/city/intro.html
Slide 9: Technological innovations in emergency management
The starting point in the creation of a plan on how to improve our program from a technological standpoint has been constituted by the review of the it industry. The scope of this research has been that of identifying the innovations in the field and their relevance for our agency and its mission. The results of the research endeavor are briefly presented below:
GIS is an important tool to use in the collection of data necessary and its usage is credited with overall successful emergency operations as it allows the intervention teams to gather data pivotal at all stages of the emergency management process.
emote sensing technology is enhancing the quality of the emergency management act at the stages of mitigation and preparedness and it has proven efficient in the management of both natural hazards as well as man made disasters.
Bea, K., 2006, Federal emergency management policy changes after Hurricane Katrina: a summary of statutory provisions, Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33729.pdf last accessed on December 7, 2010
Durmaz, H., 2007, Understanding and responding to terrorism, IOS Press
Freitag, B., How can emergency managers address our warming climate? University of Washington, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=8&sqi=2&ved=0CE8QFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftraining.fema.gov%2FEMIWeb%2Fedu%2Fdocs%2FFreitag%2520-%2520How%2520can%2520emergency%2520managers%2520address%2520our%2520warming%2520cli.doc&rct=j&q=global%20warming%20and%20emergency%20management&ei=iK0ATY7aIc7xsgaxxKDzDg&usg=AFQjCNEz6tI4T6-ThuYIsw1_oXTxhx2SoQ&cad=rja last accessed on December 9, 2010
Goodman, a., 2007, Global warming link to natural disasters, Seattle PI, http://www.seattlepi.com/opinion/336682_amy25.html last accessed on December 9, 2010
It is simply how the world works, and how humans interact with the world.
One of the speaker's main points is that developing countries alter their political and government arenas as they develop. She believes that the government, which regulates taxes and other economic incentives, has the power to attract or repel business investment in their developing countries. She writes, "If taxes, industrial policy, environmental regulation, or industrial relations in any society are too costly or constraining, investors will pull up stakes and transfer them elsewhere; workers cannot move so easily" (Berger 2010, 51). She contends that as government leaders gain more power through technology, taxes, and investment in their country, they become less trustworthy to their citizens. Another group of writers note, "More than anybody else, government officials, as defined above, are responsible for words and action that influence the developmental direction of society. The decisions that they have…
Berger, S. 2010. Globalisation and politics. Annual Review of Political Science. 2000. 3:43 -- 62.
Hafsi, T., and Mehdi F. 2005. Applicability of Management Theories to Developing Countries: A Synthesis. Management International Review 45, no. 4: 483+.
Hyden, G. Court, J., and Mease, K. 2003. Government and Governance in 16 Developing Countries. [Online] Available at: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3140.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2010].
Perkins, R. 2008. Incentivizing Climate Mitigation: Engaging Developing Countries. Harvard International Review 30, no. 2: 42+.
As Nielsen and Lidstone (1998) note,
It is ironic that the public demands safety yet a number of cost-effective and feasible measures to mitigate disasters are not adopted by many... Such a failure of the public to adopt disaster mitigation measures has a long record in Australia
(Nielsen and Lidstone 1998)
This attitude is one of the reasons given for the greater emphasis on public education. In theoretical terms, the view is put forward that an educated public will be able to deal with emergencies and disasters more effectively and that this should form an integral part of emergency and disaster management and planning. This in turn has resulted in a "...renewal of focus, at both a national and global level, upon public education as a means to disaster mitigation" (Nielsen and Lidstone 1998). To this end the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) has collected data…
Asghar S. et al. Dynamic integrated model for decision support systems. I. j. Of simulation 6. (http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/EMA/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentpersonal/(85FE07930A2BB4482E194CD03685A8EB)~Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf/$file/Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf. (Accessed July 15, 2008).
D'Ercole, R. 1994. "Les Vulnerabilites des Societes et des Espaces
Urbanises: Concepts, Typologies, Mode d'Analyse." Revue de
Geographie Alpine 32 (4): 87-96.
This service is offered on a twenty four hours / seven days basis and is ready to answer people's calls asking for support. Taking action is the second pillar on which the organization relies having four important action subcategories: the mitigation - limiting the causes that may produce a natural catastrophe (for example, the pollution reduction actions), getting prepared - preparing the population in case of an imminent danger, taking action - actively intervene during and shortly after the incident in order to reduce the damages, as well as in order to save human life; the final step is the recovery - correcting the negative effect of the catastrophe - for example, in case of floods helping people to rebuild their houses.
For example, in 2006 the hurricanes produced important damages for the Americans living on the Costal side of the continent. For those people, the MDCEM offered information about…
1) http://www.nvoad.org/,last visit date: 15th of September 2007-09-15
2) Rappaport, Edward N. (November 2, 2000). www.nhc.noaa.govPreliminary Report: Hurricane Iris: 22 August-4 September 1995. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2006- 11-29
Disaster recovery refers to the IT components of the business that, in times of a disaster, need to be safeguarded so that business can be continued. Disaster recovery is more a preventive plan set in motion prior to the organization and implementation of the business than a series of actions that are followed once the disaster hits the company. Given that most companies are, to a large extent and in many ways, reliant on their IT system, and that collapse of IT system has ramifications beyond the company, disaster recovery has become a significant part of planning to today's organization.
Disasters can be classified into two areas:
Natural disasters -- for example floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes where mitigation measures ahead of time can work towards avoiding or reducing data loss and IT cessation.
Man-made disasters -- such as terrorism where surveillance and avoidance planning can also work towards mitigating and…
Bahan, C. The Disaster Recovery Plan. SANS Reading Room, 2003
Bell, Judy. Why Some Recovery Plans Won't Work. Disaster Recovery
Journal. Spring 2003
isk Management Consultant Proposal
Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois
In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.
isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…
Dampsey, J.S. (2007). Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Wells, G. (1996). Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment. Rugby, Warwickshire: Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Magnetic Levitation Propulsion Systems in North America and Around the World
How Magnetic Levitation Propulsion System Works?
Development of the Maglev Technology
Design Differences in the German and Japanese Maglev Technology
Advantages of Maglev
Other Applications and spin-offs
Potential Projects in the U.S.A.
Magnetic Levitation Propulsion Systems
With air travel and the highways becoming increasingly congested, the need for an efficient, fast and comfortable mode of alternative travel has been felt in many countries of the world. One of the possible solutions is the Magnetic Levitation Propulsion System or high-speed trains called the Maglev train (short for magnetic levitation). The recent question mark over the safety of air travel and the fear of flying created among the general public by the events of 9/11 has renewed interest in the Maglev technology. In this paper we will discuss how the Magnetic Levitation Propulsion System works and briefly overview…
Bonsor, Kevin. (2001). How Maglev Trains Will Work. Marshall Brain's "How Stuff Works" Web site. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.howstuffworks.com/maglev-train.htm
Jesdanun, Anick. (1999). "Seven Maglev Train Finalists." The Associated Press. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/tech/DailyNews/trains990525.html
Komarow, Steven. (n.d.). "Magnetic train vows super speed." Article in USA Today. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.newton.mec.edu/Brown/TE/Maglev/USA_TODAY/usa.html
Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) web-site. Last update 2000/09/08. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.rtri.or.jp/rd/maglev/html/english/maglev_principle_E.html
GLOBAL FINANCE, INC. (GFI)
IT ISK ASSESSMENT PAPE
When it comes to the risk assessment of Global Finance, Inc. there were identified vulnerabilities that were occurring in the locations of Technical Security, Management, and Operational. Vulnerabilities at the company are looked at as being weaknesses that could possibly be oppressed by a group of threats or just threats in general. Basically, all of these vulnerabilities are able to be alleviated by safeguards that are recommended. These safeguards are security features and certain controls that, when included or added in the information technology environment, alleviate the risk that is connected with the operation to what are the manageable levels. However, a complete conversation of the vulnerabilities and suggested safeguards are discovered in this report. If the safeguards suggested in this risk assessment are not applied, the outcome could be alteration or damage of data, disclosure of sensitive information, or denial of…
Gregory, L.M. (2011). CISSP for Dummies. New York.
Krause, H.F. (2009). Information Security Management Handbook. New York City.
Risk Management: The Importance of Redundant Backups. (21, November 2012). Retrieved from Softlayer: http://blog.softlayer.com/2012/risk-management-the-importance-of-redundant-backups
National Preparedness Goal
National Preparedness, the Presidential Policy Directive #8 (PPD-8), gives a description of the approach of the United States (U.S.) in the area of being prepared for threats and hazards posing the highest risk to American security. The whole national community shares the responsibility of national preparedness. Contribution and participation is required from every person including communities, individuals, faith-based organizations, and local, state and federal governments. The society will be described based on the core capabilities required in dealing with great risk. An integrated and layered approach shall be the foundation of the description. Success is used to mean a resilient and secure nation having the capabilities needed to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and ensure recovery from the most devastating of hazards.
The National Preparedness Goals shall be achieved by use of core capabilities in the following ways:
Prevention, avoidance, and halting threats or real terrorism…
Bea, K. (2005, March). The national preparedness system: Issues in the 109th Congress. Library of Congress Washington Dc Congressional Research Service
FEMA. (n.d.) Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved June 10, 2015, from http://fema.ideascale.com/a/ideas/tag/campaign-filter/byids/campaigns/58561
Homeland security, (First Edition September 2011) National Preparedness Goal retrieved on June 10, 2015
National Preparedness Goal FEMA.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2015, from https://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-goal
isk Management: Disaster ecovery
In essence, disaster recovery has got to do with protecting an organization against events of a negative nature and their effects/impact. Such events include, but they are not limited to, failure of equipment, serious cyber attacks, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. All these put the operations of the organization at risk. This text concerns itself with practical risk management. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, address the need for disaster recovery and highlight the key components of a disaster recovery plan.
The Need for Disaster isk Management
The relevance of disaster risk management cannot be overstated. This is particularly the case given that disasters put the continued operations of an enterprise at risk. It is important to note that in the past, many businesses have had to contend with huge losses when disasters strike. This is more so the case when…
Doig, J. (1997). Disaster Recovery for Archives, Libraries and Records Management Systems in Australia and New Zealand. Wagga, NSW: Center for Information Studies.
EC-Council. (2010). Disaster Recovery. Clifton Part, NY: Cengage Learning.
Rodriguez, R., Quarantelli, E.L. & Dynes, R. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.
Snedaker, S. (2013). Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning for IT Professionals (2nd ed.). Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
catastrophic events can impact hospital risk financing, the purchasing of new physical property and insurance. Catastrophes can range from terrorist acts like 9/11 to natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina to biological endemics/outbreaks that shut down entire cities for days as medical teams race to erect quarantines in order to stop the spread. Each catastrophe has its own unique fall-out and impact. Terrorist attacks call for higher alert by law enforcement authorities and demand more scrutiny and optimum records keeping by hospitals, for safety's sake. Natural disasters call for optimum coordination among the various impacted medical facilities so that the best and highest quality care can be delivered in a collaborative fashion to those in need who are detrimentally affected. And biological outbreaks can be threatening to hospitals especially as they are in the business of treating patients who might have come into contact with a deadly illness and thus have…
Epstein, A. (2014). Financing Risk. JPUB. Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449645656/45656_CH05_Kavaler.pdf
Gould, N. (2015). Understanding the vulnerability of hospitals to natural disasters.
IRMI. Retrieved from https://www.irmi.com/articles/expert-commentary/understanding-the-vulnerability-of-hospitals-to-natural-disasters
RMS. (2015). Catastrophe, injury and insurance. Retrieved from http://static.rms.com/email/documents/liferisks/reports/catastrophe-injury-and-insurance.pdf
Department of Homeland Security Grants
The HSGP (Homeland Security Grant Program) for the fiscal year 2017 contributes significantly to NPS (National Preparedness System) implementation through promoting the creation, delivery and sustenance of key capabilities vital to the achievement of America’s NPG (National Preparedness Goal) geared at improving its security and resilience. The provision of key capabilities necessitates integrated community-wide efforts and not the sole, independent endeavors of a particular governmental level or agency. HSGP’s allowable expenses foster attempts at developing and sustaining key capabilities over the Protection, Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery and Response mission domains, with the following prioritized:
· Development and Maintenance of Terrorism Prevention Competences by Law Enforcers
· Development and Upgradation of Key Urban Area and State Fusion Centers
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
This Homeland Security agency was first established under the 1978 Presidential Reorganization Plan III, and put into service under a couple of Executive Orders…
The relationship between liberty and security is a tense one, as retaining or bestowing some liberties will lessen security. This claim, while it holds for some liberties, does not hold for all. Some liberties have a very low relationship with security, and some have no relationship at all. The tension in the relationship between liberties and security is caused by an attempt to strike a balance between the two by compromising one for the other. Both liberties and security have competing interests, which can be sentenced as commensurable values to provide a means of comparison to justify sacrificing one for the other. This allows the gain or loss of either liberty or security to be measured relative to each other to determine either event's advantage. The complication in deciding which to keep, liberty or security, exists due to the varying importance attributed to each concept. Each one's advantage is a…
Allhoff, F. (2018). Liberty and security: A balanced approach. Journal of Law and Public Affair, 3(1), 53-82. Retrieved from https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=jlpa
Davis, L., Pollard, M., Ward, K., Wilson, J., Varda, D., Hansell, L., & Steinberg, P. (2010). Long-term effects of law enforcement\\\\'s post9/11 focus on counter-terrorism and homeland security. U.S. Department of Justice, RAND Corporation.
Institute of Medicine. (2012). Crisis Standards of Care: A systems framework for catastrophic disaster response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Waugh, W., & Streib, G. (2006). Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Administration Review, 131-140. Retrieved from https://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/shulockn/executive
Wise, C. (2006). Organizing for Homeland Security after Katrina: Is adaptive management what\\\\'s missing? Public Administration Review, 66(2), 302 –18.
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
The role of community in achieving proper water and sanitation standards in times of disaster
It is important to note that whenever a natural or manmade disaster hits a particular region, the entire community is put at risk since it is them who suffer the direct results of the disaster. These negative outcomes of the disaster could be social, economic and even psychological. It is therefore necessary to properly educate the entire community on how they can cope with water shortage and sanitation problems that are as a result of either flooding or hurricanes. The various community drinking water treatment plants should have elaborate emergency plans that are to be put in action should there be a disruption of the service. It is integral that the community water treatment facilities comply with the stringent requirements that are laid down by both the federal and state regulations.
After the emergency for…
Associated Contents,(2010) The Importance of Water to Health and to Human Life
Copeland, C (2005). Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities:Impacts,
Needs, and Response
The following diagram represents the structure of the idea.
Figure 2. Project flow pursuant to Plan Abu Dhabi 2030: Urban Structure Framework Plan
Objectives of the Study
The overarching objective of this study is to build a solid portfolio management application that connects all the local governments of Abu Dhabi emirates in ways that will allow them to collaborate on various projects pursuant to Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 through one unified system from their offices without wasting time on face-to-face meetings, as well as introducing the potential for the leaking of information through channels that provide the opportunity for unauthorized access. This objective also include the need to develop a solid it security infrastructure by building strategies, recruiting qualified staff, implementing the latest technologies and best practices as identified in the research.
The study was guided by the following specific objectives:
1. Achieve cost effectiveness once the portfolio management software…
Andress, a. (2003). Surviving security: How to integrate people, process, and technology.
Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach.
Bhimani, a. (2003). Management accounting in the digital economy. Oxford: Oxford University
The WTO ecretariat is based in Geneva, with around 600 staff members under a director-general. The main functions of the ecretariat include technical support for the WTO councils and other bodies, technical assistance for developing countries, world trade analysis, and liaison between the WTO and the public and media. The ecretariat can also provide legal assistance for dispute settlements, and advice to governments applying for membership in the WTO.
The World Bank
The World Bank was created during World War II at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. Its initial function was to help in the rebuilding process after the War, with its first loan to France in the amount of $250 million. Post-war reconstruction efforts were followed by aid efforts for events such as natural disasters, humanitarian emergencies, and post-conflict rehabilitation. While these continue to be a prominent part of the World Bank's function, its main effort today focuses on poverty…
The International Monetary Fund. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? 2007. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm
The World Bank Group. World Bank History. 2007. http://go.worldbank.org/2GIYUD9KB0
World Trade Organization. The WTO in Brief. 2007. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/inbrief_e/inbr00_e.htm
On Dec 16, 1999, in the Corre Grande region of Venezuela, there was simultaneous debris discharge in 20 streams over a distance of 50 Kms. The damage was so profound that it destroyed 25,000 houses and damaged more than 65,000 houses. The total loss was estimated at $2billion U.S. dollars. In view of the largescale damage and loss inflicted by this natural calamity the Venezuelan government decided to collaborate with Chinese researchers in designing an appropriate debris hazard control mechanism. Such debris flow events following the sudden eruption of a dormant volcano is an event of common occurrence in many regions across the world. For example the May 27, 1984 debris flow totally destroyed the copper mining fields in the Yunnan province of China. Similarly, the debris flow along with the water from the melted ice (due to sudden volcanic eruption) completely inundated the town of Armero in Colombia killing…
Wang Shige, "Characteristics of Large Low-frequency Debris Flow Hazards and Mitigation Strategies," Journal of Mountain Science Vol 2 No 1 (2005): 50~58,
Available online at, http://www.imde.ac.cn/journal/Vol_04/p50-58.pdf
Ronald W. Perry, John David Godchaux, 'Volcano hazard management strategies',
Journal of Disaster Prevention and Management, Apr 2005 Volume: 14 Issue: 2-Page: 183-195
Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA is primarily charged with ensuring that the Americans are all safe in case of any emergency. This is the basis of all their engagements and departments that exist therein. The range of emergencies that are included in the FEMA field of operation are natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, wild fires, earthquakes and man made (both internal and external aggression) disasters that can adversely affect the lives of the Americans.
The roles of FEMA in a situation of emergency are conventionally grouped into the following categories as indicated by FEMA (2010a);
Life safety: this is usually the first and most important priority of FEMA since it is the sole reason for the existence of the agency and the agenda for their response to any emergency situation.
ecovery and restoration; this involves ensuring that the businesses run normally and that the population is employed once again after…
Church World Service, (2011). Responding to Emergencies-Our Approach. Retrieved August 1,
2011 from http://www.churchworldservice.org/site/PageServer?pagename=action_what_emerg_approach
FEMA (2010a). Emergency Management Guide. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov/business/guide/section2g.shtm
FEMA (2010b). FEMA's Organization Structure. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://fema.eyestreet.com/about/structure.shtm
Building Design Construction Methods and Collapse
General building design and construction methods
Contemporary building regulations are effective in ensuring the safety of occupants throughout the life cycle of the structure. Government agencies have the responsibility of inspection to ensure safety and enforcing compliance to regulations and codes during constructions. Building design and construction methods evolve in response to emerging trends and demands in the industry. Advancements within the design and construction industries transform the demands and orientation of structures as per the consumer demand.
Building designs and construction methods have associated types of collapse. Designs and construction methods determine the gravity resistance system of buildings. Different building designs and construction methods have related hazards from the collapse of structures.
Fire resistive buildings
Fire resistive building designs integrate the application non-combustible materials in construction. This prevents the construction materials from adding to the fire load and smoke within and spread from…
Bukowski, R., Jensen, R. & Laurel, A. (2012). Addressing the Needs of People Using Elevators for Emergency Evacuation. Fire Technology, 48: 127 -- 136.
Ling, F. & Soh, L. (2005). Improving the design of tall buildings after 9/11. Structural Survey, 23 (4): 265-281.
Mohammad, H. (2009). On the challenges of evacuation and rescue operations in high-rise buildings. Structural Survey, 27 (2): 109-118.
Randall, M. (2005). OSHA to the Rescue: Roofing industry benefits from agency's efforts. Professional Safety, 50 (2): 38-40.
Product and Supply Chain
Because of globalization world economies are increasingly becoming interdependent. The global market forces have made some business enterprises more vulnerable to economic crisis. Manufacturers have to take cognizance of the fact that global food prices are soaring because of supply constrains occasioned by bad weather. Surge in interest rates for investors who depend on bonds to provide a steady yield is an aspect of global market forces. Periods of long ultra-low interest rates steadily erode these investors income. ising interest rates also erode these investors principal. obust growth in emerging markets is a boon for the entire global economy. However, it comes with a price. Soaring inflation in emerging markets is majorly caused by ultra-low interest rates and strong capital flows. This is something that manufacturers in emerging economies have to be wary of. The global economy is becoming more connected. With the complex flows of…
Cetinkaya, B., Cuthbertson, R., Ewer, G., Klaas-Wissing, T, Piotrowicz, W. & Tyssen, C.
(2011). Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Practical Ideas for Moving Towards Best
Practice. New York: Springer.
Deloitte (2013). Supply chain risk strategies for emerging markets: Understanding the importance of risk. Retrieved from http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-
M1D1: Concept of Homeland Security Enterprise
HSE (Homeland Security Enterprise) was designed to better coordinate the resources of all law enforcement functions that fall under the auspices of the DHS. DHA strives to provide law enforcement agencies with "the tools to identify and combat threats in their communities," including access to its information (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). "Because state and local law enforcement are often in the best position to notice the first signs of a planned attack, homeland security efforts must be integrated into the police work that they do every day, providing officers on the front lines with a clear understanding of the tactics, behaviors, and other indicators that could point to terrorist activity" (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). DHS has created 'fusion' centers "to train state and local law enforcement to recognize behaviors and indicators related…
Community resilience can be defined as a tool for measuring a community's sustained ability to exploit the resources available in responding to, enduring, and recovering from disasters (Community Resilience). Communities that are resilient reduce the destruction level brought about by a disaster, in their day-to-day operations and local economies. They are usually ready to reduce or prevent the destruction or loss of their environment, lives and property, and are able to resume their people to work as soon as possible, and help them quickly reopen their businesses along with other services important for achieving an immediate and full recovery in the economy (Resilient Communities are the Foundations of a Resilient America).
Resilience is a dynamic and natural aspect of any community. In other words, resilience is a lifetime aspect of the society. It can potentially be measured absolutely, or it is at least possible to detect changes in…
CARRI. (2013). Definitions of Community Resilience: An Analysis. Community of Regional Resilience Institute.
CHANDRA, A., ACOSTA, J., MEREDITH, L. S., SANCHES, K., STERN, S., USCHER-PINES, L., et al. (2010). Understanding Community Resilience in the Context of National Health Security. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services .
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· The organization has powerful public relations appeal because it uses the skills and expertise of military veterans.
· It provides targeted disaster relief to areas in need.
· Volunteers and employees have past experience dealing with high-pressure situations based upon their military experience.
· The organization has a dual capacity to help others, both in the form of providing assistance to disaster victims and to offer veterans a productive way to give back to society, creating a bridge between past and current skills and experiences.
· Team Rubicon has shown its ability to succeed given that it was able to provide aid for earthquake-ravaged Haiti in 2010, even when a number of other organizations were not (“Our Mission,” 2017).
· The organization can rely upon donations from individuals who support the military as well as those who wish to support disaster relief.
· Strategic planning expertise from military…
The organic nature of the products that the company offers all seems to have a detrimental effect on profitability. Kudler may have to eliminate certain product offerings. This is particularly true if these products are not selling very well. In addition, the owner of the company may have some success in negotiating a lower price for those products that do sell well. The owner should be careful not to settle for whatever price she is quoted.
Another issue is payroll expense. All companies have problems with getting payroll expenses to a reasonable level. However. Kudler seems to have a problem in being able to pay highly specialized workers at the rate of the market. In addition, when on the specialized workers gets sick or quits it is difficult to find a replacement. Some of this will be remedied when the aforementioned problems are handled because it will create greater cash…