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Friedman: Economic Freedom and Political Freedom
The importance of the concept freedom cannot be understated. Freedom is not a new phenomenon as it has been in existence for a long time. There are various types of freedom, which are often interrelated. Economic freedom is inextricably related to political freedom. For instance, economic freedom is intertwined with political freedom in the sense that leaders (chosen based on political freedoms) may determine economic policies. The concepts presented in Milton Friedman's work titled 'Capitalism and Freedom' show that political freedom is essential for the realization of economic freedom.
Political freedom and economic freedom are intertwined in that both serve as a function of each other. Friedman confirmed the existence of close connections between politics and economics: only defined combinations of economic and political arrangements are feasible. For instance, a socialist society does not guarantee individual freedom (Friedman 8). Political freedom largely constitutes a…
Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 2002.
Environmental Laws vs. Economic Freedom
The objective of this work is to provide an in depth analysis on environmental restrictions and economic freedom. This work will explain the rational and support the writer's view with research. Addressed will be topics including sustainability, change management, regulation and competition.
Defining Environmentalism and Economic Freedom
The work of Walter lock entitled "Environmentalism and Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights" states that an environmentalist "may be non-controversially defined as a philosophy which sets great benefit in clean air and water and to a lowered rate of species extinction." (1998) The definition of economic freedom is described as the "idea that people legitimately own themselves and the property they "capture" from nature by homesteading, as well as the additional property they attain, further, by trading either their labor or their legitimately owned possessions." (lock, 1998) The first view of the relationship existing between…
Beder, Sharon (2006) The Changing Face of Conservation, Commodification, Privatization and the Free Market. In Lavingne, DM (ed), Gaining Ground: In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Guelph, Canada & University of Limerick, Ireland, 2006, 83-97.
Block, Walter (1998) Environmentalism and the Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights. Journal of Business Ethics 17: 1887-1889. 1998. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/etexts/environfreedom.pdf
Carlsson, F. And Lundstrom, S. (2001) Political and Economic Freedom and the Environment: The Case of CO2 Emissions. Working Papers in Economics no 29. Second version August 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.efdinitiative.org/research/publications/publications-repository/political-and-economic-freedom-and-the-environment-the-case-of-co2-emissions/files/New%20Swopec%2029.pdf
Lee, HH, Chung, RK, Koo, CM (nd) On the Relationship Between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www.unescap.org/esd/environment/mced/documents/materials/EG_ES.pdf
Making the punishment for such offenses an inability to access the Internet, however, begins to deprive citizens of their rights. The Internet may hold access to illegal movies and music, but it also holds a wealth of information, including blogs, news, educational information, and personal information. Depriving a person of the use of the Internet is essentially depriving him or her of access to libraries, to free speech, and to freedom of information. People who steal money from houses are not barred from living in them, nor are those who steal books forbidden from libraries. The punishment for copyright crimes via the Internet should be the same as these crimes have ever been, a fine. If one person steals another's property, the thief should have to pay; he or she should not be deprived of the right of speech and information.
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16).…
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16). Retrieved 21 April 2009, from The
Economist. Web Site: http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=13496729&source=hptextfeature
The need for the preservation of these resources is because of the fact that it is finite or limited. Abused utilization of these resources will deplete it and will eventually endanger the future inhabitants of the earth, leaving them nothing for the production of their own needs. Without the resources, there will be nothing to work on in the first place. Achievement of economic stability is the first step in order to achieve the other social goals. Since there are resources, there can be economic efficiency whereby goods can be produced at a lowest possible cost because of the availability of resources. Economic freedom or the right of a man to engage in voluntary economic activities, economic equity or justice particularly in terms of taxation and welfare economics, and economic security or security in employment can be settled between the government and the people in order to achieve them. All…
ealth does not equate to happiness, a sense of purpose, dignity or respect. One of the key underlying assumptions of neoliberal philosophy, as derived from Milton Friedman, is that financial wealth is the ideal end goal of all activity. hile financial wealth solves many problems it does not solve all problems. Opponents of globalization, whatever their other arguments, incorporate this understanding into their protestations.
Naomi Klein goes further, suggesting that the unequal wealth distribution in the globalized economy is deliberate. The march towards globalization is not an altruistic endeavor borne of a firm belief in the power of the free market, but is a calculated strategy on the part of the world's elite to seize the world's wealth and power at whatever expense is necessary. Indeed, any economic benefits realized by the masses are incidental. Casualties -- be they citizens of Iraq, indigenous peoples or indeed any of the world's…
Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. Toronto: Random House.
Friedman, T. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Appiah, K. (2006). The case for contamination. New York Times Magazine. Jan 1, 2006.
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…
AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.
Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
assumes the notion that it would be best to have "a system of economic
enterprises collectively owned and democratically governed by all the
people who work in them," meaning that he differs from the notions of Okun
and the Friedman's by proposing something radically different to promote
the ultimate goal of democracy (Dahl 92). Neither equality nor freedom is
necessary to fix the relationship between the economy and democracy, but
rather a completely different and even radical outlook on the relationship
between the economy and government can solve the dilemma. Furthermore Dahl
argues to how it is possible to retain the democratic principle within
firms, and prevent problems such as oligarchy. These notions in which the
economy becomes compatible with the political notions are completely
different than the Friedman's and Okun's notion that there lies a problem
with democracy. Dahl is even casting serious doubt on Tocqueville's long…
One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.
Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.
Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…
CIA. (2007). World Fact Book. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from CIA: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/is.html
Collins, G. (2007, July 1). LNG Observer. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from China making bid to lead LNG carrier building: http://www.ogj.com/articles/save_screen.cfm?ARTICLE_ID=297535
Economist. (2007, July 26). Vigorous but Vulnerable. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from Economist: www.economist.com
Ford, N. (2006). Oil Producers Spend Windfall Wisely: There Has Long Been Global Fascination with How and Where the Arab Oil Producing Nations Spend Their Cash. Neil Ford Reports That the Trends of 2006 Are Very Different to Those of 30 Years Ago. The Middle East, 36.
(Major Schools of Economic Thought) This theory was born from the crucible of a Great Depression and a orld ar. Chicago theorists vehemently disagreed. They made the argument that the wealth of nation's increase when the market is allowed to naturally price goods and services. Spending would unnaturally change the prices of these goods, thus changing the reaction of the market to the goods, causing a misallocation of wealth or goods.
According to the Chicago theorists, the role of a government was to make sure individual rights were not trodden upon during market interactions and to mitigate the damage of neighborhood effects. Neighborhood effects are defined by Milton Friedman, the godfather of Chicago Economists, as when, "the action of one individual imposes significant costs on other individuals for which it is not feasible to make him compensate them or yields significant gains to them for which it is not feasible…
Friedman, M. (1955). School Choices. Retrieved June 25, 2010 from the ROLE of GOVERNMENT in EDUCATION: http://www.schoolchoices.org/?roo/?fried1.htm.
The Federal Reserve Bank of San Fransisco. (2010). Retrieved June 25, 2010 from Major Schools of Economic Theory: http://www.frbsf.org/?publications/?education/?greateconomists/ ? grtschls.html#a8.
Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)
To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…
3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.
4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial
5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The effect of all of this is to drive away those who actually worked the land because they loved it, replacing them with hired hands running machinery, neither of which is likely to be kind to the land.
Perhaps the most familiar form of business except for perfect competition, monopoly situations result when there are many potential buyers for a product or service, but only one seller.
In the Grapes of rath, a monopoly situation is created as the banks decide to remove tenant farmers, preferring to sell the land to a single large conglomerate of landowners or even a single corporation.
Steinbeck could hardly have painted a harsher picture of this monopoly-in-progress, with scenes of huge bulldozers razing all evidence of the tenant farmers from the land. However, he also notes that the 'monopolization' of the Great Plains was seemingly an event bigger even than those landowners who…
Cassuto, David. "Turning Wine into Water: Water as Privileged Signifier in 'The Grapes of Wrath'.." Papers on Language & Literature 29.1 (1993): 67+. Questia. 19 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Viking Penguin, 1939.
Politics and Libertarianism
According to the documentary "Liberty and economics" which focuses on the work of the economist Ludwig von Mises, the free market works in an ideal fashion because consumers can decide what they wish to buy in a free and unfettered manner. Von Mises' thought was heavily shaped by his experiences as a Jew living in Nazi Germany: he saw Nazism, socialism, and communism all as ideologies which attempted to deprive people of the ability to make decisions on their own terms. Von Mises believed that all economic problems were rooted in mismanagement by the government and centralized authority. He was a great advocate of the gold standard as a method of ensuring market independence. Von Mises was extremely unpopular because he condemned both fascism and communism as statism and contrary to liberty: conventional economic liberalism was very unpopular when he was writing and frowned upon as antiquated.…
The nation will enforce law and order to protect its public property, regulate monetary frameworks and correct market failures. The government will be responsible for protecting private life of its citizens and property (Grant & Vidler, 2000).
Market and Competition Forces: the country's economy should be designed in such a way that it will promote competition. This is because competition means a fair deal in obtaining results. The government should increase sellers and buyers in the market because this would promote competition thus increasing the quality and efficiency. With competition, the country will be able to control and manage different functions of its economy (Grant & Vidler, 2000). Demand and supply are the prime market forces determining the production of a country produces and the suitable ways to do so.
Market equilibrium, price and output, are determined by market forces. Therefore, I would recommend that any least developed nation to…
Bahl, Roy, W. (2008). Land taxes vs. property taxes in developing countries. Cambridge,
MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Grant, S. & Vidler, C. (2000). Economics in Context. New York: Heinemann.
Hyman, D.N. (2011). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy (10th ed.).
Meanwhile, Dwight R. Lee (writing in The Independent Review, 2001) points to a situation where a powerful environmental group (Audubon Society) has cooperated with an energy company and both have profited. Free market environmentalism has shown the way for profits and preservation at the same time in this case. The Audubon Society (AS) owns the 26,000-acre Rainey Sanctuary in the swamps of Louisiana, and while the group is opposed to oil drilling and gas drilling in 99 out of 100 cases, the AS has "been willing to accommodate the interests of those whose priorities are different" (Lee, p. 219). Those interests include allowing thirty-seven wells to be exploited for oil and gas in the Rainey Sanctuary.
According to Lee, the AS has received royalties of more than $25 million from those 37 wells, and in the meantime the technology used in the oil and gas development has prevented any spills…
Anderson, Terry L., and Leal, Donald R. Free Market Environmentalism. New York: Palgrave
Lee, Dwight R. "To Drill or Not to Drill: Let the Environmentalists Decide." The Independent
Review, VI.2 (2001): 217-226.
Economic Final Report
Types of economic systems
Economic systems vary from one nation to another. Traditional economic systems refer to an economic system founded by tradition. The services and goods that people provide through the work they do, how people exchange and use the resources are trends that follow permanent patterns. These are not dynamic economic systems because there are minimal changes. In this economic system, people live on static standards. They do not enjoy much occupational mobility and financial mobility (Gregory and Robert 19). However, it is possible to predict economic relationships and behaviors. People are aware of what they are expected to do, why they trade, they know what others should give to them. In traditional economic systems, the interests of the community are of great priority than individual interests. People collaborate at work and labor proceeds are shared equally. However, in some traditional economic systems, individuals respect…
Conklin, David W.; Comparative Economic Systems: Objectives, Decision Modes, and the Process of Choice. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Gregory, Paul R, and Robert C. Stuartl; Comparative Economic Systems. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co, 2010. Print.
Keese, Mark, Pete Richardson, and Ge-rard Salou. The Measurement of Output and Factors of Production for the Business Sector in OECD Countries: (the OECD Business Sector Database). Paris: OECD, 2011. Print.
An economic system is basically described as specific set of principles that addresses the production, distribution, and consumption of products and services. The involved parties in the production, distribution, and consumptions processes are usually determined by or dependent on the economic system. Throughout the history of humanity, different types of economic systems have evolved because different societies have placed varying emphasis on distinctive goals and priorities as part of their efforts to obtain answers to certain economic questions. In addition, the difference in economic systems is fueled by the tendency by different societies to develop very broad economic approaches to manage their resources. One of the main reasons for the development of different economic systems is to address the challenge of scarcity. The challenge of scarcity is an essential problem that confronts individuals and nations. hile there are four major types of economic systems recognized by economists, there…
"Economic Systems." Hilliard Bradley High School. Hilliard Bradley High School, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Factors of Production." Enotes.com - Study Smarter. Enotes.com, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Types of Economic Systems." Economic Systems. Shmoop University, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
Producers do not want to produce too much, lest there be waste. Consumers do not want to spend too much, because their resources (for most people anyway) are inherently scarce.
Hayek makes the point about there being different types of knowledge. In his free market economy free from centralized planning, he argues that each individual has different knowledge -- each specializes. This allows the millions of people who are making economic decisions to have the ability to gather and process as much information as possible. ith more information, better decisions are made. By delegating decision-making to millions of economic actors, each operating within their own specific area of expertise, decisions are going to be better. They will be based on more information and more specialized knowledge to interpret that information.
He argues that economic planning inherently must be based on cycles, such that there is day-to-day adjustments. Such a situation…
Hayek, F. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. The American Economic Review. Vol. 35 (4) 519-530.
Economic Environment of a Business
The objective of this work is to summarize the economic environment of a business including information relating to microeconomics, macroeconomics, and international trade aspects
The business organization is a "micro-economic unit" and the business environment is that which makes provision of the "macro-economic context within which firm operates." (eddy, ) The business environment can be categorized into the 'economic' and non-economic' and the 'micro- and macro-environment. (eddy,, paraphrased) The firm is an economic institution in a market system with the behavior of the firm reflecting the result of the decisions that were economic in nature that the manager of the firm made.
The economic environment of a business in today's globalized business society is complex in nature. There is an inherent link between the business sector and it relationship with the government, capital market, household sector and the international business sector -- all of which…
Palwar, V.K. (2010) Economic Environment of Business 2nd Ed. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=hNBEId591wYC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Reddy, R.I. (2004) Business Environment. APH Publishing. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NQv9vKgF_3MC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s
That is, international financial organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and which controlled by core states, decide that, in order to grant financial aid to undeveloped countries, these states should comply with some rules that are, in the end, in the detriment of their own economy. For example, Africa pays more to the IMF and World Bank, than it collects in credit from them, and this leads to low living standards, poor education and health systems and undeveloped infrastructure.
Besides financial institutions, transnational corporations have a saying in the economic development of a country. Although one might be tempted to say that a corporation, by creating a branch in an undeveloped country gives that economy a boom, it is actually all about personal gain.
Working in a corporation might be considered the best thing that could happen to a person, on a professional scale. You…
Chomsky, Noam. "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky." Drug War Chronicle Aug.2002. Drug Reform Coordination Network. Washington DC. 2.08.2002. http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/223/noamchomsky.shtml .
Korten, David C. "When Corporations Rule the World." USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 2 edition, 2001
Kozol, Jonathan. "The Shame of the Nation. The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America." New York: Crown Publishers, 2005
Wallerstein, Immanuel. "The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century." New York: Academic Press, 1976
The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.
The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.
FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…
DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]
DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.
Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).
Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
S. citizens. In this program designed to help young ones value the freedoms they currently experience:
according to Tyler Barnwell, stands for grievance, as in "to petition the government for a redress of grievances." which denotes religious freedom, Leslie Anne Hill, a Presbyterian, states:
"means you don't have to follow a certain religion." stands for freedom of assembly, Sherri Jones states is "the right to get together with other people peaceably, but not to disturb anyone." which is for freedom of speech, Stephanie Kenfield relates: "means you can say anything you want to say, and nobody can stop you or anything, but not bad words and stuff." stands for freedom of the press, Justin Jolly explains: "You could write and say anything you want on a piece of paper or in a newspaper or anything like that." "Getting a grasp..., 1994)
The ruling for The Alpha Epsilon Pi v. The…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000957726' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
We don't look at their psychological well-being. it's almost as though, psychologically, they're a blank. And we know very little about the differences among black women. Some cope better than others. We don't know who they are, why they cope better, what resources they have access to. If we can understand that, then we can understand the needs of those who cope less well. What I am finding so far is that almost all the mothers in my study, when asked whether they would prefer employment to public assistance, say they would rather have a job. However, having a job is very difficult for this group of mothers because it is difficult for them to find and keep jobs that support them and provide adequate benefits. And there's another consideration: When we say we're going to put these women to work, what is it going to mean in terms of…
The Impact of the Welfare State on the American Economy (1995) Joint Economic Committee Study. December 1994. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.house.gov/jec/welstate/vg-1/vg-1.htm
Paternal State, the Liberal State, and the Welfare State (nd) Online available at http://www.friesian.com/freestat.htm
Overview of the Nixon-Ford Administration at the Department of Labor 1969-1977 (1977) U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Managementy. 20 Oct 2007. Online available at http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/webid-nixonford.htm
Social Work Experts Predict: Disaster With a Ray of Hope (1996) Columbia University Record -- September 20, 1996 -- Vol. 22, No. 3. Online available at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol22/vol22_iss4/Welfare_Reform.html
As a paid lobbyist of FedEx, I would like to see the government encourage more global trade. There are two reasons for this. The first is that global air trade is one of my company's most profitable services, and the other is that our revenues are tied closely to the state of the global economy. Trade agreements are a form of trade policy that enjoy broad Congressional support and are easier to implement than spending-related fiscal policy or monetary policy. Chiff.com (2012) notes that lobbying is the "process of petitioning the government to intervene in special causes. Aside from broad trade-related issues, FedEx could benefit from its ongoing classification as an airline, something that gives it special privileges compared with UPS, especially with respect to labor freedoms. Maintaining this flexibility and cost advantage helps FedEx and its competitors are trying to undermine this advantage.
Shalal-Esa (2009) notes that there…
Chiff.com. (2012). What is lobbying? Chiff.com. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.chiff.com/society/lobby.htm
No author. (2008). This house believes that elected representatives should not hold any additional posts while serving in government. IDEA Beta. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/constitutional-governance/house-believes-elected-representatives-should-not-hold-second-jobs
Shalal-Esa, A. (2009). How many lobbyists are there in Washington? Reuters. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/09/13/obama-lobbying-idUSN1348032520090913
economic, social, and moral changes in America since the end of World War II
Since the end of World War II, the American people have seen an extraordinary change in the economic, social and moral priorities of the nation and its people. Three generations have grown up since the war, each positively and negatively influenced by their parents and social change.
Who They Are
The WWII generation represents the most affluent elderly generation that the United States will see in a long time. This generation benefited from an expanding economy and skyrocketing real estate prices. Its members were the beneficiaries of generous government programs, from the GI ill to government aid in buying their first home. (Wilkinson) high school education was sufficient to get well paying, secure jobs in their adult years. The lower level of education is one reason why members of this generation tend to see things differently…
Wilkinson, Ron. Boomers vs. Gen X Cooperation Clash. BCFM Human Resources Committee, 2002.
Chicowitz, Hershel. Defining G-X'ers. BBHQ, 2002.
Peppard, Nancy. Ties that Blind: Social Disconnects And The Shifting Generational Profiles That Cause Them.College of Law Practice Management, 2001.
International Association of Baby Boomers
Why does GE finance poorly-rated airlines with its aircraft financing? GE benefits in three ways: (1) its lower cost of capital than the airlines means that it can charge a risk premium, and make more money on the airline debt, (2) it sells aircraft engines and, more critically, spare parts, which are the biggest long-term source of revenue for the company, and (3) the loans are well-collateralized. Even in a bankruptcy procedure, the airlines have relatively little recourse to the assets, and GE would be free to sell or lease the airlines to others. Other leasing companies, while they don't have GE's aircraft engine business, are able to lure tax-advantaged investors (offshore, those receiving tax credits, others) who also give them a lower cost of capital; their expertise in leasing and selling planes, as well as their leverage in pricing negotiations with the major airframe manufacturers gives them an advantage…
Business Week. "Why GE Is Keeping Loser Airlines Aloft." Business Week 7 February 2005: n.p.
Francisco, Federal Reserve Bank of San. Competition and Regulation in the Airline Industry. Economic Report. San Francisco: Federal Reserve, 2002.
Gittell, JH, Cameron, K, Lim, S and Rivas, V. "Relationships, Layoffs and Organizational REsiliance." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2006): 300-329.
Mackinac. Price Elasticity of Demand. Economic. Mackinac: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1997.
The question is, how does one decide which path is more beneficial?
John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, raised similar concerns when he stated:
"…any, even unintentional, deviation from truth does that much toward weakening the truth-worthiness of human assertion, which is not only the principal of all present social well-being but the insufficiency of which does more than any one thing that can be named to keep back civilization, virtue, everything on which human happiness on the largest scale depends" (p. 349).
Considering that human happiness is a subjective commodity that varies for every individual in its "truth," then whether or not one perceives the mommy track trend to be in line with utilitarian principles ultimately depends on one's personal definition of the greater good. From the utilitarian perspective (i.e. Mill), the wishes of the individual must be forsaken for the long-term "big picture."…
Mill, John Stuart ed. By M. Cohen, Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, New York: The Modern Library, 1961. Print.
Morgan-Steiner, Leslie. "Going Places on the Mommy Track" the Washington Post. Web. 29 April 2010.
Palmer, Kimberly. "The New Mommy Track." U.S. News and World Reports (26 August, 2007). Web. 26 April, 2010.
Shaw, William H. Business Ethics. Wadsworth Publishing, 2007. Print.
Economic Inequalities: Deep-ceded Problems in America
New York is a city that is synonymous with America to many people and societies around the world. New York city is a land of freedom and opportunity, symbolized by Lady Liberty in New York harbor. This is a place that does not discriminate based on background, but allows people to chart their own destinies. Or does it? The New York of the 1960s or even the 1990s does not exist anymore. Economic inequality has run rampant in New York as it has in many metropolitan cities. Bill Moyers, economist reported that “Among our largest, richest 20 metro areas, less than 50 percent of the homes are affordable.’ In New York City, he said, ‘Inequality in housing has reached Dickensian dimensions’” (Winship). This paper will explore how the economic inequality is undermining the very democratic principles that shaped this country. When there’s too much…
Of course, in recent years, this power has been diluted somewhat thanks to the rise of collective bargaining. Nonetheless, the fact that for so many years baseball has been characterized as a game rather than interstate commerce worked to the benefit of the industry as a whole.
If the exemption were repealed, apparently only possible through act of Congress, players and teams could sue the league if their movements were restricted and limitations placed on their ability to conduct business for themselves (Rovell). MLB could still manage how teams and players moved, but the repeal of the exemption would eliminate their absolute control over these movements. Obviously, this would have a significant impact on the baseball industry, but would not be necessarily devastating. Other sports have persisted despite not having antitrust exemptions, so there is little reason to expect that baseball couldn't adapt as well.
Belth, Alex. "Ending…
Belth, Alex. "Ending Baseball's Antitrust Exemption." Baseball Prospectus. 26 Nov. 2001. 15 July 2008 http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/econ352jpw/readme/Baseball%20Prospectus%20-%20Ending%20Baseball%27s%20Antitrust%20Exemption.htm .
Greenberg, David. "Baseball's Con Game." Slate. 19 July 2002. 15 July 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2068290/ .
Morrissey, Mo. "Baseball Labor Relations: Anti-Trust Exemptions & the Reserve Clause." Associated Content. 19 Oct. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/421296/baseball_labor_relations_antitrust.html .
Rovell, Darren. "Baseball's Antitrust Exemption: Q & a." ESPN: Baseball. 6 Dec. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://espn.go.com/mlb/s/2001/1205/1290707.html .
Canada's economic goals are: political stability, reducing national debt, economic growth, increased productivity and efficiency, equitable distribution of income, price stability, and full employment.
IMF slashes Canada's economic prospects. (Sept., 21, 2011). CTV News. http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20110920/canada-economic-outlook-imf-110920/
One of the Canadian economic goals is to achieve full employment, but the International Monetary Fund just revised its former predictions, assessing the Canadian employment rate as dropping rather than picking up and the nation's economy growing slower than anticipated. In fact, the forecast seems to worsen the coming year with the economic forecast assessed as 2.1% his year and only 1.9 per cent the coming year. Moreover, both Statistics Canada, and the IMF predicted that unemployment would only increase with the IMF pronouncing that Canada's unemployment rate will climb to about 7.6% this year and to about 7.7% in 2012. Gloomier economic forecasts, it seems, are generic to other euro-USA nations too.
The economy is market-oriented, and highly technologically advanced. Primary sectors include petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, consumer goods, aerospace, and telecommunications (CIA the World Factbook, United States).
Both Ireland and the United States have a high degree of economic freedom. The Heritage Foundation ranks Ireland as the world's 7th freest economy, with high levels of investment, financial, business, and property rights freedom. However, labor freedom is the weakest area for Ireland (Heritage Foundation, Ireland).
The Heritage Foundation ranks the United States as the world's 4th freest economy. Interestingly, the Hertiage Foundation notes "America could do slightly better in fiscal freedom and freedom from government" (Heritage Foundation, United States), while Ireland has more freedom from government (Heritage Foundation, Ireland).
CIA the World Factbook. 2007. Ireland. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ei.html
CIA the World Factbook. 2007. United States. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
Heritage Foundation. 2007. Ireland. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Ireland
Heritage Foundation. 2007. United States. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Unitedstates
Commanding Heights, PBS. United Kingdom. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/lo/countries/uk/uk_political.html
CIA the World Factbook. 2007. Ireland. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ei.html
CIA the World Factbook. 2007. United States. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
Heritage Foundation. 2007. Ireland. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Ireland
Heritage Foundation. 2007. United States. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Unitedstates
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…
1. Andrew Apter. The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle of Culture in Nigeria.
University of Chicago Press (2005)
Only the Introduction and Chapter 1)
2. Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, eds. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. UC Press (1997)
This is circular logic that appears to dehumanize our freedom and minimalize our existence. The atomization of the responsible self is unimaginative and restrictive, I'll choose something else to listen to if I have a choice.
Work itself is exploitative in nature. Only when a person can work for himself or herself can exploitation be limited to being self-imposed. Labor and work do not belong to anyone, they are mere expressions of idea, to claim them as a tangible thing is confusing and appears to have a disingenuous motive.
Perfection is in the eye of the beholder and even though there are characeristics of a perfect market such as large amounts of buyers and sellers and a shared responsibility, there is undoubtedly some flaw within the system. Perfect markets would require no exchange of money, only ideas as money itself is a market within itself causing…
Soure Kodakanhi et al. (2006) iting Shreyer (1999), Table, page 19
Further reported by Kodakanhi et. al, is the fat that one of the Afrian ountries, and there are many, that faes poverty and inequality disaster is the ountry of Ghana. Advanes in tehnology in Ghana are stated to be "meager sine its independene in 1957." (2006) the eonomi development model based on it for developing ountries takes into aount the major onerns to it advent into these ountries whih are those of the: (1) Inability to invest in the it field due to poor finanial infrastruture; and (2) inadequate human power with the knowledge of it." (Ibid) the eonomi model, whih has been proposed, is one that has larger foreign investment and government poliies in support of it development as well as an awareness on the…
cited in Raji, Ayoade and Usoro, 2006) the roles that government play in the facilitation of appropriate use of ICT include: (1) approval of policies for the major sectors of the industry [National Telecommunications Policy, National Information
traditional, neoclassical school of economic modeling prescribes a "recipe for economic growth." Economic growth is a process of moving resources from low growth, agricultural areas to higher growth, industrial areas. The neoclassical school also does not see anything slowing the progress of moving from low growth to high growth areas. The neoclassical model in the form of Harrod-Domar model assumes that an increase in savings and investment will lead to economic development. Even though productivity is improved employment does not increase and income does not improve so correspondingly demand for products does not occur. Government intervention has hampered economic development by funneling resources into the wrong types of industries. Instead of taking advantage of industries where a country has a relative advantage, resources have gone to industries that the government wants to develop. One area where the removal of restrictions is essential is in the area of international trade. Increasing…
TAXATION IS THEFT?
When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called: theft. You do not only receive sympathy from the public, but are also found entitled to police support and protection. The city administration upon learning of the incident would most certainly show some anxiety over deteriorating law and order situation and the government would certainly criticize the thug's immoral act.
However lets just suppose that Sam the mugger wants you money again. But this time, some respectable people like senators, parliamentarians, Congressmen etc., accompany him. Instead of the gun, he carries an official letter that says certain percentage of your hard earned money is now his. The tone remains the same i.e. threatening. You give him money O ... The dire consequences of not complying with his 'request' are repeated reiterated…
1) Chris R. Tame: Taxation is Theft, a publication of the Libertarian Alliance: Retrieved online 29th September 2004: http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/polin/polin044.pdf .
2) Cohen, G.A. 1995. Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3) Mill, John Stuart. 1970 Principles of Political Economy (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.
4) Pollock, Lansing 1996 The Free Society. Westview Press. Boulder.
Firm, Labor Markets, and Imperfect Information
Perfect Competition and Monopolistic Competition
A perfectly competitive market does not have barriers to entry or exit and is characterized by many producers and many consumers, all of whom are price takers -- a term that means the suppliers and the buyers cannot effect the price as they do not have market power ("Competitive Markets," 2014). Monopolistic competitive markets are do have some barriers to entry and exit. Consumers can find substitutes for all of the goods in a competitive market, whereas high product differentiation is seen in a monopolistic competitive market ("Competitive Markets," 2014). Indeed, one of the reasons that a firm can achieve a monopoly for a product is that the business has been successful in its efforts to differentiate a product, as perceived by its customers. The ability of a business to make profits in the long-run is referred to…
Blanding, M. (2014, August 11). The business of behavioral economics. HBS Working Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review. Retreived from http://www.forbes.com/sites/hbsworkingknowledge/2014/08/11/the-business-of-behavioral-economics/
Cardon, J.H., and Hendel, I. (2001). Asymmetric information in health insurance: evidence from the National Medical Expenditure Survey. Rand Journal of Economics, 32 (3), 408 -- 427. JSTOR 2696362. Retreived from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.1086/262111?uid=3739920&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21105862412373
Chiappori, P.A., and Salanie, B. (2000). Testing for asymmetric information in insurance markets. Journal of Political Economy, 108(1), 56 -- 78. doi:10.1086/262111. Retrieved from
economic compensation enough for wrongfully convicted inmates?
The pronouncement of a crime charge against a person marks the begging of a legal battle for freedom of that individual. When the accused stand in court, their sole hope, is to have a plea of not guilty, which convinces the judges to let them free? At the end of any hearing, the prosecutors present their submissions, from which the court makes the final judgment. The expectations are either, a declaration of innocence or guilt. The incarnated have a chance to apply an appeal against the case progressively, until the highest order of court authority (Butler 11). Those declared innocent need and deserve equal treatment as the other free people. This necessitates a call for compensation of the released persons.
The cases of wrongfully convicted inmates
Statistics indicate that, every year, the American prisons releases approximately 700,000 men and women from their custody.…
Petersilia, Joan. When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Gould, Jon B. The Innocence Commission: Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the Criminal Justice System. New York: New York University Press, 2008. Internet resource.
Schehr, Robert Carl. "The criminal cases review commission as a state strategic selection mechanism." The American Criminal Law Review 42.4 (2005): 1289-
economic basis of American cities change from colonial era to 1860 and why did it change.
here is little doubt that there were a significant amount of economic changes taking place within the fledgling United States of America from its inception during colonial time to the year preceding the Civil War, 1860. hose changes were widely facilitated by advancements made during the Industrial Revolution and those pertaining to the practice of chattel slavery in the southern portion of the country. As such, the economics for American cities reflected these two principle sources of change, which were also underscored by a chief point of division in American social, political and economic life up until the Civil War: the distinction between autonomy and states' rights and circumscribed freedom and a strong federal government. he reality is that the latter of these two choices were good for capitalism and for the U.S. As…
The true way that the economies of American cities changed was along the lines of labor sources. Because the cities in the south were populated by plantations and wanton, ruthlessly exploitative slave labor, the economic power was concentrated in the hands of a tiny few who were able to assert political power (especially at the federal level) to enact legislation that maintained slavery -- in new territories -- to keep them in economic control. In the North, however, the Industrial Revolution had spawned a manufacturing industry in which immigrant workers were able to make a living for themselves largely because they were able to stave off the process of cheap slave labor from populating these areas. What is interesting about these developments is that they conflicted with one another. The South's free labor from the backs of slaves was creating an unfair economic advantage with which the North could not compete. The plight of the Caucasian workers in the South -- in which they were marginalized and destitute because the wealthy plantation owners could forsake them in favor of cheaper slave labor -- was threatening to extend itself to the capitalist system in the country's north. Therefore, it is critical to note that the cutoff period for this assignment ends the year before the Civil War, since this martial encounter was largely fought to transform the collective economy of the nation's cities from one of agriculture to one of industry and to preserve the union in the process.
It is necessary to note the role that transportation played in the economic development of cities in the U.S. within the greater context of the changing labor supplies and their effects on both national and global capitalism. The Industrial Revolution helped to facilitate greater access to and means of transportation, particularly in the form of steam powered ships (which plied up and down the Mississippi River and in other parts of the country) and in terms of the railroad, which progressed increasingly westward. As a result, there were several terminus towns that sprouted up and came to become some of the country's most thriving cities such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and Buffalo. As a result of the railroad's foray into the western portion of the country, rudiments of the American system took place in which the West was used to supply raw materials for the North to refine and make into the finished products.
Essentially, the economies of American cities changed from the colonial period to 1860 due to developments in the Industrial Revolution and slavery which changed the labor supplies in the North and South of the countries. These changes resulted in a capitalist system which advantaged the South (with its free labor) to the disadvantage of the North -- which eventually resulted in the waging of the Civil War.
Portfolio on Various Economic and Political Concepts
The Industrial Revolution
What was Changed by the Industrial Revolution
How the Revolution Changed the Economy
Examples from Past and Present (1900's & today)
The Industrial Revolution, a multi-decade event that took place in the 19th century (1820-approx. 1870), completely transformed the way goods were produced across two continents. Prior to its start, which took place in the UK, and its continuation, especially focused in Germany and the U.., most goods were produced by hand, at home.
The revolution, however, mechanized production processes and introduced machines and factories that, inevitably, improved and increased production. Yet this could not have been achieved without various inventions, such as the cotton gin and other weaving machines, or water powered machines (i.e. trains), many of which propelled countries, and especially the American economy, forward in a unique and successful way.
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, American…
Sources of Power
nytimes.com/2006/05/02/books/02bett.html [26 Apr 2013]]
The main criticism levied against Kinzer's work is the question: where was the American public during these escapades? After all, if America is a democracy, do they not have responsibility for their leaders' actions? Sadly, they cheered their leaders on, or ignored what was being done in the name of their nation. "Only briefly does Kinzer touch upon the U.S. citizens who questioned government tactics in foreign land… Unfortunately, leaders - describing their motivation as benevolence and a desire to liberate the oppressed - have learned how to win popular support for even the most outrageous regime change, and U.S. citizens repeatedly fall for the bait."[footnoteRef:12] [12: Susan Froetschel, "Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq," [Review], Yale Global Online, 2006. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/about/overthrow.jsp [26 Apr 2013]]
etts, Richard K. "A century of intervention, regarded with a cold eye." The New York Times.
Betts, Richard K. "A century of intervention, regarded with a cold eye." The New York Times.
2 May 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/02/books/02bett.html [26 Apr 2013]
Froetschel, Susan. "Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq."
[Review]. Yale Global Online, 2006. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/about/overthrow.jsp [26 Apr 2013]
chief economic principle that must be confronted in the horrifying picture Steven Brill paints in "Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us" is the devastating effect caused by economic monopoly. Brill tiptoes around the issue, and basically defines monopoly by the concept of "powerless buyers" -- -but the economic conditions that render buyers powerless are economic conditions that restrict a buyer's freedom of choice, which is precisely the problem with American medicine in Brill's article. Doctors -- or by extension the Medical Industry -- represent a monopoly. There may be a plethora of pharmeceutical companies that exist, and which ostensibly compete under heavily regulated industries (which include a close government supervision on potentially monopolistic new inventions, such that copyrights and patents in pharmaceuticals are guarded under law for a mere fraction of the time that the copyrights and patents, for example, involved with Walt Disney's trademark cartoon character Mickey…
Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the West, physical and material world is the only world and spirit is only an illusion. For those in the east, like Hindus, physical world is the illusion and spirit is the only truth there is.
Western social, political and economic systems play an important role in the shaping of western concept of freedom. Freedom to choose, freedom of speech, freedom from bondage, freedom to vote, are some of the main ideals upheld by western society and thus freedom has become merely a hollow term used to describe a state of liberation in the physical world. Capitalism has also influenced the development of this concept as freedom to choose what one likes, build what one desires and move as and when one…
Frederic Spiegelberg. Living Religions of the World: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1956
Hedebro, Goran. Communication and Social Change in Developing Nations. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982.
Peter Heehs. Indian Religions: The Spiritual Traditions of South Asia: An Anthology/edited. Delhi, Permanent Black, 2002
Economics of Forestry
Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…
Bradley, Dennis. "One of two parts of a chapter on EE for the Ecosystem Stewardship."
Workshop held in Tucson Arizona, December 4-14, 1995.
Bradley, D.P. Xu, Zhi, and Lewis, B.J. "Forests as Natural Capital: Parallels, Problems, and Implications." Unpublished paper: NCFES, Forest Service, USDA, St. Paul, Minn. 43
Bradley, D. And D. Lothner (ed.). "Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
This could indicate that the latter two countries seek to join the EU in hopes of more prosperous futures.
e) State of education in the country
From the standpoint of education, this is best ranked in Belgium, with a score of 8.8 on a scale from 1 to ten, and it is closely followed by France, with a score of 8.5, on the same scale. The Germans ranked their educational system with an 8, and the Dutch ranked their educational system with a 7. Turkey reveals a similar perception of its educational system as the Dutch, but the Croatians and the Turks have less positive perceptions over their educational systems.
From this standpoint then, it could be argued that all three non-EU member states would benefit from the accession to the EU as this would serve as grounds for improvement of their educational sectors.
f) State of health services in…
Ozturc, Y., 2007, Negotiating modernity: early childhood education policy in Turkey in the context of seeking European Union membership -- a case study of the General Directorate of Preschool Education,
Tunah, I., Bashevent, C., Female labor supply in Turkey, in The Turkish economy: the real economy, corporate governance and reform, Routledge
Round 4 of the European Social Survey, http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org / last accessed on January 12, 2012
MacPherson goes on to point out how different seventeenth century theorists -- Leveller, Hobbes, and Locke, to name a few -- included these ideas in their philosophies. MacPherson further illustrates that a main similarity in these philosophies was the belief that human society was a series of market relations (266). At this point, these theories have "failed" liberal-democratic theory (MacPherson 270) because it has made impossible a valid theory of obligation. As such, MacPherson poses the question whether liberal-democratic theory and Hobbsian can be realigned and made to not be mutually exclusive (277). In relation to Western human rights, these theories recognize the certain aspects of freedom (unsurprising, as we have seen from Halcoff's piece) 'create' a man, in a sense. As such, it might be argued that these seventeenth century philosophers were some of the first to recognize, implicitly, a Western notion of human rights.
In their article, Bunch…
Bunch, Charlotte & Frost, Samantha.
Halcoff, George. Whose Freedom? The Battle Over America's Most Important Idea. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2006. Print.
MacPherson, C.B. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, Hobbes to Lock. Oxford U. press, 1962. Print.
Pollis, Adamantia & Schwab, Peter. Human Rights: Literal and Ideological Perspectives.
Kenya: A Case Study in Reform
From its rough beginnings, Kenya has instituted a series of economic reforms in an attempt to raise the condition of the Kenyan people. They are an attempt to bring the Kenyan people out of a state of poverty and repression to one of stability and security about their ability to sustain themselves. Each reform has been better than the last, but they are still far from solving these issues in their country. This paper will cite the reasons for this as being a need for the people to regain the feeling of nationalism echoed in the early years of independence.
Prior to1800 Kenya consisted of groups of small tribal governments. Kenya is grouped into more than 70 ethnic groups, Some of the ethnic tribes are large e.g. The Agikuyu who form a majority of the population within their homeland in the central…
Africa Guide. World of Information Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1997 on Industrial Transformation
Amoako, Dr. K.Y. Claiming the 21st Century: Africa's Agenda (Speech). Executive
Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa at the National
Summit on Africa, (Washington D.C., 17 February 2000)
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.
Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.
Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
These lessons would suggest the need to change or veer away from the "me first" mentality of the U.S. agriculture and its representatives. What would serve agriculture and society best would be by working to identify how broad society and its farmers desired the future agricultural sector should be structured. Corollary to this would be to use its comparative advantage in designing policy interventions, which would realistically, efficiently and effectively achieve this goal. Only through this process could the legitimate wants of farmers be balanced against their responsibilities to their broader society. Only then could agriculture have a true and successful societal basis for its farm program interventions (Poe).
1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359
2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of iotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576
3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for ritain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043…
1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359
2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of Biotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576
3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for Britain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043
4. -. Organic Targets One Last Push. MIT Press Journals, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_5_31/ai_76285449
Why that Dollar in Your Pocket is More than just a Piece of Paper
Money in contemporary society has taken a primary role in life. It affects everything from the quality of a person's social life to the quality and quantity of available food. elow the history, value and use of money are considered.
The first system of economy was a barter system. ecause of issues such as double coincidence of wants as a necessary condition of trade, acquiring goods by this system was often costly in terms of time and effort. In order to reduce transaction time, a money system emerged. The first money emerged in the form of goods. Goods that evolved into money were those that were generally accepted in exchange for goods. Livestock and grain are examples of goods that became money during the years of around 9000-6000 C. Cattle are estimated to probably be…
Beggs, J. "Euro Under Pressure but Recovery is in The Wind." Euro Economy & Financial Markets,
Beggs, J. "Euro Interest Rates Have Further to Go." Euro Economy & Financial Markets,
Beggs, J. "Sterling Under Pressure." UK Economy & Financial Markets,
Bischoff, B. "Consumer Action: The New Conversion Rules." In SmartMoney.com, October 21, 1998.
The general topic that will be covered in this brief essay will be economic surpluses in the capitalistic context. To be sure, the way in which the surplus and largesse of society is managed varies widely based on the form of government in question. However, capitalism has its own way of such a thing evolving and shaping. Perhaps the best example of this would be the United States and what happens with its surplus. While there is little argument that the surplus of society should be used to benefit people who cannot help themselves, there should perhaps be a proper definition and enforcement of who truly is deserving of help and who is not.
Before getting to the more personal observations about this topic that the author has, the author would first point to some facets of the two YouTube videos that were to be watched as…
Economics in the American Revolution
as the American Revolution motivated primarily by economic factors? To the observer in 2014, who is surrounded with economically-oriented ideologues who have adopted the title of "Tea Party" for their movement, the interpretation is inescapable. e must ignore the tendentious and flimsy view of history advanced by the twenty-first century Tea Parties though (reminding ourselves that the former vice presidential candidate who styles herself one of their leaders could not correctly identify in 2011 what Paul Revere had actually done during the American Revolution) and look at the view of reputable historians. I hope by examining the work of three historians -- Charles Beard, Richard Hofstadter, and Gordon ood -- to demonstrate the extent to which the Founding Fathers were motivated by economic circumstances.
Any discussion of the economic factors motivating the American Revolution must begin with the work of Charles Beard. Beard, influenced to…
Beard, Charles A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, 2004. Print.
Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage, 1989. Print.
Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
Micro Economics: Chapter Summaries
Microeconomics Chapter Summaries
Summary 'Chapter 7: Monopoly'
Market power refers to the ability of one of more firms in an industry to impact the pricing and supply of products and services for general consumers (Hall & Lieberman, 2010). A firm holding market power experiences a downward slopping demand curve. Monopoly is one of the four major types of market structures (Boyes & Melvin, 2009). It refers to the dominance of only one supplier (or producer) over the entire market (McEachern, 2012). Since a monopolist firm does not have any direct competitor in its industry, it sets prices and supply options itself. Unlike other market structures, monopoly has only one market demand curve, i.e. The demand curve for the monopolist firm and for its industry are same (Shiller, 2009).
Being the only supplier in the industry, this firm can impact the prices of products or services by…
Arnold, R.A. (2010). Economics, (9th Ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Besanko, D., Braeutigam, R.R. & Gibbs, M. (2011). Microeconomics, (4th Ed.). Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley.
Boyes, W.J. & Melvin, M. (2009). Economics, (8th Ed.). Eagan, MN: South-Western.
Hall, R.E. & Lieberman, M. (2010). Economics: Principles & Applications, (5th Ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.
Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…
Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001
Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004
Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, http://www.philosophy-101.com/2007/06/29/aristotles-view-on-wealth-acquisition/last accessed on February 4, 2009
Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, http://www.businessbookmall.com/Economics_3_Basic_Characteristics_of_Capitalism.html. Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
Social Upward Mobility
Explain how the economic system in the United States can be used both to allow upward social mobility and trap others in lower status levels.
America is known as the land of opportunity. This is because no matter where someone comes from, their racial group, nationality or economic class everyone has the chance to be successful. If they have a good idea and are willing to work at it, they will realize their long-term goals. Throughout the course of U.S. history, this has been the case. As innovators from across the world can start out with nothing and earn a fortune during the course of their lifetimes. (Cullen 2004) (Henslin 2013)
This is because the economic system enables upward mobility by encouraging the free flow of ideas through a culture of acceptance and understanding. At the same time, the movement of working capital and people from one…
Cullen, Jim. 2004. The American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
DeParle, Jason. 2012."Harder for Americans to Rise." Retrieved July 21, 2013 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 )
Henslin, James. 2013. Essentials of Sociology. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
In addition, he argued that human behavior is mainly based on the pursuit of material profits.
According to Smith the society could develop only in case of existence of freedom and equality. These rational principles according to Smith could stimulate objective development of society and development of economical relations. His philosophical and moral ideas of course influenced his political economy. Smith's political economy based on freedom of competition and Smith principles of political economy based on the natural needs of developing capitalist society of Great Britain in many respects defined the economical policies of the major 19th century capitalist states.
3. Provide a sense of the historical context and the nature of the main debates in political economy during the first quarter of the 19th Century in Britain and how these debates shaped the complexation of early classical economic thought.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century there still existed…
This is exactly the case with the European Union; a European-Union-Member-State that fails to pay on its public arrears will cause weakening of capital amidst its financers. The danger that this financial catastrophe will extend towards the remaining Euro-Area would position the ECB under immense stress to help and rescue the dissolute Member-State, despite the fact that this move may undermine Euro-Area value in the progression (Eichengreen and Wyplosz, 1998). As long as private agents consider that ECB would give way to this stress and as long as Member States keep the right to act in a dissolute way, the central bank will eventually require reliability. Once more, most of this reasoning is also relevant to numerous supply-side procedures; for instance, the viewpoint of inflationary earnings settlements. Salaries negotiating that drive the curve externally will, perhaps, produce pressures for the central bank to assist the ensuing inflation to keep away…
Agell J., Calmfors, L. And Jonsson, G. (1996), 'Fiscal policy when monetary policy is tied to the mast', European Economic Review, 40, pp. 1413-40.
Aizenman, J. (1994), 'On the need for fiscal discipline in an union', National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W4656.
Alesina, a., Blanchard, O., Gali, J., Giavazzi, F. And Uhlig, H. (2001) Defining a Macroeconomic Framework for the Euro Area: Monitoring the European Central Bank 3, London, CEPR.
Allsopp, C. And Vines, D. (1996), 'Fiscal policy and EMU', National Institute Economic Review, 158, pp. 91-107.