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A teenager relates with another teenager, member of the same social framework (be it group of friends, school, etc.), partially through the products he or she uses. Many of these need to be the latest style and embody not necessarily a social status, but a sense of style. At the same time, many of these are products that are used in the household, such as the car that the family drives or the electronics used.
This type of approach also has an important aspect to be considered in the marketing segment: the lifecycle of the product is much shorter than for other products and for other periods of time. ecause of this trend imposed by teenagers to be continuously in style, as well as by certain characteristics of a teenager that are reflected in the purchasing behavior (such as the fact, for example, that a teenager will tend to get…
1. Teen - Market Profile. 2004. On the Internet at http://www.magazine.org/content/files/teenprofile04.pdf . Last retrieved on April 22, 2010
2. Gale, Derek. 2007. Purchasing Power of Kids and Teens. On the Internet at http://www.rimag.com/article/374736-Purchasing_Power_of_Kids_and_Teens.php. Last retrieved on April 22, 2010
Teen - Market Profile. 2004. On the Internet at
For example, prior to 2007, there were approximately 1 million confirmed cases of hospital-acquired ("nosocomial") infections in American hospitals and other healthcare institutions (clinics, nursing homes, etc.), resulting in the premature and preventable deaths of nearly 100,000 patients who would otherwise have survived the illnesses or surgeries for which they originally received treatment in those institutions (eid, 2009).
Approaches to educing Healthcare Costs
Because the problem of treating those nosocomial infections alone was the source of an estimated $1 - $2 billion, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) terminated reimbursement for several kinds of urinary tract infections in healthcare institutions in 2007, to force healthcare providers to take the necessary steps to prevent those infections (eid, 2007). Another important component to fighting healthcare costs are the oversight mechanisms, such as the Health and Human Services Inspector General's Audit Services and Medicare's recently enacted ecovery Audit Contractor (AC) program. In…
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
However, aggregate supply always responds, eventually, to demand so aggregate supply will fall as well, until there is a state of equilibrium again.
Increasing the amount of deposits that commercial banks must hold with the central bank will diminish the money multiplier, which is the amount of money a bank can create with each dollar of reserves. The money multiplier is determined by the reserve ratio. The higher the reserve ratio, the less money the bank will have to lend out, diminishing the money multiplier. Requiring the commercial banks to increase deposits will increase the reserve ratio by.5%, thereby diminishing the money multiplier by .5.
The spending multiplier, which is the measure of additional spending in the economy generated as a result of the initial spending, will be reduced because of the reduction in consumption caused by less wages, rent, and profits paid by firms. The investment multiplier, the…
This can help to alleviate the asymmetry of information between them. If sellers do that consistently, then buyers will gain trust in the sellers that price is in fact related to quality. When that happens, the market can function because buyers can be fairly certain of their utility.
What this refers to is the cost of dishonesty. In used cars, dishonesty will drive away business, so any car lot with an interest in long-term success must ensure that the costs of dishonesty are reduced by reducing dishonesty itself. He then likens the lemon market to the cost of doing business in a country with high levels of corruption. Firms are discouraged from investing in places where information asymmetry means that they cannot distinguish between a good business opportunity and a scam. Thus, again, encouraging a lack of corruption would be the best pathway to successful business promotion, just as it…
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)
To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…
3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.
4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial
5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global.
The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been discovered relatively recently, meaning as such that progress has yet to be made in terms of treatment and management. Additionally, research is also yet to be exhaustive, as numerous aspects of the affection remain uncharted.
One important aspect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is represented by the economic cost of the affection, revealed at multiple levels, such as the cost for the healthcare system, as well as the costs for the family. The current project assesses this issue through the lenses of the research that has already been conducted on the topic, in an effort to centralize and conclude upon the matter. The means in which this endeavor would be addressed is that of the Toulmin Method.…
Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S., Persson, J., 2007, ADHD from a socio-economic perspective, Foundation Acta Paediatrtica
Daley, D., Birchwood, J., 2009, ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom, Child: care, health and development
Matza, L.S., Paramore, C., Prasad, M., 2005, A review of the economic burden of ADHD, http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/3/1/5 last accessed on March 30, 2012
Weida, S., Stolley, K., Organizing your argument, Owl Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03 / last accessed on March 30, 2012
Health Policy on Asthma
Asthma is a common and chronic disease that occurs across all age groups. It is one of the conditions that have remained the focus of intervention policies in public health. It is also reported that morbidity and mortality of the condition remains high. The negative implications of asthma are comparable to the effects of other ailments, including liver cirrhosis, diabetes and schizophrenia. The interventions that have been instituted in asthma management have, however, reduced mortality to a significant extent in countries where they have been implemented (Bousquet, Philippe J. Bousquet, Philippe Godard, & Jean-Pierre Daures, 2005).
Asthma has both direct and indirect economic implications arising from cost of medicines and health care service. There is also the economic cost of rendering victims less productive. Studies show that the direct cost associated with asthma are in the range of 1% to 3% of the total…
Amenyah, A. M. (2011). Asthma Prevalence: Focus on Prevention Management in Community Settings. Georgia: Georgia State University.
Asthma Interventions and Cost Consequences -- Synthesis of Research Findings . (2007, January).
Bousquet, J., Philippe J. Bousquet, Philippe Godard, & Jean-Pierre Daures. (2005). The public health implications of asthma. World Health Organization.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
The revelation of the financial crisis that unfolded in United States in 2008 is considered to be the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, 1929. The distinctive causative factors that have contributed to the U.S. economic crisis 2008- 2009 are differentiated by aggravated financial control, higher risks in capital investment, the housing bubble phenomena in relation to the brisk credit expansion. The aggregation of these factors in the U.S. economy directed the economy towards the de- leverage and credit crunches as the bubble burst. The following paper shall be discussing about the degree of correlation between the tax implications policies with respect to the financial crisis in U.S.. The precise review of strong linkages between the taxation and economic crises is the explicit explanation of the crisis that shook America. The paper also highlights the key factors that demonstrated their abilities and rescued U.S. In the economic…
Carr, D.A. (2011). Responses to Local Fiscal Shocks: Path Dependency Effects of the Clean Air Act. Public Finance and Management, 11(2), 160+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5050180027
Hendrickson, J.M., & Nichols, M.W. (2010). Did Commercial Banks Close Branches in Low-income Neighborhoods in Response to the Cra? Implications for Understanding the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 13(1), 17+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044499375
Johnson, E.M. (2010, April). Mr. Trust Buster. In These Times, 34, 7+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041402599
Robinson, S.N., & Nantz, D.P. (2009). Lessons to Be Learned from the Financial Crisis. Journal of Private Enterprise, 25(1), 5+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037768696
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
Two alternative solutions are available. The first sees that the U.S. federal authority uses the budget allocated to support the development of the national industries, without raising barriers to imports. The second possible solution is for the United States to strive to increase its exports by focusing more on international operations.
Criteria / goals
The evaluation criteria for the proposed solutions revolve around the benefits they generate, as well as the costs they imply. Otherwise put, the decision will be made in accordance with the arguments in favour and against each of the two alternatives, and by the solution's ability to meet the established goals. These goals include the insurance of economic stability within the United States (for all population, corporations and the entire system), the maintenance or even development of international relations, as well as the sustained development of the domestic industries.
Evaluation of alternatives
January 29, 2009, Buying American, the Economist, last accessed on February 5, 2009
Steps in the P.A.C.E.D. Model, the Gus a. Stavros Center for Free Enterprise and Economic Education
http://stavros.coedu.usf.edu/EconomicLiteracy/sld019.html. Ast accessed on February 5, 2009
hile the U.S. is only showing the first signs of recovery from the global economic crisis, other nations such as Australia and China have recovered much more quickly. There are a number of factors that have contributed to the disparity in economic performance in the past three years in these different nations. In particular, three factors will be considered. The first is the situation in each country at the outset of the crisis. As the crisis was largely precipitated by a credit crunch, the differences between the structure and regulation of the banking sectors in each country will be given particular attention. The second factor will be the response on the part of each federal government to the crisis. The third factor will be the nature of the different economies -- the degree to which different structures have impacted the recovery process. Lastly, policy implications will be drawn for…
BEA. (2011). National income and product accounts table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/TableView.asp?SelectedTable=1&ViewSeries=NO&Java=no&Request3Place=N&3Place=N&FromView=YES&Freq=Year&FirstYear=2007&LastYear=2010&3Place=N&Update=Update&JavaBox=no#Mid
Chinability.com. (2010). GDP growth in China 1952-2009. Chinability.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.chinability.com/GDP.htm
Jones, F. (2011). Krugman: Stimulus didn't fail because it never happened. Moneynews.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.moneynews.com/StreetTalk/paul-Krugman-Stimulus-Didnt/2011/02/16/id/386333
Maiden, M. (2009). Australia's banking sector is as strong as a brick outhouse. The Age. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.theage.com.au/business/australias-banking-sector-is-as-strong-as-a-brick-outhouse-20090506-avdj.html
Producers do not want to produce too much, lest there be waste. Consumers do not want to spend too much, because their resources (for most people anyway) are inherently scarce.
Hayek makes the point about there being different types of knowledge. In his free market economy free from centralized planning, he argues that each individual has different knowledge -- each specializes. This allows the millions of people who are making economic decisions to have the ability to gather and process as much information as possible. ith more information, better decisions are made. By delegating decision-making to millions of economic actors, each operating within their own specific area of expertise, decisions are going to be better. They will be based on more information and more specialized knowledge to interpret that information.
He argues that economic planning inherently must be based on cycles, such that there is day-to-day adjustments. Such a situation…
Hayek, F. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. The American Economic Review. Vol. 35 (4) 519-530.
A price discrimination strategy is one where different customers are charged different amounts. The price charged for my shop's submarine sandwiches will therefore be different for locals than for visitors. There are a number of ways to achieve this. In the context of a sandwich shop, the prices are going to be listed publicly on the menu, so it is impossible to openly discriminate with respect to prices. One technique that can be utilized to lower the average cost for each sub-for locals is to offer a loyalty card. The local would then receive either a discount or a free sub-after making enough purchases. This would deliver a lower price to locals in the long run. Alternately, a loyalty club can allow the locals to receive discounts if they are members of the club. A certain amount of annual sales would be required for club membership, or even a…
Investopedia. (2010). Perfect competition. Investopedia. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp
ACC. (2010). U.S. antitrust agencies issue revised merger guidelines. Association of Corporate Counsel. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=cf23ba87-0ed6-4db5-9739-d7cf74bcdf8f
To understand this, consider when the curve begins on the upside. At that point, the firm may need a new factory, increasing AC beyond a certain point of output; or other inefficiencies could emerge relating to the costs of managing a larger organization. Essentially, on the downside efficiencies are improving as the output nears capacity. When output hits capacity, the LRAC begins to move upwards again.
5. The new camera explain is part of price discrimination and there are three distinct factors at work when considering this form of price discrimination. The first is strictly marketing -- when new technology arrives in the marketplace the first buyers are typically early adopters. These are more driven by the technology than by the price, so they have low price sensitivity. Firms take advantage of this by charging more, to recoup more of their investment as early as possible.
The second reason is…
Increases in manufacturing reveal benefits early, one can track the benefit at all stages and report the benefits to the public quickly. According to a statement released by the Center for American Progress, "solar panels don't install themselves. Wind turbines don't manufacture themselves. Homes and buildings don't retrofit or weatherize themselves. In our industrial society, trees don't even PLANT themselves, anymore. eal people must do all of that work." The public wants a quick fix, they want to start hearing that the economy is doing better and a focus on manufacturing will accomplish this. Additionally, there has been increasing pressure on the White House to focuses on alternative energy sources. Such a policy would gain favor with democratic and liberal environmentalists.
4. Do you consider your views to be more aligned with a classical or Keynesian approach to economic thinking? Explain. (There is no right or wrong answer). See module…
Chea S., (2010). "Manufacturers' Orders as an Economic Indicator." Associated Content February, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2685879/manufacturers_orders_as_an_economic_pg2.html?cat=3 .
Federal Reserve bank of New York. Durable Goods. Retrieved from http://www.newyorkfed.org/education/bythe.html#durgoods .
Hoexter, M., (2009). "Cap and Trade: An Unserious Policy Framework.. Towards a Serious Climate Policy -- Part 2."Climate Policy, Energy Policy, Sustainable Thinking, December 2009.
Podesta, J., Stern T., (2007). "Capturing the Energy Opportunity: Creating a Low-Carbon Economy." The Center for American Progress, Nov. 2007. Retrieved http://www.americanprogress.org .
Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.
A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:
ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).
A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…
Budowsky, B., January 22, 2008, the Economic Crisis, the Hill
Kilmister, a., December 2008, the Economic Crisis and Its Effects, World Economy, No. 407
Miller, J., Jackson, B., Who Cause the Economic Crisis? The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania
http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/who_caused_the_economic_crisis.html , last accessed on January 7, 2009
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…
Cox, W. & Alm, R. (2013). Creative destruction. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html
Eichengreen, B. (2010). The crisis of financial innovation. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~eichengr/crisis_finan_innov.pdf
Isfeld, G. (2012). Canada's banks shake off global sector crisis. Financial Post. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://business.financialpost.com/2012/10/10/canadas-banks-shake-off-global-sector-crisis/
Liu, H. (2008). Too big to fail moral hazard. Asia Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JI23Dj12.html
e. D (0), the cost of fighting crime / proportion of corrections i.e. C (P0) and the crimes / social costs / negative impacts on to offender i.e. FO. These different elements are important, because the combination of them is helping us to understand the total impact of crime and punishment on the economy.
As a result, these different factors are used in a basic formula to comprehend the effects of social phenomenon and crime on the economy. elow is the equation that is used to objectively evaluate what is occurring.
L (social / economic impact) = D (0) + C (P0) + FO
This formula is important, because it is providing us with a basic strategy that can be used to objectively evaluate the how crime and punishment are impacting society. Once this occurs, is when we can see the total economic impact of this on communities and the…
Becker, Gary. "Crime and Punishment." The Journal of Political Economy 76.2 (1968), 169 -- 217. Print.
ESRD patients provide the full fixed cost payment due to the full reimbursement for their care. Long-term care facilities would like to have 100% ESRD patients however, such a patient load does require skilled workers in numbers to care for these especially demanding patients.
ESRD includes the ADL's and care specific to kidney cleaning and functioning, such as dialysis treatment either at home or at an outpatient facility. Additionally, some patients are brought in as in-patients at the hospital for ESRD treatment and some patients are admitted and remain admitted at a hospital until discharged. These patients either receive home care treatment, receive treatment at an outpatient facility, or are admitted to a long-term care facility.
Patient options & trade-offs related to cost, quality, and access to treatment
The patient has somewhat limited options as a function of the cost, quality, and access to health care. Largely, the options are…
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EMC Corp. (MA)
Fixed and Variable Cost Analysis
The following table defines the fixed and variable costs associated with the new venture. At a minimum to create an enterprise-wide content management system that has the ability to manage per-content transactions, it costs approximately $1.5M. SG&A at $200K and Marketing at $120K are all fixed as this is needed to launch the company. Variable costs are all defined on a per customer engagement model.
Next, benchmarks comparing the dominant competitors in the web content management arena who could easily move into the monetization market are analyzed in Table 2.
Financial Analysis of Enterprise Content Management Systems Competitors -- Industry benchmarks
Operating Income - 2008
Net Income - 2008
Gross Margin % - 2008
Inventory Turnover - 2008…
Hall, E.. (2010, March). Lessons for U.S. media from European paid-content plays. Advertising Age, 81(9), 10.
Ives, N.. (2009, August). Before you base your business plan on paid content, read this. Advertising Age, 80(27), 1,20.
Peter Kafka. (2002, April). Partial Pay Dirt. Forbes, 169(10), 090-091.
William H. Manz. (2000). Floating "free" in cyberspace: Law reviews in the Internet era. St. John's Law Review, 74(4), 1069-1086.
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.
Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly…
Ashton, T.S., the Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, Oxford University Press, 1997
Buer, M.C., Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, Routledge, 1926
Hunter, J., Institutional Change in Meiji Japan: Image and Reality, Routledge, 2005
Kinzley, W.D., Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, the Historian, Volume 66, 2004
To that end, patients who opt to pay more are likely to have better access to treatment; meaning, essentially, that patients who choose to go with commercial healthcare providers will have more accessibility and better quality of treatment as opposed to those who depend upon CSM or the government. Patients who go with a commercial healthcare provider such as Fresenius, for example, may be paying considerably more than someone whose costs are financed by CMS or the government. However, that person will certainly be granted treatment (particularly if it involves dialysis), although the expenses will be considerable for medication such as erythropoietin. However, those who opt for CMS or governmental services have to cope with the fact that the former organization is treating fewer and fewer of its population for ESD, while those relying on the government may well see the effects of cost shifting. Those fortunate enough to in…
Milstead, J.A. (2007). Health Policy and Politics: A Nurses Guide. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett.
Summary: This paper examines the financial repercussions of providing health care services within the United States. Specifically, it analyzes information regarding reimbursement practices and quality of service to patients who have been diagnosed with End Stage Renal Disease. A number of options for treatment are elucidated in terms of their quality and cost, as the inherent tradeoff between accessibility to services and the price required to gain such accessibility that is endemic throughout the health care industry is significantly demonstrated.
We don't look at their psychological well-being. it's almost as though, psychologically, they're a blank. And we know very little about the differences among black women. Some cope better than others. We don't know who they are, why they cope better, what resources they have access to. If we can understand that, then we can understand the needs of those who cope less well. What I am finding so far is that almost all the mothers in my study, when asked whether they would prefer employment to public assistance, say they would rather have a job. However, having a job is very difficult for this group of mothers because it is difficult for them to find and keep jobs that support them and provide adequate benefits. And there's another consideration: When we say we're going to put these women to work, what is it going to mean in terms of…
The Impact of the Welfare State on the American Economy (1995) Joint Economic Committee Study. December 1994. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.house.gov/jec/welstate/vg-1/vg-1.htm
Paternal State, the Liberal State, and the Welfare State (nd) Online available at http://www.friesian.com/freestat.htm
Overview of the Nixon-Ford Administration at the Department of Labor 1969-1977 (1977) U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Managementy. 20 Oct 2007. Online available at http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/webid-nixonford.htm
Social Work Experts Predict: Disaster With a Ray of Hope (1996) Columbia University Record -- September 20, 1996 -- Vol. 22, No. 3. Online available at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol22/vol22_iss4/Welfare_Reform.html
Economics can be considered as the study of the allocation of scarce resources that have potential alternative uses among the competing and virtually limitless want of consumers in society. The allocation of resources is necessary both at an individual and societal level. Economics considers the manner in which people are organized for economic tasks. Economics is applicable everywhere. Economics should be thought of in all the aspects rather than considering the things in the way they already are. This particular proposal explains the reason cars have their fuel doors on different sides. People line up and fuel their cars at the petrol station. However, it is noteworthy that some cars have their fuel filler door on the side of the driver while others have their fuel filler opening on the side of the passenger. This might be perceived as a normal aspect but is largely linked to economics.…
Frank, R. (2009). Why Do Cars Have Fuel Doors on Different Sides? PBS Newshour. Retrieved 28 October, 2015 from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/why-do-cars-have-fuel-doors-on/
Lanteri, A., Vromen, J. (2014). The Economics of Economists: Institutional Setting, Individual Incentives and Future Prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mankiw, N. (2012). Principles of Economics. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Marshall, A. (2013). Principles of Economics. New York: Palgrave MacMilan.
The paper also focuses on discussing the links between women's education and matters like reproduction and employment, backed up by a series of data supporting the affirmations made in this paper. All in all, the paper presents a series of facts, data, implications that this matter has and connections with other issues, which are useful for anyone trying to find new and accurate information and comments on women education.
4. The paper provides a very clear image on how things stand with education in MENA countries. The article teaches the reader that education has more implications and more significant effects than one may consider before reading the article. For example, improved education leads to eliminating gender gaps. Gender gaps are probably the main reason responsible for discriminating women's role in the society and for denying them rights to education and other rights empowered by education. The lack of education has…
1. Roudi-Fahimi, Farzaneh & Moghadam, Valentine M. (2003). Empowering Women, Developing Society: Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa.
(Drawing the Line on Energy) the newly emerging economies are also trying to find more and more oil for their economies to advance rapidly.
There is a lot of difference among the countries in terms of the amount they produce and in terms of the quantities they export. In terms of production the order is Saudi Arabia, United States, ussia, Iran, Mexico, China, Norway, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, United Kingdom, Kuwait and Nigeria. In terms of exports, the order is Saudi Arabia, ussia, Norway, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Kuwait, Nigeria, Mexico, Algeria and Libya. It is clear that USA does not export as it consumes all the quantities that it produces. The need is for USA is to ensure that it gets all the oil it needs and that was probably the reason to attack Iraq. One of the persons contributing to that view was the Vice President…
Petroleum. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum#Future_of_oilAccessed on 6 May, 2005
Brooke, James. Drawing the Line on Energy. New York Times. 29 March 2005. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/naha.htm . Accessed on 6 May, 2005
Romero, Simon. Spanish Seek Oil Off Cuba, as Americans Watch Silently. New York Times. 6 July 2004. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/romero.htm . Accessed on 6 May, 2005
Sachs, Jeffrey. America's disastrous energy plan. Financial Times. 22 December 2003. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/energy/costs.htm . Accessed on 6 May, 2005
Making the punishment for such offenses an inability to access the Internet, however, begins to deprive citizens of their rights. The Internet may hold access to illegal movies and music, but it also holds a wealth of information, including blogs, news, educational information, and personal information. Depriving a person of the use of the Internet is essentially depriving him or her of access to libraries, to free speech, and to freedom of information. People who steal money from houses are not barred from living in them, nor are those who steal books forbidden from libraries. The punishment for copyright crimes via the Internet should be the same as these crimes have ever been, a fine. If one person steals another's property, the thief should have to pay; he or she should not be deprived of the right of speech and information.
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16).…
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16). Retrieved 21 April 2009, from The
Economist. Web Site: http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=13496729&source=hptextfeature
The Partnership between Microsoft and Apple after Microsoft had faced tough anti-trust scrutiny is an example of monopolistic competition. Microsoft and Apple produce products that are not perfect substitutes of each other. In fact, the products are perceived to be different to all other brands products. Microsoft's products include Microsoft Office and the IE products. Apple on the other hand had MAC operating system (Kawamoto, Heskett & icciuti, 1997). Microsoft had to preserve competiveness in the industry to comply with antitrust laws and to ensure that there was no unfair competition in this industry as to limit consumers from making informed choices on what kind of products they should go for and at what prices. Microsoft wanted to develop and ship future versions of its MS Office, internet explorer, and development tools to Macintosh. In the event that Apple did not survive Microsoft would not have kept antitrust charges…
Kawamoto, D., Heskett, B. & Ricciuti, M. (August 6, 1997). Microsoft to invest $150 million in Apple. CNETNews.
Slide Share Inc. (2013). Market Structure. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Leephen/market-structure-n3
Of course, in recent years, this power has been diluted somewhat thanks to the rise of collective bargaining. Nonetheless, the fact that for so many years baseball has been characterized as a game rather than interstate commerce worked to the benefit of the industry as a whole.
If the exemption were repealed, apparently only possible through act of Congress, players and teams could sue the league if their movements were restricted and limitations placed on their ability to conduct business for themselves (Rovell). MLB could still manage how teams and players moved, but the repeal of the exemption would eliminate their absolute control over these movements. Obviously, this would have a significant impact on the baseball industry, but would not be necessarily devastating. Other sports have persisted despite not having antitrust exemptions, so there is little reason to expect that baseball couldn't adapt as well.
Belth, Alex. "Ending…
Belth, Alex. "Ending Baseball's Antitrust Exemption." Baseball Prospectus. 26 Nov. 2001. 15 July 2008 http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/econ352jpw/readme/Baseball%20Prospectus%20-%20Ending%20Baseball%27s%20Antitrust%20Exemption.htm .
Greenberg, David. "Baseball's Con Game." Slate. 19 July 2002. 15 July 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2068290/ .
Morrissey, Mo. "Baseball Labor Relations: Anti-Trust Exemptions & the Reserve Clause." Associated Content. 19 Oct. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/421296/baseball_labor_relations_antitrust.html .
Rovell, Darren. "Baseball's Antitrust Exemption: Q & a." ESPN: Baseball. 6 Dec. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://espn.go.com/mlb/s/2001/1205/1290707.html .
Fiscal and Monetary Issues in America
There are high tensions in the American economy today resulting from speculations whether the government will be able to hit the debt ceiling. Failure to hit the debt ceiling has serious economic effects to many sectors of the economy both in the United States and various countries of the world. Political disagreements regarding the budget delay decision-making process as the date ceiling draws closer each day. The government debt will cause disruption and failures in the U.S. market system and beyond because some rates will double while others will completely fall. The consequences of these are both the government and private sector failures and the economy will not be in a position to sustain itself. Government securities will lose market value and the cost of bonds will double because of the risk premiums. The result of this is government deficits, which will require…
Eichner, A.S., & Kregel, J.A. (1975). An essay on post-Keynesian theory: a new paradigm in economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 13 (4), 1293-1314.
Moseley, F. (1995). Heterodox Economic Theories: True or False?. Brookfield: Edward Edger
Lee, F & Bekken, J. (2009). Radical Economics and Labor. New York: Routledge Publishing.
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery. This is an important factor that should be stressed as it has direct implications in terms of the economic aspects of disaster recovery planning in an increasingly networked and technologized contemporary working environment. This aspect is cogently expressed in a White Paper on this issue.
Many organizations have strong business recovery plans for their mainframe and mini-computer systems. but, as more and more critical applications are migrated to distributed systems, companies are becoming concerned about how they can protect these systems in the event of a disaster. Chances of a disaster increase significantly as systems are moved away from traditional central computer facilities that have hardened security and environmental controls.
(Disaster ecovery - a White Paper)
This emphasizes a cardinal issue…
Bielski, L. (2002). Thinking the Unthinkable: Often Dismissed as Mere "Insurance," Disaster Recovery Ought to Be Considered Part of the Lifeblood of Any Business. ABA Banking Journal, 94(1), 44+.
This article focuses on the subject of disaster management in the banking industry. It provides insight into actual situations where disaster recovery plans were effective in preventing large-scale economic loss. It also provides examples of what can occur when there is a poor or recovery plan. This is also a good background study that provides insight into the economic effects and implications of disaster in the it context.
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+.
This was a very useful article in that it provided an extensive and well written overview of issues surrounding disaster recovery and management. The article was particularly focused on the effects and implications in economic terms of the failure of disaster management planning. These aspects were compared to the effect of good and well thought out disaster planning.
Employer's Attitude: Their Perception And Awareness About Disability
Organizations have a lot to gain from employing people with disabilities, as that improves the perception of the masses and clients alike as being sensitive, reasonable, and conscientious. The team has to be led from the front in this regard by the employers: the heads of the organization (Siperstein, omano, Mohler, & Parker, 2005). The growing demand for labor supply in the 21st century cannot be ignored any longer. The labor market is getting tighter with the supply diminishing owing to many factors (Copeland, 2007). Employers have to consider the fact that employing people with disabilities is not simply a good business and economic decision; it is also a way of building up the reputation of their organization.
The facts point to a scenario where the population growth will be slower than at any previous time. The couple of decades to follow…
Braddock, D., & Bachelder, L. (1994, February 24). The Glass Ceiling and Persons With Disabilities. Federal Publications. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace
Bullock, R., Jr. (1993, February). Tax provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (Federal Taxation) [online journal]. Retrieved May 23, 2015, from http://www.cpajournal.com/old/13808661.htm
Conlin, M. (2000, March 20). The New Workforce. Businessweek Online. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_12/b3673022.htm
Cook, J.A., & Burke, J. (2002). Public policy and employment of people with disabilities: exploring new paradigms. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 20(6), 541 -- 557. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.515
Economic Decision Making
Economic decisions are first and foremost influenced by the dividends an individual stands to lose or gain with the choices they make. Because economics are the basis of individual well-being, people must prioritize time and spending, weigh the intensity of wants against the implications of needs, and carefully consider disruptions to earning potential as this most directly impacts each of the aforementioned categories. As detailed by N. Gregory Mankiw, the four basic principles of economic decision making include that all individuals face trade-offs; In order to make gains, some commodity or quality is often lost -- the most common loss includes the trading of money for goods. Next, Mankiw exerts that the cost of something is what you give up to get it, implying that all gains come at a price that extends beyond their monetary value to include time and effort spent. Third, Mankiw explains that…
Gregory, N. (2008). Principles of macroeconomics. South-Western Pub. 5-13
In fact, Brierly and Costello bring into the argument the three variables commonly associated with industry growth -- labor, Capital, and Technology. Brierly and Costello used time series regression to test each of these variables in order to determine which made the largest impact on state economic growth, while holding the caveat that states should be careful when considering these variables as they do not have much control over them. Brierly and Costello's results suggested that increasing labor had larger impacts on state economic development than increases in the other two variables. This conclusion is correct only for the short-term, however. In fact, Brierly and Costello's reasoning for their findings that neither increases in labor or technology result in economic growth for states because their investments are typically more "long-term" (Brierly and Costello).
Instead of simply relying on capital, however, ichard C. Feiock argues that non-traditional methods can be beneficial…
1. Trogen, Paul. Which Economic Development Policies Work? Determinants of State Per Capita Income.
2. Feiock, Richard. Development Policy Competition and Positive Sum Growth: Incentive Competition and it's Alternatives.
3. Bronson, Allen and Robert Costelb. Accounting for State Economic Performance: A Time Series Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Limits of State Economic Policy.
4. Wilson, James: An Institutionalist Take on State Activism in Economic Development: A Theoretical System.
In the future, the politicians could support an agenda promoting the national manufacturers in an attempt to reduce imports and increase exports. The direct impact for the mechanic could be that he might have more work in the future.
Another example of how the book is useful is given by the need or desire to understand the features of the contemporaneous economic crisis. Despite the fact that the media present apocalyptic stories of today's financial challenges, a reading of Clayton and Giesbrecht's book would reveal that the economy has often been confronted with challenging times and that times of economic boom and recession are normal. Otherwise put, a Guide to Everyday Economic Statistics would help the reader understand the cyclic character of an economy and he would as such be less pessimistic. Listening only to the media coverage of one bankruptcy following another would definitely take a negative toll on…
traditional, neoclassical school of economic modeling prescribes a "recipe for economic growth." Economic growth is a process of moving resources from low growth, agricultural areas to higher growth, industrial areas. The neoclassical school also does not see anything slowing the progress of moving from low growth to high growth areas. The neoclassical model in the form of Harrod-Domar model assumes that an increase in savings and investment will lead to economic development. Even though productivity is improved employment does not increase and income does not improve so correspondingly demand for products does not occur. Government intervention has hampered economic development by funneling resources into the wrong types of industries. Instead of taking advantage of industries where a country has a relative advantage, resources have gone to industries that the government wants to develop. One area where the removal of restrictions is essential is in the area of international trade. Increasing…
Once again however, Shengxia and Baije do not explain their arguments nor do they show exactly how the Chinese GDP evened out the trade balance with the U.S., nor how it supported the economy of its regional neighbors.
In terms of the elements threatening the future stability of the country and its economy, the authors point out that the Chinese authorities have been quick to identify these threats; they will as such address them in an efficient manner. They will for instance instate regulations capping the levels of loans to be granted to the population with the specific aim of reducing inflation and over-consumption. Examples of such measures include the limitation of the bank loans to a 7.5 million Yuan for the year, and a rumored 0.27% increase in the interest rates. At this stage, it is however unclear what exact measures the officials will take, and if these are…
1. Shengxia, S., Baijie, A., January 23, 2010, Still Rolling: China's GDP Hits 8.7%, Alibaba, http://news.alibaba.com/article/detail/business-in-china/100237200-1-still-rolling%253A-china%2527s-gdp-hits.html last accessed on January 25, 2010
2. Chinability, 2009, http://www.chinability.com/GDP.htm last accessed on January 25, 2010
Economic forecasting refers to the process of trying to predict the future state of the economy through a series of different indicators. This process helps to understand the probable future of a nation’s economy and for policymaking to help promote economic growth. When developing an economic forecast, various macroeconomic factors/conditions are taken into consideration. This paper provides an economic forecast of the U.S. economy based on recent economic indicators in 2017 and 2018.
Based on seasonally adjusted annual rates in the fourth quarter of 2017, the gross domestic product growth rate is expected to increase moderately in the first quarter of 2018. As shown in these indicators and based on recent macroeconomic conditions, GDP growth rate in the first quarter of this year is expected to be approximately 2.8%. Additionally, GDP growth rate will continue to increase moderately in the second half of the year to exceed 3.0%.
In the period between 2002 and 2012, Australia experienced a mining boom; a period in which the level of exports increased more than threefold and also the investment made in mining as a percentage of the nation’s GDP increasing from 2 percent to 8 percent. Imperatively, during the mining boom period, there was a significant increase in demand for minerals. This is because of the demand for minerals not only locally but also internationally. Therefore, this caused a rightward shift in the demand curve. This leads to the positioning of a new equilibrium price. The comparative theory best explains the exportation of minerals by Australia and the importation of other commodities from other nations. In this regard, Australia is considered to have a comparative advantage in the production of minerals because it can produce minerals at a relatively lower opportunity cost compared to China. Another aspect that was influenced…
First, it is crucial that we calculate the Q. value in order to find the elasticities of the other independent variables. This can be done by plugging in the assigned values for each of the independent variables provided by the problem case study. According to the research, "price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in quantity demanded as a result of a 1% change in price" (Fibich, 2005). Thus, it can be determined with the following equations:
Q= -5,200-42P + 20Px +5.2Y + 0.20A + 0.25M
Q= -5,200-42(500) + 20(600) + 5.2(5,500) + 0.20(10,000) + 0.25(5,000)
Price of Product (P)
ED=?P / ?Q x P/Q
=-42 x 500/17,650
Price of Competitor's Product (Px)
ED=?Px / ?Q x Px/Q
=20 x 600/17,650
Per Capita Income (Y)
ED=?Q / ?Y x Y/Q
=5.2 x 5,500 / 17,650
Monthly Advertising Expenditure (A)
ED=?A / ?Q…
Fibich, GGadi. (2005). The dynamics of price elasticity of demand in the presence of reference price effects. Web. http://www.math.tau.ac.il/~fibich/Manuscripts/elasticity_JAMS.pdf
Saunders, Jim. (2013). Pricing for long-term profit and growth. Pricing Solutions. Web. http://www.pricingsolutions.com/index.php/en/publications/published-pricing-articles/19-publications/published-art/31-pricing-for-long-term-profit-and-growth
Vogt, Crystal. (2014). What factors force a shift in the demand curve? Small Business Chronicle. Web. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/factors-force-shift-demand-curve-25441.html
TAXATION IS THEFT?
When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called: theft. You do not only receive sympathy from the public, but are also found entitled to police support and protection. The city administration upon learning of the incident would most certainly show some anxiety over deteriorating law and order situation and the government would certainly criticize the thug's immoral act.
However lets just suppose that Sam the mugger wants you money again. But this time, some respectable people like senators, parliamentarians, Congressmen etc., accompany him. Instead of the gun, he carries an official letter that says certain percentage of your hard earned money is now his. The tone remains the same i.e. threatening. You give him money O ... The dire consequences of not complying with his 'request' are repeated reiterated…
1) Chris R. Tame: Taxation is Theft, a publication of the Libertarian Alliance: Retrieved online 29th September 2004: http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/polin/polin044.pdf .
2) Cohen, G.A. 1995. Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3) Mill, John Stuart. 1970 Principles of Political Economy (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.
4) Pollock, Lansing 1996 The Free Society. Westview Press. Boulder.
Economics of Forestry
Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…
Bradley, Dennis. "One of two parts of a chapter on EE for the Ecosystem Stewardship."
Workshop held in Tucson Arizona, December 4-14, 1995.
Bradley, D.P. Xu, Zhi, and Lewis, B.J. "Forests as Natural Capital: Parallels, Problems, and Implications." Unpublished paper: NCFES, Forest Service, USDA, St. Paul, Minn. 43
Bradley, D. And D. Lothner (ed.). "Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
Those who work domestically may not have the foresight or skill as do those who work within the target country. This can be particularly profitable if the product developed is one that has not be thought of before. By being the first mover, Kmart can capture market share unabated by competition that will undoubtedly ravage margins and potential profit. This flexibility is also helpful as a feedback mechanism in regards to product offerings within a particular country. For reasons of religion, customs, or societal pressures, many products offered in America may not be desirable in foreign countries. From Kmart's perspective this can have an adverse effect on earnings and customer satisfaction. As a result, it will be important for Kmart to outsource this service to become better informed about the merits of a particular country. By using foreign know how, and product specifications, Kmart can be a better position to…
Instead, critical theorists would focus on the facts of the situation and the possibilities for the future. If public programs are going under-funded, then resources need to be used more effectively and quite likely more money will be needed, plain and simple. onvincing a population of taxpayers of this might be easier said than done, but if higher taxes are needed to keep public education worthwhile than a critical theorist (who approved of public education) would say so be it. As far as the social issues go, a critical theorist would certainly be vocal in demanding more resolute answers to the listed issues. Whether the sociologist were for or against gay marriage, marijuana use, or closed borders, they would not let their attention be shifted away from these important social considerations by the relatively easy task of appropriating necessary funds for schools and roads.
Functionalism, a different sociological theory, takes…
Critical theory would not necessarily care to establish whether or not there was any sort of relationship -- causal or otherwise -- between the two phenomenon. Instead, critical theorists would focus on the facts of the situation and the possibilities for the future. If public programs are going under-funded, then resources need to be used more effectively and quite likely more money will be needed, plain and simple. Convincing a population of taxpayers of this might be easier said than done, but if higher taxes are needed to keep public education worthwhile than a critical theorist (who approved of public education) would say so be it. As far as the social issues go, a critical theorist would certainly be vocal in demanding more resolute answers to the listed issues. Whether the sociologist were for or against gay marriage, marijuana use, or closed borders, they would not let their attention be shifted away from these important social considerations by the relatively easy task of appropriating necessary funds for schools and roads.
Functionalism, a different sociological theory, takes a different view of the situation. This framework sees all the part of a society as dependent on each other, with changes in one area creating changes in the system. Like other theorists, functionalists would want to address both issues, but they would think it necessary to do so as a whole. The granting of citizenship to illegal immigrants, for instance, could greatly increase tax revenue, which could be used to pay for the public education and health care that many illegal immigrants now receive on some level without paying for it at all. Gay marriage would increase the number of people eligible for healthcare through their spouses, which would change healthcare costs as well. In the functionalist perspective, there are no separate issues.
Implications of DoD Force eduction Plan
Defense budget spending: The inevitable need for reductions
Cuts in the defense budget are inevitable for the Department of Defense and it must accept this fact. Given the burgeoning deficit, reductions in tax revenue, and increased need for social services (such as unemployment assistance and entitlement programs), the Department of Defense must find ways to do 'more with less.' Granted, this will be challenging, given the current demands of modern warfare, but the Department must meet this challenge rather than attempt to lobby against such legislative initiatives. The "2011 Budget Control reduce[s] Defense Department future expenditures by approximately $487 billion over the next decade... Achieving these savings is hard, but manageable. It is hard because we have to accept many changes and reductions in areas that previously were sacrosanct" (Defense budget priorities and choices, 2012, Department of Defense: 2). Ultimately, rather than…
Defense budget priorities and choices. (2012). Department of Defense. Retrieved:
Frank, Barney. (2012) Why Obama can -- and must -- cut defense spending. The Atlantic.
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
marketing data collected to analyze the economic performance of the Hideaway Hotel. It consists of annual and monthly economic data, a forecast of next year's performance, and an interpretation of statistical data gathered from the hotel's guests. It also includes a break-even analysis and suggestions to the firm that will help to restore its profitability.
Collect data on the main macro indicators and assess current macroeconomic conditions. Describe briefly the expected impact of these on sales and costs of the business.
he Economist Intelligence Unit expects continued fiscal operating surpluses over the next several years, but also maintains that increases in government spending are not likely as the government focuses on building up the new pension fund. his fund should put more money in the hands of pensioners, who regularly go on seaside vacations. he Economist expects GDP growth to slow from 2.7% in 2003 to 2.5% in 2004, but…
The margins of error were acceptable in analysing the sample: most of the variables consisted of small numbers (between one and five) and the sample size was 200, which is adequate for the determination of data. Population analyses were not used to analyze data for the American guests. The numbers were normally distributed and I was able to interpret customer data with a reasonable amount of certainty.
Statistical data shows that the firm consistantly operates at a loss during the fall and winter months. The modal motel guest is from New Zealand, consists of a couple with a child, and spends two days at the motel. The modal guest is extremely likely to eat at the restaurant and somewhat unlikely to engage in other activities such as sailing. Principal expenses are related to staffing. If the hotel were to close its doors during the winter or limit operation to being open on the weekend, revenues would be slightly better than they are now.
Information that would still be of interest includes that regarding monthly data for 2001; between 2001 and 2002 profitability slumped considerably. This could be the result of several reasons; one is probably the failure of the organization to attract return visitors from New Zealand. A future study would determine the cost of mothballing the Motel during the winter as it is immensely unprofitable during that time. In some months, losses exceed costs not related to labor.
Economic inequality refers to the situation whereby wealth, assets or wealth are not distributed equally among individuals within a group, among some groups within a population or even among countries. Economic inequality is also described as income inequality, gap between the rich and poor, wealth and income differences and inequitable distribution of wealth. This issue of economic inequality can imply various notions such as equality of outcome, equality and the equality of opportunities. There exist differing opinions on the importance of economic inequality and the impact it has. There are some studies which have put emphasis on inequality as being a social problem. Whereas some inequality might promote investment, when it is too much inequality can end up being destructive. Though income inequality hinders long-term growth, it can also help long-term growth. Economic inequality differs between different societies, historical periods, and the existing economic systems and structures. This paper will…
Krugman, P. (2014). Why we're in a New Gilded Age. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/may/08/thomas-piketty-new-gilded-age/
Domhoff, W. (2009). Wealth, Income and Power. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
Madrick, J. (2013). Inequality is Not the Problem. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2014/apr/24/inequality-not-problem/?insrc=
Hacker, A. (2012). We're More Unequal than you Think. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/feb/23/were-more-unequal-you-think/?insrc=rel
The newly independent states were generally rated according to high level of political, economic or social risk (not entirely untrue), which meant that the levels of interest were generally extremely high. Even more, the sums paid for interest would generally surpass the actual funds that had been received. This meant that, instead of focusing the country's resources on development and internal projects, most of it had to be spent paying off debts which were not even viable and extremely costly.
On the other hand, from an international perspective, international debt is something fundamentally essential to the financial markets. Money is made to circulate and move around, which means that entities need to be connected to the financial markets, borrow on the open markets and use that money to create added value and generate more cash flow. The fact that, in many cases in the developing world, this mechanism was in…
1. Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hitman. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
2. Herz, Noreena. The Debt Threat: How Debt is Destroying the Developing World. Democracy Now! January 2005.
3. Strange, S. (1986) Casino Capitalism, Oxford, OUP
4. Block, F. (1997). The Origins of International Economic Disorder.
As the worldwide economic crisis of 2008 demonstrated, the economies of governments the world over are highly interdependent. Within this context, the World Trade Organization is coming under closer scrutiny. Negotiations are repeatedly failing and governments continue to violate commitments under WTO agreements with a dispute resolution process many countries find unsatisfactory. This paper reviews both the theoretical and practical economic and political implications of the faltering -yet ongoing -DOHA Round trade liberalization negotiations.
Recent WTO Negotiations: Seattle, Cancun, and Doha
Difficulties during WTO negotiations over the last decade can be attributed to three primary factors: the sheer numbers of member countries who all want to actively participate, the divergent interests between developed and developing nations, and finally the bureaucratic and management complications which arise from the increasing scope of WTO regulations. The most recent round of trade negotiations in the WTO began in the winter of 2001 in…
Clapp, J., 2006. WTO Agriculture Negotiations: Implications for the Global South. Third World Quarterly, 27(4), pp. 563-577.
Couglin, C.C., 2010. Measuring international trade policy: A primer on trade restrictiveness indices. Review, 92(5), pp. 381-394.
Cuyvers, L., Dumont, M., Rayp, G., and Stevens, Katrien, 2003. Wage and Employment Effects in the EU of International Trade with the emerging economies. Review of World Economics, 139(2), pp. 248-275.
Devadoss, S., Sridharan, P., aAnd Wahl, T., 2009. Effects of trade barriers on U.S. And would apple markets. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics. 57(1), pp. 55-73.
In other words, these companies expand their business, reach a peak in their business activity, and then go through a period of recession, followed by a period of business expansion, and so on.
It is important that companies understand that the economic sector they represent follows the same business cycle. Therefore, it is difficult for companies to expand their business during periods of recession in the economic sector they represent. But they can expand their business during recession periods of other business sectors, represented by products from indirect competition. This situation can be observed in McDonald's situation.
This can be an explanation of the fact that the company's sales have significantly increased during the crisis. The incomes of most people have been reduced, which means that their purchasing behavior has modified. In such cases, people usually spend less. This means that they purchase less, or they purchase cheaper products. In…
The Limitations of the National Income Accounts in How They Represent Our Standard of Living
The national income accounts have been the center piece in all matters concerning economics across the globe. These rules are a primary source of reference in determining the economic status of a given nation. It is the most preferred indicator of the rate of improvement and making comparison across nations. However, it is not the perfect indicator for the economic state due to its limitations that give a false image of the highlighted economy (McEachern, 448).
To start with, the national income accounts do not include other financial details such as the non-market productions in a given country. These include activities such as preparations in various productions. For instance, in preparing food in a restaurant, one does not include the energy used by the person preparing the food before taking it for sale.…
Gwartney, James D., Stroup, Richard L., Sobel, Russell S., & Macpherson, David A. Economics: Private and Public Choice. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008
McEachern, William A. Economics: A Contemporary Introduction. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011.
Tucker, Irvin B. Macroeconomics for Today. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010.
This is because, the efficiencies in the market are: providing no kind of leverage to these individuals. At which point, any kind of advantage that they may have would be eliminated. This is important, because it provides good insights, as to how efficient the markets really are. As a result, this is what will reduce the underlying returns every single year. The author is an economist with Oxford University. (urton 2005)
The article that was written by Chen (2005), discusses how the EMH theory can be able to provide the most relevant information surrounding stocks. Yet, when this was compared against computer-based programs, they were able to identify changes in prices at least 50% of the time. This is important, because it is showing how the changes in the expectations for stocks, can be more accurate when using various programs. Once this takes place, it meant that traders and investors…
Basu, S, 1977, 'Investment Performance of Common Stocks,' Journal of Finance, vol. 32, no. 3, 663 -- 682.
Bont, W, 1985, 'Does the Stock Market Overreact,' Journal of Finance, vol. 11, no. 30, 793 -- 804.
Brenner, M, 1977,'the Effect of Model,' Journal of Finance, vol. 32, no. 1, 57 -- 74.
Brenner, M, 1979,'Sensitivity of the Efficient Markets,' Journal of Finance, vol.34, no.4, 915 -- 933.
This type of policy is aimed at "stimulating total spending in the economy," through cutting taxes to leave businesses and individuals with more money to buy goods, thus raising demand and increasing production and generating increased spending (Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia).
Importantly, the authors note that these budget imbalances will have a significant negative impact on the general economy. They will reduce living standards and damage the economy, and bring the nation to a "real risk of a fiscal crisis" (p. 5). In large part, these effects will come from reducing national saving.
The authors note, however, that all is not lost if action is taken immediately to reduce budget deficits. Gale and Orszag write, "Significant changes in fiscal policy are needed to deal preemptively with the costs from low national saving and the risk of a fiscal crisis. The sooner we begin, the better" (p. 6).
Gale William G. And Orszag, Peter R. 2004. The Budget Outlook: Projections and Implications. The Economists' Voice: Vol. 1: No. 2, Article 6, October 27, 2004. November 2004. http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=ev
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2004. Fiscal Policy. © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 04 November 2004. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579937/Fiscal_Policy.html
Richard Matthews adds to the overall challenge of unbounded growth by providing a contentious work of his own. In his book, Matthews asserts that Thomas Jefferson, one of the most influencing thinkers of our time, was an anti-market theorist. Matthews further asserts that Jefferson was against a market economy with unbounded growth but instead advocated for more controlled economic development.
What is very interesting is that many of these principles seem radical, but given current economic circumstances, their insights may prove correct. One economic issue prevailing in the United States is that of rapid fiscal and monetary stimulus and its inflation implications. Currently, due in part to prevailing market conditions, governments have embarked on a path to massive fiscal ease. Governments, including the United States, Japan, Europe, and China have all engaged in massive stimulus operations. This was bought about primarily due to the growth initiatives of many of the…
Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.
The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…
Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org
Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.
Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.
Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
Technical Analysis in the Implication of Efficient Market Hypothesis on Silver Market
The thesis is for the study of simple commonly used technical trading rules, which are applied on silver market. It covers years 1989 to 2005. A famous study carried out by Lakonishok, Lebaon and in year, 1992 has clearly shown that technical analysis can lead to abnormal prices when compared with buy-and-hold strategy. Other studies have been carried out and found out that technical trading rules cannot over-rule passive investment management strategy. The study uses Brock et al.'s methodology. Several trading rules are discussed (Dawson & Steeley 2003).
In financial theory, efficiency of financial silver market is highly disputed. This has led to many attempts to explain efficiency of silver markets. Eugene.F. Fama formulated the most famous definition in 1970 referred to as the, Efficient Silver market Hypothesis (EHM). The basis of the hypothesis is that…
Alexander, S.S. (1964) 'Price Movements in Speculative Markets: Trends or Random Walks'. Industrial management Review 5 (2), 25-46
Brock, W., Lakonishok, J., & LeBaron, B. (1992) 'Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns'. Journal of finance 4, (5), 1731-1764
Chang, P.H., & Osler, C.L. (1999) 'Methodical Madness: Technical Analysis and the Irrationality of Exchange Rate Forecasts'. Economic Journal 109 (458), 636-661
Dawson, E.R., & Steeley, J. (2003) 'On the Existence of Visual Technical Patterns in the Uk Stock Market'. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 30 (1-2), 263-293