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Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol for Consumption
Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61366901
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Economics of Alchohol Abuse

Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).

In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…

REFERENCES

Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from:  http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/ 

Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run

Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from:  http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill 

Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.

Economic Philosophy Crime and Punishment
Words: 2625 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89531216
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e. D (0), the cost of fighting crime / proportion of corrections i.e. C (P0) and the crimes / social costs / negative impacts on to offender i.e. FO. These different elements are important, because the combination of them is helping us to understand the total impact of crime and punishment on the economy.

As a result, these different factors are used in a basic formula to comprehend the effects of social phenomenon and crime on the economy. elow is the equation that is used to objectively evaluate what is occurring.

L (social / economic impact) = D (0) + C (P0) + FO

This formula is important, because it is providing us with a basic strategy that can be used to objectively evaluate the how crime and punishment are impacting society. Once this occurs, is when we can see the total economic impact of this on communities and the…

Bibliography

"Social." (2011).

Becker, Gary. "Crime and Punishment." The Journal of Political Economy 76.2 (1968), 169 -- 217. Print.

Economic and Social Effects of
Words: 9045 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41483765
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Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.

Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany

etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.

. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…

Bibliography

Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last

updated in 2010.  http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .

Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty

That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.

Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji
Words: 4357 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47835217
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The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.

Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly…

References

Ashton, T.S., the Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, Oxford University Press, 1997

Buer, M.C., Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, Routledge, 1926

Hunter, J., Institutional Change in Meiji Japan: Image and Reality, Routledge, 2005

Kinzley, W.D., Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, the Historian, Volume 66, 2004

Effect of the Eurozone Today on the Global Financial Markets
Words: 4067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20965127
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Finance

The Effect of the Eurozone Today on Global Financial Markets

Global markets are so intertwined today that what affects one is definitely going to have an impact on another. Case in point, the recent issues in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries have had a global effect and have wrought havoc on the Eurozone. Because if this global connectedness, large banks and organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are even more important today than they were in the past.

The EU's finances are powered by the countries that have become member nations, but those finances are guarded by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF. The ECB is the institution that is responsible for the Euro, the currency of the EU, and it is also the organization responsible for negotiations regarding the economic difficulties of EU member nations. Since Greece, Spain, Italy and others have had…

Works Cited

Dam, Kenneth W. "The Subprime Crisis and Financial Regulation: International and Comparative Perspectives*." Chicago Journal of International Law 10.2 (2010): 581-594.

European Central Bank (ECB). "Recently Published." Monthly Bulletin, 2012. Web.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). "About the IMF." International Monetary Fund, 2012. Web.

Halmai, Peter, and Viktoria Vasary. "Real Convergence in the New Member States of the European Union (Shorter and Longer Term Prospects)." The European Journal of Comparative Economics 7.1 (2010): 229-237.

Economics Most Histories Blame the
Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47608765
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The effect of all of this is to drive away those who actually worked the land because they loved it, replacing them with hired hands running machinery, neither of which is likely to be kind to the land.

Monopoly

Perhaps the most familiar form of business except for perfect competition, monopoly situations result when there are many potential buyers for a product or service, but only one seller.

In the Grapes of rath, a monopoly situation is created as the banks decide to remove tenant farmers, preferring to sell the land to a single large conglomerate of landowners or even a single corporation.

Steinbeck could hardly have painted a harsher picture of this monopoly-in-progress, with scenes of huge bulldozers razing all evidence of the tenant farmers from the land. However, he also notes that the 'monopolization' of the Great Plains was seemingly an event bigger even than those landowners who…

Works Cited

Cassuto, David. "Turning Wine into Water: Water as Privileged Signifier in 'The Grapes of Wrath'.." Papers on Language & Literature 29.1 (1993): 67+. Questia. 19 July 2005  http://www.questia.com/ .

Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Viking Penguin, 1939.

Economics Finance MBA Level
Words: 13568 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39727750
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disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists

Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.

Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.

US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…

References

Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.

Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.

Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.

Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.

Effect of 2013 Government Shutdown
Words: 2236 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2108523
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Government Shutdown was the period when the routine operations of the United States federal government were curtailed. This happened because the legislative body was not able to successfully pass the legislations related to the funds for the next fiscal period. This shutdown continued to several days and was considered to be the third longest government shutdowns in the history of the United States that took place in the last quarter of the year 2013 (Kille, 2013).

From the past government shutdowns, the fact has been exposed that it only leads to negative and far reaching impacts on the overall financial system and wealth of the county. In a very similar manner, the 2013 government shutdown has also exhibited unnecessary damage on the economy of the United Sates. Economic disruption, harmful effects on Federal programs and services (that were supporting businesses and citizens of United States), loss of revenues to the…

References

Alter, D. (2013). The Full Cost of the Government Shutdown. Retrieved from Money Morning website:  http://moneymorning.com/2013/11/13/the-full-cost-of-the-government-shutdown/ 

Burwell, S.M. (2013). Impacts and Costs of the Government Shutdown. Retrieved from The White House website:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/11/07/impacts-and-costs-government-shutdown 

Kille, L.W. (2013). Economic effects of the 2013 U.S. federal government shutdown. Retrieved from Journalist's Resource website:  http://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/budget/economic-effects-2013-us-federal-shutdown# 

Needleman, S.E., Loten, A. & Simon, R. (2013). Small Firms Grapple With Roadblocks Caused by Shutdown. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal website:  http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303492504579111590750304108

Effect of Grocery Store by Entrance of Hypermarket in Bangkok Thailand
Words: 10094 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 18191303
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Grocery Store by Entrance of Hypermarkets in Bangkok Thailand

Small grocery store owners in Thailand are faced with the ever growing threat of foreign -- owned hypermarkets. Hypermarkets are part of a global trend that threatens to destroy the small grocery store. If this trend continues the traditional market structure of Thailand might become obsolete in the future. This research explores strategies that small grocery store owners can employ to remain profitable and to survive into the future.

The Tesco Effect

Are There Any Advantages to Being a Small etailer?

Benefits and Pitfalls of Tesco to the Economy

Thai Government and Economic Theory

ecommendations for Survival

Conclusions

eferences

If

Introduction

Commodities are one of the most stable opportunities for retailers. They are considered to be a profitable opportunity and can be started with a relatively low investment. In areas where people have high purchasing power, the local grocery or convenient…

References

Carter, W. 2011. Supply Chain Value and Small Business. The Charleston Post.8 September 2011. Available at:  http://www.thecharlottepost.com/index.php?src=news&srctype=detail&category=Business&refno=3954 [Accessed 12 October 2011].

CNN Money. 2009. 20 Best Countries for Startups. [online] Available at:  http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/smallbusiness/0809/gallery.best_countries_for_business.smb/13.html  [Accessed 12 October 2011].

Corporate Watch. 2004. Tesco. September 2004. [onine] Available at:  http://www.corporatewatch.org/?lid=252#thai [Accessed 12 October 2011].

Crispin, S. 2008. What's eating Thai Tesco. Asia Times. May 3.

Tourism and Its Economic Impact
Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96240732
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Economic Effects of Tourism

There are a number of economic effects of tourism. Most obvious is the significant direct economic effect. Tourists spend money on hotels, restaurants, tourist attractions, shopping, and bars. This is money that typically comes from outside the economy, and thus provides a direct and immediate boost to the area's GDP. There are many benefits of this. First, it provides revenue for local businesses. This revenue translates into jobs for all businesses. For locally-owned businesses, it also provides profits for the owners, which can be re-invested. For example, a successful restaurant can take its profits and open a second location, thereby doubling its positive impact on the community and the wealth of the owners.

Jobs created of course contribute in many ways to the economy. Workers buy homes, cars, they spend their money in the community in other ways. They raise families, and their children often stay…

References

Walker, J. & Walker, J. (2012). Introduction to Hospitality Management., 4th Edition. Prentice Hall.

Economic Crisis
Words: 2582 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52726174
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Economic Crisis

The revelation of the financial crisis that unfolded in United States in 2008 is considered to be the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, 1929. The distinctive causative factors that have contributed to the U.S. economic crisis 2008- 2009 are differentiated by aggravated financial control, higher risks in capital investment, the housing bubble phenomena in relation to the brisk credit expansion. The aggregation of these factors in the U.S. economy directed the economy towards the de- leverage and credit crunches as the bubble burst. The following paper shall be discussing about the degree of correlation between the tax implications policies with respect to the financial crisis in U.S.. The precise review of strong linkages between the taxation and economic crises is the explicit explanation of the crisis that shook America. The paper also highlights the key factors that demonstrated their abilities and rescued U.S. In the economic…

Reference

Carr, D.A. (2011). Responses to Local Fiscal Shocks: Path Dependency Effects of the Clean Air Act. Public Finance and Management, 11(2), 160+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5050180027

Hendrickson, J.M., & Nichols, M.W. (2010). Did Commercial Banks Close Branches in Low-income Neighborhoods in Response to the Cra? Implications for Understanding the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 13(1), 17+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database:

Economic Crisis Policies US Current Economic Crisis
Words: 2366 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30617442
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Economic Crisis Policies

US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…

Bibliography

ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions:  http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml 

Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781

Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis:  http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/ 

Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.

Economic Globalization Has the 2008 Financial Meltdown
Words: 2832 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9572312
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Economic Globalization

Has the 2008 financial meltdown in the U.S. And the ongoing economic crisis in Europe have practically ended the era of economic globalization?

Following the financial crisis that marred the U.S. economy along with other global economies as well as the ongoing Eurozone debt crisis, there have been projected concerns that this predicament would end economic globalization. The purpose of this paper is to assess this claim. Going by Immanuel Wallenstein's World Systems Theory, the political economy of Third World economies and developed economies of the West are mutually dependent. Wallenstein's conjecture is that the growth and expansion of Third World economies relies on constant interaction with Western developed economies seeing as the world is characterized by a structural division of labor where the developing nations of the Third World provide cheap labor and raw materials while the developed economies are the holders of capital and controllers of…

References

Ebrahimi, H, 2012, "John Lewis warns Amazon's tax avoidance 'will drive UK companies out of business" The Telegraph

Held, David; The Open University, eds. (2004). A Globalizing World?: Culture, Economics, Politics (2nd ed.). London; New York: Routledge, in association with the Open University. p. 84.

Katz, I & Christie, R (2011) "Geithner Called Housing Giants Biggest 'Moral Hazard'" Bloomberg

Lynch, Katherine (2003). The Forces of Economic Globalization. Kluwer Law International

Economic Globalization Today the World
Words: 2327 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34601163
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"The explosive growth of the global economy threatens the natural systems that sustain life on Earth. Despite some significant successes in reducing industrial pollution and increasing efficiency, globalization is devastating natural habitats, speeding global warming, and increasing air and water pollution" (Anonymous). It is in the nature of such an economic globalization to cause negative effects. Globalization has its benefits as well which hold substantial weight.

Advocates for economic globalization state that it is aimed at removing poverty and increasing wealth among the poor. This has been seen not to be entirely true and the gain of wealth is seen only in the upper or elite classes. The rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer. Although food has increased, hunger rates have also increased. It is seen that the top class is becoming multibillionaires and today there are more billionaires than yesterday. However the lower class is…

References

1) Anonymous - Economic Globalization. [Online website] Available at http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/economic.php[Accessed on: 10/11/2005]

2) Anonymous - Mennonite Central Committee "Economic Globalization." [Online website] Available at  http://www.mcc.org/us/globalization/ [Accessed on: 10/11/2005]

3) John N. Pearson, Jeffrey S. Bracker, Richard E. White - Article Title: Operations Management Activities of Small, High Growth Electronics Firms. Journal Title: Journal of Small Business Management. Volume: 28. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 1990. Page Number: 20+.

4) World Council of Churches - REPORT OF THE POLICY REFERENCE COMMITTEE II. [Online website] Available at  http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/who/cc2001/pr-ii3-e.html#glob [Accessed on: 10/11/2005]

Economic Depression of Europe
Words: 2122 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43307480
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Economic Depression of Europe

An economic depression is more severe than a recession due to the fact that a depression involves drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and high levels of unemployment.

There were economic depressions in Europe that were experienced before and after the 1870 but with a remarkable difference, being that those that were experienced before the 1870s were less costly in terms of life and resources and took relatively lesser period. Indeed it was a commonplace that every part of Europe experienced one sort of economic depression or the other.

One such economic situation before 1870 was the "little ice age" which began in the late 16th century till around 1950s as indicated by Big Site of History (2011). This was a time when a severe cold that could not be withstood by most crops set in most…

References

Big Site of History (2011). Social Trends in 17th Century Europe: The Problem of Divine-Right

Monarchy. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from  http://bigsiteofhistory.com/social-trends-in-17th-century-europe-the-problem-of-divine-right-monarchy 

Historic UK, (2011). The Great Plague 1665. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.historic-

uk.com/HistoryUK/England-History/GreatPlague.htm

Economics in the Real World
Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 51454079
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Two alternative solutions are available. The first sees that the U.S. federal authority uses the budget allocated to support the development of the national industries, without raising barriers to imports. The second possible solution is for the United States to strive to increase its exports by focusing more on international operations.

Criteria / goals

The evaluation criteria for the proposed solutions revolve around the benefits they generate, as well as the costs they imply. Otherwise put, the decision will be made in accordance with the arguments in favour and against each of the two alternatives, and by the solution's ability to meet the established goals. These goals include the insurance of economic stability within the United States (for all population, corporations and the entire system), the maintenance or even development of international relations, as well as the sustained development of the domestic industries.

Evaluation of alternatives

Alternative 1:

Pro: does…

References

January 29, 2009, Buying American, the Economist, last accessed on February 5, 2009

Steps in the P.A.C.E.D. Model, the Gus a. Stavros Center for Free Enterprise and Economic Education

http://stavros.coedu.usf.edu/EconomicLiteracy/sld019.html. Ast accessed on February 5, 2009

Economics in the U S A --
Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36632725
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Source: The Financial Forecast Center, 2009

Increases in unemployment rate mean that the gambling industry will be faced with fewer customers. This in turn will materialize in reduced sales and profits. If the situation continues to aggravate in the years to come, several players in the gambling industry might have to close their casinos. One must also notice the exceptional situations in which out of job individuals will gamble in the hope of winning some money. However, these instances are reduced and not able to modify the indirect relationship between the evolution of unemployment rate and demand for gambling services. Vice versa, when the unemployment rate decreases and the population enjoys more sources of revenues, the demand for the services of casino clubs increases.

2.3 Inflation rate (consumer price index)

The inflation rate represents the "percentage increase in the price of goods and services, usually annually" (Investor Words, 2009). Within…

References:

Ameristar Casinos Inc., Hoovers, 2009,  http://hoovers.com/ameristar-casinos/--ID__16260,FRIC__  -- /free-co-competition.xhtml last accessed on May 8, 2009

Personal Income and Savings, iCharts, 2009,  http://www.icharts.net/portal/app?service=external&sp=Y37ayiM=&page=Chartdetail  last accessed on May 8, 2009

Investor Words, 2009,  http://investorwords.com  last accessed on May 8, 2009

The Financial Forecast Center, 2009,  http://forecasts.org  last accessed on May 8, 2009

Economic Crisis 2008-2009 This Report Focuses on
Words: 2420 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71357659
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Economic Crisis 2008-2009

This report focuses on the events that took place in the Great crash of 2008-2009. It aims to highlight the events that took place and what the basic factors and events were that eventually led to the economy crashing. It is also a point of focus to determine what effects came about and how different parties were to be blamed for the deregulation that led to the catastrophic events of the crash. It is linked with the policies present at that time i.e. The Monetary Policies outlining the control of money supply and interest rates as well as the Fiscal Policy that focus on the government spending and taxation policies.

The financial crisis refers to a situation whereby there is a contraction of money supply and the amount of wealth in the economy. This is also known as a "credit crunch" whereby participants of the economy lose…

References:

Minkiw, Mc Gregory. (2009). The Financial Crisis and the Economic Downturn of 2008 and

2009. Macro Economics (7th Edition).

Ryan (2008). The 2008-2009 Financial Crisis-Causes and Effects. Cash, Money, Life.

 http://cashmoneylife.com/economic-financial-crisis-2008-causes/

Economics Country's Economy Is Driven
Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83619600
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These decisions necessarily entail that some potentially productive opportunities are sacrificed in order to make what is estimated as the most productive choice.

Supply and demand refer to specific products and services, the ability to provide these, and the level at which they are desired by the target market. uyers desire a product or services, and therefore demand a certain quantity of these at a certain price. The relationship between the price and quantity of desirability is the demand relationship. Supply is the actual quantity of the product or service that the market can provide. The concept of supply relationship is the correlation between supply and the price received by the supplier, who is willing to supply a certain amount of products at the price received.

The dynamic in the relationship between demand and supply has a direct influence on the efficient allocation of resources within an economy, as well…

Bibliography

NetMBA.com. (2002-2007). Production Possibility Frontier.  http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/production/possibility /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Economics a Price Discrimination Strategy Is One
Words: 1288 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97945151
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Economics

A price discrimination strategy is one where different customers are charged different amounts. The price charged for my shop's submarine sandwiches will therefore be different for locals than for visitors. There are a number of ways to achieve this. In the context of a sandwich shop, the prices are going to be listed publicly on the menu, so it is impossible to openly discriminate with respect to prices. One technique that can be utilized to lower the average cost for each sub-for locals is to offer a loyalty card. The local would then receive either a discount or a free sub-after making enough purchases. This would deliver a lower price to locals in the long run. Alternately, a loyalty club can allow the locals to receive discounts if they are members of the club. A certain amount of annual sales would be required for club membership, or even a…

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2010). Perfect competition. Investopedia. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp 

ACC. (2010). U.S. antitrust agencies issue revised merger guidelines. Association of Corporate Counsel. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from  http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=cf23ba87-0ed6-4db5-9739-d7cf74bcdf8f

Economic Challenges Canada Faces in Recent Years
Words: 2957 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67866735
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Economic Challenges Canada Faces

In recent years, the challenging economic condition in Canada has emerged as a concern for citizens, policy makers and the government alike. Canada faces challenges in terms of creating a more innovative society, as the country continues to experience a significant productivity gap compared to other advanced industrial economies. The Canadian industry appears to be slower in successfully developing, applying and marketing innovative products, processes and services than a majority of other nations. This lack of innovation is the cause of Canada's low productivity growth and competitiveness, and therefore must be addressed in order to increase employment growth, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life for all Canadians.

Current research predicts that although Canada's economic performance will gradually strengthen out of the recent mild slowdown into a better pattern of growth in 2004, Canada's economy still faces the longer-term challenge of increasing…

Bibliography

Department of Finance Canada. (2004). The Economy in Brief. Retrieved March 8,

2005, from the Department of Finance Web site: http://www.fin.gc.ca/ECONBR/ecbr04- 12e.html

Economic Survey Canada. (2004). Building Partnerships for Progress. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the Economic Survey Canada Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/24/0.02340.en_2649

Environment Canada, Informing Canadians on Pollution. (2002) Highlights of the 2002 National Pollutant Release Inventory, Environment Canada.

Economics Course Economics Impacts on Many Areas
Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86387567
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Economics Course

Economics impacts on many areas of life subsequently it will impact on many areas of professional life. eflecting on the lessons learned, including the knowledge and skills gained, the real value is in the way that economics concepts can be applied to the real world; not only to explain event that are seen in the macro-environment, but to guide the way personal decisions will be made with that knowledge.

The first indicator of the lessons and concepts taught in the class being absorbed and developing into transferable knowledge has emerged with an increased understanding of the way that the economy operates and the influences which are present in the economy that are driving up prices.

There are many examples of the economic concepts; one example is the way that supply and demand has impacted on oil prices which has had a knock on effect in the economy as…

References

Baye Michael, (2007), Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Greimel, Hans, (2012. April 30), Toyota wants high-volume U.S. Prius output by '15; Hunt is on for N.A. hybrid parts suppliers, Automotive News, p4

Nellis JG, Parker D, (2006), Principles of the Business Economics, London, Prentice Hall.

Scholes, Louise; Siegel Donald S; Wilson, Nick; Wright, Mike, (2012, Feb), Private equity portfolio company performance during the global recession, Journal of Corporate Finance, 18(1), 193.

Economics UK Economy an Analysis of the
Words: 1009 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7591785
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Economics

UK Economy

An analysis of the latest figures for key economic indicators and the factors which have affected these indicators. This should include the figures for unemployment, inflation and economic growth.

Unemployment

The unemployment rate is a very important indicator of the overall health of the economy. Currently the unemployment rate is at 7.8% (Office for National Statistics, 2012). However, this figure does not affect the population equally. Different segments of the population have different employment rates. Furthermore, the unemployment rate does not include people that are not actively seeking employment. In the chart these people are considered to be "inactive." Another interesting item listed in the report is that the unemployment rate for the youth demographic was falling due to a record number of 16 to 24-year-olds being enrolled in some type of educational program.

Employment in the UK has suffered from recession. In 2008 there was a…

Works Cited

Financial Times, 2013. Question 3: Fiscal Policy. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1115c770-545a-11e2-9d25-00144feab49a.html#axzz2IAShLpER 

[Accessed 1 January 2013].

Kirka, D., 2011. UK recession fears grow as manufacturing drops. [Online]

Economics the Federal Reserve the
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It is thought that the pace of the recovery will be slowed by people's desire to rebuild wealth, still-tight credit conditions facing some borrowers, and, despite some tentative signs of stabilization, continued weakness in labor markets. With considerable resource slack continuing to suppress cost pressures and with longer-term inflation expectations stable, it is thought that inflation subdued for some time (Monetary Policy eport to the Congress, 2010).

The Federal eserve has continued to support the functioning of financial markets and promote recovery in economic activity doing a wide array of things. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has maintained a target range of 0 to 1/4% for the federal funds rate throughout the second half of 2009 and early 2010. They have also continued to purchase Treasury securities, agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS), and agency debt in order to provide support to mortgage and housing markets and to improve overall conditions…

References

The Federal Reserve Board Its Purposes and Functions. (2005). Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Federal Reserve Web site:  http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm 

Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. (2010). Retreived June 25, 2010, from Federal Reserve

Web site:  http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/mpr_default.htm

Economics There Are a Number of Different
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Economics

There are a number of different causes for the most recent recession in the United States. The primary cause was instability in the banking industry, which was brought about mismanagement of mortgage assets. This paper will investigate this cause in particular, although there were other causes as well.

The housing bubble was created when, fueled by easy access to cheap loans, housing prices increased rapidly. These prices increased rapidly in part because the financial institutions that underwrote the mortgages were able to offload that debt onto other investors. They did this by packaging that debt into instruments that were known as collateralized debt obligations (CDOs). These rare derivative instruments were used by financial institutions to hedge loan risk, by spreading that risk around the financial services industry. Loans were packaged, and these complex bundles of loans were typically seen to be low risk. They were not, however, and when…

Works Cited:

AP. (2005). Housing bubble's burst could cost 1 million jobs and cause a recession, experts say. North County Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.nctimes.com/business/housing-bubble-s-burst-could-cost-million-jobs-and-cause/article_ca387065-86dd-519a-98d2-9e5d35d30055.html 

Wigan, D. (2007). Derivatives market may hold key to U.S. recession. Reuters. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/04/12/derivatives-us-recession-idUSL1171898420070412

Economics There Are Several Factors That Could
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Economics

There are several factors that could contribute to increased demand for owner-occupied housing in the United Kingdom. Given that this demand is presently suppressed by a poor economy, most of the conditions under which demand would increase involve finding ways to boost overall economic performance. One normal policy prescription, lowering interest rates, is effectively off the table with the current rate at 0.5% and the Bank of England expected to maintain this rock bottom rate for the foreseeable future (Oxlade, 2013). Banks could lower lending rates to buyers, but these rates are usually based on spreads relative to the rate at which banks borrow, so there might not be much flexibility for banks to lower rates profitably.

One way would be to boost the economy through fiscal stimulus, government putting money into the economy instead of taking it out. This would create better demand conditions, and would also give…

Works Cited:

Oxlade, A. (2013). Interest rates at 0.5pc for four more years. The Telegraph. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/interest-rates/9922941/Interest-rates-predictions-Four-more-years-of-0.5.html

Economics - Macroeconomics Economics Various
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S. The societal system practiced in France serves as a model towards which the U.S. aspire.

President Barack Obama's healthcare reform plan is considered by many as being a socialist experiment that will significantly hurt the economy (CBS, 2009). In opposition, the President has stated that he does not intend to implement a healthcare system that depends on the government. Instead, he would prefer a system in which the government competes with private insurance companies for selling coverage.

The Invisible Hand Principle

The invisible hand principle was developed as an opposition to the protectionist system. This principle is actually a metaphor describing the self-regulating characteristic of the market. In other words, such a system can be implemented due to a combination of factors, like self-interest, competition, supply and demand. Adam Smith, who developed this theory, considered that the action of these forces and their effects are able to allocate resources…

Reference list:

1. Eddlem, T.R. (2009). Obama needs to learn "opportunity cost." The New American. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JZS/is_15_25/ai_n32369481/?tag=content;col1 .

2. Dorrien, G. (2009). Is the Economic Crisis a Sin? Newsweek. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.newsweek.com/id/206095.

3. Steele Calls Obama Health Plan "Socialism" (2009). CBS News. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from  http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/20/politics/main5174417.shtml .

4. Remarks by the President on Financial Rescue and Reform. The White House. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from  http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-on-Financial-Rescue-and-Reform-at-Federal-Hall .

Economics Optimal Currency Area an
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Thus, a region or nation experiencing economic depression will be unable to use the interest rate lever to boost the economy. Similarly a country with high inflation will be unable to independently raise interest rates to contain inflation. Moreover, Islamic countries, which form a large part of the geography, do not believe in interest rates.

Political barriers -- Political differences between nations make it extremely difficult for them to adopt a common currency. It can lead to a loss in political sovereignty as monetary interests would need to surpass political interests. This is unlikely to be acceptable to most of the nations and the idea of a single currency may be difficult to implement (Gimp, 2008).

Will Pros and Cons change Over Time? Depending On the Country?

The economic conditions to determine a monetary union depend on: the openness and size of the economy involved to trade; the free movements…

Bibliography

BBC. (1997, November 21). European monetary union - pros and cons. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from BBC News:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/single_currency/25081.stm 

Filho, F.F. (2003). Is it possible to achieve a monetary union in MERCOSUR? (South America). Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Vanderbilt University: http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/egnZLy/Ferrari%20Filho%202.pdf

Frankel, J. (1999, August). No single currency regime is right for all countries or at all times. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Princeton University: http://www.princeton.edu/~ies/IES_Essays/E215.pdf

Gimp, F. (2008, June 27). A world currency - pros and cons and can it become a reality. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Piponomics:  http://www.babypips.com/blogs/piponomics/a_world_currency_pros_and_cons.html

Economics There Are a Few
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To understand this, consider when the curve begins on the upside. At that point, the firm may need a new factory, increasing AC beyond a certain point of output; or other inefficiencies could emerge relating to the costs of managing a larger organization. Essentially, on the downside efficiencies are improving as the output nears capacity. When output hits capacity, the LRAC begins to move upwards again.

5. The new camera explain is part of price discrimination and there are three distinct factors at work when considering this form of price discrimination. The first is strictly marketing -- when new technology arrives in the marketplace the first buyers are typically early adopters. These are more driven by the technology than by the price, so they have low price sensitivity. Firms take advantage of this by charging more, to recoup more of their investment as early as possible.

The second reason is…

Economics of International Trade China Exploring the
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Economics of International Trade China

Exploring the Economics of International Trade: China

"Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market," and its expansion has only continued to show powerful growth within the international economic marketplace (Sun & Heshmati, 2010, p 1). After China was reopened to trading with the West in 1978, the country has really took off in becoming one of the world's biggest producers and exporters of a plethora of different goods. China has grown tremendously as nations like the United States have become their biggest trading partners. In response, China has helped refuel this growth with the manipulation of their currency and their heavy investment in the U.S. dollar, which ensures them a more competitive position for their exports.

For generations, China had closed itself off to trading and interacting…

References

American Manufacturing. (2012). China and currency manipulation. Issues. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from  http://americanmanufacturing.org/category/issues/china/china-and-currency-manipulation 

Barboza, David. (2012). Business and economy in China. New York Times. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from  http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/china/business_and_economy/index.html 

Congress Quarterly. (1999). The consumer culture. CQ Researcher, 9(44), 1001-1016.

Manzay, Terrance. (2010). China export industry dominates worldwide. Article Snatch. Web. Reprieved September 4, 2012 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/China-Export-Industry-Dominates-Worldwide/3853472#.UEZqYKNIuHY

Economics the Supply and Demand Simulation Featured
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Economics

The supply and demand simulation featured a number of different economic prniciples at work. In terms of microeconomic principles, two that were featured prominently was the relationship between supply and demand. The impact of these two variables on the price and availability of apartments in Atlantis was at the core of the simulation. Another was price elasticity of demand. There were also some macroeconomic principles outlined, as they affect supply and demand. One was the overall population, its growth and demographic change. These factors all contribute to the supply and demand characteristics of the Atlantis rental housing market. Another macroeconomic concept that came into play was the concept of equilibrium and the effects of price ceilings on both supply and demand.

External factors cause the supply and demand curves to shift. The supply curve is shifted, for example, if there is new supply in the market. A new building…

Economic Environment Analysis for a
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00). This is below the EU, where they have a rating of 42 or a PPP of $32,500.00. (Czech epublic 2010) 1 When you compare the two numbers, the purchasing power is lower in the Czech epublic in comparison with the EU. This means, that labor costs are much lower in relation to the rest of Europe. When you put this together with the increases in the GDP over the last two quarters and the fact that the banking sector, was undamaged from the financial crisis; means the Czech epublic has outstanding opportunities for addressing the needs of the company. As the country's costs, the business friendly atmosphere and prudent practices of government policies are creating the ideal environment for a European call center to flourish.

isks

Despite the obvious advantages, there are risks of relocating to the Czech epublic the most notable would include: the underlying cost structure. While…

Reference List

1. Czech Republic, 2010, CIA World Factbooks. Available from

Economic Crisis Iceland 2008 Current
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This program is focused onto the following directions:

Generating stability with exchange rates

ebuilding confidence in the monetary policy

Better managing and restricting public debt

eforming and restructuring the banking sector to insure more transparency and the implementation of internationally recognized policies (The Icelandic Government Information Center, 2008).

4. Short-term forecast for the economy

The 2008 has severely impacted the Icelandic economy. In light of the dramatic effects as well as the efforts put into the reconstruction and reconsolidation of the Islanding economy, major growths are not expected. In other words, it is generally assumed that the country will regain its stability through small and gradual victories, which will, for the time being, only manage to stabilize the economy. Growth rates are expected to remain low and for 2010 for instance, the growth rate of the gross domestic product is expected to be close to zero (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010).…

References:

2008, Economic programme in cooperation with IMF, The Icelandic Government Information Center,  http://www.iceland.org/info/iceland-imf-program  / last accessed on August 2, 2010

2008, Economic outlook 2008-2012, Landsbanki,  http://www.landsbanki.is/Uploads/Maillist/Docs/economicoutlook2008-2012.pdf  last accessed on August 2, 2010

2008, Glitnir releases economic forecast for Iceland, IceNews,  http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2008/06/02/glitnir-releases-economic-forecast-for-iceland  / last accessed on August 2, 2010

2010, Iceland economic statistics and indicators, Economy Watch,  http://www.economywatch.com/economic-statistics/country/Iceland  / last accessed on August 2, 2010

Economics and the Environment Although
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Meanwhile, Dwight R. Lee (writing in The Independent Review, 2001) points to a situation where a powerful environmental group (Audubon Society) has cooperated with an energy company and both have profited. Free market environmentalism has shown the way for profits and preservation at the same time in this case. The Audubon Society (AS) owns the 26,000-acre Rainey Sanctuary in the swamps of Louisiana, and while the group is opposed to oil drilling and gas drilling in 99 out of 100 cases, the AS has "been willing to accommodate the interests of those whose priorities are different" (Lee, p. 219). Those interests include allowing thirty-seven wells to be exploited for oil and gas in the Rainey Sanctuary.

According to Lee, the AS has received royalties of more than $25 million from those 37 wells, and in the meantime the technology used in the oil and gas development has prevented any spills…

Works Cited

Anderson, Terry L., and Leal, Donald R. Free Market Environmentalism. New York: Palgrave

Macmillan, 2001.

Lee, Dwight R. "To Drill or Not to Drill: Let the Environmentalists Decide." The Independent

Review, VI.2 (2001): 217-226.

Economics Unemployment if You Loose
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d.).

In order to understand this idea about inventories, it is necessary to understand that if the prices were to change and not be rigid, then it would be the prices and not the inventories that would guide companies in their decisions about production. For example, if prices were increasing, a company would know that their product is popular and that they should increase the production of it. And if the prices were decreasing, the company would know that their product is not selling well and that they should probably reduce its production. In an economy though where the prices are fixed, companies need another way of deciding whether they should increase or decrease production. This is where Keynes came to the conclusion that the key is to observe the changes in the inventories in order to drive production (hat Causes a Recession to be a Recession, n.d.).

Over the…

Works Cited

Harrison, Edward. "Chart of the Day: Unemployment as a Recession Indicator." 2008. Credit

Writedowns. 7 April 2009

Reddy, Sudeep. "Jobless Rate Hits 8.5%." The Wall street Journal. April 2009

Economics as My Intended Field
Words: 448 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 92600647
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Interestingly, it seems that this feature remains relatively constant regardless of the level of the socioeconomic spectrum. That is fascinating to anybody who comes from a foreign community where Americans are envied and believed to be so much more fortunate than many of us in the rest of the world.

Finally, in that regard, I also anticipate that studying the ethical issues and legal concepts that apply to economic practices, including the intersection between the private business sectors and government. From my perspective, it seems that there are many potential areas of study just in the manner in which the consumerism mentality in the U.S. fueled the housing market bubble and the ways that big business interests profited from those impulses at the macro level while, in effect, destabilizing the entire national economy. Likewise, at the micro level, there is much to learn from the practices of individual lending institutions…

My intended major is Economics, a subject in which I developed an interest in two very different ways. At the level of microeconomics, I have first-hand experience with the challenges of surviving alone in the United States as a self-dependent international student. On one hand, the U.S. offers many potential opportunities; on the other hand, economic survival for working students requires very responsible management of finances and resources. On the level of macroeconomics, I was both alarmed and fascinated by the manner in which the entire U.S. economy nearly collapsed in 2008, just as I was beginning to settle into life in the U.S. In addition to issues of the highly complex interrelationships among and between the business, investment banking, and housing sectors, the situation also highlighted important ethical issues that obviously must be addressed to prevent repeated economic catastrophes.

As a student of economics, I hope to develop a basic understanding of the classic fundamental principles in the field. However, I also hope to study some of the broader ways that economic issues affect and even shape contemporary human societies. Since coming to the U.S., I have learned that the American consumer economy is much more complex than I realized, especially in connection with the extent of consumer dependence on credit to fund higher lifestyles than might be sound economically. Interestingly, it seems that this feature remains relatively constant regardless of the level of the socioeconomic spectrum. That is fascinating to anybody who comes from a foreign community where Americans are envied and believed to be so much more fortunate than many of us in the rest of the world.

Finally, in that regard, I also anticipate that studying the ethical issues and legal concepts that apply to economic practices, including the intersection between the private business sectors and government. From my perspective, it seems that there are many potential areas of study just in the manner in which the consumerism mentality in the U.S. fueled the housing market bubble and the ways that big business interests profited from those impulses at the macro level while, in effect, destabilizing the entire national economy. Likewise, at the micro level, there is much to learn from the practices of individual lending institutions and real estate brokerages and their exploitation of individuals and families brought up on the American dream of home ownership. I hope that my introductory studies in economics will help me identify a more specific academic focus in an area that will allow me to establish a career, ideally in a field that might contribute to resolving some of the systemic economic problems in human societies.

Economic Crash Can Be Viewed From a
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Economic crash can be viewed from a number of perspectives ranging from causes and effects to the 2008 Crash's resemblance to the Crash of 1929, which began the Great Depression. This paper will consider the 2008 recession from the standpoint of the financial banking industry, which, according to economic journalists like Matt Taibbi (2010), played a major and significant role in the crumbling of the nation's economy -- just like it did in the Lawless Decade also known as the oaring Twenties.

Big Banking Meets Big Government

What has now become known as the Era of De-egulation actually had its beginnings in the 80s decade known just as much for its rampant excess as the early 20s were known for their unbridled lawlessness. Yet, while the latter enjoyed the snubs-to-the-law bootlegging speakeasies, the former enjoyed the merging of the financial sector with the political -- which began during eagan's tenure…

Reference List

AP/HuffPost. (2011). Charles Ferguson's Oscar Speech Rips Wall Street: 'Inside Job'

Director Levels Criticism During Acceptance. HuffPost Business. Retrieved from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/28/charles-ferguson-oscar-speech-inside-job_n_828963.html 

Sann, P. (n.d.). The Lawless Decade: A Pictorial History of the Roaring Twenties.

Retrieved from  http://lawlessdecade.net/

Economics Major First and Foremost I Intend
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Economics Major

First and foremost, I intend to major in Economics. From quite an early age, I have grown up admiring successful business leaders. I envisaged such individuals as living relatively fulfilling lives based on the wealth they had amassed from investments. One of my main personal heroes in business and investments has always been Benjamin Graham, an astute investor and economist who passed on in 1976. Graham who in my opinion remains one of the most rational investors of all time came up with some of the most priceless yet simple investment principles. Having developed a keen interest in the investments field at an early age, I have been an avid reader of any available literature on Ben Graham. Based on these readings, I remain convinced that to make sound investment decisions; the need for a well-founded understanding of economics cannot be overstated. Further, over time, I have come…

Economics According to Burrow Verard and Kleindl
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Economics

According to Burrow, Verard and Kleindl (2007), "a market economy is an economic system in which individual buying decisions in the marketplace together determine what, how, and for whom goods and services will be produced." Hence in any hypothetical pure market economy, the government of the day does not take an active role in deciding what products the citizenry should buy and in what quantities. A pure market economy is however taken to be a theoretical ideal. Burrow, Verard and Kleindl (2007) on the other hand note that "a command economy is an economic system in which a central planning authority, under the control of the country's government, owns most of the factors of production and determines what, how, and for whom goods and services will be produced." In such an economic system, the government of the day largely dictates the mode of utilization of the various factors of…

References

Baumol, W.J. & Blinder, A.S. (2011). Economics: Principles and Policy. Cengage Learning.

Burrow, J.L., Everard, K.E. & Kleindl, B. (2007). Business Principles and Management. Cengage Learning.

Economics the Study Includes an Analysis of
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Economics

The study includes an analysis of market structures. The paper discusses the market type which Amazon operates in and the effects on their business of the market structure. Amazon is operating in an oligopoly market structure which is discussed in the study.

The role that the market plays in an economy is a crucial aspect of how businesses make their strategies and perform. There are different kinds of market structures; there are competitive markets, oligopolies and monopolies. In a competitive market the market has many sellers and buyers who are trading the same products which make the each seller and buyer a price taker. In such competitive markets each seller and buyer has to accept the predetermined price of the good. The cost is determined by the willingness of the buyers to pay for a product and the seller to sell the product. Another significant characteristic of a competitive…

References:

Blinder, Alan S; William J. Baume and Colton L. Gale (June 2001), Microeconomics: Principles and Policy. Thomson South-Western. p. 212.

Perloff, J. Microeconomics Theory & Applications with Calculus. Page 445. Pearson 2008.

Rodman, George. Mass Media in a Changing World. New York (2nd ed.), McGraw Hill, 2008

Robert Spector (2000). amazon.com - Get Big Fast: Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World. Harper Collins Publishers.

Economics Taxes How Can Tax
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d.).

Presently the government manipulates the books around in order to compensate for any tax cuts that they give. In reality, the vital thing for the government to do is to discontinue spending money. While this is not always reasonable, it is essential to make sure that the people and corporations of the nation can flourish. Tax cuts, when put into practice for long-term consequences, will offer a momentous increase in the market (How Do Tax Cuts Help the Economy, n.d.).

Due to the model of fairness, cutting taxes is by no means an easy task. There are two distinct notions that are at play. These are horizontal equity and vertical equity. Horizontal equity is the scheme that all people should be taxed uniformly. An instance of horizontal equity is the sales tax, where the quantity paid is a proportion of the object being bought. The tax rate remains the…

References

Cloutier, Richard. (2011). Do Tax Cuts Stimulate The Economy? Retrieved from  http://www.investopedia.com/articles/07/tax_cuts.asp 

How Do Tax Cuts Help The Economy? (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.taxforuminfo.com/how-do-tax-cuts-help-the-economy/

Economic Concerns Data Sets for
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the country aims for the working population that had been estimated to be 125 million in 2006 to reach 147.8 million by 2020 (Economy watch, 2010).

elationship between unemployment and Brazil's economy

Unemployment in Brazil directly affects the economy of the country in several ways this include economic costs; rates of unemployment being persistent in Brazil indicate that there will be market failure in the country. Unemployment is an indication that resources are being wasted thus leading to loss of potential output and eventually a reduction in allocative efficiency. Brazil's economy will then be seen to operate below the maximum output that the country has potential of.

Unemployment also affects the economy of Brazil through financial costs. The Government of Brazil and the entire nation suffers some costs due to unemployment. There are some benefits that the government has to pay the unemployed and therefore the higher the rates of…

References

Economy watch. (2010).Brazil unemployment. Retrieved March 09, 2013 from  http://www.economywatch.com/unemployment/countries/brazil.html 

Trading Economies. (2012). Brazil Unemployment Rate. Retrieved March 09, 2013 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/brazil/unemployment-rate

Economics in Order to Understand the Ways
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Economics

In order to understand the ways that different changes in the external environment will affect the demand for milk, some assumptions need to be made with respect to the milk market. e know that demand for milk will increase as wealth increases, which is the result of milk being something of a luxury item (Arnold, 2007). This means that there is some degree of correlation between wealth and milk consumption, and that implies that if wealth declines, milk consumption will also decline.

e also know that demand for milk is somewhat price inelastic. hen prices rise, people still pay them (Dohery, 2007). This is the result of two factors. The first is that there is a baseline demand for milk that is not going to be affected by price. The second is that the demand for milk is affected more by the wealth of the purchaser than the cost…

Works Cited:

Arnold, W. (2007). A Thirst for Milk Bred by New Wealth Sends Prices Soaring. New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2011.

Dohery, Regan. (2007). Milk Demand Stays Strong Despite High Prices. Reuters. Retrieved June 6, 2011.

No author. (2011). Elasticity of supply and demand. Basic Economics. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://www.basiceconomics.info/elasticity-of-supply-and-demand.php

Rittenberg Libby and T. Tregarthen. (2009). Chapter 5: Elasticity and A Measure of Response. Section 1 and 2 only. Principles of Microeconomics. FlatworldKnowledge.com. Retrieved June 6, 2011

Economics Crisis as an Inevitable
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The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).

Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…

References

Avizius, R. 2009. Financial Crisis Big Picture: What has the Government Response Been? [ONLINE] Available at:  http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article9229.html . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Centeno, M.A. & Cohen, J.N. 2012. The Arc of Neoliberalism. [ONLINE] Available at:  http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/transitionstomodernity/papers/CentenoCohen.pdf . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Crotty, J. 2009. Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the 'new financial architecture' . [ONLINE] Available at:  http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/563.full . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Esteva, G. (n.d.). The Meaning of the Global Crisis and "Recovery" for Study Abroad: What are we Preparing Students for? [ONLINE] Available at:  http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1110&context=faculty_symposium . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Economic Crisis the Origin and
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As Taibbi shows, it is not easy: "I'm going to say something radical about the Tea Partiers. They're not all crazy. They're not even always wrong. hat they are, and they don't realize it, is an anachronism. They're fighting a 1960s battle in a world run by twenty-first-century crooks" (Griftopia 16-17). Taibbi makes clear that the Tea Party is not even homogenous: it is made up of a broad spectrum of individuals (some of whom do not even want to be called Tea Partiers) who are angry and looking for someway to focus their anger.

In conclusion, recouping the losses is not an easy thing to do. hen a company like Lehman Brothers can be allowed to collapse while their competition (Goldman Sachs) can be bailed out by tax payer dollars, citizens are going to start wondering how their country got to such a point in the first place. Taibbi…

Works Cited

AP/HuffPost. Charles Ferguson's Oscar Speech Rips Wall Street: 'Inside Job' Director

Levels Criticism During Acceptance. HuffPost Business. Web. 8 Apr 2011.

Campbell, Andrea Louise. "Is the Economic Crisis Driving Wedges Between Young and Old? Rich and Poor?" Generations 33.3, Fall 2009: 47-53. Print.

Espo, David. "Deadline nears: Shutdown looms without agreement." Yahoo! News, 8

Economics -- Profits Costs and
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Unlike the situation with retail consumer goods whose production costs can be readily amortized by reduction in cost-per-unit production, the theater does not produce tangible goods. Therefore, the marginal cost of entertaining each additional audience member is so small that it becomes negligible. By increasing ticket prices only a dollar or two, the theater could likely maintain most of its clientele and avoid reducing its appeal to new customers, thereby increasing profits. Diseconomies would not develop unless or until the theater decided to expand its facilities or to purchase additional movies based on the expectation that a full house could be maintained and then experienced insufficient additional patronage to offset those additional costs (McConnell, Brue, & Flynn, 2008).

eferences

Mankiw, N.G. (2008). Principles of Economics. Chula Vista, CA: South-Western

McConnell, C., Brue, S., and Flynn, S. (2008). Macroeconomics. New…

References

Mankiw, N.G. (2008). Principles of Economics. Chula Vista, CA: South-Western

McConnell, C., Brue, S., and Flynn, S. (2008). Macroeconomics. New York: McGraw-

Hill.

Economic Crisis Introductory Remarks the
Words: 2043 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86739283
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Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.

A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:

ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).

A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…

References

Budowsky, B., January 22, 2008, the Economic Crisis, the Hill

Kilmister, a., December 2008, the Economic Crisis and Its Effects, World Economy, No. 407

Miller, J., Jackson, B., Who Cause the Economic Crisis? The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania

 http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/who_caused_the_economic_crisis.html , last accessed on January 7, 2009

Economics the Great Depression Origins
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The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.

The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.

FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…

Works Cited

DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]

DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.

Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).

Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.

Economics the Dominant Economic Theme
Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35208956
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ealth does not equate to happiness, a sense of purpose, dignity or respect. One of the key underlying assumptions of neoliberal philosophy, as derived from Milton Friedman, is that financial wealth is the ideal end goal of all activity. hile financial wealth solves many problems it does not solve all problems. Opponents of globalization, whatever their other arguments, incorporate this understanding into their protestations.

Naomi Klein goes further, suggesting that the unequal wealth distribution in the globalized economy is deliberate. The march towards globalization is not an altruistic endeavor borne of a firm belief in the power of the free market, but is a calculated strategy on the part of the world's elite to seize the world's wealth and power at whatever expense is necessary. Indeed, any economic benefits realized by the masses are incidental. Casualties -- be they citizens of Iraq, indigenous peoples or indeed any of the world's…

Works Cited:

Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. Toronto: Random House.

Friedman, T. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.

Appiah, K. (2006). The case for contamination. New York Times Magazine. Jan 1, 2006.

Economic Turmoil and the Approaching
Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55682227
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t is explained that the "fiscal cliff" itself refers to the end of Bush-era tax cuts and large spending cuts that will occur at the end of the year if Congress can't agree on a way to cut $1.2 trillion in debt over the next decade. This would lead to income tax and payroll tax increases for almost everyone, with an immediate negative impact on spending and thus on the economy, and with a rising unemployment rate through 2013. The article also cites Ben Bernanke as saying the Fed would not be able to counter or even effectively mitigate the effects of going over this cliff, yet the politics will have to play out before any action is taken by anyone.

lluminating the issue still further, John D. McKinnon, Kristina Peterson, and Josh Mitchell's "Most Households Face 'Fiscal Cliff'" from the November 21st edition of the Wall Street Journal present…

Illuminating the issue still further, John D. McKinnon, Kristina Peterson, and Josh Mitchell's "Most Households Face 'Fiscal Cliff'" from the November 21st edition of the Wall Street Journal present personal stories that typify the impact the fiscal cliff would have for people on various rungs of the socioeconomic ladder. Describing the various tax increases and other effects of the fiscal cliff in general terms first, this article then gives an example of an individual that meets the general description for every basic income/economic bracket identified. A human face is put on the numbers and the rhetoric that have been occupying many headlines and stories in the news over the past months, making the subject more accessible.

The same edition contained another story by Jon Hilsenrath, "Fed Still Trying to Push Down Rates," which details Bernanke's pledge to try to keep interest rates low through 2013 to stimulate the economy. Background information on ongoing unemployment and the dangers of the fiscal cliff are given, and also provides some history of central banks responding to legislative efforts in a spirit of cooperation but not coercion. The article also cites Bernanke's repeated warnings regarding the fiscal cliff and other fiscal policies that portend danger to the U.S. economy (and to the world economy at large), and the need to move beyond partisan politics to arrive at real and lasting solutions for the economy.

These articles demonstrate the ongoing problems faced in the current U.S. economy and contended with by agencies such as the Fed and large government bodies such as Congress. The individual personalities involved also appear to be of importance, and possibly of great hindrance.

Economics Macroeconomics Many Companies Produce
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Countries that are just getting started often use tariffs, quota, and embargos to protect their industries until they can compete without government help. The difficulty with this infant industry argument in support of trade restrictions is that it is not always possible to foresee which industries will do well. For this reason protection frequently lasts long after the industry has matured (Trade estrictions and Their Effects, n.d.).

Governments are enthusiastic to protect what are called strategic industries. These have included in the past industries, such as steel, cars and chemicals. Today, they are more often the high tech, high wage industries like commercial aircraft production. One way of assuring that they remain strong is to protect them from foreign competition. Agriculture is another area that a lot of governments try to protect. Tariffs help make sure that domestic farmers can earn enough profits to continue farming. The decision to use…

References

Hall, S. (2011). What Are the Problems of Trade Restrictions? Retreived from http://www.ehow.com/about_5052403_problems-trade-restrictions.html

Trade Restrictions and Their Effects. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://ecedweb.unomaha.edu/lessons/foegactivity1.htm

Economics Governments Influence the Economy in Many
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Economics

Governments influence the economy in many ways, but the two most often discussed in economics are fiscal policy and monetary policy (another might a trade policy, for example). Fiscal policy reflects the use of government spending and taxation to influence the economy (eil, 2008). Thus, the level of spending, the amount of revenue collected, and how the money is spent are all things that must be taken into consideration in fiscal policy. Fiscal policy also frequently has an effect on the decisions that businesses and individuals make. Consider the debate about taxes and the "Buffet Rule" -- the tax polices we have now are designed to encourage specific behaviors. This is why capital gains are taxed at a different rate than dividends, and why dividends are taxed at a different rate than interest income. So fiscal policy does affect the way some people behave, as they attempt to maximize…

Works Cited

Azerrad, D. (2011). Hayek's top 10 dos and don'ts in a recession. The Foundry. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from  http://blog.heritage.org/2011/02/14/hayek%E2%80%99s-top-10-do%E2%80%99s-and-don%E2%80%99ts-in-a-recession/ 

FRBSF. (2012). U.S. monetary policy: An introduction. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from  http://www.frbsf.org/publications/federalreserve/monetary/index.html 

Weil, D. (2008). Fiscal policy. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/FiscalPolicy.html

Economics the Industrial Age Was an Age
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ECONOMICS

The industrial age was an age of giant, mega corporations that were often bogged down by inefficient and outdated distribution, innovation, and production techniques. y contrast, the information age of the past 20 years or so has brought forth a new business form, a fluid congregation of businesses, sometimes highly structured, sometimes amorphous, that come together on the internet to create value for customers and wealth for their shareholders. This phenomenon has been commonly referred to as "digital capital," "information technology revolution," or "new economy." However, as both the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the Nasdaq soared to historic highs and record volatility in just a few short years, a widespread and quite fundamental disagreement emerged concerning whether or not the high-tech boom was nothing more than one huge bubble.

This paper analyzes and examines the present condition of the United States economy. Part II discusses what phase of…

Bibliography

Bedroussian, Armen, Devol, Ross C., Fogelbach, Frank, Goetz, Nathaniel H., Gonzalez, Ramon, R., and Wong, Perry. "The Impact of September 11 on Metropolitan Economies." January 2002. Retrieved at http://www.milken-inst.org/presrel/NationalMetroImpact Report.pdf on July 21, 2002.

Jordan, Meredith. "Economists: Turnaround in Early 2002." Retrieved at  http://atlanta.bizjournals.com/atlanta/stories/2001/07/09/story5.html . onJuly 21, 2002.

Moore, Geoffrey H. Business Cycles, Inflation and Forecasting, 2nd edition, 1983. Ballinger Publishing Co., Cambridge, MA.

EconEd Link." Retrieved at  http://www.econedlink.org/datalinks/index.cfmonJuly  21, 2002.

Economic Crisis and Capitalism
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Economic Crisis

The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.

The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…

References

Cox, W. & Alm, R. (2013). Creative destruction. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html 

Eichengreen, B. (2010). The crisis of financial innovation. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from  http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~eichengr/crisis_finan_innov.pdf 

Isfeld, G. (2012). Canada's banks shake off global sector crisis. Financial Post. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from  http://business.financialpost.com/2012/10/10/canadas-banks-shake-off-global-sector-crisis/ 

Liu, H. (2008). Too big to fail moral hazard. Asia Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JI23Dj12.html