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It is important for people to have an environmental awareness that supports both the ecology's survival and the individual. The purpose of this essay is to describe my local ecology and environment by explaining the specific factors that distinguish these surroundings. This essay will describe my home state of Florida in terms of its ecology and demonstrate some of the important factors that comprise this natural system. In this essay I will also discuss the ways that global warming might affect this local ecosystem and describe this ecosystem's vulnerability in terms of the rest of the world.
Florida's Many Different Ecosystems
The state of Florida is very unique in many aspects including the varying ecosystems that are contained within the state. The geographical position of the state in the world and its place relative to the equator gives Florida a unique environmental influence. Florida has intense and strong ecosystems…
Environment Florida Website. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.environmentflorida.org/
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/
Landscope America. "Ecosystems and Habitats in Florida." Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.landscope.org/florida/ecosystems/
This field is perhaps the most important development to environmental science in the past century precisely because now we have a much deeper understanding of how and why humanity influences the natural environment around us, deeply contributing to our awareness and knowledge of environmental damage and the harmful affects of pollution. Overall, it is evident that ecology has expanded at a tremendous pace because it has increased the scope that the field itself examines. By including human ecology as one of its disciplines, ecology now takes on significance not only as a scientific field but in both economic and political terms as well.
The field of ecology is dynamically growing as the scope of the science and its application increases. Several reasons can be attributed to the future growth of ecology as a field and its consequent future career options. First, the growth of human ecology is perhaps the biggest…
Charles C. Davis. "Statistics in Ecology" Ecology, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Jul., 1962), pp. 581-582
What is ecology. July 2006. 12 Jan. 2007 http://www.barrameda.com.ar / ecology/>.
What is Ecology. Winter 2007. 12 Jan. 2007 http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za / sci_ed/grade10/ecology/introduction.htm>.
Although they live poorly, among junk cast off by others, these 'crackers' also live at one with the forest. The "clearcuts" refer to specific greenery from natural world, but also to the fact that "my" peoples' status in the South is clear cut, and thus the people have a certain honesty about them, in their relationships with one another as well as with outsiders who look down on them. The fact that the authoress refers to a "cracker" childhood also suggests that it is her childhood, among such 'trailer' people of the pines, that will be a touchstone of the book, specifically her childhood's relationship to the natural world of the wildlife and the ecology of south Georgia.
The simple beauty present in south Georgia that is lost to other regions is suggested by the reference to how these people dwell amongst lost forests -- lost to others, lost like…
Ray, Janisse. Ecology of a Cracker Childhood. New York: Milkweed Edition Reprint, 2000.
Even with that, the large number of people in Hampton Roads is apparently stressing the area through a series of methods, such as constructing wherever they find place to do so (Koebel).
In contrast to most people in Virginia Beach that are reluctant to care for the environment, there are some who actually do anything they can to preserve the area's surroundings. Although land is becoming more and more expensive in the territory, the Crystal Club environmental group proves that there are people who care. The group's members are willing to give up a large part of their land with the purpose of building a tidal marsh and an oyster reef there (Harper).
Considering that Virginia Beach is a coastal community, it is particularly important for people to realize the importance of land and natural resources. The Hampton Roads area is affected by a great deal of human activities, such…
1. Almond, William D. "Offshore 101: Our fragile ecosystem is in peril." Retrieved December 13, 2010, from the Hampton Roads Website: http://www.link757.com/2006/03/offshore-101%3A-our-fragile-ecosystem-peril
2. Harper, Scott. "Virginia Beach's Crystal Lake ecosystem is focus of restoration." Retrieved December 13, 2010, from the Hampton Roads Website: http://hamptonroads.com/2008/09/virginia-beachs-crystal-lake-ecosystem-focus-restoration
3. Koebel, Theodore C. "The complex housing ecology of Hampton Roads." Retrieved December 13, 2010, from the Virginia Issues and Answers Website: http://www.via.vt.edu/fall07/feature3.pdf
His pairing of "food, water, and television" is deliberately ironic, showing how the modern world and modern generations of users of the land have little sense of real priorities of what is a necessity. Not only will the "twelve million" place added demands upon the earth, but the part of the twelve million from the modern industrialized world is likely to be more needy and more greedy than past generations. This quote thus shows the respect for ecology evidenced in the hearts of the older generation of Ray's childhood that must be carried over into the future -- but may not be, given the commercial demands of modern humanity and modern life. This makes Leon worry, and should make the reader worry to, Ray suggests -- and learn from the example of Leon and others chronicled in her text.
Ray, Janisse. Ecology of a Cracker Childhood. New York:…
Ray, Janisse. Ecology of a Cracker Childhood. New York: Milkweed Edition Reprint, 2000.
She is not naively sentimental about the power of nature. In fact, the command to "pray extra hard" suggests she fears nature. Also, sometimes it is necessary to "haul" away woods to survive, even in the face of the anger and disapproval of God -- but the hauler must be sure the act is necessary. God "winces" and "wonders" to see human arrogance and shaping inflicted upon other ecological aspects his creation. Hence God's Old Testament like human face, wincing and feeling cold in judgment, and disliking an action much like a human dislikes or likes something.
Spoiling the child" refers to the adage, "spare the rod, and spoil the child." ithout God's inflicted reminders of nature's power, humanity grows spoiled and over clears the pines. The reference to "child" also recalls the author's own childhood and connection to the land, and her own tumultuous relationship with her own father.…
Ray, Janisse. Ecology of a Cracker Childhood. New York: Milkweed Edition Reprint, 2000.
This is one aspect that manufacturing companies can look into to get more energy from the same raw materials as this will lead to a lesser need for energy and thereby, a more sustainable future for the companies.
Save time and effort
When many people think of implementing sustainability, they think of the bigger things, but not the simpler ones that can provide a good measure of savings in terms of environmental resources. One of the least thought of ways is saving time and effort. When a machine can complete the same process in a shorter period of time, it saves on energy without compromising on the quality of the end-product. This is more challenging than one may think, but its definitely worth the effort.
Examples of Implementation
An example of such a sustainable manufacturing initiative is taken by Ford to revamp their practices at the iver ouge Factory. The…
Nasr, Nabil. "Export sustainable manufacturing ideas." Industrial Engineer. 12 January, 2011: 24.
Brouwer, Greg. "Ford Implements Design for Sustainable Manufacturing." Civil Engineering. April 2002: 20.
Koenig, Karen. "VT's Lean, Sustainable Door Manufacturing." Wood & Wood Products. Nov 2011: 18-20.
Hibbard, Scott. "Six key factors for achieving sustainable manufacturing." Foundry Management & Technology. Feb 2009: 39-40.
Othr companis and organizations in th industry hav also found ways to optimiz th production and finishing procsss of thir products to nsur thy mt th rquirmnts of grn fashion.
Potntial for sustainabl production and consumption
Svral companis in th fashion industry hav com up with imprssiv altrnativs to th products and srvics producd by convntional manufacturs. Notwithstanding this, thr is a fundamntal problm xists in trying to masur how ths diffrnt innovations and altrnativs hlpd to achiv th objctivs in sustainabl dvlopmnt. In tsting for harmful substancs in products, ths stratgis may b dmd to b succssful in th mass markt. Thy addrss th cological aspct of grn fashion adquatly by nsuring nd products ar fr from substancs that may harm th nvironmnt. Howvr, as arlir idntifid, thy hav a waknss in not bing abl to mt th social objctiv of grn fashion. Anothr thing is that by solly…
ef-type name="Book">6Schmidt, G.< itles>< itle>Positive Ecology: Sustainability and the ?good Life?2005Ashgate9780754646020<
elated-urls> http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=khRuhe9zEroC ?G. Schmidt, Positive Ecology: Sustainability and the ?good Life? (Ashgate, 2005).
Ecology / Biology
The threespine stickleback fish plays host to the tapeworm Schistocephulus solidus when the threespine stickleback is in a freshwater environment. These Schistocephulus solidus use their presence in the threespine stickleback fish in order to infect their desired prey: birds. In fact, infection with the Schistocephulus solidus causes the fish to behave in a different manner, which increases the chances that they will be eaten by the birds. In addition to behavioral changes, the Schistocephulus solidus causes the fish to lose melanin, making them more visible to the desired predators. Another physical change is that the Schistocephulus solidus appears to cause an increased rate of growth in infected fish.
Ness and Foster investigated the relationship between infection with the Schistocephulus solidus and the threespine stickleback fish's response to predators. Because the Schistocephulus solidus infects the fish in order to be transmitted to the birds that they target,…
Arnott, S.A., I. Barber, and F.A. Huntington. "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
Series B." Biological Sciences (Apr. 2000) 267 (1444): 657-663.
Bagamian, K.H., D.C. Heins, and J.A. Baker. "Body Condition and Reproductive Capacity of Three-Spined Stickleback Infected with the Cestode Schistocephalus Solidus." Journal of Fish Biology (Jun. 2004) 64(6): 1568-1576.
Barber, J., P. Walker, and P.A. Svensson. "Behavioral Responses to Simulated Avian Predation
What little I know I learned at home. School was always like a prison to me, I could never bring myself to stay there, even four hours a day, when the sun was shining and the sea was so tempting, and it was such fun scrambling over cliffs and paddling in the shallows." http://www.artcafe.net/ah/monet/index.html
"Cliff walk at Pourville" is one of the works of art by Monet that represents the connection of human beings within nature. This painting contains a variety of emotions a deep feeling of serenity and peace. By just looking at the painting, we can imagine being there and hearing the sound of the breeze, the smell of the salty water of the ocean and being in contact with nature. We can imagine admiring the sea and the mountains, the sunny day and the blue sky. The connection between human beings and nature is special and unique.…
The climax community in this case occurs when the rate of inhibition on the comb reaches a point that the balance between the Beroe and the comb is equal, which in turn equalizes the zooplankton levels, which equalizes the phytoplankton, which equalizes the oxygen levels in the sea (Jeffress and Steimle, 1990).
Finally, tolerance describes the invasion of a new habitat by one species independent of other species (Goldsmith, 1985). This type of mechanism can be seen in the bivalve mollusk Abra ovata in Sulak Bay of the Caspian Sea. hen the Sulak Bay flooded, this species invaded the new waters, and quickly became dominant. However, the species did not inhibit the growth of any other species, despite its consistent dominant presence, nor has its dominance altered due to an influx of other species (Latypov, 2004).
As mentioned, the climax community can be thought of as the point…
Allen, T., Dodson, S., and Carpenter, S. (1998). Ecology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Goldsmith, E. (1985). Ecological succession rehabilitated. The Ecologist, 15(3), 119-122.
Jeffress, D. And Steimle, F. (1990). Jellyfish: common jellyfish of the middle Atlantic. Underwater Naturalist, 19(2), 44-47.
Latypov, Y.Y. (2004, July). Succession in the Abra ovata Community on Soft Grounds of a Newly Flooded Area of the Caspian Sea. Russian Journal of Ecology, 35(4), 267-273.
However, their model and growth of internal technology, which they actively share with the world, particularly developing countries, can serve as a paradigm for the future of global energy needs (Mol, 2007; Usa, 2008).
Andersen, M. Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay. Manchester
University Press. 1994.
Clean Edge: The Clean-Tech Market Authority. (2009). Cited in:
Conrad, J. Environmental Management in European Countries. Taylor and Francis,
"Copenhagen eceives European Environmental Award." DHI Consulting. (April 4, 2006).
Danish Energy Agency. "Oil and Gas Production in Denmark/New Act Imrproves egulation
of Off-Shore Safety." (2006): Cited in:
"Denmark." CIA World Factbook. 2009. Cited in:
"Denmark Solar Energy News." Solar Energy Industry Today. (2009). Cited in:
"Invest in Denmark." Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. 2009. Cited in:
Kahn, M. And F. Lostys. "Living Green: Full Country and City ankings." eader'sDigest.com.
Andersen, M. Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay. Manchester
University Press. 1994.
Clean Edge: The Clean-Tech Market Authority. (2009). Cited in:
From Milutin Milankovitch to Greenhouse Gases
Global warming is one of today's most pressing issues. Though some dispute its existence, the great majority of individuals - scientists and lay people - do believe that the Earth is undergoing an unnatural warming. Hot summers, freak storms, melting glaciers, and other signs all seem to point toward a shift in the kind of weather enjoyed by many regions of the globe. Much of this change has occurred suddenly and rapidly, over the course of the last generation or so. Scientists know that there have been periods of climatic change in the Earth's past. The fossil and geological records bear witness to these fluctuations. Areas of the world that are today desert were once lush grasslands. Regions now frozen in the grip of perpetual winter were at one time home to tropical rainforests.
Seas were to be found where at…
Cronin, Thomas M. Principles of Paleoclimatology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99207589
Gelbspan, Ross. The Climate Crisis, the Cover-Up, the Prescription The Climate Crisis, the Cover-Up, the Prescription. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74426630
Goudie, Andrew. Environmental Change. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University, 1992. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98380432
This is often aggravated by insufficient renewal to the freshwater aquifer, which often occurs in times of drought (yan, 2008).
Unfortunately saltwater intrusion can't be stopped, but the rate at which it occurs needs to be slowed. A management plan for saltwater intrusion needs to involve a number of different approaches. In areas where salinization is caused by storm surge, it is thought that coastal barriers could be built in order to prevent or slow the storm surge. Where saltwater has been introduced because of storm surge, some manner of opening the barriers would be necessary in order to allow the saltwater to be washed out of the freshwater system. This would involve a substantial engineering requirement. Opponents to this approach argue that engineering a natural process would end up doing more harm because of the impact the structures would have on natural systems. Conversely, the loss of wetland habitat…
Pump/Recharge Rate Affects Saltwater Intrusion. (2010). Retrieved August 4, 2010, from Solinst
Web site: http://www.solinst.com/Res/papers/101C4Salt.html
Ryan, J.S. (2008). Saltwater Intrusion and Salinization. Retreived August 4, 2010, from Associated Content Web site:
extending landscape ecology principles and applications into aquatic environments. The insights that may be gained by natural resource managers and decision makers.
Landscape ecology deals with the spatial influence and impact of matter on ecological processes. Its consideration focuses on the ecological influence of the location of a certain object, the ecological influence of this object in relation to other (not necessarily similar) objects, and the influence of this relationship and its impact with others across various spaces and various periods in history.
Landscape ecology has generally focused on terrestrial matter as its occupation with water (such s rivers and streams) consisting of a subcomponent of the terrestrial system). Wiens (2002), however argues that the principles f landscape ecology can, as equally, be applied to the study of aquatic systems and that, therefore, landscape ecology can be used to great advantage to promote and expand the study of landscape ecology.…
Fausch, K., Torgerseon, C., Baxter, C., & Li, H. (2002)., Landscapes to Riverscapes:
Bridging the Gap between Research and Conservation of Stream Fishes BioScience, 52, 1-16
Wien, JA (2002). Riverine landscapes: taking landscape ecology into the water, Freshwater Biology, 47, 501-515
This suggests that a philosophy of true deep ecology, or at least an understanding of what it entails, does not really exist on the island. Energy should be focused on maintaining what exists of native species and ecosystems, and of limiting the growth of destructive intruders, rather than simply focusing on the popular problem of fossil fuels.
Source Author: Canadian Forest Service (Viewpoint Newsletter)
Source Title: "Invasives: orking the Bugs Out of the Lumber Trade"
Despite the growing view of green lumber as something that help to protect forests and consumers alike from things like preservatives and other chemicals that are potentially damaging to the health of the environment and the people in it, there are also major environmental problems with the sale, transport, and use of untreated lumber. Lumber is traditionally treated with pesticides and other substances that help to preserve the wood and to protect it from…
CBC News Online. "Selling Canada's Water." 2004. Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/water/
Canadian Forest Service. "Invasives: Working the Bugs Out of the Lumber Trade." 2004. Accessed 12 October 2009. http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/news/168
Diamond, Monga Bay.com. "Historical Consequences of Deforestation: Easter Island." 1995. Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.mongabay.com/09easter_island.htm
Pointing, Clive. "The Lessons of Easter Island." from a Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.primitivism.com/easter-island.htm
ecology of Easter Island when Polynesians first arrived on the island about A.D.400, according to Jared Diamond?
At that time, Easter Island was subtropical with a mild climate. Its fertile soil should have made it a relatively easy place for humans to inhabit.
The island had a subtropical forest with low plants, ferns, many grasses, and tall trees, including fruit-bearing palm trees. This palm would have provided edible fruit as well as sap suitable for making sugar, sweet syrup and an alcoholic drink. The palm tree could grow to over 80 feet tall, and could have been used to build ocean-going canoes as well as to make stout rollers that could have been used to move the giant carved heads the island is so famous for.
What were the main sources of food eaten by Easter Islanders in the early yeas of island habitation?
They had fish hocks, so they…
John Luther Adams approach the idea of engaging the public in his works?
Engaging the public is central to most, if not all, of John Luther Adams's work. For example, in Inuksuit, the idea is to assemble a large number of percussionists outside for a performance. The sound from such an orchestra magnifies on a large scale the sounds of the earth. Earth sounds are essentially mirrored in the composition and its naturalistic, spontaneous performance. No two performances will sound alike, which means the public can be engaged. Each member of the audience is experiencing something completely unique. Another way that John Luther Adams approaches the idea of engaging the public is more direct and straightforward, using language and music both as media of communication. By directly referring to ecological philosophy and political activism, Adams engages the public.
What is significant about writing a piece that has specific and general…
Adams, J.L. (n.d.). "In Search of an Ecology of Music." Retrieved online: http://www.johnlutheradams.com/writings/ecology.html
Adams, J.L. (2010). The Place Where You Go to Listen. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Blakely, S. (2014). Pulitzer Prize winner talks art and science at Michigan Tech. Retrieved online: http://www.uppermichiganssource.com/news/story.aspx?id=1031666#.U1iRQeZvloA
Huizenga, T. (2014). Alaskan composer wins Pulitzer for "Become Ocean." NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/blogs/deceptivecadence/2014/04/14/303030185/alaskan-composer-wins-pulitzer-for-become-ocean
Ecology, Kinship, and Social Structure -- From Papa New Guinea to the Mountains of the Alps
Of course, an anthropologist can never entirely separate the delicate relationship that exists between ecology, kinship, and social structure within any given society or community. Family, food, and environment are the key building blocks that produce a culture. The language of food's abundance can create an entire symbolic system of need, dependence, and social uncertainty, when deployed within a particular, uncertain system and environment of kinship and social structure, as noted in Miriam Kahn's text regarding amiran attitudes towards sustenance in Papua New Guinea. The mere mile separating two Alpine villages, thousands of leagues away from New Guinea, can also prove equally formative as the relationship of kinship and food to the individuals chronicled by John . Cole and Eric R. olf in their classic anthropological text The Hidden Frontier. In these two villages,…
Cole, John, and Eric Wolf. The Hidden Frontier. University of California Press, 1999.
Kahn, Miriam. Always Hungry, Never Greedy Waveland Press, 1986
What is apolitical ecology? Logically it would seem that anything apolitical would be non-political. Ecology without politics would then be an approach to environmental and conservation concerns without any ideology attached to that approach. To wit, an example of apolitical ecology would seem to be those who objectively review the empirical data for climate change objectively. Over 190 scientists have been working on data related to the overheated planet for thirty years, and hence, their view of ecology is apolitical. However, logic in this case is not necessarily the right way to define apolitical ecology.
Author Robbins writes in Chapter 1 ("Political vs. Apolitical Ecologies") that there are myriad numbers of definitions for "political ecology" but basically it is the complex relationship between society and nature. And moreover, Robbins explains, because exploding populations of "impoverished African people" are negatively impacting the environment, there is a "declining biodiversity" and…
In mid-1800's, telegraphy was invented. This invention was revolutionary because it decreased all the hurdles in communication of information. This type of invention or any innovations that connects two or more people and acts as a survival tool for a particular group i.e. ethnic or technological group is known as Keystone specie. Even though Specie is a term mostly used for living organisms, here in a larger context keystone specie is referred to as "a system of people, practices, values, and technologies" that is essential for the survival of anything. (Johnson, 2010)
The keystone species concept has been a mainstay of the ecological and conservation biology literature since its introduction by UW zoology professor Robert T. Paine in 1969. His seminal paper extended the conclusions of a field experiment published three years earlier. The research resulting in the keystone species concept was done on Makah Tribal lands on…
Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.
Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from washington.edu: http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1969g.html
McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.
Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology
Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:
The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the…
Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago
Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003. http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_culturalecology.htm
Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003. http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/eco.htm
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
The pressure for increased meat to feed the world's hungry population vs. its strain on natural resources
The trendiness of vegetarianism and veganism aside, throughout history there has been a consistent trend regarding meat consumption. The more affluent the society, the more meat it tends to consume. This has been true of the rapidly-expanding population of the developing world. Given that the developed world continues to consume large amounts of meat, this has resulted in a proliferation of factory farming and a depletion of the earth's resources to feed growing demand: "These assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy and other grains, a dependency that has led to the destruction of vast swaths of the world's tropical rain forests" (Bittman 2008). Worldwide, per capita meat consumption has doubled since 1961 (Bittman…
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Re-thinking the meat guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Is eating meat sustainable. (2012). Real Food University. Retrieved:
While imported species can be controlled to a degree by Governmental regulation, unintentional imports are a different matter. Garth mentions the example of the brown tree snake that stowed away on ships and military equipment during World War II. During this time, obviously, there was not as much awareness of the invasive species problem as there is today. Basically therefore the current era is faced with a problem unintentionally created decades ago.
Another case of unintentional transport that I found particularly interesting in the article is the movement from port to port of ballast water. Ships take on water for balancing purposes. The water is transported to the destination port and discarded. The cycle is repeated from port to port. The aquatic life in this ballast water is then also transported between the ports. As a solution to this, one of the suggestions mentioned in the article is that ships…
McGrath, Susan. (2005, March). "Attack of the Alien Invaders." National Geographic
The ecologies and environment: From the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Plateau, Georgia is a very diverse state in terms of its ecology and geography. The state is the largest east of the Mississippi River, and its elevation ranges from sea level to more than 4,700 feet. The New Georgia Encyclopedia reports that there are five distinct "physiographic provinces" in Georgia: the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In the extreme northwestern part of the state, the Appalachian Plateau has historically been a region where mining has taken place. That Appalachian Plateau actually connects some parts of Georgia with Tennessee and eastern Alabama.
The cities in Georgia are located in the Piedmont region, which is highly industrialized, and includes the sprawling megalopolis of Atlanta. The "fall line" in Georgia is the place where the coastal plain meets the…
Baxter, Tom. (2012). Georgia becomes Ground Zero for energy, environmental issues. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://saportareport.com .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Climate Change and Georgia. Retrieved March 4,
2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Georgia Department of Natural Resources. (2009). Georgia's Natural Resources. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://www.gadnr.org/resources .
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…
City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf
Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.
Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.
Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm
The ecology all over the world is different and the desert is an extreme environment. Deserts are found over one fifth of the earth surface. To be classified as a desert the rainfall is a criterion. The Iquique, Chile received only 0.6-inch rainfall for a twenty year period. Even in the worlds driest desert, like the Atacama Desert there is infrequent rain and it may also receive snowfall. (Bowman, 37)
The most cases of rainfall is usually lesser than 50 cm for a year. Great desert areas are the Sahara, Mexico, and other smaller deserts are found in the lower latitudes and are hot deserts. There are also cold deserts, like the desert at Utah and Nevada and some places at western Asia. There are vegetation and animal life found in the deserts that are suited to the harsh climate and the vegetation and all biomes are special.…
Bowman, Isaiah. Desert Trails of Atacama.
American Geographical Society: New York. 1924.
Bradley, Richard A. The Influence of Weather and Biotic Factors on the Behavior of the Scorpion (Paruroctonus utahensis)" Journal of Animal Ecology, 1988, vol. 57, no. 2, pp: 533-551.
Thinkquest. Biotic and Abiotic Factors.
Finally, the most extreme version of "so what" suggests that nothing on earth matters, whether before, during, or after the reign of human beings, because, ultimately, all life and all planets will die, and even the smallest particles of matter (i.e. protons) will eventually decay into complete nothingness in time (p.444).
Article Critique and Personal esponse
The description of various philosophical perspectives and the corresponding ethical conclusions provides an accurate account of the different possible points-of-view that one can take about ecology and relative value of preserving the planet. The author presents a conclusion that I support. Specifically, he suggests that the most appropriate application of the "so what?" perspective is that it does not really matter whether or not anything matters on earth. He suggests that instead of worrying so much about whether human life will exist forever or how long the planet or the universe will exist in…
Moral Ground: Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril Edited by Kathleen Dean Moore & Michael P. Nelson: 440 -- 444.
nature is that opposites attract and there is much binary opposition in human-Nature relationships.
It is important to understand that the human species -- along with its culture -- is a part of the ecosystem. Therefore, ecology describes the material processes in ecosystems, such as the imbalances of carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus cycles, the population problem and the rates of fishing and resource management.
Having sufficient ecological knowledge is not sufficient to solve many of the ecological problems because it is not able to solve the environmental issues of modern culture. Even though we know why the number of living species in the world is decreasing, the human population is growing, the mounting waste from the backyards and oceanic abyss reach the upper layers of the atmosphere. The solution to these problems requires knowledge of ecological processes, and human behavior too.
The relationship between humans and nature are connected very…
Laws of Nature [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/lawofnat.htm , accessed on: April 13, 2004
THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS: Changing the paradigm, available at http://www.aiias.edu/ict/vol_24/24cc_197-215.htm, accessed on: April 13, 2004
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
However, the cost of construction in areas without adequate roads would be astronomical. This being said, it is not without precedent that a nuclear power facility, under the strict guidelines of the United Nations, might be set up to provide power to the major cities. Public attitudes towards nuclear power remain ambivalent, and issues with Chernobyl, etc. still sting, but the simple fact is that the technology is there (Dittmar, 2010).
What does Afghanistan have in abundance, though? Not really enough sunlight to make solar profitable in all seasons, but certainly that could work in major cities and for certain applications. Based on the Copenhagen Climate Conference, there are four major ways to finance new energy options in countries like Afghanistan that actually benefit global climate initiatives (Brown, Bird, and Schalatek, 2010). Afghanistan, like much of Central Asia, is ideal for the development and robust exploitation of wind power technology.…
Brown, J., Bird, N. And Schalatek, L. (July 2010). Climate Finance Additionality: Emerging Definitions and Their Implications. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=4931&title=climate-finance-additionality-definitions-implications
Dittmar, M. (August 18, 2010). Taking Stock of Nuclear Renaissance that Never Was. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/taking-stock-of-nuclear-renaissance-that-never-was-20100817-128ky.html
Elliott, D. (2005). Wind Resource Assessment and Mapping for Afghanistan and Pakistan. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADO338.pdf
Polycarbonate with Bisphenol a (#7) is found in water bottles and scientists have linked very low doses of it to cancers, early onset of puberty, obesity, diabetes, hyperactivity, impaired immune function, among a myriad of other problems (2011).
Some of the recommendations that are offered by the Ecology Center (2011) are to buy one's food in glass or metal containers as opposed to plastic ones. Avoiding polycarbonate drinking bottles that contain Bisphenol a is also recommended. One should not heat food in plastic containers or store any kinds of fatty foods in plastic containers or in plastic wrap (2011). As well as avoiding the plastic containers or wrap for food, the Ecology Center recommends staying away from giving young children plastic toys that they may put in their mouth or plastic teethers (2011). One other recommendation is to avoid all PVC and Styrene products (2011).
Because of the health risks…
Ecology Center. (2011). "Adverse health effects of plastics." Ecology Center. Accessed on January 18, 2011:
Social Ecology Model
Social ecology requires that people see that nature and society are intertwined by progress into one environment that is made up of two differences. The first difference being biotic nature and the second being human nature. Human nature and biotic nature split an evolutionary prospective for better prejudice and elasticity. Nature is the manner in which people are flexible, extremely intellectual primates that occupy the natural world. In other words, individuals generate an atmosphere that is most appropriate for their manner of survival. In this case, human nature is no different from the atmosphere that each animal, contingent upon its aptitudes, generates as well as acclimates to, the biophysical conditions or eco community in which it lives. On this extremely basic level, people are, in fact, doing nothing that varies from the endurance actions of nonhumans (Bookchin, 2001).
The SEM is made up of several levels wrapped…
Bookchin, Murray. (2001). What Is Social Ecology? Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/socecol.html
Innovative Pediatric Nursing Role: Public Health Nurses in Child Welfare: Theoretical Framework for Health Case Management Role. (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543725_4
Social Ecological Model. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/cpns/Documents/Network-Appendix6SocialEcologicalModel.pdf
Ethiopian Wolf Endangered
The author of this report is to research and answer questions related to the Ethiopian Wolf. Indeed the Ethiopian Wolf, otherwise known as canine simensis, is currently in endangered status according to the IUCN. This paper will discuss the ecological factors, animal behavior factors and the overall current status of the Ethiopian Wolf. While the Ethiopian Wolf is not yet extinct, it is certainly endangered at this time.
When it comes to the ecology and behavior relating to the Ethiopian Wolf, there are a few factors that were described by Tallents et al. (2012) treatise on the subject. The author gave a few points in her work. First, she notes that human encroachment on Ethiopian Wolf territory increases a rather large amount for each single human that enters it. Indeed, she notes that each person leads to 1.18 kilometers less room for the Ethiopian Wolf…
Atickem, A., A. Bekele, and S.D. Williams. 'Competition Between Domestic Dogs And
Ethiopian Wolf (Canis Simensis) In The Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia'.
African Journal of Ecology 48.2 (2009): 401-407. Web.
IUCN,. 'The IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species'. Iucnredlist.org. N.p., 2014. Web. 20
Clarkia Unguiculata: Onagraceae
Evolutionary (Pollination Ecology))
This study conducted by the department of ecology and marine biology of the University of California analyses the factors that contribute to the reproductive success of the plant CLARKIA UNGUICULATA. The purpose of the study was to research the possibility of the allelic variations affecting the male and female reproductive functions. For the study the researchers took pollen donors homozygous for C. And . alleles. The researchers used both selfed and out- crossed pollination using different homozygous pollen donors.
The tests were performed under both competitive (more pollen) and non-competitive conditions with mixed pollination. The amount of pollen used was also varied (high, medium and low) so as to discern the pre-fertilization performance of the pollens from their post fertilization performance. (Viability, abortion). All the plants used in the study were selected from the same place and the seedlings were germinated under same conditions.…
The following article was used as the source.
1) Steven E. Travers, a, 1 and Susan J. Mazera, Department of Ecology and Marine Biology, University of California, "TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTION ASSOCIATED WITH ALLOZYME VARIATION IN PHOSPHOGLUCOISOMERASE IN AN ANNUAL PLANT (CLARKIA
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
Gitig, D. (2017). A farewell to kings? New ideas on the vanishing monarch butterflies. Ars Technica. April 30, 2017. etrieved online: https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/04/a-migrating-butterfly-a-poisonous-plant-and-their-remarkable-coevolution/
In this article, Gitig (2017) provides an overview of recent research on monarch butterflies, focusing on the causes of their diminishing populations. Monarch butterflies feed almost exclusively on a plant called milkweed. Milkweed is disappearing rapidly due to urban development and other human activities. Therefore, the monarch butterflies have less to eat and this may be the direct cause for their dwindling numbers. In fact, adult monarch butterflies do not just feed on milkweed but also lay the next generation of eggs on the plant. The milkweed plant actually perceives the monarch as a parasite and emits latex to trap and kill the monarch caterpillars. Only about 10% of monarch eggs make it to become fully formed butterflies, according to the author. The most remarkable aspect of the…
Doyle, A. (2017). Milkweed plantings lure monarch butterflies to county. Ventura County Star, April 30, 2017. Retrieved online: http://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/communities/ventura/2017/04/30/milkweed-plantings-lure-monarch-butterflies-county/100673724/
Gitig, D. (2017). A farewell to kings? New ideas on the vanishing monarch butterflies. Ars Technica. April 30, 2017. Retrieved online: https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/04/a-migrating-butterfly-a-poisonous-plant-and-their-remarkable-coevolution/
phosphorus levels in 2004 and in 2007.
/ The sample that is collected consists of 20 different pondwater samples for each of the two years.
/ The parameter being measured is the phosphorus levels in the pondwater samples measured in ug/L.
/ The null hypothesis in this example is that there was no change in phosphorus levels between 2004 and 2007, i.e., nothing happened.
/ The alternate hypothesis is that there was an increase in phosphorus levels as a result of the contamination.
/ In terms of this example, for the dataset to fail to have a normal distribution would mean that the 2007 phosphorus levels would not fall on the part of the distribution curve that is established by the 2004 levels that indicate probability of no increase. If mathematically the probability of the 2007 levels of being significantly different from the 2004 levels -- indicating an increase in…
Everglades and the Problem of Water Management
The Everglades is a unique ecosystem and there is no other like it in the world. The Everglades are the source and security of the fresh water that enables people to live and do business in South Florida. It is the source of drinking water for the area's five million people, and sustains a productive agricultural industry. Over the past century, the Everglades have been severely harmed by the growth in human population.
Water management is one of the most severe environmental issues facing the Everglades today. The Everglades' watershed starts in the Kissimmee River basin north of Lake Okeechobee.
In the summertime, thunderstorms would flood this area, the large lake, and extensive areas of everglades marsh, creating created a shallow, wide river that flowed slowly south through the everglades to the Gulf of Mexico. The summer rains would then subside to a…
The Florida Everglades: A Model of Destruction. Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability (FICUS), University of South Florida. 1999.
Alden, P., Cech, R., & Leventer, A. National Audubon Society Field Guide to Florida. National Audubon Society, 1998.
Douglass, M. The Everglades: River of Grass. Pineapple Press, 1988.
Hawkens (1992) states that corporations can function in whichever way they wish. hey are like an organism that can function by destructing the environment, but, made with interchangeable parts, they can be also useful to the environment if taught how. Rather, therefore, then demanding that corporations cease to exist, we should encourage them to reorganize their parts and become more socially responsible. he way to do this is by adopting some of the following principles:
Firstly, by reducing absolute consumption of energy and natural resources in the North by 80% during the next century. Businesses can do this in a painless way.
he next step, Hawkens recommends is to provide secure, stable, and meaningful employment for people everywhere. Businesses need employees. Gainfully employing helps the world become a happier place.
Businesses need to be self-actuating. What this means is that we want to flourish and prosper and we…
This last part of Hawken's book is generally prescriptive giving us ways of how we can make businesses more socially responsible. Realizing that we are part of an integrated whole, makes us realize our responsibility in helping businesses practice the concept of industrial ecology.
Hawken, P. (1993) the ecology of Commerce Harper Business, USA
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
There should be a balance between books and journal/periodicals dealing with the subject of Wildlife, Ecology and Conservation that appeal to an interested audience, but in different styles. These are divided into: 1) Scholarly or Academic Journals, 2) Periodicals, ) Books.
Ecology and Society -- This journal is a broader topic journal that deals with integrative science, ecology and sustainability. It focuses on land and water ecology, opportunities for sustainable development, and exploration of multi-disciplinary opportunities in the sciences surrounding fish, wildlife, and flora. This would be useful to the center because it provides a wider background of material, while still remaining scientific. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/index.php
Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management - This journal is published and managed by the United States Department of the Interior and is specifically devoted to the manner in which governmental issues impact America's natural resources and cultural heritage. This would be…
3. Kareiva, P. & Marvier, M. (2010). Conservation Science: Balancing the Needs of People and Nature. New York: Roberts and Company. More of a textbook, but an up-to-date reference on conservation science, particularly the role of balancing development with conservation principles.
4. Epstein, M., et al. (2008). Making Sustainability Work: Best Practices in Managing and Measuring Corporate Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts. London and San Francisco: Greenleaf Publishing Company. In recent years it has become obvious that there needs to be a balance between corporate development, environmental conservation, and governmental regulations. This would be an important reference book to help employees understand how managing sustainability requires all stakeholders working together.
5. Depending on budget, a selection of one or more of the Texas Natural History Guides. These include publications devoted to snakes, waterfowl, wildflowers, and more. It would be wise for the organization to stock as many of these as possible for reference materials. http://utpress.utexas.edu/index.php/books/series/series/Texas-Natural-History-Guides%E2%84%A2
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
History Of Landscape Patterns
Although historical ecology remains a relatively recent conceptualization, it provides a useful framework in which to understand the relationship between the historic uses to which terrain has been placed and its modern applications (Balee, 1999). The research to date in this area has focused in part on the history of landscape patterns. For instance, Balee reports that, "The concept of landscape, above all, seems paramount in historical ecology. These usages, when comprehended technically, facilitate a more holistic (and therefore more accurate and empirically sound) analysis of human ecology" (1999, p. 1). This point is also made by Swetnam, Allen, and Betancourt (1999) who discuss historical ecology and the importance of knowing the history of a landscape when making contemporary management decisions concerning new applications. In this regard, Swetnam and his associates note that, "Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of…
Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.
In Mendeley. Retrieved from http://www.mendeley.com/research/blowdown-history-and-landscape-patterns-in-the-andes-of-tierra-del-fuego-argentina-1/ .
Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1189 -- 1206.
This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.
A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.
The California Ground Squirrel is a…
Burde, John H. And George a. Feldhamer. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Environmental Impact Analysis." San Benito County 2005 RTP EIR (2005).
Castillo, Edward D. A Short Overview of California Indian History (1998). http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html .
Cato, Paisley. "Spermophilus beecheyi." San Diego Natural History Museum (2007), http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/mammals/sper-bee.html .
" The report claims that the soft shell clam and oyster fisheries "have collapsed" and the commercial harvest of striped bass is now restricted to protect the survival of that species (Virginia Environment). In the last 30 years, according to the Executive Summary of the Arlington "Urban Forest Master Plan" (UFMP) Arlington County has lost "a significant amount of acreage with heavy tree cover"; this has had "a dramatic effect on the overall canopy coverage." Of the 16,500 acres of forests more than 3,000 acres have been "converted from heavy tree cover of over 50% to low tree cover of less than 20%" (UFMP).
How might global warming affect local ecosystems in and around Arlington? The rising level of the Atlantic Ocean is considered a major risk in terms of global warming. Already the rising waters have submerged several islands in the Chesapeake Bay. "The region's coastal habitats and the…
Natural Resources Management Plan. (2008). Natural Resource Conservation Areas. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from http://www.arlingtonva.us /departments/parksrecreation/documents/file76445.pdf.
National Wildlife Federation. (2008). Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Habitats of the Chesapeake
Bay: A Summary. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from http://www.nwf.org .
Parks, Recreation & Cultural Resources. (2010). Fort C.F. Smith -- History. Retrieved March 7,
Landscape ecology conventionally has been constrained to the knowledge of earthly methods; nevertheless, the inquiries and approaches describing the science are similarly linked for oceanic and seaside structures. The author points out that the shared relationship among longitudinal design, and ecological processes and the overarching sense of proportion on this relationship was being explored in some marine, and coastal settings as the general rule of landscape ecology were changing throughout the last 20 years of the last century. It was clear that the author intent of this article was to highpoint a study regarding changing the tools of landscape ecology to answer questions that are ecological.
The article stressed that there was a risky strategy for many organisms that inhabited spatially extensive marine landscapes which were the larval dispersal. It was fascinating to learn that a lot of the present work has put a lot of emphasis on the biophysics…
Elizabeth K. Hinchey, M.C. (2007, July). Preface: Marine and coastal applications in landscape. Landscape Ecology, 1-5.
eutral Landscape Models
The neutral landscape model is part of the study of landscape level patterns and processes. These patterns and processes are said to have suffered from lack of statistical design and replication.
The reason for this is because it is difficult to conduct experiments on such a large scale. According to the study referenced here, both the spatial extent as well as the inherent heterogeneity of landscape mosaics makes it a challenge to actually find comparison landscapes that can broaden the lack of such research.
The study also states that neutral landscape models (LMs) represent null hypotheses at the landscape scale. LMs are actually defined as a "special class of models" and are stated to be useful in a "discipline where replication and manipulation are logistically problematic."
The objective of utilizing LMs is in order to provide some sort of a benchmark, and to utilize…
Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
Scales are the topographical instruments used to divide objects or processes into levels of organization of space or time and to distinguish objects within, for instance, a biotic hierarchy. Scale is designed by using grain and extent. Grain refers to the spatial resolution within a particular data set e.g. The cell size for gridded maps whilst extant refers to the overall size of the map used to demonstrate temporarily and dimension of characteristic. A population, pattern, or process that is scale-dependent implies that the object under consideration is correlated with the scale, i.e. changes with the grain or extent of measurement. "Large scale' refers to extremely fine resolution (i.e. precision of measurement), whereas 'small scale' refers to the opposite.
Scales are both advantageous and disadvantageous when applied to ecology and to environmental concerns. On the one hand, ecological variables demonstrate numerous and multiple change and knowing where one environment or…
Levin, S. (1992).The problem of pattern and scale in ecology, Vol. 73, No. 6., pp. 1943-1967
*Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H. & . O' Neill, R. (2001) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice Pattern and Process
His task becomes more difficult, however, when he attempts to prove that the right to an unpolluted environment is equal to other rights such as the right to property and life. His basic political philosophy reflects nothing new since Locke; it is in his application that his argument disintegrates.
Blackstone assumes that human responsibility for environmental changes is a foregone conclusion. Though his assumption here could be debated, for the sake of argument we will assume that he is correct. It does not, however, automatically follow that it is an ethical imperative for mankind to care for and protect the environment in the same manner that society is designed to protect and ensure freedom. In traditional liberal political thinking, an individual's freedom is thought to end where it impinges on someone else's. Blackstone argues that environmental degradation falls into this category, and that one individual's right to a pristine environment…
etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.
hat are etlands?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."
As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Wetlands Overview: What is a Wetland? Retrieved
July 23, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Moreno-Mateos, David, Power, Mary E., Comin, Francisco A., and Yockteng, Roxana. (2012).
Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland Ecosystems. PloS Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).
The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…
Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.
Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.
Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291
Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
However, some engineering attributes will provide targets for engineers, who will recognize the core value of the ability of flood walls to rise and drop in response to factors indicative of an approaching threshold. Additionally, using heavily girded but hollow bodied and aerated bulwarks provides evidence of ways that such defences can be utilized as a way to relieve rather than build upon the pressures of a storm surge. Naturally, this will require no small degree of engineering ingenuity given the distinct challenge of adapting these principles to embankments, where redirection of underflow must naturally be more severely redirected than in the case of defence walls set astream as in the case of London.
A positive indicator as to the sustainability of this approach if adapted though is the 100-year life expectancy, even under currently projection intensification of storm surges, that is projected.
Another core consideration is with regard to…
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
Small fires, on the other hand, are less intense, and therefore cause less damage to the pine. The low air temperature in many areas of shortleaf pine growth help the heat of the fire dissipate, and therefore, more fire is required to raise the temperature of the plant cambium to the point of killing the tree. Also, if debris on the ground is only dry on top, but has moisture underneath, the fire is unable to spread to the base cambium, saving the pine (Little, 1978).
On the other hand, the frequency of fires in shortleaf pine areas also has an effect.
Young shortleaf pines sprout at the root if the crown of the tree is badly damaged, as mentioned. This ability, however, is confined to trees up to 8 inches in diameter, or the trees most likely damaged in a fire. Many of the sprouts on even these trees…
Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Gilmore, G. Prescribed Fire for Forest Regeneration [Internet]. 2007 [cited Nov. 18, 2007]. Available at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/sfrmp/documents/TimberRegen_Prescribed_Fire_Guidelines.pdf .
Halls, L.K. 1977. Pines Pinus. in: Lowell K. Halls, editor. Southern Fruit-Producing Woody Plants Used by Wildlife. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
Higgins, Kenneth F., Arnold D. Kruse, and James L. Piehl. 1989. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. Extension Circular 761. 47 pp.
Huggett, J. 2004. Fundamentals of Biogeography. New York: Routledge Sparks, J.C, Masters, R.E., and Engle, D.M. 2002. Season of burn influences: Fire behavior and fuel consumption in restored shortleaf pine grassland communities. Restoration Ecology 10(4): 714-722.
Today's ecology professional is faced with many challenges in terms of climate and landscape change. Part of this is natural processes that affect the resources and wildlife of an area over the long-term, while another part is constituted by human activity. Landscape metrics then offer a way for professionals to determine the historical extent of landscape change, the differences among adjacent areas, and the ways in which this affects both human, animal and plant life in these areas. To demonstrate this, the ecological regions in the Washington, Oregon, and Idaho states will be considered in terms of five metrics, including patch density, edge density, number of classes, Shannon's diversity index, and the interspersion and juxtaposition index.
According to Eiden, Kayadjanian, and Vidal (n.d.), patch density means that a single land cover class over a given area is measured, which represents one patch. To arrive at patch…
Eiden, G., Kayadjanian, M., and Vidal, C. (n.d.). Capturing landscape structures: Tools. Retreived from: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/publi/landscape/ch1.htm
Uuemaa, E., Antrop, M., Roosaare, J., Marja, R., and Mander, U. (2009). Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research. Living Reviews in Landscape Research. Retrieved from: http://landscaperesearch.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrlr-2009-1/
On the other hand, nature-as-machine proponents view nature holistically, and the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts," (Oelschlaeger 1991 p. 130). Water is a lake, an ocean, or a river. Oelschlaeger calls seeing the forest instead of the trees "synoptic holism." The synoptic holism integral to the nature-as-organism view opposes the reductionistic atomism common to the nature-as-machine stance. In other words, where the reductionist sees a bunch of quarks, the holist sees a bird.
The nature-as-machine proponent also thinks in terms of external relations. Individual parts of the machine interact with other parts as independent entities; thus, they can be removed and replaced without upsetting the balance of nature. This stance supports the view of humanity as external to nature. On the other hand, the nature-as-organism proponent perceives nature in terms of internal relations, and human beings are part of nature's internal whole. Individual parts of nature…
Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). Wild nature. Chapter 4 in The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.
As interfaces, the parts interact and face each other continually throughout the process of evolution. Finally, the natural hierarchies refer to the order that emerges out of chaos. The author claims that ecosystems evolve into increased levels of "integrity and stability," (p. 291). Less novelty emerges because existing structures have achieved optimal stability.
Third, "homo sapiens is related internally to the environment." Human beings are not external to, let alone in command of, the ecosystem. The reductionist and the resourcist prefers to view humans as being externally related to the environment because a position of detachment enables scientific analysis and the economically-motivated harvesting of parts. However, the preservationist views human beings as only one piece in the puzzle: the value of a person is not necessarily greater than the value of any other organism because homo sapiens remains intergral to the whole ecosystem. The preservationist does not seek to harvest…
Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). "Chapter 9: Contemporary wilderness philosophy." The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.