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Economic Analysis: The International Trade Market
International trade plays an historically large role in the growth and prosperity of countries around the globe. Similar to the benefits that open trade within a country brings to that country's respective economy, trade on the international front improves the global market economy significantly. Trade generates competition, promotes the transfer and utilization of new technology and allows countries, customers, and businesses alike to access to the world's best products. Trade in the international market brings about the capacity for innovation, high productivity and rising incomes and economic standings for each country that chooses to engage in it. However, certain strategies, regulations and methods must be employed within the international market to ensure success and smooth operations in each respective country that becomes involved in world trade.
Governmental ole in International Trade
The government plays a very specific role in the field of international trade…
Dutta, N. (2010). Foreign investment, financial development and political risks. The Journal of Developing Areas, 44.2: pp: 303-327. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Lowenfield, A. (2001). The role of government in international trade: essays over three decades. The American Journal of International Law, 95.2: pp: 400-502. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Rauch, J. And Trindade, V. (2009). Neckties in the tropics: a model of international trade and cultural diversity. Canadian Journal of Economics, 42.3: pp. 809-843. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Winter-Nelson, A. (2007). Roles for government in international trade. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 37.1: pp. 60-61. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Economic Analysis of Australian Fruit and Vegetable Market
Severe flooding in Queensland in late 2010 and early 2011 "affected an area the size of France and Germany combined" (IBISWorld.com. January 2011. PP. 1), and contributed to massive spikes in fruit and vegetable prices across Australia on the order of 20 to 30% (The Sydney Morning Herald.com. January 11, 2011. PP. 1). Specific examples of these increases include: "broccoli jumping to $10 a kilo from $6" (The Sydney Morning Herald.com. January 11, 2011. PP. 1), "pumpkin tripling from $1.50 to $6 a kilo, and pineapple doubling from $28 to $56 a box" (Dagwell, Todd. January 25, 2011. PP. 1). These price increases provide a platform from which to conduct economic analysis regarding supply and demand issues, elasticity, and government measures to control price inflation.
The Queensland flooding impacted Australian business and consumers, with the state producing 28% of the country's…
Dagwell, Todd. (January 25, 2011). Fruit, Vegetable costs Surge. NewCastle Herald.com.
PP. 1. Retrieved March 22, 2012 from http://www.theherald.com.au/news/local/news/general/fruit-veg-costs-surge/2056289.aspx#
IBISWorld.com. (January 2011). Queensland Floods: The Economic Impact.
IBISWorld.com. PP. 1-9. Retrieved March 22, 2012 from http://www.ibisworld.com.au/common/pdf/QLD%20floods%20special%20report.pdf
The idea is that specific cuts -- a one-year wage freeze and a 1.5% contribution to health care benefits could bring the budgets into equilibrium with state funding and property taxes (Heininger, 2010). Impacts to the school board will include layoffs, program reductions, administrative pay freezes and in some cases an increase in the property tax levy.
School boards resist the issue because it will force them to make cuts that they feel are detrimental to operations. Hamstrung to some extent by union teacher contracts, school boards may not have substantial leeway on costs immediately, and therefore will need to make cuts in programming and administrative staffing.
For the school boards, wage freezes make it more difficult to attract talented new teachers and administrators. This could result in a reduced ability to deliver services. Also, it renders school board budgets to be more sensitive political issues, which was not the…
Steinberg, a. (2010). NJ school budget elections: The new Christie paradigm is triumphant. New Jersey Newsroom. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.newjerseynewsroom.com/commentary/nj-school-budget-elections-the-new-christie-paradigm-is-triumphant
Heininger, C. (2010). Gov. Chris Christie accuses NJ teachers union of using students like drug mules in school elections. NJ.com. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/04/gov_chris_christie_accuses_nj.html
08% 2.42% 2.78% 2.57% 2.69% 2.69% 2.54% 2006 3.99% 3.60% 3.36% 3.55% 4.17% 4.32% 4.15% 3.82% 2.06% 1.31% 1.97% 2.54% 3.24% 2005 2.97% 3.01% 3.15% 3.51% 2.80% 2.53% 3.17% 3.64% 4.69% 4.35% 3.46% 3.42% 3.39%
The United States trade balance has been showing deficit since the 1970s, but the rapid growth of trade deficit started in 1997. The highest record of trade deficit was marked last year, as deficit of 2006 was equal to 763.6 billion dollars, which is 6.5% higher than in 2005. Yet, general observations show that negative trade balance has no negative impacts on GDP growth, in fact it had been observed that trade deficit was higher during years with higher GDP growth:
In those years since 1980 in which the current account deficit actually shrank as a share of GDP, real GDP growth averaged 1.9%.
In those years in which the deficit grew modestly,…
Bernstein, Jared (2007) Moderate top-line growth masks underlying weakness. Retrieved July, 26 2007 from the Economic Policy Institute Web site: http://www.epi.org/content.cfm/webfeatures_econindicators_jobspict_20070706
Griswold, Daniel (2007) Are Trade Deficits a Drag on U.S. Economic Growth? Retrieved July, 26 2007 from Free Trade Bulletin Web site: http://www.freetrade.org/node/598
Goodman, Peter S. (2007) Oil Prices, Imported Goods Push Trade Gap to Record: Growth Forecasts Cut; Democrats Urge Action. Washington Post
US Census Bureau Web site: http://www.census.gov
Economic Analysis: Durbin Amendment
As part of the Dodd- Frank financial regulatory overhaul passed in 2010, the Durbin Amendment was designed to "reduce costs for merchants that accept debit cards" (Sidel, R. December 8, 2011. PP. 1) by imposing a ceiling on the interchange fees which the banking service industry could charge their clients. As with most government intervention into economic activity, there is well intention to ameliorate perceived market failures, protect consumers, or more strongly regulate business. Yet, the Durbin Amendment demonstrates how externalities arise from beneficent government activity. In this case many small to medium size merchants, and consequently their customers are experiencing higher costs not lower.
he Durbin Amendment's ostensible goal is to protect merchants from the confiscatory pricing on debit card interchange fees charged by the banking industry. he legislation empowered the Federal Reserve to set interchange prices, "capping merchant customer debit card fees at…
The Durbin Amendment highlights multiple economic tenets; namely how price controls distort economic activity by artificially manipulating the supply and demand equilibrium, the incidence v. burden of taxes and fees, and supply-side drag due to reductions in innovation. Further explication of these concepts is warranted to illustrate the externalities of government intervention.
The interchange fee is fundamentally a price control, with a ceiling placed on the debit card transaction fee of 21 cents. A price ceiling in this case is placed below the market rate for interchange fees of 44 cents, and causes merchants to increase quantity demanded at the lower price, but equivocally witnesses banking institutions decreasing quantity supplied. As with all price ceilings, shortages result as the equilibrium price and quantity are distorted. In this case the shortages appear not only in transactions, as "consumers are encouraged to shift from debit cards to more profitable alternatives such as credit cards" (Zywicki, T. September 29, 2011. PP. 2), but also with banks recouping lost revenue through higher fees on other bank services.
As just noted, the impact of the price control is the change in behavior of buyers and sellers in what was an equilibrium market, but in typical fashion the effect is harmful to those the regulation meant to protect. Here the idea is that the incidence of a tax, fee, or price control is far different from the burden i.e. those who ultimately pay its cost. In the attempt to help merchants, the Durbin Amendment has in fact increased interchange fees for the small business owners. "Overnight, the variable costs of a transaction have tripled…my
New electronics market analysis
Competitor analysis is a tool used in marketing as well as strategic management whereby an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of an organizations both current and potential competitors is done. A useful technique in carrying out a competitor analysis is the construction of a competitor array. This is done through various steps first identification of the industry that the organization wants to venture into. This encompasses the scope and nature of that particular industry (Abahe.co, 2011). The second step involves the determination of competitors for the intended product. The third thing is identifying customers and the benefits they expect from the organization. It is also crucial to find out the key factors of success in the industry. Through this analysis the organization acquires both defensive and offensive strategic context so that it identifies threats and opportunities that are present. Competitor analysis is therefore…
Abahe.co (2011) .Marketing strategy and competitive analysis. Retrieved February 7, 2014 from http://www.abahe.co.uk/business-administration/Marketing-Strategy-and-Competitive-Analysis.pdf
Business Book Mall, (2011). How Elasticity of Demand Affects Total Revenue. Retrieved February 7, 2014 from http://www.businessbookmall.com/economics_19_how_elasticity_of_demand_affects_total_revenue.htm
Econ Model, (2011). Marginal Cost (MC). Retrieved February 7, 2014 from http://www.econmodel.com/classic/terms/mc.htm
Entrepreneur Media, Inc., (2013). Competitive Analysis. Retrieved February 7, 2014 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/competitive-analysis
When looking at the importance of trade and foreign direct investment in the economy, Canada's stated policy is to sustain open markets and grant foreign companies national treatment, while securing access to foreign markets for Canadian firms (Trade policy regime: framework and objectives, 2007).
Information that is available suggests that there are significant differences in trade and investment policies and practices between the federal and provincial governments, as well as across provinces. In order to mitigate the effect of these policy differences on internal trade, the Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT), which came into effect in 1995, was established in order to reduce and eliminate barriers to the free movement of persons, goods, services and investment within Canada, and to establish an open, efficient and stable domestic market. The authorities indicated that provincial and territorial governments have made substantial progress in key areas of procurement, investment incentives, labour mobility, consumer-related…
Highlights of Medium-term Policy Relevant Research: Update 2009. (2010). Retrieved May 12,
2010, from Bank of Canada Web site:
Makarenko, Jay. (2007). The Canadian Dollar: Nature and Impacts of Canadian Exchange
Economic Analysis: Electronic Arts Inc. (EA)
In this text, I concern myself with Electronic Arts, Inc. (EA). In so doing, I will amongst other things describe the business, its operations, and why I chose to focus on the company in my application of economic ideas. Further, I will also analyze Electronic Art's financial health using the relevant tools of financial analysis.
Electronic Arts, Inc. (EA)
Electronic Arts Inc. according to Yahoo! Finance (2013) "develops, markets, publishes, and distributes game software content and services for video game consoles, personal computers, mobile phones, tablets and electronic readers, and the internet." In terms of revenue, the company is the third-largest video games entity in the world. Its main competitors according to Yahoo! Finance (2013) include but they are not limited to Activision Blizzard, Inc. And Nintendo Co. Ltd.
Two things make Electronic Arts Inc. An interesting company to focus on. To begin with,…
Hall, R.E. & Lieberman, M. (2012). Economics: Principles & Applications (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
O'Cannor, D.E. (2004). The Basics of Economics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Stickney, C.P., Weil, R.L., Schipper, K. & Francis, J. (2009). Financial Accounting: An Introduction to Concepts, Methods and Uses (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Yahoo! Finance (2013, March 2). Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) -- NasdaqGS. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from the Yahoo! Finance Website: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=EA+Profile
However, by utilizing these tactics Apple has been able to build sales and revenue even in the face of rapidly-declining market share. The demand curve for Apple and Android are as follows. Note demand is still high for the iPhone in terms of number of customers, but it is losing ground to Android as the latter brings its average price down.
The future of the iPhone is a little bit less certain. The product has a much higher market share in wealthy markets than it does in emerging markets, because the company has focused more marketing and there is better capacity to purchase. However, the pace of innovation has slowed and as the industry matures Apple is also facing a situation where it must make a pricing decision again. The market is moving to oligopoly again, despite the persistent presence of Blackberry and Microsoft as bit players in the market.…
Beggs, J. (2013). Absolute and comparative advantage. About.com. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://economics.about.com/od/Gains-From-Trade/ss/Absolute-and-Comparative-Advantage.htm
Investopedia. (2013). Monopolistic competition. Investopedia. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/exam-guide/cfa-level-1/microeconomics/monopolistic-competition.asp
Thierer, a. (2011). How iPhones and Android ushered in a smartphone pricing revolution. Forbes. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamthierer/2011/07/10/how-iphones-and-androids-ushered-in-a-smartphone-pricing-revolution-2/
The below chart illustrates the overall amounts of sales growth that have taken place between 2004 and 2009. (Financial Info 2010)
This is significant, because it shows how the underlying sales of Groupe Donone will depend upon the amounts of inflation and its impact on consumer spending. As periods of price increases, will be followed by: a severe slowdown in sales. In many ways, this highlights how the company's vulnerability to extreme changes in the economic cycle.
In the case of General Mills, they are following a similar kind of trend with, net sales for 2004 coming in at $11.0 billion or 5.3%. In 2008, the company would post sales of $13.6 billion of 9.8%. While in 2009, General Mills posted net sales of $14.6 billion or 8.0%. The below chart illustrates the economic growth of the company between 2004 and 2009. (10 K. General Mills 2005)
This is significant,…
10 K. General Mills, 2005, General Mills. Available from [22 August 2010].
Annual Report, 2010, Nestle. Available from [22 August 2010].
Consolidated Income Statement, 2008, Nestle. Available from [22 August 2010].
Consolidated Income Statement, 2009, Nestle. Available from [22 August 2010].
Economics can be considered as the study of the allocation of scarce resources that have potential alternative uses among the competing and virtually limitless want of consumers in society. The allocation of resources is necessary both at an individual and societal level. Economics considers the manner in which people are organized for economic tasks. Economics is applicable everywhere. Economics should be thought of in all the aspects rather than considering the things in the way they already are. This particular proposal explains the reason cars have their fuel doors on different sides. People line up and fuel their cars at the petrol station. However, it is noteworthy that some cars have their fuel filler door on the side of the driver while others have their fuel filler opening on the side of the passenger. This might be perceived as a normal aspect but is largely linked to economics.…
Frank, R. (2009). Why Do Cars Have Fuel Doors on Different Sides? PBS Newshour. Retrieved 28 October, 2015 from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/why-do-cars-have-fuel-doors-on/
Lanteri, A., Vromen, J. (2014). The Economics of Economists: Institutional Setting, Individual Incentives and Future Prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mankiw, N. (2012). Principles of Economics. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Marshall, A. (2013). Principles of Economics. New York: Palgrave MacMilan.
economic analysis of the operating cost that are incurred in the running of a metro station. The paper also reveals the variables that are tied to the cost efficiency of the whole process of running a metro station. The cost of operating the stations is however grouped under the semi-fixed costs that are involved. This is because these costs do not vary proportionately with the output of the metro business. This paper seeks to shed light on some of the main factors that affect these costs. Empirical analysis reveals that very strong system specific factors influences costs but it is worth mentioning that there are other station specific details that also influences the costs. These include the number of platforms in the station, the length of the passageways, the interchange demand, availability of toilet facilities etc.We also discover that presence of air-conditioning has a great effect in the propulsion of…
Bookbinder, J., and W. Qu. "Comparing the performance of Major American
Railroads." Transportation Research Forum
Cantos, P.,Pastor J, and Serrano L. "Cost and revenue inefficiencies in the European railways." International Journal of Transport Economic (2002)
Caves, D.W.,Christensen ., L.R., and Swanson J.A.. "Economic performance in regulated and unregulated environments: A comparison of U.S. And Canadian railways." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (1981)
Even Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be made totally independent from the government. This should be followed up by other methods to increase the individual ownership of housing and at the same time reduce the costs of owning a house. Even if the housing sector cannot be made totally private, it is important that the government make statements saying that it has no intentions of supporting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac any further, and at the same time, try to improve the operations of these two companies. This can be achieved by limiting the amount of debt that these regulatory deposit organizations can hold and also focusing clearly with the two institutions on the sections of the housing market where their activities would provide the best social benefits. (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Housing Finance: Why True Privatization Is Good Public Policy)
The weakness comes from the feeling that…
After the Housing Boom. 11 April, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_15/b3928001_mz001.htm . Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Cederholm, Fred. Is the Housing Market Going to Crash? Retrieved at http://baltimorechronicle.com/033105Cederholm.shtml . Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Federal Home Loan Bank System. Retrieved at http://www.fhfb.gov/FHLB/FHLBS.htm. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Housing' Direct Economic Impact. 2005. Retrieved at http://www.nahb.org/generic.aspx?sectionID=784&genericContentID=543Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Application of Cost Benefit Analysis
EU Proposed Project Overview
Positive Impact of the Project
Economic Net Present Value (ENPV)
Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process of comparing and calculating the cost benefit of a project. Recent business uncertainties within business environment make increasing number of businesses to implement cost benefit analysis to make a sound investment decision. Cost-benefit analysis is also an explicit or implicit method to assess the benefits and costs of a project. Typically, an organization is likely to go ahead with a project if the Benefits (B) > Costs (C). Cost-benefit analysis is often used by private organizations or government to evaluate the desirability of a project. (Anthony, David, Aidan.). The CBA is used to analyze the expected benefits and costs. However, cost effectiveness analysis is closely related to cost benefit analysis. Although both concepts attempt to achieve the…
Anthony Boardman, David Greenberg, Aidan Vining. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 4/E. 2010.
European Union. Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Project. Regional European Union. 1997, Retrieved March 25, 2013.from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/guides/cost/guide02_en.pdf
European Commission. EVA-TREN: Improved decision-aid methods and tools to support evaluation of investment for transport and energy networks in Europe, Deliverable 2, Brussels. 2007.
Levin, Henry and McEwen, Patrick. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 2nd Edition Sage Publications 2001.
1% and agriculture 6.0%. ("Jamaica," 2010) The U.S. is more heavily focused on services, with this accounting for 76.9% of the GDP. This is followed by: industry (coming in at 21.9%) and agriculture (accounting for 1.2%). ("United States," 2010)
The labor force of Jamaica is currently 1.311 million people. ("Jamaica," 2010) While the labor force of the United States is 154.2 million. ("United States," 2010)
Labor Force by Occupation
The labor force by occupation for Jamaica would include: 64% working in services, 19% in industry and 17% in agriculture. ("Jamaica," 2010) In the U.S. The labor force is divided differently with: 37% working in managerial / professional positions, 24.2% in sales / services, 20.3% in manufacturing, 17.6% in other services and .7% in farming. ("United States," 2010)
Population below the Poverty Line
The total population that is living below the poverty line in Jamaica is: 14.8%. ("Jamaica," 2010)…
Country Comparison GDP Purchasing Power Parity. (2010). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html?countryName=Jamaica&countryCode=jm®ionCode=ca&rank=114#jm
Details Emerge on Dudus Coke Arrest. (2010). Repeating Islands. Retrieved from: http://repeatingislands.com/2010/06/23/details-emerge-on-dudus-coke%E2%80%99s-arrest/
Human Development Report 2009 Rankings. (2009). Human Development Report. Retrieved from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/
Jamaica. (2010). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jm.html
Global Economic Analysis
Describe the Economic State of the Country
The state of the economy of any nation or region is influenced by the economic conditions that change over time, consistent with the business cycle. The economic state of France, in accordance to the research findings, is at a contraction phase. This is owing to the fact that the economic conditions within the research are adverse. The absence of extensive and prevalent economic weakness throughout the whole economy is indicative that France is not presently going through contraction. This is largely because the weakness disseminates throughout the economy, not just in a geographic sense, but also in the sense of different sectors such as employment. This can be perceived through the different economic indicators analyzed. The real GDP, Productivity and GDP per Capita PPP are all declining, indicative of adverse conditions of the economic state.
Describe the Current Business Cycle…
B2B International. (2016). Effective marketing strategies for a recession. Retrieved 28 January, 2016 from: https://www.b2binternational.com/assets/ebooks/marketing_recession/recession_marketing_4.pdf
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Subway Economic Analysis
Economic Business Analysis
Subway Corporation: Economic Business Analysis
Microeconomics centers on the study of the economic makeup of individual households, firms, and government. As franchise firms fall into this category, it is clear that small business owners, such as franchise owners, face the day-to-day task of dealing with many economic decisions in order to keep their businesses both functional and successful in order to turn a profit. One such example of this type of franchise is Subway. As the world's largest restaurant chain, Subway franchise owners make decisions every day that contribute to the bigger picture, helping keep Subway one of the world's most recognizable and successful franchises.
In understanding why an economic business analysis of the Subway Corporation is one worth completing, one can ask: what makes Subway interesting? Subway's success story is seemingly unparalleled in terms of growth and global acceptance.…
Fitzgerald, T. (2009). Subway's journey to green. Journal of Logistics Management.
48:4, p. 22. Retrieved from: ProQuest database.
Mohanty, L. (2011). Introductory microeconomics adapted from G. Mankiw's principles of microeconomics. TUI Powerpoint lecture. Accessed on: 20 July 2011.
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He would be faced with deciding whether he must spend all his available resources on goods or services, or whether he must save some of his income so that he would be able to finance some of his needs of his future. When he is taken as a labor resource, he must make the decision whether he must use his time in working for his pay, or whether he must spend it on sleeping and other leisure time activities. ("Decision making using marginal analysis," n. d.)
Similarly, when he is a labor resource, he must decide how much of his time he must spend on education, so that he may be able to maximize his life earnings. On the other hand, if he were an entrepreneur, then he must make the decision on how many people he must hire, or how much he must spend on acquiring a new product…
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McEachern, William a. (2006) "Macroeconomics, a contemporary introduction" Thomson
Economic Events: 1980-1989
the decade of greed. The era of onald eagan when the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Despite this common wisdom, 1980 started off auspiciously. On May 8, 1980 the World Health Organization hailed "one of the century's greatest medical accomplishments," the final and total eradication of smallpox (Dickson 247). But how quickly times change - barely a quarter century has passed and this same disease is making headlines once again.
Attitudes change also. While many in this day and age would still agree that the 1980's was a selfish period in American history, a sea-change has occurred in the rhetoric issuing forth from Washington D.C. In a very fundamental way, party politics has been thrust aside as concerns for homeland security take precedence over petty partisanship. Michael Barone notes this in his analysis of a speech made by Democrat ichard Gephardt in the Summer…
Barone, Michael. "The loyal opposition." U.S. News and World Report. 13 June 2003. 14
March 2003 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneweb/mb_020613.htm.
Case, Karl E., and Ray C. Fair. "Principles of Economics." Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ 1992.
CHIA'S IMPROVIG ECOOMY
FOR PARTCIPATIG ATIOS
CHIA'S MOST SURPRISIG TUR
CHIA'S IMPROVIG ECOOMY
China has been an independent nation since the beginning of time, specifically its financial institutions are state owned. Although under developed, and one of the slowest developing countries, China was a proud and self-sufficient country, desiring to be individual, and dependent upon no other nation. Many years of being independent have severely limited the incoming and outgoing of financial funds and support, and as a result, China has reached its lowest economic downfall in history. Last December, China agreed to sustain an agreement with the World Trade Organization, after debating over the idea for the past fifteen years. The goals of entering an agreement with the World Trade Organization, were reducing the unemployment rate, and improving the China's economy. One of the obligations on China's part was they must submit to…
NA, DOMESTIC NEWS ITEMS FORM XINHUA, XINHUA NEWS AGENCY 04/17/2002
LARDY, NICHOLAS, THE DRAGON OUT OF PUFF, BROOKINGS INSTITUTION PRESS,
WASHINGTON DC, 2002
There are a number of different metrics that can help to measure the health of an economy. The GDP is one of those numbers, and can be obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Following a decline of 2.6% in 2009, the GDP grew in 2010 by 2.9%. GDP rates fluctuated by quarter, with a low of 1.7% in Q2 following by escalating growth in the last two quarters. This represents a slow recovery from the steep declines of 2008-2009. Another measure of economic health is unemployment. The current unemployment rate from the Bureau of Labor Statistics is 9.0%, a decline of 0.4 percentage points from December. This rate is historically high, it is lower than at any point in the past year, again showing a sign of slow recovery. A third measure of economic health can be found in the inflation rate. The best measure of inflation is…
Bureau of Labor Statistics: CPI Detailed Report December 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpid1012.pdf
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment Situation Summary. Retrieved February 8, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm
Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross Domestic Product: Fourth Quarter and Annual 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/2011/pdf/gdp4q10_adv.pdf
hile the U.S. is only showing the first signs of recovery from the global economic crisis, other nations such as Australia and China have recovered much more quickly. There are a number of factors that have contributed to the disparity in economic performance in the past three years in these different nations. In particular, three factors will be considered. The first is the situation in each country at the outset of the crisis. As the crisis was largely precipitated by a credit crunch, the differences between the structure and regulation of the banking sectors in each country will be given particular attention. The second factor will be the response on the part of each federal government to the crisis. The third factor will be the nature of the different economies -- the degree to which different structures have impacted the recovery process. Lastly, policy implications will be drawn for…
BEA. (2011). National income and product accounts table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/TableView.asp?SelectedTable=1&ViewSeries=NO&Java=no&Request3Place=N&3Place=N&FromView=YES&Freq=Year&FirstYear=2007&LastYear=2010&3Place=N&Update=Update&JavaBox=no#Mid
Chinability.com. (2010). GDP growth in China 1952-2009. Chinability.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.chinability.com/GDP.htm
Jones, F. (2011). Krugman: Stimulus didn't fail because it never happened. Moneynews.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.moneynews.com/StreetTalk/paul-Krugman-Stimulus-Didnt/2011/02/16/id/386333
Maiden, M. (2009). Australia's banking sector is as strong as a brick outhouse. The Age. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.theage.com.au/business/australias-banking-sector-is-as-strong-as-a-brick-outhouse-20090506-avdj.html
Economics of International Trade China
Exploring the Economics of International Trade: China
"Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market," and its expansion has only continued to show powerful growth within the international economic marketplace (Sun & Heshmati, 2010, p 1). After China was reopened to trading with the West in 1978, the country has really took off in becoming one of the world's biggest producers and exporters of a plethora of different goods. China has grown tremendously as nations like the United States have become their biggest trading partners. In response, China has helped refuel this growth with the manipulation of their currency and their heavy investment in the U.S. dollar, which ensures them a more competitive position for their exports.
For generations, China had closed itself off to trading and interacting…
American Manufacturing. (2012). China and currency manipulation. Issues. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://americanmanufacturing.org/category/issues/china/china-and-currency-manipulation
Barboza, David. (2012). Business and economy in China. New York Times. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/china/business_and_economy/index.html
Congress Quarterly. (1999). The consumer culture. CQ Researcher, 9(44), 1001-1016.
Manzay, Terrance. (2010). China export industry dominates worldwide. Article Snatch. Web. Reprieved September 4, 2012 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/China-Export-Industry-Dominates-Worldwide/3853472#.UEZqYKNIuHY
Economic Environment of the Diamond Industry in Mozambique and Tanzania
The Economic Environment of the Diamond Industry
In Mozambique and Tanzania
Both nations of Mozambique and Tanzania are among the poorest globally, with each supported through foreign subsidies and foreign direct investment (FDI) (Tanzania, 2011). The relative levels of poverty however have led to political unrest in Mozambique and diamond smuggling to Zimbabwe, where gems are in high demand in that nations' economy which is rampant with information today
(Latham, Katerere, 2011). Due to the strength of its mining operations in aluminum and abundance of natural resources however, Mozambique's GDP growth rate is expected to reach 8.3% in 2010 according to the CIA Factbook.
Tanzania is the 16th highest ranked producer of diamonds globally, having one of the highest quality of diamonds produced in their mining operations of any on the African continent (Macklem, 2003). Paradoxically however, Tanzania has a…
Sierra Leone: diamond king. (2000, January). The Economist, 354(8155), 46,52.
Laffin, Simon. (2000, January 4). Let's hear how mining companies are helping with power, roads and water: [London edition]. Financial Times, p. 14.
Latham, B., & Katerere, F.. (2011, January). Diamond Smuggling Thrives in Zimbabwe. Business Week,1.
Katherine Macklem. (2003, September). Diamonds with an edge. Maclean's, 116(36), 52.
Economics of Southwest Airlines
A Brief Economic Analysis of Southwest Airlines Today
Southwest Airlines was incorporated in 1967 and has its headquarters in Dallas. It is a U.S. airline that offers domestic point-to-point service; as of December 31, 2004, the company operated 417 Boeing 737 aircraft, with service to 60 airports in 59 cities in 31 states (Southwest 2); the company also has at least another 261 Boeing 737-700s on order (Comerford 1). Today, Southwest has six reservations centers (one each in Albuquerque, Chicago, Houston, Oklahoma City, Phoenix, and San Antonio); in addition, the company sells credits to its business partners (these include credit card companies, hotels, telecommunications companies, and car rental agencies) (Southwest 3).
Economic Performance and Discussion
hile much of the aviation industry was devastated by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Southwest has managed to maintain an even keel due in large part to the progressive…
Why does GE finance poorly-rated airlines with its aircraft financing? GE benefits in three ways: (1) its lower cost of capital than the airlines means that it can charge a risk premium, and make more money on the airline debt, (2) it sells aircraft engines and, more critically, spare parts, which are the biggest long-term source of revenue for the company, and (3) the loans are well-collateralized. Even in a bankruptcy procedure, the airlines have relatively little recourse to the assets, and GE would be free to sell or lease the airlines to others. Other leasing companies, while they don't have GE's aircraft engine business, are able to lure tax-advantaged investors (offshore, those receiving tax credits, others) who also give them a lower cost of capital; their expertise in leasing and selling planes, as well as their leverage in pricing negotiations with the major airframe manufacturers gives them an advantage…
Business Week. "Why GE Is Keeping Loser Airlines Aloft." Business Week 7 February 2005: n.p.
Francisco, Federal Reserve Bank of San. Competition and Regulation in the Airline Industry. Economic Report. San Francisco: Federal Reserve, 2002.
Gittell, JH, Cameron, K, Lim, S and Rivas, V. "Relationships, Layoffs and Organizational REsiliance." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2006): 300-329.
Mackinac. Price Elasticity of Demand. Economic. Mackinac: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1997.
Economics in the American Revolution
as the American Revolution motivated primarily by economic factors? To the observer in 2014, who is surrounded with economically-oriented ideologues who have adopted the title of "Tea Party" for their movement, the interpretation is inescapable. e must ignore the tendentious and flimsy view of history advanced by the twenty-first century Tea Parties though (reminding ourselves that the former vice presidential candidate who styles herself one of their leaders could not correctly identify in 2011 what Paul Revere had actually done during the American Revolution) and look at the view of reputable historians. I hope by examining the work of three historians -- Charles Beard, Richard Hofstadter, and Gordon ood -- to demonstrate the extent to which the Founding Fathers were motivated by economic circumstances.
Any discussion of the economic factors motivating the American Revolution must begin with the work of Charles Beard. Beard, influenced to…
Beard, Charles A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, 2004. Print.
Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage, 1989. Print.
Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.
What "current macroeconomic situation" U.S. (e.g. U.S. economy concerned unemployment, inflation, recession,)? What fiscal policies monetary policies time? Key concepts include paper -- data trends unemployment, inflation, GDP growth, expansionary fiscal policy tools, FOMC, easy money policy tools terms class.
What is the current macroeconomic situation in the U.S.
The United States is no longer mired in a full-blown recession as it was in 2008, but the process of economic recovery has been long, slow, and onerous. At present, unemployment is hovering around 7.9%. This reflects a slight increase from the last quarter. The U.S. seems to be in a precarious position, neither in full-blown recessionary mode but not entirely recovered. Of particular concern is the fact that "the increase [in unemployment] was much sharper for millennials, up from 11.5% the month before and 10.9% in November 2012" (Kingkade 2013). Young people were particularly hard-hit by the recession.…
Cassidy, John. (2012). Reagan, Bush, and Obama: We are still all Keynesians. The New Yorker.
Davidson, Paul. (2012). Fed ties interest rates to 6.5% unemployment. USA Today. Retrieved:
It is worth noting that two economic consequences are likely to occur, particularly in the event of a V-shaped recovery. The first is that the Federal Reserve is going to wait to increase rates until the last possible moment, in the hopes of spurring greater investment and therefore job growth. This means that inflation is expected at some point this year. This inflation means that factor inputs will increase in cost. Larson can gain advantage over competitors if it can hold its wholesale cost stable in the face of an increase in the cost of factor inputs, since competitors may be forced to increase their prices. Careful control over its cost structure will allow Larson to do this while maintaining profitability.
Another potential economic consequence is a decline in the value of the Euro. Normally, Larson exporting products from America to Germany would be fairly easy given Germany's current account…
CNN. (2010). Battle for downtown Bangkok hits economy. CNN. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://edition.cnn.com/2010/Business/05/14/battle.bangkok.economy/index.html?hpt=T1
Kirschbaum, E. (2010). Euro in danger of becoming unstable. Reuters. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6150N020100206
Federal Reserve Bank of New York. (2010). Federal funds data. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/fedfundsdata.cfm
BEA (2010). Personal income and outlays, March 2010. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/pi/pinewsrelease.htm
America's Economy Issue
ith a gross domestic product of $17.5 trillion, the American's economy is the world's largest, but China is closing fast (Bergman 3). In fact, the U.S. economy remains in the doldrums despite having officially recovered from the Great Recession of 2009, but which direction the economy will head next is anyone's guess. This, of course, has not stopped pundits and economics from predicting what is going to happen, and these observations form the issues of interest to this paper. The literature is reviewed below to provide a background and overview of these issues, followed by an examination of recent positive and negative economic trends to determine where the U.S. economy may be headed in the future. A summary of the research and important findings concerning the U.S. economy are provided in the conclusion.
Background and Overview
For the purposes of this analysis, the "American economy" will be…
Bergmann, Andrew. "World's largest economies." CNN Money. 2014. Web. 10 Nov. 2014.
Bureau of Economic Analysis. "National Income and Product Accounts -- Gross Domestic
Product, Third Quarter 2014 (Advance Estimate). 30 Oct. 2014. Web. 10 Nov. 2014.
Franken, Al. Rush Limbaugh is a Big Fat Idiot and Other Observations. New York: Delacorte
Economic forecasting refers to the process of trying to predict the future state of the economy through a series of different indicators. This process helps to understand the probable future of a nation’s economy and for policymaking to help promote economic growth. When developing an economic forecast, various macroeconomic factors/conditions are taken into consideration. This paper provides an economic forecast of the U.S. economy based on recent economic indicators in 2017 and 2018.
Based on seasonally adjusted annual rates in the fourth quarter of 2017, the gross domestic product growth rate is expected to increase moderately in the first quarter of 2018. As shown in these indicators and based on recent macroeconomic conditions, GDP growth rate in the first quarter of this year is expected to be approximately 2.8%. Additionally, GDP growth rate will continue to increase moderately in the second half of the year to exceed 3.0%.
economic tools concepts to evaluate a current issue situation which exist today in the U.S. health care industry
There are two sets of health issues and many players in the health industry. One set of paradigm deals with the public and private health care issues, and another the emerging trend of market oriented changes in the health care industry. Hitherto health care was a public service but has now transformed itself into a competitive industry. In other words it has become a part of the national economy and economic analysis is not only important to care givers and institutions, but is also important to doctors and medical workers because the health industry is highly competitive. The debate on public health issues changed in the past with more scientific developments and insight into community care and medicine. (Fox; Ludden, 1998)
Some of the modern developments of the end of…
Value creation to day is mostly done by pharmacy benefit managers -- PBMs and health maintenance organizations -- HMOs. The new healthcare players are thus in need of these tools to improve the medical cost management skills, and creating a competitive organizational culture. (Goh; Pritula, 1996) Another tool to analyze the economy of the health care industry is the way the demand for and the supply of the care grows or subsides. Today health-care markets like all others have been influenced by supply and demand, and the more competitive environment which has created purchasers like insurers and investors in the industry have now become beneficiaries of the market forces and the cost of health-care is now a great percentage of the gross national product -- GNP as a result of the interplay of demand and supply changes. (Fox; Ludden, 1998)
Here the supply and demand in the health industry is taken by the public and private sector, and this has paved way for the growth of medical science. For example the changes in the healthcare spending and patient revenue and hospital utilization shown in table one was computed by Sensenig et al. (1996). Likewise are the changes in consumer prices for medical care services. There are many other indicators which show the way the industry behaves given the specific economic condition. To this variables some specific conditions for example inflation, and other economic situations are detected and the comparison provides the mechanism why the health care expenditure change. The table 1 shows the fact that "Medical care prices are now growing at roughly twice the rate as overall prices." (Sensenig, et al., 1996)
Health care professionals now use concepts like Utilization review for case management and this analysis will be beneficial to social workers making them indispensable to the management and
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
Kenya: A Case Study in Reform
From its rough beginnings, Kenya has instituted a series of economic reforms in an attempt to raise the condition of the Kenyan people. They are an attempt to bring the Kenyan people out of a state of poverty and repression to one of stability and security about their ability to sustain themselves. Each reform has been better than the last, but they are still far from solving these issues in their country. This paper will cite the reasons for this as being a need for the people to regain the feeling of nationalism echoed in the early years of independence.
Prior to1800 Kenya consisted of groups of small tribal governments. Kenya is grouped into more than 70 ethnic groups, Some of the ethnic tribes are large e.g. The Agikuyu who form a majority of the population within their homeland in the central…
Africa Guide. World of Information Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1997 on Industrial Transformation
Amoako, Dr. K.Y. Claiming the 21st Century: Africa's Agenda (Speech). Executive
Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa at the National
Summit on Africa, (Washington D.C., 17 February 2000)
In terms of output and growth, Canada's real GDP was 2.96% higher than it was a year ago, but the growth trend is slowing down from a growth rate high of 3.81% in Q3 2010. Japan's economy has contracted in Q2 2011 by 0.76%. It's rate has been volatile, growing rapidly over the past year only to contract again. The UK's growth rate is 1.63%, and that country has had fairly stable, if sluggish, real GDP growth. The current GDP growth rate in the United States is 2.33%. Real GDP growth is on a downward trend in the U.S. But has maintained healthy levels since Q4 2009.
All four countries were affected by the recession. Each experienced real GDP declines during the 2008-2009 period. Japan was the hardest hit. Yet each nation recovered in 2010, only to see the rate of economic growth slow again in 2011.
BoC. (2011). Inflation control target. Bank of Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.bankofcanada.ca/monetary-policy-introduction/framework/inflation-control-target/
Estrella, A. & Trubin, M. (2006). The yield curve as a leading indicator: Some practical issues. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/current_issues/ci12-5/ci12-5.html
Investopedia. (2011). Yield curve. Investopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/y/yieldcurve.asp#axzz1VCSWJAY8
St. Louis Fed. (2011). International economic trends: August 2011. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/iet/
Economic Order Quantity Analysis:
Management of Emergency Food Provision by NGOs
When ordering supplies, managers of both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations must answer the deceptively difficult question: how large an order should my organization place? The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) analysis method gives an accurate picture of the variables involved in making order quantity decisions (Finkler, 2009). Some organizations like food pantries, for example, may not have the flexibility to adjust some of these variables (e.g. how much is available from particular suppliers; how much demand is made on resources), so the EOQ equation allows supply managers to adjust other variables to accommodate changes in supply and demand in nuanced ways.
The case study I will examine is a food bank that supplies meals for the homeless. They order large quantities of ingredients through government-subsidized contracts at a fixed price, but demand is not constant and thus carrying cost can…
By comparison, if Meals for the Homeless ordered only once per year, assuming that the shipment of goods would indeed remain unspoiled for 12 months, their total cost would be $4,538.83. This is sub-optimal in terms of both holding costs and interest although it does keep ordering costs to a minimum. Interestingly, since Meals for the Homeless is not directly compensated for the merchandise it distributes, this one-order system may in fact be optimal. However, if the organization is compensated by governmental agencies based on the amount of meals it delivers to the served population, it may be prudent to utilize the EOQ model to determine optimal order quantity for this and other products.
Buck, M. (2007). A Guide to Developing a Sustainable Food Purchasing Policy. SustainableFoodPolicy.org white paper, accessed June 15, 2011. http://www.sustainablefoodpolicy.org/SustainableFoodPolicyGuide.pdf?attredirects=0
Finkler, S.A. (2009). Financial Management for Public, Health, and Not-for-Profit Organizations, 3rd Ed. Newark, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
If there is a risk that one of the family members will lose his or her job, that will add risk to the purchase decision. The riskier the purchase decision, the lower the price will need to be in order to compensate for that. Another factor here is the expected change in housing prices or interest rates. Buyers are inclined to enter the market if they believe that the cost of home ownership will be higher next year, but they may delay purchases if they believe that costs will be lower next year.
ith new home sales last summer, the dip could be in part due to worries about a double-dip recession. The summer was characterized by an inane fight over the debt ceiling, something that shattered confidence of many in the political system, and some of the key actors within that system. A fractured political system is one that…
Hauser, C. (2011, Aug 24). Sales of new homes fell again in july. New York Times, pp. B.6-B.6. http://search.proquest.com/docview/884825381?accountid=35812
A price discrimination strategy is one where different customers are charged different amounts. The price charged for my shop's submarine sandwiches will therefore be different for locals than for visitors. There are a number of ways to achieve this. In the context of a sandwich shop, the prices are going to be listed publicly on the menu, so it is impossible to openly discriminate with respect to prices. One technique that can be utilized to lower the average cost for each sub-for locals is to offer a loyalty card. The local would then receive either a discount or a free sub-after making enough purchases. This would deliver a lower price to locals in the long run. Alternately, a loyalty club can allow the locals to receive discounts if they are members of the club. A certain amount of annual sales would be required for club membership, or even a…
Investopedia. (2010). Perfect competition. Investopedia. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp
ACC. (2010). U.S. antitrust agencies issue revised merger guidelines. Association of Corporate Counsel. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=cf23ba87-0ed6-4db5-9739-d7cf74bcdf8f
The revelation of the financial crisis that unfolded in United States in 2008 is considered to be the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, 1929. The distinctive causative factors that have contributed to the U.S. economic crisis 2008- 2009 are differentiated by aggravated financial control, higher risks in capital investment, the housing bubble phenomena in relation to the brisk credit expansion. The aggregation of these factors in the U.S. economy directed the economy towards the de- leverage and credit crunches as the bubble burst. The following paper shall be discussing about the degree of correlation between the tax implications policies with respect to the financial crisis in U.S.. The precise review of strong linkages between the taxation and economic crises is the explicit explanation of the crisis that shook America. The paper also highlights the key factors that demonstrated their abilities and rescued U.S. In the economic…
Carr, D.A. (2011). Responses to Local Fiscal Shocks: Path Dependency Effects of the Clean Air Act. Public Finance and Management, 11(2), 160+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5050180027
Hendrickson, J.M., & Nichols, M.W. (2010). Did Commercial Banks Close Branches in Low-income Neighborhoods in Response to the Cra? Implications for Understanding the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 13(1), 17+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044499375
Johnson, E.M. (2010, April). Mr. Trust Buster. In These Times, 34, 7+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041402599
Robinson, S.N., & Nantz, D.P. (2009). Lessons to Be Learned from the Financial Crisis. Journal of Private Enterprise, 25(1), 5+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037768696
Economic Crisis Policies
US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…
ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml
Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781
Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis: http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/
Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.
It will be fun to follow Bershire Hathaway because Warren Buffett is a mastermind at selecting companies in which to invest and I have never had the time to really learn about his holdings.
Berkshire Hathaway, Inc. is a publicly owned investment manager in the property and casualty industry of the finance sector (Yahoo Finance, 2011). Essentially, the firm is a holding company with a variety of businesses across the globe (Yahoo Finance, 2011). In the beginning, the company was just a group of textile mills, but Warren Buffett got the controlling shares in the mid1960s and began to divert cash flows (float) from the core businesses and invest the money in other types of businesses (Yahoo Finance, 2011). Berkshire Hathaway's subsidiaries engage in the business of insurance and reinsurance of property and casualty risks (Yahoo Finance, 2011).. The firm was founded in 1889 and is…
Farrell, M. (2011, August 26). Buffett's one-day win on Bank of America: $357 million. CNN Money. Retrieved http://money.cnn.com/2011/08/26/markets / warren_buffett_bofa_profit/index.htm?iid=EL
Farrell, M. (2011, September 26). CNN Money. Retrieved http://money.cnn.com/2011/09/
Berkshire Hathaway, Investopedia. Retrieved http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/berkshire-hathaway.asp#ixzz1ajECr68Z
00). This is below the EU, where they have a rating of 42 or a PPP of $32,500.00. (Czech epublic 2010) 1 When you compare the two numbers, the purchasing power is lower in the Czech epublic in comparison with the EU. This means, that labor costs are much lower in relation to the rest of Europe. When you put this together with the increases in the GDP over the last two quarters and the fact that the banking sector, was undamaged from the financial crisis; means the Czech epublic has outstanding opportunities for addressing the needs of the company. As the country's costs, the business friendly atmosphere and prudent practices of government policies are creating the ideal environment for a European call center to flourish.
Despite the obvious advantages, there are risks of relocating to the Czech epublic the most notable would include: the underlying cost structure. While…
1. Czech Republic, 2010, CIA World Factbooks. Available from
Increases in manufacturing reveal benefits early, one can track the benefit at all stages and report the benefits to the public quickly. According to a statement released by the Center for American Progress, "solar panels don't install themselves. Wind turbines don't manufacture themselves. Homes and buildings don't retrofit or weatherize themselves. In our industrial society, trees don't even PLANT themselves, anymore. eal people must do all of that work." The public wants a quick fix, they want to start hearing that the economy is doing better and a focus on manufacturing will accomplish this. Additionally, there has been increasing pressure on the White House to focuses on alternative energy sources. Such a policy would gain favor with democratic and liberal environmentalists.
4. Do you consider your views to be more aligned with a classical or Keynesian approach to economic thinking? Explain. (There is no right or wrong answer). See module…
Chea S., (2010). "Manufacturers' Orders as an Economic Indicator." Associated Content February, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2685879/manufacturers_orders_as_an_economic_pg2.html?cat=3 .
Federal Reserve bank of New York. Durable Goods. Retrieved from http://www.newyorkfed.org/education/bythe.html#durgoods .
Hoexter, M., (2009). "Cap and Trade: An Unserious Policy Framework.. Towards a Serious Climate Policy -- Part 2."Climate Policy, Energy Policy, Sustainable Thinking, December 2009.
Podesta, J., Stern T., (2007). "Capturing the Energy Opportunity: Creating a Low-Carbon Economy." The Center for American Progress, Nov. 2007. Retrieved http://www.americanprogress.org .
S. The societal system practiced in France serves as a model towards which the U.S. aspire.
President Barack Obama's healthcare reform plan is considered by many as being a socialist experiment that will significantly hurt the economy (CBS, 2009). In opposition, the President has stated that he does not intend to implement a healthcare system that depends on the government. Instead, he would prefer a system in which the government competes with private insurance companies for selling coverage.
The Invisible Hand Principle
The invisible hand principle was developed as an opposition to the protectionist system. This principle is actually a metaphor describing the self-regulating characteristic of the market. In other words, such a system can be implemented due to a combination of factors, like self-interest, competition, supply and demand. Adam Smith, who developed this theory, considered that the action of these forces and their effects are able to allocate resources…
1. Eddlem, T.R. (2009). Obama needs to learn "opportunity cost." The New American. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JZS/is_15_25/ai_n32369481/?tag=content;col1 .
2. Dorrien, G. (2009). Is the Economic Crisis a Sin? Newsweek. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.newsweek.com/id/206095.
3. Steele Calls Obama Health Plan "Socialism" (2009). CBS News. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/20/politics/main5174417.shtml .
4. Remarks by the President on Financial Rescue and Reform. The White House. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-on-Financial-Rescue-and-Reform-at-Federal-Hall .
Two alternative solutions are available. The first sees that the U.S. federal authority uses the budget allocated to support the development of the national industries, without raising barriers to imports. The second possible solution is for the United States to strive to increase its exports by focusing more on international operations.
Criteria / goals
The evaluation criteria for the proposed solutions revolve around the benefits they generate, as well as the costs they imply. Otherwise put, the decision will be made in accordance with the arguments in favour and against each of the two alternatives, and by the solution's ability to meet the established goals. These goals include the insurance of economic stability within the United States (for all population, corporations and the entire system), the maintenance or even development of international relations, as well as the sustained development of the domestic industries.
Evaluation of alternatives
January 29, 2009, Buying American, the Economist, last accessed on February 5, 2009
Steps in the P.A.C.E.D. Model, the Gus a. Stavros Center for Free Enterprise and Economic Education
http://stavros.coedu.usf.edu/EconomicLiteracy/sld019.html. Ast accessed on February 5, 2009
An analysis of the latest figures for key economic indicators and the factors which have affected these indicators. This should include the figures for unemployment, inflation and economic growth.
The unemployment rate is a very important indicator of the overall health of the economy. Currently the unemployment rate is at 7.8% (Office for National Statistics, 2012). However, this figure does not affect the population equally. Different segments of the population have different employment rates. Furthermore, the unemployment rate does not include people that are not actively seeking employment. In the chart these people are considered to be "inactive." Another interesting item listed in the report is that the unemployment rate for the youth demographic was falling due to a record number of 16 to 24-year-olds being enrolled in some type of educational program.
Employment in the UK has suffered from recession. In 2008 there was a…
Financial Times, 2013. Question 3: Fiscal Policy. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1115c770-545a-11e2-9d25-00144feab49a.html#axzz2IAShLpER
[Accessed 1 January 2013].
Kirka, D., 2011. UK recession fears grow as manufacturing drops. [Online]
Economic Environment of a Business
The objective of this work is to summarize the economic environment of a business including information relating to microeconomics, macroeconomics, and international trade aspects
The business organization is a "micro-economic unit" and the business environment is that which makes provision of the "macro-economic context within which firm operates." (eddy, ) The business environment can be categorized into the 'economic' and non-economic' and the 'micro- and macro-environment. (eddy,, paraphrased) The firm is an economic institution in a market system with the behavior of the firm reflecting the result of the decisions that were economic in nature that the manager of the firm made.
The economic environment of a business in today's globalized business society is complex in nature. There is an inherent link between the business sector and it relationship with the government, capital market, household sector and the international business sector -- all of which…
Palwar, V.K. (2010) Economic Environment of Business 2nd Ed. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=hNBEId591wYC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Reddy, R.I. (2004) Business Environment. APH Publishing. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NQv9vKgF_3MC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Source: The Financial Forecast Center, 2009
Increases in unemployment rate mean that the gambling industry will be faced with fewer customers. This in turn will materialize in reduced sales and profits. If the situation continues to aggravate in the years to come, several players in the gambling industry might have to close their casinos. One must also notice the exceptional situations in which out of job individuals will gamble in the hope of winning some money. However, these instances are reduced and not able to modify the indirect relationship between the evolution of unemployment rate and demand for gambling services. Vice versa, when the unemployment rate decreases and the population enjoys more sources of revenues, the demand for the services of casino clubs increases.
2.3 Inflation rate (consumer price index)
The inflation rate represents the "percentage increase in the price of goods and services, usually annually" (Investor Words, 2009). Within…
Ameristar Casinos Inc., Hoovers, 2009, http://hoovers.com/ameristar-casinos/--ID__16260,FRIC__ -- /free-co-competition.xhtml last accessed on May 8, 2009
Personal Income and Savings, iCharts, 2009, http://www.icharts.net/portal/app?service=external&sp=Y37ayiM=&page=Chartdetail last accessed on May 8, 2009
Investor Words, 2009, http://investorwords.com last accessed on May 8, 2009
The Financial Forecast Center, 2009, http://forecasts.org last accessed on May 8, 2009
Sorkin's book does a good job of giving the details on what happened among Lehman Brothers, Barclays, JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs, the Fed, and Big Gov following the collapse. Essentially, everyone had egg on his face -- but some of the bigger powers had the muscle to save face -- and sink competitors at the same time: which is exactly what Goldman Sachs did to Lehman. Goldman had been placing its cronies in the hite House for years -- and it would now go through the hite House to see who got bailed out and who did not. AIG got one -- because it owed a large chunk to Goldman (who had figured out the game ahead of time and started betting against itself by buying insurance through AIG). Sorkin's work is a work full of the kind of details that other writer's like Taibbi and Lewis do not take…
Lewis, Michael M. The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. New York, NY: W.
W. Norton & Company, 2010. Print.
Sorkin, Andrew. Too Big to Fail: the inside story of how Wall Street and Washington
fought save the financial system -- and themselves. New York, NY: Penguin, 2010. Print.
Even though the housing market is slowing, the article speculates that it may take six to eight months before sellers accept that the market has softened and reduce their prices. This demonstrates the economic theory that the supply relationship is a factor of time. Suppliers do not always react quickly to a change in demand or price, but eventually they must. The article suggests that demand will decline 3.5% next year, but that median home prices will still increase by 5%.
Suppliers are beginning to react to falling demand through a decline in price increases and incentives which are really indirect price decreases. That's why this is referred to as a "cooling off" period in the article which mentions that some condo buyers are being offered a car to make a purchase of a condo. The use of incentives may be viewed by the suppliers as a way to mask…
Arnold, Roger A. (2005) / Economics, 7th Edition; South-Western Publishing.
Hagerty, J.R. And Simon, R. (2005, November 15). Housing market shows further signs of cooling. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from Web site: http://www.realestatejournal.com/buysell/markettrends/20051115-hagerty.html
Housing demand is elastic. (2006, March, 8)
The study includes an analysis of market structures. The paper discusses the market type which Amazon operates in and the effects on their business of the market structure. Amazon is operating in an oligopoly market structure which is discussed in the study.
The role that the market plays in an economy is a crucial aspect of how businesses make their strategies and perform. There are different kinds of market structures; there are competitive markets, oligopolies and monopolies. In a competitive market the market has many sellers and buyers who are trading the same products which make the each seller and buyer a price taker. In such competitive markets each seller and buyer has to accept the predetermined price of the good. The cost is determined by the willingness of the buyers to pay for a product and the seller to sell the product. Another significant characteristic of a competitive…
Blinder, Alan S; William J. Baume and Colton L. Gale (June 2001), Microeconomics: Principles and Policy. Thomson South-Western. p. 212.
Perloff, J. Microeconomics Theory & Applications with Calculus. Page 445. Pearson 2008.
Rodman, George. Mass Media in a Changing World. New York (2nd ed.), McGraw Hill, 2008
Robert Spector (2000). amazon.com - Get Big Fast: Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World. Harper Collins Publishers.
ealth does not equate to happiness, a sense of purpose, dignity or respect. One of the key underlying assumptions of neoliberal philosophy, as derived from Milton Friedman, is that financial wealth is the ideal end goal of all activity. hile financial wealth solves many problems it does not solve all problems. Opponents of globalization, whatever their other arguments, incorporate this understanding into their protestations.
Naomi Klein goes further, suggesting that the unequal wealth distribution in the globalized economy is deliberate. The march towards globalization is not an altruistic endeavor borne of a firm belief in the power of the free market, but is a calculated strategy on the part of the world's elite to seize the world's wealth and power at whatever expense is necessary. Indeed, any economic benefits realized by the masses are incidental. Casualties -- be they citizens of Iraq, indigenous peoples or indeed any of the world's…
Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. Toronto: Random House.
Friedman, T. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Appiah, K. (2006). The case for contamination. New York Times Magazine. Jan 1, 2006.
Thus, a region or nation experiencing economic depression will be unable to use the interest rate lever to boost the economy. Similarly a country with high inflation will be unable to independently raise interest rates to contain inflation. Moreover, Islamic countries, which form a large part of the geography, do not believe in interest rates.
Political barriers -- Political differences between nations make it extremely difficult for them to adopt a common currency. It can lead to a loss in political sovereignty as monetary interests would need to surpass political interests. This is unlikely to be acceptable to most of the nations and the idea of a single currency may be difficult to implement (Gimp, 2008).
Will Pros and Cons change Over Time? Depending On the Country?
The economic conditions to determine a monetary union depend on: the openness and size of the economy involved to trade; the free movements…
BBC. (1997, November 21). European monetary union - pros and cons. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/single_currency/25081.stm
Filho, F.F. (2003). Is it possible to achieve a monetary union in MERCOSUR? (South America). Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Vanderbilt University: http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/egnZLy/Ferrari%20Filho%202.pdf
Frankel, J. (1999, August). No single currency regime is right for all countries or at all times. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Princeton University: http://www.princeton.edu/~ies/IES_Essays/E215.pdf
Gimp, F. (2008, June 27). A world currency - pros and cons and can it become a reality. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Piponomics: http://www.babypips.com/blogs/piponomics/a_world_currency_pros_and_cons.html
Postal Service (USPS) operates at a loss but its closest competitors -- UPS and FedEx -- both operate at a profit. Suggest how fixed costs have contributed to the situation of the USPS. Provide support for your response.
I would suspect that the fixed costs of contributing to employee's retirement funds (Risk Analysis Research Center, 2009, p. 4) and also their restriction from closing local offices (Slentz and McCann, 2009, p. 12) contributes to higher fixed cost at USPS than FedEx because FedEx is not unionized and while UPS is unionized, and thus experiences a fixed cost that is incurred to the level of union contracts, those contracts are more negotiable for UPS than USPS, and nonexistent or fluid for FedEx. Furthermore while union contracts probably affect the rate of closure for physical facilities for UPS, this would probably be more negotiable than for USPS and…
5. From the e-Activity, compare and contrast the lemon law in two different states and analyze which offers the best protection for the consumer. Suggest what both states could do to improve their laws. Provide support for your response.
The California and Alaska Lemon Laws are largely the same except the California law (State of California Department of Justice 2012) restricts replacement / compensation to vehicles driven under 18,000 miles within the warranty period but the Alaska law (Carlemon.com, n.d.) does not restrict the warranty period by number of miles driven. All states could benefit from a uniform definition of "reasonable attempt" to replace or refund, which depends upon, and thus also entails, a standardization
Governments influence the economy in many ways, but the two most often discussed in economics are fiscal policy and monetary policy (another might a trade policy, for example). Fiscal policy reflects the use of government spending and taxation to influence the economy (eil, 2008). Thus, the level of spending, the amount of revenue collected, and how the money is spent are all things that must be taken into consideration in fiscal policy. Fiscal policy also frequently has an effect on the decisions that businesses and individuals make. Consider the debate about taxes and the "Buffet Rule" -- the tax polices we have now are designed to encourage specific behaviors. This is why capital gains are taxed at a different rate than dividends, and why dividends are taxed at a different rate than interest income. So fiscal policy does affect the way some people behave, as they attempt to maximize…
Azerrad, D. (2011). Hayek's top 10 dos and don'ts in a recession. The Foundry. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://blog.heritage.org/2011/02/14/hayek%E2%80%99s-top-10-do%E2%80%99s-and-don%E2%80%99ts-in-a-recession/
FRBSF. (2012). U.S. monetary policy: An introduction. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.frbsf.org/publications/federalreserve/monetary/index.html
Weil, D. (2008). Fiscal policy. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/FiscalPolicy.html
Economic Value Added (EVA) Accounting Practice
Although Economic Value Added (EVA) is not a new concept in economics and financial theory and is based on the 19th century concept of "economic profit," it has only been widely adopted recently by business firms as an accounting practice. In this paper we shall describe what EVA is, and look at its pros and cons from the point-of-view of the company adopting the practice and the investors. We shall also discuss how EVA differs from some other emerging accounting practices and the major issues relating to EVA as compared to other commonly used accounting principles. Finally, the possible problems and opportunities that a company adopting EVA principles can face shall be examined.
What is Economic Value Added (EVA)?
Economic Value Added (EVA) is the after-tax cash flow generated by a business minus the cost of the capital it has invested to generate that…
Keen, Peter. (1999). "Economic Value Added.(EVA)" Every Manager's Guide to Business Processes. Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.peterkeen.com/emgbp007.htm kel inen, Esa. (1998). "Economic Value Added as a Management Tool." Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.evanomics.com/
Shand, Dawne. (October 30, 2000). "Economic Value Added." COMPUTERWORLD. Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/management/itspending/story/0,10801,53001,00.html
Stewart, Bennet (1999) "What is EVA?" Stern Stewart & Co. Web site. Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.sternstewart.com/evaabout/whatis.php
This cost reflects both the time value of money and compensation for risk -- the more risk associated with a firm, the greater the firm's cost of capital.
the country aims for the working population that had been estimated to be 125 million in 2006 to reach 147.8 million by 2020 (Economy watch, 2010).
elationship between unemployment and Brazil's economy
Unemployment in Brazil directly affects the economy of the country in several ways this include economic costs; rates of unemployment being persistent in Brazil indicate that there will be market failure in the country. Unemployment is an indication that resources are being wasted thus leading to loss of potential output and eventually a reduction in allocative efficiency. Brazil's economy will then be seen to operate below the maximum output that the country has potential of.
Unemployment also affects the economy of Brazil through financial costs. The Government of Brazil and the entire nation suffers some costs due to unemployment. There are some benefits that the government has to pay the unemployed and therefore the higher the rates of…
Economy watch. (2010).Brazil unemployment. Retrieved March 09, 2013 from http://www.economywatch.com/unemployment/countries/brazil.html
Trading Economies. (2012). Brazil Unemployment Rate. Retrieved March 09, 2013 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/brazil/unemployment-rate
Economics in the United States
Macroeconomics in the United States
Macroeconomics deals with the general economic systems, which have a larger scope compared to individuals and markets. Essentially, microeconomics is mainly used in the determination and forecast of a country's national income. This is done by analyzing the factors of the economy that represent trends and patterns and in most cases influence each other. Economic factors affecting macroeconomics include the rates of employment and unemployment, positions of balance of payments, trends in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and inflation. Macroeconomics is controlled by the monetary and fiscal policies, which are implemented to control economic factors. Levels of investment and consumption of products and services is also determined by fiscal and monetary policies.
Microeconomic situation in the United States
Figure 1.1: Trends (in percentage) of Unemployment in the U.S. -- 2012
Changes from April to May
Markham, J.W. (2002). A Financial History of the United States M.E. Sharpe: New York.
Fernando, A.C. (2011). Business Environment. India: Pearson Education.
Newport, P. (2011). United States. United States Country Monitor, 2011, p. 2-7.
U.S Department of Labor (2012, June 1). The Employment Situation. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf
To understand this, consider when the curve begins on the upside. At that point, the firm may need a new factory, increasing AC beyond a certain point of output; or other inefficiencies could emerge relating to the costs of managing a larger organization. Essentially, on the downside efficiencies are improving as the output nears capacity. When output hits capacity, the LRAC begins to move upwards again.
5. The new camera explain is part of price discrimination and there are three distinct factors at work when considering this form of price discrimination. The first is strictly marketing -- when new technology arrives in the marketplace the first buyers are typically early adopters. These are more driven by the technology than by the price, so they have low price sensitivity. Firms take advantage of this by charging more, to recoup more of their investment as early as possible.
The second reason is…
Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.
A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:
ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).
A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…
Budowsky, B., January 22, 2008, the Economic Crisis, the Hill
Kilmister, a., December 2008, the Economic Crisis and Its Effects, World Economy, No. 407
Miller, J., Jackson, B., Who Cause the Economic Crisis? The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania
http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/who_caused_the_economic_crisis.html , last accessed on January 7, 2009