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Are There Keystone Species in Information Ecologies That Might Affect Knowledge Management Processes

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61951133

Keystone Species

In mid-1800's, telegraphy was invented. This invention was revolutionary because it decreased all the hurdles in communication of information. This type of invention or any innovations that connects two or more people and acts as a survival tool for a particular group i.e. ethnic or technological group is known as Keystone specie. Even though Specie is a term mostly used for living organisms, here in a larger context keystone specie is referred to as "a system of people, practices, values, and technologies" that is essential for the survival of anything. (Johnson, 2010)

The keystone species concept has been a mainstay of the ecological and conservation biology literature since its introduction by UW zoology professor Robert T. Paine in 1969. His seminal paper extended the conclusions of a field experiment published three years earlier. The research resulting in the keystone species concept was done on Makah Tribal lands on…… [Read More]


Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.

Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from 

McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
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Georgia's Environment the Ecologies and Environment From

Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96262053

Georgia's Environment

The ecologies and environment: From the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Plateau, Georgia is a very diverse state in terms of its ecology and geography. The state is the largest east of the Mississippi River, and its elevation ranges from sea level to more than 4,700 feet. The New Georgia Encyclopedia reports that there are five distinct "physiographic provinces" in Georgia: the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In the extreme northwestern part of the state, the Appalachian Plateau has historically been a region where mining has taken place. That Appalachian Plateau actually connects some parts of Georgia with Tennessee and eastern Alabama.

The cities in Georgia are located in the Piedmont region, which is highly industrialized, and includes the sprawling megalopolis of Atlanta. The "fall line" in Georgia is the place where the coastal plain meets the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baxter, Tom. (2012). Georgia becomes Ground Zero for energy, environmental issues. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from .

Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Climate Change and Georgia. Retrieved March 4,

2012, from .

Georgia Department of Natural Resources. (2009). Georgia's Natural Resources. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from .
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Human Encroachment on Animal Ecologies

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85813727

Ethiopian Wolf Endangered

The author of this report is to research and answer questions related to the Ethiopian Wolf. Indeed the Ethiopian Wolf, otherwise known as canine simensis, is currently in endangered status according to the IUCN. This paper will discuss the ecological factors, animal behavior factors and the overall current status of the Ethiopian Wolf. While the Ethiopian Wolf is not yet extinct, it is certainly endangered at this time.

Questions Answered

When it comes to the ecology and behavior relating to the Ethiopian Wolf, there are a few factors that were described by Tallents et al. (2012) treatise on the subject. The author gave a few points in her work. First, she notes that human encroachment on Ethiopian Wolf territory increases a rather large amount for each single human that enters it. Indeed, she notes that each person leads to 1.18 kilometers less room for the Ethiopian Wolf…… [Read More]


Atickem, A., A. Bekele, and S.D. Williams. 'Competition Between Domestic Dogs And

Ethiopian Wolf (Canis Simensis) In The Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia'.

African Journal of Ecology 48.2 (2009): 401-407. Web.

IUCN,. 'The IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species'. N.p., 2014. Web. 20
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Hawkens 1992 Tells Us That

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 600651

Part 2.

Hawkens (1992) states that corporations can function in whichever way they wish. hey are like an organism that can function by destructing the environment, but, made with interchangeable parts, they can be also useful to the environment if taught how. Rather, therefore, then demanding that corporations cease to exist, we should encourage them to reorganize their parts and become more socially responsible. he way to do this is by adopting some of the following principles:

Firstly, by reducing absolute consumption of energy and natural resources in the North by 80% during the next century. Businesses can do this in a painless way.

he next step, Hawkens recommends is to provide secure, stable, and meaningful employment for people everywhere. Businesses need employees. Gainfully employing helps the world become a happier place.

Businesses need to be self-actuating. What this means is that we want to flourish and prosper and we…… [Read More]

This last part of Hawken's book is generally prescriptive giving us ways of how we can make businesses more socially responsible. Realizing that we are part of an integrated whole, makes us realize our responsibility in helping businesses practice the concept of industrial ecology.


Hawken, P. (1993) the ecology of Commerce Harper Business, USA
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Wildlife and Fisheries Department

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24787409

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

There should be a balance between books and journal/periodicals dealing with the subject of Wildlife, Ecology and Conservation that appeal to an interested audience, but in different styles. These are divided into: 1) Scholarly or Academic Journals, 2) Periodicals, ) Books.

Ecology and Society -- This journal is a broader topic journal that deals with integrative science, ecology and sustainability. It focuses on land and water ecology, opportunities for sustainable development, and exploration of multi-disciplinary opportunities in the sciences surrounding fish, wildlife, and flora. This would be useful to the center because it provides a wider background of material, while still remaining scientific.

Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management - This journal is published and managed by the United States Department of the Interior and is specifically devoted to the manner in which governmental issues impact America's natural resources and cultural heritage. This would be…… [Read More]

3. Kareiva, P. & Marvier, M. (2010). Conservation Science: Balancing the Needs of People and Nature. New York: Roberts and Company. More of a textbook, but an up-to-date reference on conservation science, particularly the role of balancing development with conservation principles.

4. Epstein, M., et al. (2008). Making Sustainability Work: Best Practices in Managing and Measuring Corporate Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts. London and San Francisco: Greenleaf Publishing Company. In recent years it has become obvious that there needs to be a balance between corporate development, environmental conservation, and governmental regulations. This would be an important reference book to help employees understand how managing sustainability requires all stakeholders working together.

5. Depending on budget, a selection of one or more of the Texas Natural History Guides. These include publications devoted to snakes, waterfowl, wildflowers, and more. It would be wise for the organization to stock as many of these as possible for reference materials.
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Sacramento Basin the Project Is

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46188822

The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.

The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20

White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…… [Read More]


1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,

FAO. 1991. 58p.

2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,

Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
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History of Landscape Patterns

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 80446079

History Of Landscape Patterns

Although historical ecology remains a relatively recent conceptualization, it provides a useful framework in which to understand the relationship between the historic uses to which terrain has been placed and its modern applications (Balee, 1999). The research to date in this area has focused in part on the history of landscape patterns. For instance, Balee reports that, "The concept of landscape, above all, seems paramount in historical ecology. These usages, when comprehended technically, facilitate a more holistic (and therefore more accurate and empirically sound) analysis of human ecology" (1999, p. 1). This point is also made by Swetnam, Allen, and Betancourt (1999) who discuss historical ecology and the importance of knowing the history of a landscape when making contemporary management decisions concerning new applications. In this regard, Swetnam and his associates note that, "Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of…… [Read More]


Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.

In Mendeley. Retrieved from .

Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1189 -- 1206.
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Monterey Bay the Environment Has

Words: 4298 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93293655

This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.

A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.

The California Ground Squirrel is a…… [Read More]


Burde, John H. And George a. Feldhamer. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Environmental Impact Analysis." San Benito County 2005 RTP EIR (2005).

Castillo, Edward D. A Short Overview of California Indian History (1998). .

Cato, Paisley. "Spermophilus beecheyi." San Diego Natural History Museum (2007), .
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Arlington Virginia -- Environment &

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59706372

" The report claims that the soft shell clam and oyster fisheries "have collapsed" and the commercial harvest of striped bass is now restricted to protect the survival of that species (Virginia Environment). In the last 30 years, according to the Executive Summary of the Arlington "Urban Forest Master Plan" (UFMP) Arlington County has lost "a significant amount of acreage with heavy tree cover"; this has had "a dramatic effect on the overall canopy coverage." Of the 16,500 acres of forests more than 3,000 acres have been "converted from heavy tree cover of over 50% to low tree cover of less than 20%" (UFMP).

How might global warming affect local ecosystems in and around Arlington? The rising level of the Atlantic Ocean is considered a major risk in terms of global warming. Already the rising waters have submerged several islands in the Chesapeake Bay. "The region's coastal habitats and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Natural Resources Management Plan. (2008). Natural Resource Conservation Areas. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from /departments/parksrecreation/documents/file76445.pdf.

National Wildlife Federation. (2008). Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Habitats of the Chesapeake

Bay: A Summary. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from .

Parks, Recreation & Cultural Resources. (2010). Fort C.F. Smith -- History. Retrieved March 7,
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Water as Landscape

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 22199453

Landscape ecology conventionally has been constrained to the knowledge of earthly methods; nevertheless, the inquiries and approaches describing the science are similarly linked for oceanic and seaside structures. The author points out that the shared relationship among longitudinal design, and ecological processes and the overarching sense of proportion on this relationship was being explored in some marine, and coastal settings as the general rule of landscape ecology were changing throughout the last 20 years of the last century. It was clear that the author intent of this article was to highpoint a study regarding changing the tools of landscape ecology to answer questions that are ecological.

The article stressed that there was a risky strategy for many organisms that inhabited spatially extensive marine landscapes which were the larval dispersal. It was fascinating to learn that a lot of the present work has put a lot of emphasis on the biophysics…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elizabeth K. Hinchey, M.C. (2007, July). Preface: Marine and coastal applications in landscape. Landscape Ecology, 1-5.
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Neutral Landscape Models

Words: 444 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43696887


Landscape Ecology:

eutral Landscape Models

The neutral landscape model is part of the study of landscape level patterns and processes. These patterns and processes are said to have suffered from lack of statistical design and replication.

The reason for this is because it is difficult to conduct experiments on such a large scale. According to the study referenced here, both the spatial extent as well as the inherent heterogeneity of landscape mosaics makes it a challenge to actually find comparison landscapes that can broaden the lack of such research.

The study also states that neutral landscape models (LMs) represent null hypotheses at the landscape scale. LMs are actually defined as a "special class of models" and are stated to be useful in a "discipline where replication and manipulation are logistically problematic."

The objective of utilizing LMs is in order to provide some sort of a benchmark, and to utilize…… [Read More]

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
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Influence of Scale

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34193997

Scales are the topographical instruments used to divide objects or processes into levels of organization of space or time and to distinguish objects within, for instance, a biotic hierarchy. Scale is designed by using grain and extent. Grain refers to the spatial resolution within a particular data set e.g. The cell size for gridded maps whilst extant refers to the overall size of the map used to demonstrate temporarily and dimension of characteristic. A population, pattern, or process that is scale-dependent implies that the object under consideration is correlated with the scale, i.e. changes with the grain or extent of measurement. "Large scale' refers to extremely fine resolution (i.e. precision of measurement), whereas 'small scale' refers to the opposite.

Scales are both advantageous and disadvantageous when applied to ecology and to environmental concerns. On the one hand, ecological variables demonstrate numerous and multiple change and knowing where one environment or…… [Read More]


Levin, S. (1992).The problem of pattern and scale in ecology, Vol. 73, No. 6., pp. 1943-1967

*Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H. & . O' Neill, R. (2001) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice Pattern and Process
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Ecological Ethics Blackstone's Error in

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32935519

His task becomes more difficult, however, when he attempts to prove that the right to an unpolluted environment is equal to other rights such as the right to property and life. His basic political philosophy reflects nothing new since Locke; it is in his application that his argument disintegrates.

Blackstone assumes that human responsibility for environmental changes is a foregone conclusion. Though his assumption here could be debated, for the sake of argument we will assume that he is correct. It does not, however, automatically follow that it is an ethical imperative for mankind to care for and protect the environment in the same manner that society is designed to protect and ensure freedom. In traditional liberal political thinking, an individual's freedom is thought to end where it impinges on someone else's. Blackstone argues that environmental degradation falls into this category, and that one individual's right to a pristine environment…… [Read More]

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Wetlands Are the Main Link Between the

Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50992842

etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.

hat are etlands?

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."

As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Wetlands Overview: What is a Wetland? Retrieved

July 23, 2012, from .

Moreno-Mateos, David, Power, Mary E., Comin, Francisco A., and Yockteng, Roxana. (2012).

Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland Ecosystems. PloS Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
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Artificial Lighting -- Impacts on

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61636063

The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).

The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…… [Read More]


Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.

Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.

Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291

Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
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Thames Embankment Flood Defences on

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 26823684

However, some engineering attributes will provide targets for engineers, who will recognize the core value of the ability of flood walls to rise and drop in response to factors indicative of an approaching threshold. Additionally, using heavily girded but hollow bodied and aerated bulwarks provides evidence of ways that such defences can be utilized as a way to relieve rather than build upon the pressures of a storm surge. Naturally, this will require no small degree of engineering ingenuity given the distinct challenge of adapting these principles to embankments, where redirection of underflow must naturally be more severely redirected than in the case of defence walls set astream as in the case of London.

A positive indicator as to the sustainability of this approach if adapted though is the 100-year life expectancy, even under currently projection intensification of storm surges, that is projected.

Another core consideration is with regard to…… [Read More]

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Environmental Security the Environment and

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…… [Read More]


Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
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Shortleaf Pine Forest Fires Have

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61309133

Small fires, on the other hand, are less intense, and therefore cause less damage to the pine. The low air temperature in many areas of shortleaf pine growth help the heat of the fire dissipate, and therefore, more fire is required to raise the temperature of the plant cambium to the point of killing the tree. Also, if debris on the ground is only dry on top, but has moisture underneath, the fire is unable to spread to the base cambium, saving the pine (Little, 1978).

On the other hand, the frequency of fires in shortleaf pine areas also has an effect.

Young shortleaf pines sprout at the root if the crown of the tree is badly damaged, as mentioned. This ability, however, is confined to trees up to 8 inches in diameter, or the trees most likely damaged in a fire. Many of the sprouts on even these trees…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Gilmore, G. Prescribed Fire for Forest Regeneration [Internet]. 2007 [cited Nov. 18, 2007]. Available at .

Halls, L.K. 1977. Pines Pinus. in: Lowell K. Halls, editor. Southern Fruit-Producing Woody Plants Used by Wildlife. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

Higgins, Kenneth F., Arnold D. Kruse, and James L. Piehl. 1989. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. Extension Circular 761. 47 pp.

Huggett, J. 2004. Fundamentals of Biogeography. New York: Routledge Sparks, J.C, Masters, R.E., and Engle, D.M. 2002. Season of burn influences: Fire behavior and fuel consumption in restored shortleaf pine grassland communities. Restoration Ecology 10(4): 714-722.
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Landscape Metrics

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66806792

Landscape Metrics

Today's ecology professional is faced with many challenges in terms of climate and landscape change. Part of this is natural processes that affect the resources and wildlife of an area over the long-term, while another part is constituted by human activity. Landscape metrics then offer a way for professionals to determine the historical extent of landscape change, the differences among adjacent areas, and the ways in which this affects both human, animal and plant life in these areas. To demonstrate this, the ecological regions in the Washington, Oregon, and Idaho states will be considered in terms of five metrics, including patch density, edge density, number of classes, Shannon's diversity index, and the interspersion and juxtaposition index.

Patch Density

According to Eiden, Kayadjanian, and Vidal (n.d.), patch density means that a single land cover class over a given area is measured, which represents one patch. To arrive at patch…… [Read More]


Eiden, G., Kayadjanian, M., and Vidal, C. (n.d.). Capturing landscape structures: Tools. Retreived from: 

Uuemaa, E., Antrop, M., Roosaare, J., Marja, R., and Mander, U. (2009). Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research. Living Reviews in Landscape Research. Retrieved from:
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Environmental History According to Oelschlaeger

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39312480

On the other hand, nature-as-machine proponents view nature holistically, and the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts," (Oelschlaeger 1991 p. 130). Water is a lake, an ocean, or a river. Oelschlaeger calls seeing the forest instead of the trees "synoptic holism." The synoptic holism integral to the nature-as-organism view opposes the reductionistic atomism common to the nature-as-machine stance. In other words, where the reductionist sees a bunch of quarks, the holist sees a bird.

The nature-as-machine proponent also thinks in terms of external relations. Individual parts of the machine interact with other parts as independent entities; thus, they can be removed and replaced without upsetting the balance of nature. This stance supports the view of humanity as external to nature. On the other hand, the nature-as-organism proponent perceives nature in terms of internal relations, and human beings are part of nature's internal whole. Individual parts of nature…… [Read More]


Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). Wild nature. Chapter 4 in The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Preservationism 289 of the Idea

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63330691

As interfaces, the parts interact and face each other continually throughout the process of evolution. Finally, the natural hierarchies refer to the order that emerges out of chaos. The author claims that ecosystems evolve into increased levels of "integrity and stability," (p. 291). Less novelty emerges because existing structures have achieved optimal stability.

Third, "homo sapiens is related internally to the environment." Human beings are not external to, let alone in command of, the ecosystem. The reductionist and the resourcist prefers to view humans as being externally related to the environment because a position of detachment enables scientific analysis and the economically-motivated harvesting of parts. However, the preservationist views human beings as only one piece in the puzzle: the value of a person is not necessarily greater than the value of any other organism because homo sapiens remains intergral to the whole ecosystem. The preservationist does not seek to harvest…… [Read More]


Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). "Chapter 9: Contemporary wilderness philosophy." The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.