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(Postone, 1993) Habermas, a contemporary social historian contributor, was also very influenced by Weberian thinking in regarding rhetoric as an action rather than creating truth.
As Weber or Habermas, or Marx or any other philosopher of history, among others, puts it, social history is a complex science and can have many facets. As Soon Won Park presents, connected with the colonial history of Korea, "history is now understood not simply as one aspect of a national hmogenous culture, tradition and nation-state, but in more inclusive, complex and pluralistic terms." (Shin, 1999, pg 128) the new type of history that Park talks about is somehow similar to what Habermas is also talking about and it deals with a more complex understanding of the past than just in Marxists of Weberian terms. The new social history, therefore, requires new methods and areas to be analyzed, and also new analytical categories in the…… [Read More]
Ideal and Reality: Cultural Revolution in East Asia
In recent history in East Asia, the laws, ideals, and models of government and culture have produced a reality that is somewhat different from that hoped for and proposed by these arbitrary systems. As Dong Zhongshu notes, the ancient Han dynasty erected an empire that lasted 2000 years based on a Confucian "vision of an omnipotent but disciplined sovereign, who sought to align the population with the norms of Heaven and Earth" (De Bary 157). In China, this basic paradigm of god-like ruler, informed by a counsel of scholars, learned in the ways of the ancients, held true for centuries and even into the modern era, when Industrialization changed the nature of society the world over -- including East Asia. ith the introduction of new creeds, East Asian rulers found they had new opportunities to erect new social structures based…… [Read More]
A vacuum was left by the Ming's expansion and rapid dissolution of maritime power. Even when the Ming's maritime power faded, China continued to play a major role in world trade. China had amassed an incredible resource of imported silver acquired from Portuguese and Spanish traders who pillaged the ore from Central and South America. Stockpiling its silver allowed China to create an incredible amount of wealth, and China soon transferred its silver into the monetary system. Whereas the Europeans continued to rely on a gold standard for their currency exchange, China banked on silver. Silver was not something that China had access to domestically, though, making it a unique choice for use as a currency. Silver was almost like a foreign currency that China adapted. Paper currency was its baby. With a vast store of silver, China was in the position of becoming a regional trade broker.…… [Read More]
shifting gender roles within Chinese history:
Connections, differentiations, and articulations of Chinese women within the ideology of Confucianism
The common stereotype of the East Asian female in the est is that of a frail flower: the most popular esternized conceptions which leap to mind are that of the bound feet of a Chinese woman. However, the reality in early Chinese history was far more complex. As in the est, Chinese women often struggled for parity in East Asia with their male counterparts, but many were able to distinguish themselves despite certain societal constraints placed upon their behavior. Some of the venues in which women were allowed to exhibit their intellectual prowess, particularly upper-class women, were quite wide, even though (just as in the est) there were also equally vehement cultural stereotypes which questioned the mental and moral character of women. Although the dominant ideology of Confucianism defined a relatively circumscribed…… [Read More]
Reframing the tenants of Confucianism for a new era
Neo-Confucianism arose as a synthesis of Buddhism and Taoism in China. Although there is often a tendency to elide the ideological orientations of all the so-called 'Eastern' religions together in estern thinking, the fact that such a fusion occurred is quite surprising in retrospect. Buddhism initially faced a campaign of official persecution and only gradually became an accepted part of the Chinese belief schema. This paper will compare the Tang era Emperor uzong's suppression of Buddhism and his edict banning Buddhism with later attempts in the Song and Han period to synthesize these increasingly popular religions into the traditional Confucian ideology of the Chinese state. Gradually, it will suggest that over time, from the Tang to the Song to finally the Ming era, Confucian use of Buddhist ideas became more confident and ultimately there was less and less anxiety about…… [Read More]
history of Japan. First, it will describe the masculinization of Japanese culture during the Kamakura Shogunate period and explore why masculinization happened. Second, the changing roles and relationships with each Buddhism and Shinto in Japan from Nara through the Kamakura period will be explored. Third, Korea's relationship with China and Japan up until the 1600's will be compared and contrasted. Fourth, the kinds of social, political and cultural climate in which early Buddhism took hold and flourished in China and Japan will be discussed. Finally, the Marxist Model of Feudalism will be defined. Reasons this model does not apply to Japan during the Kamakura and Ashikaga Shogunates will be discussed.
The Masculinization of Japanese Culture
Early on in the development of Japan's feudal society, the culture was defined by "the central figure of the aristocratic fighting man on horseback" (Reischauer 45). This focus in the knight and politics created from…… [Read More]
One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).
Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…… [Read More]
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…… [Read More]
Not only are many Chinese immigrants well assimilated into their host nations, but they also have established family businesses that preclude them from being interested in taking up a teaching position. Furthermore, many Chinese immigrants abroad speak dialects other than Mandarin.
Hanban is also a direct emissary for the Chinese government and as such, it can more directly spread Beijing-sponsored values and ideas. Creating and disseminating a uniform message about China is as important as spreading a standardized version of Mandarin. Teaching methods can also be universalized, standardized for quality and effectiveness by Hanban. The government of the United States has actively engaged in language exportation but in less formal ways. While no Hanban equivalent exists, English is disseminated regularly and systematically through the popular media and through international business enterprise.
Erard, Michael. "The Mandarin Offensive." Wired.com. retrieved Dec 1, 2006 at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.04/mandarin.html?pg=1&topic=mandarin&topic_set… [Read More]
.....Zhu Xi understood daotong ( "transmission of the dao" or Confucian orthodoxy). What texts, in sequence, were to be studied? Keeping in mind the context in which he wrote, accept, qualify or refute his position.
Central to the evolution of Confucian orthodoxy, the teachings of Zhu Xi understood the transmission of the dao, the daotong, in terms of the natural ordering and hierarchy of the universe, and of universal laws. Daotong is conceptualized as a flow, a transmission of actual energy from a source higher on the cosmological hierarchy, or from the principle of Heaven, tianli (Adler 143). Moreover, the transmission of the dao is presented as an ongoing flow, more like a waterfall than a tap that gets turned off or on according to the will or desire of the human being. Zhu Xi's understanding was, however, ironically rigid and inflexible. His teachings deeply conflicted with prevailing Confucian ideology,…… [Read More]
It must be recognized that religion in East Asia has had a complex and long history, including its influence upon the law. itual and religion in the region have been much more integrated and for a much longer time in history than has been the case for the Western paradigm. Hence, although the country appears to have adopted the basic paradigms of Western legislation, it is also true that the heart of the region remains in its history, and is likely to be extracted only by time and patience.
Xinping notes that there are two opinions that relate to the religious paradigm as it relates to the Chinese context specifically. The first views religion in the country on a positive and active platform; where religion adapts itself the socialist and contemporary society of the region. eligion is thus easily and actively able to adapt itself to the applicable laws of…… [Read More]
(ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)
Statement of Problem
There is a growing problem in the ability of individuals and communities to receive care, according to the American College of Surgeons, as the changing face of emergency care and medical care in general is putting patients at risk. The ACS and the AMA have both recently conducted professional surveys that indicate that the source of the problem is a lack of specialized surgical providers to cover existing trauma centers and a lack of those same staff members to help to establish new centers of care in areas, with the lowest numbers of provider services. (ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)
The ACS Publication A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care stresses that the existing system is not…… [Read More]
In this regard, Francis adds that, "The determining factor will be ASEAN's ability to provide the leadership necessary to create a strong, independent East Asian Union" (Francis, p. 77). In addition, Bowles (2002) notes that the ongoing efforts to create improved Asia/Pacific regional cooperation are fundamentally efforts intended to balance the influence of the United States on the region and the world in general.
4. What are the main hypotheses of the work?
The guiding hypotheses of the proposed study are as follows:
H1: Encouraging China to participate in as a coalition leader in an East Asian Union in the future would serve to ensure that the price it would have to pay in terms of loss of trade and investment if it acts against the interests of the union's other members would be prohibitively high.
H2: Former Cold War alliances will be replaced by new ones in the future…… [Read More]
" However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East sian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when…… [Read More]
There were many unsuccessful attempts to transition to examples put forth by other countries particularly in the west that received both acceptance and rejection. Some efforts proved fruitful but many were fought against by the intellectuals as those at the lowest end of the socioeconomic structure had no voice. The transition in East Asia has reached a level of plateau; however, national identity and unification continue to be a goal that East Asia strives to maintain.
Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. The Essential World History. oston, MA: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2011.
McNelly, Theodore. Induced revolution: The policy and process of constitutional reform in occupied Japan, in Democratizing Japan, pp / 76-106.
Rhoads, Murphey. East Asia: A New History. Pearson Longman, 2004.
Shillony, en-Ami. Politics and culture in wartime Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1991.
Sommerville, Donald. The complete illustrated history of World War Two: An authoritative account of the…… [Read More]
Such loans have been immersed by the government or sold to private investors. The lenders and borrowers were also stimulated by Governments with entering into negotiations to reformulate the existing debts or to implement necessary measures for foreclosure. The private investors also were seen to have obtained or infused their funds in banks or low potential borrowers. However, the strategy of adjustment is not finished. The shortage of capital is still being felt by some of the banks in the region that reduces their lending capacity. The poor performance and liquidity crisis confronted by heavily indebted borrowers also adversely affected the financial strategies. (Moreno, 5)
It has been observed that the financial strategies of East Asia in the past have resulted in fast growth rates and also safeguarded the interests of lenders and borrowers that discouraged the efforts for taking precautions against potential risks involved. The continuing measures for developing…… [Read More]
Asian Financial Crisis of 1997
The economies of the so-called "Asian Tigers" were looked at with envy by the rest of the world in the early 1990s. These Southeast Asian countries -- South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand had shown impressive (in most cases double-digit) growth rates for the preceding decade and more; thus becoming "darlings" of liberal capitalism and globalization in the post-cold war era. Other developing countries were looking to follow their example, and indeed Indonesia and Philippines were straining at the leash to join the "tiger" club. Investors, bankers, and fund managers from all over the world were queuing up to be part of the Asian "economic miracle" -- and perhaps make a quick buck or two in the process. What's more -- the "trickle down effect" was actually pulling the poverty line in the region steadily downwards giving rise to a growing and…… [Read More]
Over the course of time, this gave many, the ability to express ideas from: Chinese mysticism and culture. Guang is the classic example of this, where a mysterious dragon is resting on a base. This is signifying, the belief in East Asian ideals and what they have tied to these different views (such as dragons). Where, the subject is depicted to be: powerful and larger than life creature (even though they are not real). ("China and Korea 1729")
The Neighing Horse
The use of stoneware, allowed artists the ability to be able to: create real depictions of actual people and things. This helped artisans to design a real life representation of their subjects. They would then paint these images, to illustrate the emotions and feelings that were being experienced. This is important, because it helped to create new ways that artists could be able to: represent their subjects and the…… [Read More]
Economic Development of China and Korea
China and Korea, not exactly highly developed countries, but carry a mystique about them that intrigues everyone in the United States. Two countries, on the verge of emerging into their full economic potential, is at the present time, attracting plenty of media attention. as their economic bankruptcy influenced by the attack on America? The purpose of this essay is to discuss and compare the differences and similarities of the two countries, including education, culture, religion, traditions, way of living and history, and emphasizing the economic development of these two fascinating countries.
Korea had its beginning, about two thousand years ago, when two nations were in a battle, creating a small independent population area, which we now know it today as the nation, Korea. Korea actually evolved spontaneously, with no planning or organization. Although Korea developed it's own identity and uniqueness, it is the envy…… [Read More]
Death & Dying
The general beliefs about death and dying have shifted greatly over the years and centuries of known human existence. There are surely things from before recorded and known human history that can be said about death and dying that would be intriguing. In both modern and historic times, there has been a marked difference between the way that the Western civilizations handle and perceive death and dying and Eastern philosophies do the same. There are even patterns and customs that occur when it is obvious and apparent that a person's death is imminent due to old age or sicknesses like cancer. Of course, examples of the West would include Western Europe, Australia and North America, including the United States. The East would include China, Japan and many other countries in Asia. There are some similarities between the United States and the Eastern death and dying practices and…… [Read More]
great wars of the twentieth century can be classified as "total wars" not because of their far-reaching effects, although many of them have been global wars. Rather, the term "total war" refers more to the all-encompassing effect of war on the cultures involved. Total wars alter civilian mentality and ideology in a way traditional wars do not. Patriotism and nationalism are by no means new concepts; nor is taking civilian casualties a new practice. But since World War One, total wars have taken on new meanings and transformed political ideologies.
The term "total war" seems to have originated during World War One, when the idea of a "People's War" gained popularity. As burgeoning nationalism changed the face of European geographical boundaries, national identities fostered a fresh sense of patriotism. The 19th century saw the unification of Germany following a series of battles that incidentally led up to the First World…… [Read More]
The new powerful leader who emerged from that struggle starting in 618 was Li Shimin. Some of the more notable accomplishments of Li Shimin involved restoring stable government, developing technological advances, and by utilizing the "free labor and military service of millions of peasants" he helped bring in enormous tax revenues to the point that the government was "more affluent than it had ever been."
Meantime during the time that the Tang dynasty was emerging as the power source, Buddhism helped to stimulate closer contact with other countries and cultures. According to Ping Yao, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Nan Nu, Chinese Buddhism became "instrumental in the development of mothers' identity and in the conceptualization of ideal maternal virtues" (Yao, 2008, p. 57). By examining the epitaphs that are left from the Tang dynasty, Ping Yao has determined that children whose mothers were strong Buddhists mostly complied with their mothers'…… [Read More]
Of course, the much shorter pleated skirt we now associate with modern Japanese school girls is also a chic look, and the carrying over of this simple design into a popular and often fetish-linked fashion for Western girls of modern times is an important note of timelessness.
Court" Fashion for Japanese Males, Asuka Period (593-710):
Eastern influence is not reserved for Westerners alone, as one can see in Asuka and Nara period clothing designs from Japan. Chinese influence was strong during this time period for clothing styles in Japan between 593 to 794 AD. uddhism and Chinese culture design was popularized by the imperial court members that wore clothing of this kind. The hakama trousers remained intact, but without the binding ties below the knee that earlier periods had emphasized. The upper garment of this period, the "ho" ("Japanese Dress in Former Times...") was less form fitting than previous designs,…… [Read More]
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]
All year-round, the smells of a coffin and coffin nails hover over her. Great-Grandmother does not brush her teeth. Great-Grandmother does not believe in airplanes. Great-Grandmother does not watch television
Great-Grandmother simply stands in front of the window of her Garret, or sits in the sun, a sun that does not penetrate her but simply casts a shadow behind her. She is very pale and does her hair in an archaic fashion, and has a face that the narrator describes as a set of wrinkles with archeological significance.
Each family treats the situation with different tactics but all show an inherent disdain for the very old, to the point of seeing and treating them as if they are inhuman, and with an irreverent lack of respect that is contrary to the culture from which they came. The only piece that offers a consoling look at the very old, throughout is…… [Read More]
They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.
As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…… [Read More]
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…… [Read More]
Countries in ASEAN have virtually started to justify human rights violations through claiming that they support Asian values by doing so.
People in ASEAN feel that they will risk breaking off economic growth if they reform their systems in accordance with human rights. ASEAN leaders are unwilling to recognize human rights as being universal, considering that human rights as devised by estern countries are different from what ASEAN understands through human rights.
Apparently, ASEAN believes that "the economic, social, and political rights in the region are improving, while in Europe and North America, their democratic systems are rendered ineffective due to an overemphasis on individual rights" (Manan). Numerous people in ASEAN consider that the est's attempt to have them accept human rights convention is an example of its reluctance to recognize East Asia as a world centre.
In their struggle to refrain from having to have anything to do with…… [Read More]
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…… [Read More]
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…… [Read More]
Every year more than million local population migrate towards the urban areas.
Gender Discrimination: The regional religious clerics and their influence over the governments have created broad problems for women, and thereby restricting their integration and involvement into society and profession. Although the females have secured permission to vote, and fight elections, but they are subjected to difficult terms and conditions. The employment of females in MENA has improved, however it is still 15% lower than East Asian countries.
Growing pressures on young men and women in the Middle East and North Africa to immigrate to Europe and the U.S. To find jobs and economic opportunities -- a process that inevitably creates new tensions and adjustment problems' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).
egional trade of lower magnitude:. All the countries of the region have so far failed to progress over economic and trade agreements. The countries have…… [Read More]
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…… [Read More]
Ly, Tran, and Ho Epochs
The Dai Viet Kingdom had its origin in the middle of the 10th century until around the middle of the 11th century, when local chiefs were able to vie for control in what is now Land of Viet
However, regionalism is the pattern. As the Northern Tang dynasty crumbled, it lost control over South (which are now parts of Northern Vietnam)
The weakening of Northern Tang gradually led to the emergence of the Dai Viet kingdom
There was still a lot of in fighting, though. Chieftan Dinh Bo Lihn conquered the "Twelve Warlords" and established a capital at Hoa Lu, south of the Red River Delta not far from modern day Hanoi.
Dinh Bo Linh was succeeded by Le Hoan, who fought off Song Dynasty encroachment. Thus they gained regional dominance
Then Ly Cong Uan in early 11th cent, supported by Buddhist community, moved the…… [Read More]
People can feel more comfortable if their sense of safety results from a strong national security. Political leadership in cohesive-capitalist countries typically has a firm grip on the labor force, albeit sometimes the leadership becomes "repressive and authoritarian" and leaders are known to use nationalism (extreme patriotism) as a driver to keep people believing in the state.
A states that Kohli identifies as having pursued a cohesive-capitalist approach to economy and governing is South Korea under Park Chung Hee. Another country that has historically exhibited a cohesive-capitalist approach is Brazil. Both of those countries have experienced some success, Kohli goes on.
The fragmented-multiclass states have policies that lie somewhere between the two extremes previously mentioned. The leaders in fragmented-multiclass states are held accountable for more dynamics in their societies than others in the previous two state descriptions. For example, on page 215 Kohli states that India and Brazil during several…… [Read More]
Nearly all of the attempts of Catholic Church to unite Orthodox Christians failed and what they achieved are religious hatred and distrust to Catholic Church.
Nowadays Catholicism has more than a billion followers all over the world. Their spiritual leader Pope John Paul II does a great work to make a dialogue between different confessions and does a lot to reconcile the representatives of different confessions. Bartholomew I, who is the Archbishop of Constantinople, is the leader of nearly 300 million Orthodox Christians (who mostly live in eastern and Southern Europe, Middle East and North Africa). More over Patriarch of Constantinople is simply "the first among equals" and does not have any supreme power over other patriarchs. John Paul II looks for the ways to keep the dialogue with Orthodox Church and looks for the ways for reconciliation, but Orthodox Church is not really enthusiastic in this process. ussian patriarch…… [Read More]
Maoist China and Post-War East Asia
To Live and the oral interviews of Chinese citizens who suffered under the Maoist regimes should be on the list of essential reading material for any individual compiling an encyclopedia entry on the life of Mao Zedong. While reading Mao's actual biography by a credible author would be important, the impact of Mao's life upon the populace is equally significant. The biographical text would be used for the basic information about Mao's life -- the circumstances under which he was born, what moved him to adopt communism, and his struggle against the Chinese nationalists that ultimately cumulated in his ascendency to leadership in China.
However, these 'driver's license' facts only scratch the surface of how Mao is remembered by the Chinese people. Interviews such as "A foot of mud and a pile of shit" show the suffering of people forced to toil the land…… [Read More]
427). The limitations of the steppe people -- for example, the Mongols -- was running into geographical conditions that they were not used to. India was sheltered from invasion by the Tibetan barrier (until a way to go around it was found). These examples show how the lay of the land influences history.
His third key in describing geo-historical dynamics is the technological rivalry between land and sea. His often used term for this is "mobility of power." Mackinder contrasts land-power and sea-power. Land-power during the Columbian period means horses or camels such as those the Mongol hordes used for conquest. These are appropriate instruments for traversing the steppes and engaging in raids across relatively flat land. In contrast to this is sea-power: "Mobility upon the ocean is the natural rival of horse and camel mobility in the heart of the continent" (p. 432). Sea-power is crucial for the outlying…… [Read More]
China did not have any debts to pay. However, actually during this era Chinese authority had been so undermined and the prestige of the government with its own people so completely destroyed "that it may well be said to have prepared the ground for the Walpurgis night of imperialism, which was witnessed in the decade following the Sino-Japanese War in 1895."
For example, one major complication that rendered diplomatic relations between China and the Western nations led by Britain extremely difficult was the attitude of the British mercantile community. The chimera of inexhaustible trade had drawn them into the interior. The central highway of China, the Yangtze, had now been opened. "Settlements" and trading establishments existed in every important city. Yet for some reason the results were bitterly disappointing. The fabulous China trade did not materialize.
The mercantile community blamed their failure on the opposition of the Chinese officials. Their…… [Read More]
history of China's importance to the U.S., from Nixon's visit to China in 1972 to the present, which contributed to the implementation of Obama's 'U.S. Pivot to Asia Strategy'?
The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into a state of…… [Read More]
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…… [Read More]
Archaeological Sites in the U.S.
This paper examines underwater archaeology in the U.S. The paper discusses excavation techniques, tools and technology and also explores the Clovis theory. The paper also reviews findings at several submerged North American prehistoric archeological sites.
Underwater survey and excavation are typically more expensive and logistically more complex than comparable terrestrial projects. Underwater conditions involve more variability from site to site, and even from hour to hour at the same site. All survey and excavation work is constrained by safety factors; in general the deeper the site, the less time that a scuba diver can remain at that depth. Other factors that are frequently less than ideal include water currents, temperature, and visibility (Merwin, Lynch, and Robinson, 42).
Nonetheless, the potential to recover significant archaeological data outweighs the disadvantages of working underwater. In fact, underwater sites may allow for the preservation of organic materials…… [Read More]
" (nd) the conception of Ringrose is one that was based upon "family, clan, and community allegiances. The links in such a network are stated to have resulted from "individual decisions and, in the aggregate, they constituted the inter-city transactions that, described collectively, allow us to identify urban networks." (nd)
II. GLOAL EXPANSION of CHINA
Ringrose relates that the same process is observable in the history in Ming China. The community schools were only nominal providers of education and "were subverted by local elites in a predictable way." (nd) However, in sixteenth century China central authority was not nearly as overwhelming in affairs that were local resulting in these schools being transformed by elites into "academies that provided the training necessary to pass the Imperial Civil Service examination." (Ringrose, nd) Not only did bureaucracy become more acknowledging of local dynamics in communities but also resulting was the construction of "commercial…… [Read More]
Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…… [Read More]
1750-1914 present east asia 5 citations paragraph 1st paragraph - change 1914-present give explanation 2nd paragraph - change 1914 - present give explanation 3rd paragraph - a continuity 1914 present give explanation conclusion paragraph generalizations bogus sites wikipedia online encyclopedias MLA citation essay 12 pieces researched evidence, 3 paragraph 6 scholarly resources wikipedia mentioned orks cited page Entries single-spaced -- inverse indentation (double space entries) Entries alphabetized authors' names.
The Asian continent was less successful in keeping foreign influences away from its borders in the last three centuries, given that globalization made it increasingly difficult for nations across the continent to maintain their customs and traditions. Even with that, many Asian countries managed to adopt a series of practices from other cultures without losing their own cultural values. The industrial revolution is a step that did not take place in Asia as it did in Europe or America, given that…… [Read More]
Immigration, Spatial, And Cultural Aspects of the Canadian Pacific Railway
At the turn of the 19th century, Chinese emigration began in Canada. The Chinese saw Canada as a place for new and prosperous opportunities in order to send money and goods back to their relatives in China. Voyagers from Hong Kong to Canada would take three weeks on water. Often they left China after being poverty or destitution.
From the 1880's up till the 1920's the kind of labor the Chinese were involved in was the raw work of a beginning industrial economy. The Chinese workers were either semiskilled or skilled and worked in the British Columbia salmon canneries and sawmills. hile some worked in the factories and sawmills, still others worked farming, clearing land, or becoming shopkeepers, peddlers, or even restaurateurs. The Chinese immigrants who were unskilled, typically found work in the laundry trade.
Before the 1920's however, Chinese…… [Read More]
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"
Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…… [Read More]
Although the most powerful nomadic influence over Eurasian politics, economics, and religion -- it was not the first.
The earlier Turkish nomadic factions coming from Central Asia also had heavy influences on both Asia and the rest of the world. During the Post-Classical Era, the Turks began to regain a new strength that once again threatened the European empires to the est. As the Turks grew more and more powerful, this power began to seriously impact both Asian and European politics during the time. The Middle East was greatly shaped, both politically and religiously, by theinfluence of the Turks, "Turkic groups later known as the Seljuks migrated into the Middle East, where they played an important role in Islamic civilization," (Invictus 1). This group of Turks strengthened the role of Islam as both a religion and a political policy within the region. As the area became increasingly dominated by Islamic…… [Read More]
In Thailand, the people take everything with a smile, and even when they make blunders and mishaps, and the same is pointed out to them, they tae it with a smile. People from the West feel that they are being laughed at, as they are probably less accustomed to being shouted at. (Social Customs) This is a peculiar institution and is seen in some cultures and probably these are the cultures who feel that they are superior to the other cultures surrounding them, or who have come into their country. This is also probably the reason why the Thais have never changed their culture due to influences of other countries.
Thai history before the Sukhothai kingdom. etrieved from www.kingdom-of-thailand.com/history.htm. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand: Economic Policy Analysis. McKeever Institute of Economic Policy Analysis. etrieved at http://www.mkeever.com/thailand.html. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand Culture. etrieved at http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/south_east_asia/thailand/culture.htm. Accessed on…… [Read More]
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…… [Read More]
Medieval Source Book: A literary History of Persia (45-46)
The author Browne (2009) describes an encounter so vicious and so ruthless under the hands of some people from the East. These people invaded Asia with only one purpose, to kill. The author reiterates that there is a good chance that there has never been another calamity as vicious as the one encountered by the Persians during this period. According to him even the affliction that was meted on the children of Israel by Nebuchadnezzar was nothing compared to what he encountered. He says that the number of people massacred by these accursed miscreants in a single city exceeded the entire population of the children of Israel. The author goes ahead to say that it is very likely that the world will never encounter anything as vicious as what he encountered.
The Tatars, as the author calls them, were people who…… [Read More]
Harvard Professor of History and Economics David S. Landes states in his book that that no has the simple answer as to why some nations are very rich and some are very poor today, he nevertheless argues that the West has been way ahead of the East in progress and success. He categorically points to England as the first country in world history to develop and this happened in the 18th century. Because of this, he writes that Europe (or England) shows how a nation can succeed. The book is a direct negation of the concept of multiculturalism in declaring that even the Chinese and Islamic civilizations' great scientific and technological advancements could not continue to progress as Europe has. He attests to a European miracle in earlier centuries.
Landex compares the development of the West and the East to show how the West won and has led. He uses…… [Read More]
West to East
Current Global Economic Trends and Their Lasting Effects: The Value Shift to the Eastern Hemisphere
Since the beginning of the Modern Age, when global commerce first became a reality, the Western Hemisphere has had a much greater share of the world's wealth and value capacity than the eastern half of the world. This was centered in Europe, at first, and could arguably said to persist even as far back as the Ancient Greeks and Egyptians, who were able -- along with successive nations and cultures living around the Mediterranean -- had many disparate trading partners with vastly different goods. The Mediterranean, however, actually served to connect the Eastern and Western worlds, and trade was still limited to those civilizations that actually bordered this interconnecting sea. It was Europe's spread into the New Worlds of what are now North and South America that led to Western domination of…… [Read More]
Food History of North America Cuisine
What is the geographical location of North America and why it would have an effect on the North America cuisine? (i.e., what is the weather condition in North America and does that play an affect as to why they eat the foods they eat and what foods do they eat mostly).
North America is a vast area that has many different geographical areas and so, they have an amazing affect on the food that North Americans eat. The long shorelines provide every kind of seafood from Alaskan king crab to Maine Lobster. The interior of North America is made up of prairie, both in the U.S. And Canada, and it is fertile, flat soil that is easily farmed. The area provides food to the entire world.
Because the area is so vast, the weather is different throughout North America, and influences the foods…… [Read More]
By acquiring Airborne Express, a new ranking for this year would likely move them up the chain a spot or two. The second table looks simply at the domestic market share for 2002, and it can be seen that DHL does not rank very highly. This was likely due to the fact that the merger with Airborne Express was not yet completed and therefore the abilities that DHL had on the ground in the domestic market were not strong. Although no new data has yet been presented, it would be interesting to see whether DHL's ranking is higher now than it was then, now that the merger with Airborne Express has been completed.
Table 2: U.S. domestic expedited cargo market share
Third quarter 2002
U.S. Postal Service
Includes domestic air and ground parcel.
Source: DHL/Airborne, 2003.
One of the reasons that DHL does…… [Read More]
USSR REFLECTION & RESPONSE
The end of the U.S.S.R. as explained in the very beginning of the source material is really not all that shocking when looking at the fate of other "empires" over the course of human history. One could point to other empires like the Roman one, which itself fell. More recently, even more modern versions of empires have fallen as well. For much of the 1600's, 1700's, 1800's and even the early 1900's, there were three countries that controlled most or at least much of the world, those being Great Britain, France and Spain. Regardless of the type and how big they get, they always seem to fall under the weight of their governmental structure, their compromised society or even just their sheer enormity on the global scale.
However, Russia as it is currently constituted is certainly still huge. The required source notes that the country is…… [Read More]
Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…… [Read More]
Taoism and Later World Religions
Laozi -- the legendary author of the Dao Dejing -- may not have been a real person, since his name is simply the Chinese for "Old Master." Yet the Dao itself would not want this fact to get in our way inquiring what Laozi himself would have thought of something -- after all, the Dao teaches that "the name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name." Indeed, the Dao's insights are particularly interesting in considering developments in world religion after the time in which the Dao Dejing was composed (somewhere between about 500 and 300 B.C.E.). I hope to apply the principles of Laozi to take a Daoist view of the two major religions to rise out of Judaism -- Christianity and Islam.
A Daoist view of Islam would be somewhat contradictory. Islam itself means submission unto the will of Allah.…… [Read More]
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…… [Read More]