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Religions of the Far East Are Often

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56766101

Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.

First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edwards, L., 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Esposito, J., Fasching, D., and Lewis, T., 2002. World Religions Today. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hopfe, L. And Woodward, M., 2001. Religions of the World, 8th ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Sharma, A., 1993. Our Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.
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Religion Is Jesus the Only Savoir Is

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 2051126

eligion

Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.

Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…… [Read More]

References

Bible: New International Version (NIV)

Johnsey, Allen. "A Critique of Is Jesus the Only Savior?" Nov 5, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.mainstreetmission.com/index.php?p=1_76_A-Critique-of-Is-Jesus-the-Only-Savior-

Johnson, Keith E. "John Hick's Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims." Retrieved online:  http://www.leaderu.com/wri/articles/hick.html 

Nash, Ronald H. "Is Jesus the Only Savoir?" Christian Research Institute. Retrieved online:  http://www.equip.org/articles/is-jesus-the-only-savior/
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Religion Used to Support Royal

Words: 2045 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43907872

One god unites the nation, strengthens rulers authority much more than many different small gods who are popular in some local territories but not in the whole country.

Though religion was an important kind of rulers support, but it was not that important as strong army which was the main fulcrum of king's power in the country. Ruler was a commander in chief of all armed forces of a state and hardly ever allowed very close and reliable people to head the army.

To sum up the written essay I'd like to admit that Mesopotamia was a very developed and progressive country of the Close East and whole world. Its achievements were assimilated by many nations and even now we use those sciences which had appeared and developed in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian civilization influenced all nations of ancient world, especially Persians, Egyptians, Jews, Greeks and even Arabic state of 8th century…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Moore, C. Balit, C. Ishtar and Tammuz: A Legend of Ancient Babylon Frances Lincoln Ltd.; (October 3, 1996)

Woodrow, R. Babylon Mystery Religion: Ancient & Modern Ralph Woodrow; (June 1, 1981)

Luckenbill, D.D. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylon (Ancient Records) Histories & Mysteries of Man; Reprint edition (June 1, 1989)

Herodotus
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Religion and Culture

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73015851

Diana Eck's new book about religion, entitled, "A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" Has Now ecome the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation" talks about the growing diversity in religious affiliations in America especially among its immigrants and native people. Eck provides her readers a new issue that is controversial politically, sociologically, and personally among America's citizens. The book was released before the September 11, 2001 bombings at the World Trade Center in New York City, USA, but its release became even more important, since Eck discusses the important issue that played in the said terrorist attacks, that is, the issue of religious and cultural diversity. This paper will discuss and analyze whether "religious pluralism," a term used by Diana Eck in her book so many times, a term used to describe America's 'melting pot' of various Western and Eastern religions, serves as a unifying factor to the Americans…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abernethy, Bob. "Profile: Diana Eck." Religion and Ethics Newsweekly. Public Broadcasting Service Online. 27 September 2002.  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week443/profile.html .

Eck, Diana L. "A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" Has Now Become the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation." Harper San Francisco. 2001.

Eck, Diana L. "Neighboring Faiths: How Will Americans Cope with Increasing Religious Diversity?" Harvard Magazine, September- October 1996. Harvard Magazine Website. 27 September 2002. http://www.harvard-magazine.com/issues/so96/faith.html.

Eck, Diana L. "Religious Consciousness Rises in U.S.: Eck Looks at Post- September 11 Attitudes in U.S." Harvard Gazette, February 14, 2002. Harvard Gazette Archives Website. 27 September 2002.  http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2002/02.14/10-eck.html .
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Differences with ancient religions

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40624143

Eastern Religions

The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the religious belief systems that existed in the Ancient Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Indeed, there will be a recitation of what they have in common and how they differ. The religions in question would include ones like Judaism, those of ancient Egypt and others like Mesopotamia and beyond. The more Eastern religions like Confucianism and Daoism is also in the discussion. hile the religions in the regions cited are alike and similar in many ways, there are still absolutely differences and variations that exist.

Some of the religions in question are Taoism/Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are often collected in a set that is known as the "three teachings. All of the religions in question date back about fourteen centuries. One thing that they absolutely have in common is that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ACM. "Asian Civilisations Museum." Acm.org.sg. N.p., 2017. Web. 28 Jan. 2017.

Duiker, William J. and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History. 7th ed. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage

Learning, 2013. Print.
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Eastern Philosophy Is Increasingly Becoming

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23583478

Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. One of their daughters, Amaterasu Omikami or "Sun Goddess," became the ancestor of the Imperial Family the chief deity, and her descendants united the country (eligious Tolerance).

The Shintoism philosophy deeply reveres and worships ancestors. All humans are considered "Kami's child," and therefore all human life and nature is sacred. Followers seek the will of Kami to have sincerity and a true heart and act in a way that is best for the group. The most important aspects in life are tradition and family, nature, worship of Kami and peace (eligious Tolerance).

Shintoism is very different from Buddhism, because it is based on a philosophy of a nation, Japan. Other major related differences include ancestral worship, that centers around the Imperial Family, the philosophy's lack of discussion regarding death, and the emphasis on goodness and cleanliness instead of pain and…… [Read More]

References

Horizon Book of the Arts of China (1969). New York: American Heritage Publishing.

Religious Tolerance Org. Shinto. Website retrieved October 29, 2006.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm .
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Eastern Philosopher Murasaki Shikibu Dear

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 20877776

How the Noble Truths can be achieved through the Confucian virtues.

Of course, please note especially the last ingredient, a lifetime of spiritual enlightenment, and the cooking instructions, which required all these ingredients to be mixed by a "strong, feminist hand." The recipe ultimately allows individuals, particularly women, to achieve salvation. If you've read books on Eastern philosophy and religions, you would note that in Japan, the history of Zen Buddhism is inextricably linked also with the eventual "salvation" of women in the society, and I am proud to say that my philosophical writings have helped serve as a catalyst, not only in developing Zen philosophy, but also in promoting women's equality, be this equality socio-political in nature, or in terms of salvation.

Zen philosophy promoted right-mindedness in people because it paved the way for progressive thinking. That is, Zen philosophy opened people's minds that salvation can be achieved not…… [Read More]

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Religion Comparison Religions in Ancient

Words: 2389 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75013626

According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.



Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old

Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
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Religion the History of Religion

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 26194776

Without an understanding of the Arian crisis, it is difficult to understand why later theological debates ensued and tore apart people who essentially believe in the same basic religion. Some Christians might take for granted that Christ is divine, whereas others view Jesus more as a human messenger of God. The Romans were debating this very issue several thousand years ago.

Second, the story of Arius and Athanasius shows that Christianity was not founded by Jesus Christ. Christianity was founded by those who came after Jesus. Christianity was also formed over time, and as the result of crises as bloody and violent as the one that Rubenstein describes in When Jesus Became God. Jesus set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the formation of a new religion, even though Jesus himself might only have been trying to reform Judaism. Jesus may have preached of a new…… [Read More]

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Religion -- Color and Sound

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39245349

Like Khan, Huxley focused on the sensations of the person (himself) having the mystical experience. During his experience, Huxley felt he had no impairment in his mind or gaze, an intensity of vision without an outer and imposed substance to induce the hallucination, and had a sense that his impetus of motion or will was impaired into a state of stasis (a direct contrast with Khan's focus on the ability of music to provide motion to parallel the nature of the divine). Above all, Huxley called his sense of harmony through visual means mystical because his visual experience eliminated any sense of division inner/outer divide in perception. As he looked at the flower, and Huxley felt he was becoming the flower.

This stands in direct contrast to Kepler's schema of harmony, which is dependant upon perceptions of distinction from outside, as an observer perceives defined opposites. Kepler's definition of harmony…… [Read More]

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Religion Judaism and Christianity European

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95099784

ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.

Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.

The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Judaism; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) Extracted July 22, 2006; Website;

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Judaism 

Why the Jews Rejected Jesus: The Turning Point in Western History; David Klinghoffer (March 2006) Extracted July 22, 2006
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Religion Israel L Jones Role of

Words: 2790 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52405505

However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.

It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.

Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from,  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm 

Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
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Religion in Your View How Can Christians

Words: 398 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23558523

Religion

In your view, how can Christians and Muslims work to understand one another better?

One of the first ways Christians and Muslims can work to understand one another is to recognize their shared heritage as "people of the book." Their religions are important to their identities and worldviews, and knowing this will also shed light on their common ground. Both Christians and Muslims believe in the veracity of the Hebrew Bible as the cornerstones of their religion. The common grounds between the two faiths, including the stories of the Old Testament, can be starting points for religious dialogue.

Once Christians and Muslims realize they are from a common background, they may be able to inspire compassion in one another. However, it is also important for Christians and Muslims to recognize and understand d their differences and more importantly, respect those differences. Valuing diversity, Christians and Muslims can appreciate that…… [Read More]

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Religion the New Human Potential

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14434348

In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.

As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.

Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation

Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
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Religion and Politics

Words: 2766 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64208888

eligion and Politics

Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Orientalism

There have been many uses and abuses in regard to the cultural and social concept called Orientalism. "Unlike the Americans, the French and British -- less so the Germans, ussians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swiss -- have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient's special place in European Western Experience. The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe's greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the other. In addition, the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, and experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely…… [Read More]

References

Afzal-Khan, Fawzia (1993). Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R.K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya, and Salman Rushdie. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Arac, Jonathan, & Harriet, Ritvo (1995). Macropolitics of Nineteenth-Century Literature: Nationalism, Exoticism, Imperialism. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Barlow, Tani E. (1997). Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia. Durham & London: Duke University Press.

Bruun, Ole (2000). Human Rights and Asian Values: Contesting National Identities and Cultural Representations in Asia. Curzon: Richmond, England.
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Religion Theology Reaching Out to Communities

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60707210

Religion / Theology

Reaching out to communities and cultures that have not embraced Christianity is what God wants Christians to do. On this page references that describe the people and history of the country of Tunisian -- with its Arab community described and evaluated in terms of political and cultural history -- will be presented as a preface to a plan on page 2. Thesis: Scripture calls for all Christian believers to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation" (Mark 16:15); hence it is our duty to take the ord of Christ to Tunisia, bringing Saving Grace to Tunisia.

Bilgin, Feridun. 2012. The Ottoman-Spanis Struggle for Sovereignty Over Tunisia (16th

Century). Electronic Journal of Social Sciences. 12 (inter): 181-201.

Bishku, Michael B. 2013. "Is It An Arab Spring or Business as Usual? Recent Changes in the Arab orld in Historical Context." Journal of Third orld…… [Read More]

Women's rights have been part of the basis for the Arab uprisings against authority, and although the Holy Bible (in particular the Old Testament) makes women second-class citizens, and issues decrees against women teaching or speaking in church, in Tunisia (Megahed, et al., 2011) an upgrading of the status of women is part of the agenda for change, and modern Christians fully accept and promote the concept of gender-educational equality (Megahed, 57). To wit, women in Tunisia reportedly have "the highest rate of female literary… in the Arab world" (Maddy-Weitzman, 2011).

Maddy-Weitzman also points out that the multitude of demonstrators in Tunisia in 2011 demanded the separation of "mosque and state"; in other words, the government should not be imposing religious laws on people.

To date there are approximately 1,500 Christians in Tunisia and according to a post on Faithlafayette.org, Christians will appear on Tunisian television; we pray there will not be any persecution of those bringing missionary messages to Tunisians. There is historical evidence of a Muslim prince, Ibn al-Lihyani, who "…seized control of Tunis in a bloodless coup in 1311" and later he converted to Christianity; this precedent opens the door for missionaries (Lower, 2009).
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Chinese Religion

Words: 1839 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 5848524

Samantha Vargas

Chinese Religion

Intro to Cultural Anthropology

Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. New Jersey: Princeton University

Press, 1907-1964. In this text, Professor Kenneth Ch'en writes a historical account of the development of Buddhism and how it modified as it grew. Buddhism is a unique religion in that it has been adapted to incorporate the cultural attitudes of the various countries in which it is found. Within China, Buddhism took an especially strong hold because it was able to incorporate the philosophical ideas of people like Confucius.

Ch'en's main argument of the piece seems to be that Buddhism is different from other religions. This is what makes the book a useful tool for academic research. There is not one set of dogmatic rules that have to be accepted, but rather many different versions of the religion. In this text, Ch'en has identified all of the social,…… [Read More]

Yuan, Haiwang. The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese. USA: Green

Wood Publishing Book, 2006. This book is a collection of folktales from Chinese culture. Each of these stories is beautiful in its own right as a work of fiction, but also interesting in what the story tells about the culture of the period in which the story was written. Each story has some element of magic in it, but also an element of cultural historicity.

While not really about the religious beliefs that are held by Chinese people, they nonetheless tell about the value systems of the time period in which the stories were written. It is the beliefs that people already held that determined what religion they chose. These beliefs would also shape the unique form of that religion which would become popularized in the region.
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Compare and Contrast Eastern and Shamanic Approaches to Altering Consciousness

Words: 2382 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53821356

SHAMANIC APPOACHES vs. ALTEED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Compare and contrast Eastern and shamanic approaches to altering consciousness

This paper focuses on the similarities and differences between eastern Shamanic practices and altered states of consciousness (ASC), and the significance of these practices in the today's urban society. Prior to going deep into the discussion, it is significance to define the terms; Shamanic and altered states of consciousness. As asserted by Oesterreich (1935:295), Shamanic illustrates what the Shamans do, while as Shamanic practices entails an intricate of belief, rituals and traditions huddled around the Shaman practices.

Some of the authors, for instance, Ashvind, (1999) relate Shaman to Siberian, Eurasian or sub-Arctic practitioners, while others extend the term Shaman to other practitioners, for example, any practitioner that interrelates with the spirit world through altered states of consciousness (ASC). Others extend the definition and define Shamans as medicine men or witch doctors. In essence,…… [Read More]

References

Ashvind N. (1999). Shamans, Healing, and Mental Health, Journal of Child and Family

Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1, pp. 131-134

Block, N. (1995). On confusion about a function of consciousness. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 18, 227 -- 247.

Block, N. (2001). Paradox and cross-purposes of recent work on consciousness. Cognition, 79,197 -- 219.
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Familiar With the Religions of Buddhism and

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29043338

familiar with the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism but the religion of Jainism, although enjoying nearly as many members, is not as well-known. Similarly, most know something about the practices and beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism but very individuals know anything about Jainism.

Jainism is a well-established religion that is largely based on the concept of non-violence which is one of the five great vows of the religion (Long, 2009). The other four vows are non-attachment to material things, no lying, no stealing, and promotion of sexual restraint. As to sexual restraint, celibacy is considered to be the ideal.

Followers of Jainism view the world as a highly integrated unit. They believe that all living things, including animals and plants, possess a living soul and that humans, animals, and plants all operate on an equal level. This belief places a strict duty on the part of its followers to treat…… [Read More]

References

Cush, D. (1999). 'Learning from' the Concept and Concepts of a Religious Tradition: Jainism in the RE Curriculum. Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion and Education, 60-74.

Jamison, D. (2003). Janism and Buddhism. In D. Jamison, A Companion to Environmental Philosophy (pp. 52-66). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Long, J.D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction . London: I.B. Tarius.

Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism
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Near Eastern Culture for My First Intercultural

Words: 1529 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 99092058

Near Eastern Culture

For my first intercultural experience, I decided to attend a yoga class. Although yoga has become increasingly popular amongst Westerners, it is still an ancient Eastern practice rather than something that can be characterized as part of mainstream American culture. It is a noncompetitive activity that is devoted to preparing the body for meditation rather than improving the body's physical appearance or to improve an athlete's performance. It is much a mental practice as it is a physical one.

During the beginning of class, everyone laid down their mats and assumed an 'easy sitting posture.' The teacher gave a short 'dharma' talk about the focus of the class, which was about setting aside the ego. Then, we said 'om' to indicate that the practice was starting. We performed some chanting in Sanskrit, doing a call-and-response after the teacher's prompting. Then, we begin to practice. First we began…… [Read More]

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Religion Origin Cultural Practices and Its Influences

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99193448

religion, origin, cultural practices and its influences on Confucianism.

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy that is developed from the life and teachings of Buddha. Buddhism has almost 380 million followers all over the world. The number has been increasing at a greater proportion in the modern era. The religion started over almost 2500 years ago. The main message of Buddhism is that a soul should attain enlightenment. The religion preaches a way of living which is based on the avoidance of self denial and self indulgence. One interesting factor about Buddhism is that there is no superior God in Buddhism.

Buddha (in Sanskrit means the "Awakened One") lived in mid 6th- 4th century Before Christ, a teacher in the North of India. Siddhartha Gotama, who later became Buddha, was born in a well off rich family. He had a simple and luxurious life but decided to give up all…… [Read More]

References:

Miyamoto, Musashi. A Book of Five Rings, translated by Victor Harris. London: Allison & Busby; Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. 1974

Sun Tzu. The Art of War: Sun Zi's Military Methods. Columbia University Press. 2007
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Religions of Christians and Muslims

Words: 2027 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35949607

Even with the fact that the tribesman was not acquainted with the religion, it is very possible that Africans in general felt that Christianity contained a series of concepts that were also present in their cultures." Though the peoples of this vast area spoke many languages and had different customs, through Christianity they were linked together in the confession of the creed of Nicaea" (ilken).

Islam had nonetheless experienced a rapid spread over the Arab Peninsula, but this can be attributed to the fact that most people in the territory had been Arab and because they saw the opportunity of adopting a religion that also had the function of uniting all the Arab people. Moreover, one can understand how Christianity had more success in converting individuals because it had mainly been directed at getting the people it came across to think spiritually and to appreciate God as a spiritual concept.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Goddard, Peter a. "Converting the Sauvage: Jesuit and Montagnais in Seventh-century New France," the Catholic Historical Review 84.2 (1998)

Jenkins, Philip. "The Forgotten Christian World: In the First Millennium, Christianity Spread East from Palestine to Iraq, and on to India and China, Becoming a Global Religion Accepting of, and Accepted by, Other Faiths. But with the Mongol Invasions of the 13th Century, Christianity's Eastern Journey Came to an End, and the Religion Became Ever More Closely Identified with European Culture. Philip Jenkins Recovers This Lost History," History Today Apr. 2009

Osman, Ghada. "Pre-islamic Arab Converts to Christianity in Mecca and Medina: an Investigation into the Arabic Sources," the Muslim World 95.1 (2005)

Wilken, Robert Louis. "Christianity face-to-face with Islam," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Jan. 2009
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Religion Shaped AMERICAN& 8230 How Religion

Words: 2067 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68756801

evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.

At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…… [Read More]

References

Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.

Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.

McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
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Religion In Frederick Streng's Discussion

Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49387875

Learning that we all believe in one force, yet a force that is represented with different entities and faith demonstrated through various traditions and practices, I have learned to reconcile these differences by just believing in a force, without any subsistence to religious names and labels and traditions.

As what I have discussed earlier, what used to be my religion was the belief I was exposed to since birth. However, as I grew up and became exposed to different forms of religions and beliefs in my society, I have learned to adapt to the diversity of religious philosophies extant by creating my personal philosophy. This personal philosophy is one that believes in a 'general force,' which is formless and not bound with the traditional practices. This force enables me to confide with an entity without any fear or limitations on what I can say or ask of it. It has…… [Read More]

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Religion and Religious Belief Modern

Words: 1717 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4630685

"

(Einstein, 1954)

The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.

ources Consulted

Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:

Routledge.

Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
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Religion Ancient Buddhism and How

Words: 1862 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74057640



In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.

Conclusion

The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.

There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.

REFRERENCES…… [Read More]

Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment. - Review - book review Christian Century, May 23, 2001 by Leo D. Lefebure  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693 

Color Symbolism in Buddhist Art http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/colors.html

Real Buddhas Don't Laugh:Attitudes towards Humour and Laughter inAncient India and ChinaMICHEL CLASQUINUniversity of South Africa http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:0ZC9clSD9mMJ:www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf+aesthetic+%22ancient+Buddhism%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
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Religion on World Events Cannot and Should

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81194803

religion on world events cannot, and should not be underestimated in its importance in dictating the events of history. The Protestant eformation is one such historic event or epoch that seemingly altered the way religion and society intermixed. The 16th century was a time of revolution and revolt and this modification of the church helped exposed many of the problems that the church had in maintaining a control over its subjects.

A the time shortly before Martin Luther's edict of worms, many were having problems with the Catholic church and an opportunity for a new sect to break off was ripe. The main problem with the church at this time was its ineffectiveness in dealing with personal salvation. The pomp and bloviated rituals apparently had lost their folk values and growing numbers were despondent and unsatisfied with the Catholic church's stance on many issues.

The main issue with the Catholic…… [Read More]

References

Arnold, J. (1999). The Causes and Results of the Reformation. IIIM Magazine Online, 1,2, 14 Mar 1999. Retrieved from  http://old.thirdmill.org/newfiles/jac_arnold/CH.Arnold.RMT.2.html 

Goetzmann, W.H. (1995). New lands, new men: America and the second great age of discovery. Texas State Historical Association.

Kreis, S. (2009). The Protestant Reformation. The History Guide, 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture3c.html 

Manteufel, T. (1994). Churches in America. Concordia Publishing House 1994.
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Religion and Wars

Words: 5869 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87135313

relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of civil wars within societies. The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war. Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of organized religion "have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to a vigorous pro-war policy" (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the seemingly strong tie between religion and war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below.

ecent research suggests…… [Read More]

References

Allen, John L. (N.D.) "As Vatican Calls for Peace, diplomat plans defense of 'preventive war.' {Online} Available:  http://www.natcath.com/NCR/Online/archives/013103/013103j.htm 

Armstrong, K. (1991). "Peace in Palestine." Holy War. New York: Doubleday. p4.

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1992). "What is War?" On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). 75-89; excerpt reprinted in U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, C610 Syllabus/Book of Readings. 205011. Fort Leavenworth: USACGSC, July 1992.

Chandler, D.G. (1996). "The English Civil Wars, 'Islam vs. Christianity'." Atlas of Military Strategy. Boston: Sterline Publishing Company. Pp.30-33., 54-55
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Religion Kabbalah and Its Origins

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83783161



Astrology is a key ingredient of Kabbalah, but not the traditional astrology we think of today. The Kabbalah zodiac is based on a different calendar, and the purpose of astrology is not to understand the different astrological signs and their meanings, but to take control over the negative aspects of the signs and create outcomes that are more positive. Dreams also play a large role in the Kabbalah. The Zohar believes that dreams allow people to get in touch with negative traits in their personality and make them better. Like Hindus, the Zohar teaches that people have many incarnations in this life, and they will come back many times before they get it "right" and ascend to nirvana or heaven.

The practice ultimately represents peace and harmony, and understanding the individual so they can understand the world around them. The Web site continues, "Kabbalah teaches universal principles that apply to…… [Read More]

References

Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The Golden Tradition: Jewish Life and Thought in Eastern Europe. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996.

De Leon-Jones, Karen Silvia. Giordano Bruno and the Kabbalah: Prophets, Magicians, and Rabbis. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

Editors. "Introduction." 2010. Kabbalah.info. 1 Dec. 2010.

.
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Religion Matthew FOX

Words: 1654 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96760823

Mattew Fox: Te Man, Te Controversy

Mattew Fox: Ten and Now Mattew Fox is a literary groundbreaker in te world of teology, in particular te doctrines of te Catolic Curc. His 1983 first-book, Original Blessing is a solid look at te blessings of life rater tan te concept of original sin. Te notion of Original sin is a central tenet to te Catolic Doctrine, and in 1989 te Vatican silenced Fox for one full year because of is teacings from Original Blessings.

In Original Blessings, Fox divides is book into four sections, befriending creation (te via positiva); befriending darkness, letting go, and letting be (te via negativa); befriending creativity, befriending our divinity (via creativa); and befriending new creation: compassion, celebration, and erotic justice (te via transformativa). He states tat awe and goodness will be te greatest counters to our society's predominantly pessimistic and fearful mood.

Fox believes tat Jesus teaces…… [Read More]

http://www.personaltransformation.com/Fox.html . Nurriestearns, Mary. "Beyond a Job: Doing the Great Work. An Interview With Matthew Fox." Personal Transformation.

Fox, Matthew. "Right Livelihood." Yes Magazine. Spring 2001.

Pacwa, Mitchell S.J. "Catholicism for the New Age: Matthew Fox and Creation-Centered Spirituality." Christian Research Institute. Report DF105.  http://www.equip.org/free/DF105.htm
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Science Has Played on Religion

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 84131556



Einstein, A. "Religion and Science." Retrieved August 19, 2013, from http://www.sacred-texts.com/aor/einstein/einsci.htm

This article is intriguing because it was written by one of history's most renowned scientists with the purpose of clearing the mystery concerning the conflict between religion and science. Einstein was a convinced scientists, but this did not prevent him from acknowledging situations when religion had assisted the world of science and from realizing that religion was in many cases responsible for influencing people to come up with logical explanations to particular events.

Ferngren, G.B. (2002). Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction. JHU Press.

This book presents a typical account concerning the relationship between science and religion. The fact that it uses thirty scholarly essays with the purpose to document the history of the topic while also introducing strong opinions supporting each of the two sides shows that the debate is still alive and that it is very difficult…… [Read More]

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Prophets and Gods the Roots of Christianity and Ancient India

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73247749

Religion

On the surface, Hinduism and Christianity could not be much more different. Ancient Hinduism offers a colorful pantheon of playful deities, some of which assume animal characteristics such as Hanuman and Ganesh. Stemming from its Jewish roots, Christianity presents a much different view of the origin and structure of the universe. Christian cosmology is more tightly ordered than that of Hinduism. Strictly monotheistic, Judaism imparted a mistrust of pagan polytheism to Christianity. Christian deity is unitary but also triune, in the worship of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Herein lies the strongest connection between worship in ancient India and worship in early Christianity. Hinduism, like Christianity, has a triune God concept. The Hindu God Brahma is the Supreme God, but God has three manifestations as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Each of these gods has its own expression and role in the Hindu cosmology. hereas Brahma is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhagavad Gita

Bible: Old and New Testament

Das, Subhamoy. "Top 10 Hindu Deities." About.com. Retrieved online:  http://hinduism.about.com/od/godsgoddesses/tp/deities.htm 

"The Origins of the Universe." BBC. Retrieved online:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/rs/environment/hinduismbeliefsrev1.shtml
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Western Religion

Words: 6937 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99571749

Western Religion

In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.

Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386

Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192

Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
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Ancient Near Eastern Values in

Words: 2893 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90605352

The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000947937 

Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+.

Gardner and Maier. FULL CITATION NEEDED www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000950008

Jager, Bernd. "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: An Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32.2 (2001): 131+.
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Orthodox Gnosiology Eastern Orthodox Theology

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58933807

Rather, in Orthodox Gnosiology, the words within the Scriptures become the essential facilitator for an individual and personal journey of their interpretation. It becomes a very personal process to interpret the Scriptures, and thus there is more emphasis placed on the power of our nous, or our intellect. As such, Lossky states that Orthodox Gnosiology is "anchored in the experience of all to the degree of each one's spiritual faculties" (Lossky in the Image and Likeness of God 64). e come to these conclusions, rather than having a person of Papal or religious authority guides us there without room for our own personal interpretations. Here, Lossky writes that it is our "analysis [that] leads us finally towards the Truth and the Spirit, the ord and the Holy Spirit" (Lossky in the Image and Likeness of God 153). It is important in Orthodox Gnosiology to unite tradition and Scripture in order…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2000.

Lossky, Vladimir & Erickson, John H. In the Image and Likeness of God. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1974.

Lossky, Vladimir. The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1976.
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Buddhism and Christianity Buddhism Religion

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40233223

They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection.

Differences

The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…… [Read More]

Works cited

Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.

Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.

Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.

King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.
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Japan Religion

Words: 1955 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5506612

Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan?

Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history. Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture. This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history. With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why.

Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism. Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought (Stanford: 2006).…… [Read More]

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Islam Is a Religion of War and

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31241930

Islam is a religion of war and hatred.

Islam

One cannot highlight too much the difference amid Islam, which is plain and Islam, with a fundamentalist version. Islam is the religion of approximately one billion people, as well as is a quickly increasing faith, predominantly in Africa but also elsewhere in the globe. The United States, for instance, boasts, approximately, a million converts to Islam (in addition, an even superior number of Muslim settlers).

Islam's believers find their faith hugely appealing, for the religion possesses an internal power that is quite astonishing. As a primary figure in the Islamic Republic of Iran maintains that any Westerner who really understands Islam will desire the lives of Muslims. Far from feeling embarrassed in relation to it's being temporally the last of the three major Middle Eastern monotheisms, Muslims considered that their faith progresses on the earlier ones. In their interpretation, Judaism, as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Annemarie Schimmel. Islam An Introduction. State University of New York Press, 1992.

Islam is a religion of war and hatred
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Gender and Islam Religion Is

Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2441196

In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.

Men in Islam

As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.

The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.

Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.

Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.

What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter?  http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
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Basic Beliefs and Practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28769892

beliefs and practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church can be somewhat differentiated from the basic beliefs and practices of the Western Church due to its veneration of iconography or spiritual imagery of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church can be differentiated as well from the Western Church in that they pray for the dead and are stated to believe that icons "…are a meeting point between the living and the dead; they believe God's grace is active in relics of the saints, they pray to angels; they have a view of sacraments that is differentiated from those of the Western Church in that salvation "…deposited in the Orthodox Church and the priest gives saving grace through the sacraments, so that people have a relationship with the Church rather than with Jesus Christ." (Young, 2007, p.1)

General Information

The Eastern Orthodox church is reported to be a fellowship of…… [Read More]

References

1) Young, David M. (2010) What's So Wrong with the Eastern Orthodox Church? European Institute of Protestant Studies. 2007 Jan 1. Retrieved from:  http://www.ianpaisley.org/article.asp?ArtKey=easternorthodox 

2) Meyendorf, John (2010) The Orthodox Church: General Information. Retrieved from:  http://mb-soft.com/believe/txc/orthodox.htm 

3) Benz, Ernst (2008) The Eastern Orthodox Church: Its Thought and Life. Transaction Publishers, 2008) Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=Q5Z_evECb1UC&dq=basic+beliefs+and+practices+of+the+Eastern+Orthodox+Church&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

4) Eastern Orthodox -- What are the main beliefs. (2010) AllExperts.com. Retreived from: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Eastern-Orthodox-1456/main-beliefs.htm
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Hindu Buddha the Distinctly Eastern

Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42106290

This provided a pathway for spirituality to the early Vedic thinkers. For these founding ideologists, this pathway led to the notion that there are multiple deistic beings which can occupy all manner of space and mental plane, a sharp-departure from the 'ethical monotheism' that underscores most western religious traditions.

This, perhaps, more than any other quality, helps to illustrate the common ground between Hinduism and Buddhism, which Prothero goes to even greater lengths to show are distinctly eastern in their theological orientation. Due to its origins in India, Buddhism was perceived in its earliest form by many as a mere sect of Hindu rather than a philosophy of its own foundations. Its practitioners, leading into the Common Era, were a statistically modest population of Indians who placed a spiritual emphasis "on experience over belief. Buddhism never had a creed or catechism until the American convert Henry Steel Olcott decided in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Neusner, J. (2003). World Religions in America. Westminster John Knox Press.

Prothero, S. (2010). God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions the Run the World. HarperOne.
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Witness Accounts of Ancient Eastern

Words: 1789 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44780395

Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.

The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).

2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).

3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website:  http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
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universal religions and the history of the world

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 18053830

Universal religions have grandiose political and social schemes. Unlike smaller-scale spiritual faiths, universal religions are those that seek to expand their locus of power and control over larger areas, such as through proselytizing or linking with political rulers. Universal religions also extended deeper into more areas of individual, family and community lives. For example, universal religions propagated specific social norms, morals, and ethics, and became one of the fundamental means of establishing laws. Universal religions also became linked with culture and ethnicity, providing a means by which people forged collective and individual identities. Yet unlike ancient religions, universal religions did not limit their scope to specific geo-political terrain. Believers would spread universal religions far beyond the place where they originated. Universal religions were believed to possess transcendent truths, which could be communicated to and received by people from various cultures, ethnicities, backgrounds, and belief systems. Unlike the localized faiths, universal…… [Read More]

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Comparing Different Religions to Islam

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65442581

Judaism as Opposed to Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism

In broad terms, the monotheistic worldview of Judaism differs from the worldviews of Eastern religious traditions that were already discussed in this course in a number of different ways. For the most part, there is a rigid monotheism that is a fundamental part of Judaism that simply is not matched in religions such as Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. In several ways Buddhism is actually more a philosophy than a religion. Its focus is typically on the individual and the individual's harmony with the external universe which Buddhism teaches is ever evolving, constantly beginning and ending. Quite simply, there is no dominant monotheistic presence in this religion -- certainly not on the part of that which is traditionally associated with Judaism. In the latter viewpoint, God is omnipotent and the creator (and ender) of virtually everything in existence. He is at the center…… [Read More]

References

Young, Williams. (2013). The World's Religions. New York: Pearson.
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The Culture of the Eastern Band Cherokee

Words: 3152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79674094

Introduction

The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…… [Read More]

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Israeli Politics Separating Religion From

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94273644

Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.

Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…… [Read More]

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Cultural Cues of Eastern and Western Schools in Today's World

Words: 1756 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14860448

Education in the East and West

The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.

Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.

Western…… [Read More]

Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.

Print.

Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
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Spiritual Practices Beyond Religion

Words: 2101 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93560343

Spiritual Practices Beyond eligion

Spirituality in Modern Psychology

Spirituality has previously held a very limited role within psychological and counseling strategies within the context of the Western world. In psychology, more traditional methods revolve around more scientific methods. Thus, spirituality has often been overlooked within the mental health genre as a way to bring greater capabilities to patients. However, as more alternative strategies begin to further intrude onto traditional Western medicines, spirituality is becoming a new and innovative strategy for psychologists and counselors to adapt to their already established strategy methods.

The mythology of spirituality impacts different people in very different ways. It helps shape how we view spirituality, but also how we attain our own sense of spirituality. According to the research, "mythology is the oldest path to the sacred," (Elkins 1998 p 191). As human beings, mythology was our first understanding of the spiritual realm, and the practice…… [Read More]

References

Chandler, Cynthia K.; Holden, Janice Miner; & Kolander, Cheryl A. (2001). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71. 168-186. Web.  http://wellness.unl.edu/wellness_documents/counseling_for_spiritual_wellness_theory_practice.pdf 

Elkins, David N. (1998). Beyond Religion: A Personal Program for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion. Quest Books.

Murphy, Michael; Donovan, Steven; & Taylor, Eugene. (2011). The physical and psychological effects of meditation: A review of contemporary research. Wisdom Practices. Web. http://media.wisdompractices.org/uploads/files/Meditation_Intro.pdf

Peck, M. Scott. (2002). The Road Less Traveled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values, and Spiritual Growth. Simon & Schuster.
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Ghost Dance Religion and the

Words: 6189 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29651370

And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).

After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American History since 1865: Wounded Knee

1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Amerman, Stephen Kent.

2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
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China and Europe on Trade Religion and Others

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17749723

China and Europe have taken divergent views of religion, commercial exchange, and politics. However, there have emerged various points of commonality and intersection. Chinese and European society have both evolved through periods of feudalism and "warring states," and both have generally preferred centralized systems of power. China and Europe have both participated robustly in global trade, and have each developed profitable and enduring routes of trade that facilitate the movement of people, goods, and services.

Imperialism has remained a core strategy for both Chinese and European political and economic leaders. While China has refrained from actively colonizing the regions it has traded with, European societies have prided themselves on their imperial prowess. China's tendency towards imperialism has been selective, strategic, and regional in focus, whereas European colonization has been extensive and geographically expansive. Moreover, the goal of European imperialism merges with the colonial strategy of controlling the local population extensively.…… [Read More]

References

Gainty, D. & Ward, W.D. (2012). Sources of World Societies. Volume 1. Bedford/St. Martin's.
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Role of Religion in Health Care

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31892040

PTSD & SPIITUALITY

PTSD/Spirituality

Health care and spirituality have long been linked and involved with each other. This involvement and linkage goes far beyond the stereotypical "faith healers" that have become the butt of many jokes. Indeed, faith is used by many to get through struggles and challenges of many kinds. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is no different in this regard. While medication and therapy are the more commonly cited ways to address and treat PTSD, faith-based options are also quite common. These spiritual methods are easy to apply in the patient care sphere given that many hospitals are religiously based and/or are willing to tailor a patient's emotional and mental care based on their specific faith. While there can be some pushback when religious and spiritual values are suggested as part of a care program, the use of these values can absolutely be beneficial to a person's mental well-being…… [Read More]

References

Bormann, J., Liu, L., Thorp, S., & Lang, A. (2012). Spiritual Wellbeing Mediates PTSD

Change in Veterans with Military-Related PTSD. International Journal Of

Behavioral Medicine, 19(4), 496-502. doi:10.1007/s12529-011-9186-1

Currier, J.M., Drescher, K.D., & Harris, J. (2014). Spiritual functioning among veterans seeking residential treatment for PTSD: A matched control group study. Spirituality In Clinical Practice, 1(1), 3-15. doi:10.1037/scp
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Western Religions

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34194225

Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict in the Middle East small piece of land, at points only 2-3 miles wide in a barely habitable part of the world has been theater on which the pivotal events of all world history have been played. The nation of Israel clutches it's historical rights to desert real estate in opposition to the overwhelming arabs and Muslims which surround them. While there is periodic talk of peace, the culturally is that Israel has no intention of giving up what it sees as its divine inheritance, and the Muslim and Palestinian peoples have no intention of allowing Israel to become a prosperous nation. Each countries' perspective is shaped by what it sees as it's divine heritage. Each country has descended from a single ancestor, and therefore perceives it's inherited rights to the land as legal, social, familial, and a matter of divine right.

Entering into this…… [Read More]

References

Marty, Martin E. Spreading Conflict: Fissures between Christians over Israel and Palestine are Growing. 2002. The New Republic Online. Accessed May 31, 2003.  http://www.tnr.com 

American Jewish, Christian and Muslim Leaders Unite.

American Arab Institute. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.aaiusa.org/news/must_read12_18_02.htm.

Beliefnet.com, online
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Philosophy in Defense of Free

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77883963

Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.

Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.

Stanford University.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fatalism/ 

Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
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Judaism and Islam

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1739813

Eastern Religion Elements Matrix

Buddhism

Confucianism

Daoism

Countries of origin

In Historical figures and events

Origin: India

Founded: 1500 BC

Origin": India

Founded 2,500 years ago by Indian Prince Siddharta Gautama

Origin: China; founded between the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.; Confucius developed cultural values and taught that learning above all should be the goal

Daoism also spelled Taoism was founded in China in 550 B.C.

Central beliefs

In the afterlife, if Karma is not resolved, the soul is born into a new body; life's purpose is to be liberated from reincarnation

Like Hinduism, a goal is to be liberated from the cycle of reincarnation;

"benevolence" and optimism and being loyal to one's own nature; being unselfish, giving back (reciprocity) and seeking a virtuous life

This spiritual Taoism and philosophical Taoism; Taoism focuses on social duty and adheres to the principles of Confucianism; death is simply from being to non-being,…… [Read More]

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Idolatry How Some Object or Text Discovered

Words: 2628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39807332

idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus

Prospectus:

dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective

Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.

Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…… [Read More]

In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'

At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.

Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.
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Education - Religious Studies the

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44108630



Eastern religions, on the other hand, conceive of much broader definitions of God and deemphasize any direct relationship between individuals and God, in addition to allowing for multiple Gods.

Other religious beliefs reject any supposed consciousness of a supreme being, conceiving God as representing nothing more than fundamental elements of the natural universe and objective principles. In that sense, in addition to increasing awareness and specific knowledge of other religions, the study of religion also introduces an entirely foreign concept, at least from the perspective of students socialized in any of the Western religious traditions. Specifically, the broadened understanding of different religious frameworks raises the possibility that the highest form of spirituality possible in human life is the complete acceptance of our absolute aloneness in the world and the relative meaninglessness of human concerns in a universe that may very well be finite in existence as well as entirely godless.…… [Read More]

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Buddhism Is Distinct From Most

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15758920

Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.

Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).

Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from  http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/ 

Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.

Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx