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Economics in the U S A --

Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36632725



Source: The Financial Forecast Center, 2009

Increases in unemployment rate mean that the gambling industry will be faced with fewer customers. This in turn will materialize in reduced sales and profits. If the situation continues to aggravate in the years to come, several players in the gambling industry might have to close their casinos. One must also notice the exceptional situations in which out of job individuals will gamble in the hope of winning some money. However, these instances are reduced and not able to modify the indirect relationship between the evolution of unemployment rate and demand for gambling services. Vice versa, when the unemployment rate decreases and the population enjoys more sources of revenues, the demand for the services of casino clubs increases.

2.3 Inflation rate (consumer price index)

The inflation rate represents the "percentage increase in the price of goods and services, usually annually" (Investor Words, 2009). Within…… [Read More]

References:

Ameristar Casinos Inc., Hoovers, 2009,  http://hoovers.com/ameristar-casinos/--ID__16260,FRIC__  -- /free-co-competition.xhtml last accessed on May 8, 2009

Personal Income and Savings, iCharts, 2009,  http://www.icharts.net/portal/app?service=external&sp=Y37ayiM=&page=Chartdetail  last accessed on May 8, 2009

Investor Words, 2009,  http://investorwords.com  last accessed on May 8, 2009

The Financial Forecast Center, 2009,  http://forecasts.org  last accessed on May 8, 2009
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Economics Most Particularly I Discuss the Economic

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35551436

Economics

Most particularly, I discuss the economic concept of demand and supply and the determinants of both supply and demand. Further, I also discuss in significant detail the meaning of economic indicators as well as monetary and fiscal policy.

Demand and Supply

Supply and demand are considered some of economics' most fundamental concepts. Indeed, they underlie almost every transaction in a market economy. In basic terms, demand according to Boyes and Melvin (2012), is "the amount of a product that people are willing and able to purchase at each possible price during a given period of time…" On the other hand, supply as Boyes and Melvin (2012) point out can be described as "the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a period of time…" It is the interrelation between these two important economic concepts that…… [Read More]

References

Boyes, W. & Melvin, M. (2012). Economics (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Wessels, W.J. (2006). Economics (4th ed.). New York: Barron's Educational Series.
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Economics Course Economics Impacts on Many Areas

Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86387567

Economics Course

Economics impacts on many areas of life subsequently it will impact on many areas of professional life. eflecting on the lessons learned, including the knowledge and skills gained, the real value is in the way that economics concepts can be applied to the real world; not only to explain event that are seen in the macro-environment, but to guide the way personal decisions will be made with that knowledge.

The first indicator of the lessons and concepts taught in the class being absorbed and developing into transferable knowledge has emerged with an increased understanding of the way that the economy operates and the influences which are present in the economy that are driving up prices.

There are many examples of the economic concepts; one example is the way that supply and demand has impacted on oil prices which has had a knock on effect in the economy as…… [Read More]

References

Baye Michael, (2007), Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Greimel, Hans, (2012. April 30), Toyota wants high-volume U.S. Prius output by '15; Hunt is on for N.A. hybrid parts suppliers, Automotive News, p4

Nellis JG, Parker D, (2006), Principles of the Business Economics, London, Prentice Hall.

Scholes, Louise; Siegel Donald S; Wilson, Nick; Wright, Mike, (2012, Feb), Private equity portfolio company performance during the global recession, Journal of Corporate Finance, 18(1), 193.
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Economic Outlook Take Another Look

Words: 830 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79774223

Increases in manufacturing reveal benefits early, one can track the benefit at all stages and report the benefits to the public quickly. According to a statement released by the Center for American Progress, "solar panels don't install themselves. Wind turbines don't manufacture themselves. Homes and buildings don't retrofit or weatherize themselves. In our industrial society, trees don't even PLANT themselves, anymore. eal people must do all of that work." The public wants a quick fix, they want to start hearing that the economy is doing better and a focus on manufacturing will accomplish this. Additionally, there has been increasing pressure on the White House to focuses on alternative energy sources. Such a policy would gain favor with democratic and liberal environmentalists.

4. Do you consider your views to be more aligned with a classical or Keynesian approach to economic thinking? Explain. (There is no right or wrong answer). See module…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Chea S., (2010). "Manufacturers' Orders as an Economic Indicator." Associated Content February, 2010. Retrieved from  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2685879/manufacturers_orders_as_an_economic_pg2.html?cat=3 .

Federal Reserve bank of New York. Durable Goods. Retrieved from  http://www.newyorkfed.org/education/bythe.html#durgoods .

Hoexter, M., (2009). "Cap and Trade: An Unserious Policy Framework.. Towards a Serious Climate Policy -- Part 2."Climate Policy, Energy Policy, Sustainable Thinking, December 2009.

Podesta, J., Stern T., (2007). "Capturing the Energy Opportunity: Creating a Low-Carbon Economy." The Center for American Progress, Nov. 2007. Retrieved  http://www.americanprogress.org .
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Economics UK Economy an Analysis of the

Words: 1009 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7591785

Economics

UK Economy

An analysis of the latest figures for key economic indicators and the factors which have affected these indicators. This should include the figures for unemployment, inflation and economic growth.

Unemployment

The unemployment rate is a very important indicator of the overall health of the economy. Currently the unemployment rate is at 7.8% (Office for National Statistics, 2012). However, this figure does not affect the population equally. Different segments of the population have different employment rates. Furthermore, the unemployment rate does not include people that are not actively seeking employment. In the chart these people are considered to be "inactive." Another interesting item listed in the report is that the unemployment rate for the youth demographic was falling due to a record number of 16 to 24-year-olds being enrolled in some type of educational program.

Employment in the UK has suffered from recession. In 2008 there was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Financial Times, 2013. Question 3: Fiscal Policy. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1115c770-545a-11e2-9d25-00144feab49a.html#axzz2IAShLpER 

[Accessed 1 January 2013].

Kirka, D., 2011. UK recession fears grow as manufacturing drops. [Online]
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Economic Situation Looking at the Economy From

Words: 908 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27289151

Economic Situation

Looking at the economy from a macroeconomic viewpoint means looking at a more broad approach to individual economic factors, weighing those factors, and making a determination as to whether the economy is stable and improving for the populace. Sustainable growth is one of the goals of economic development, and while there are peaks and valleys, the overall level and growth filters down to many factors. A booming economy, for instance, will create money and produce goods and services while affecting GDP, unemployment, inflation, interest rates, and prices. Policy can change these factors, increase or decrease confidence and spending, and the movement of money. However, in the 21st century, economic health is tied not only to countries, but to global issues of import and export, health of other economies, and the combination of factors that has become even more complex (Alesenai, 2003).

In the U.S. economy, most scholars see…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Credit Ratings: How Fitch, Moody's and S&P Rate. (2012). The U.K. Guardian. Retrieved from:  http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/apr/30/credit-ratings-country-fitch-moodys-standard 

Economy at a Glance -- The United States. (2013). U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from:  http://www.bls.gov/ eag/eag.us.htm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Economic Development in Honduras A Banana War

Words: 2008 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90285447

Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy

An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present

In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,

128(4418):23.

Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).

International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.
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Economics Politics Trade Geopolitical Base

Words: 7721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22923523

For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)

At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"

Retrieved at  http://www.oecd.org/document/17/0,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html . Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_GermanyAccessed  on 25 November, 2004
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Economic Situation in the U S as Compared

Words: 1311 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59224956

economic situation in the U.. As compared to five (5) years ago. Include interest rates, inflation, and unemployment in the analysis.

Between 2009-2011, 6.1million workers were displaced from jobs that they held for at least 3 years. In 2012, the statistics for employment seemed to be more optimistic: whilst 1,340 mass layoff actions occurred in July, the Bureau of Labor tatistics (http://www.bls.gov/) reported that productivity increased 2.2% in the nonfarm business sector in the second quarter of 2012 whilst in manufacturing, productivity grew 0.1%. During this same year (2012), demand for employment also grew in wholesale trade and retail trade, whilst employment in the food and drink sector remained constant. The jobless rate as a whole this year has also decreased in a large number of areas whilst from April to July alone employment rose from 2.1 million to 19.5 million.

In June, 2012, the Federal Reserve ystem noted that…… [Read More]

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Economics Finance MBA Level

Words: 13568 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39727750

disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists

Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.

Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.

US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…… [Read More]

References

Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.

Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.

Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.

Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
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Economics of the UAE

Words: 1842 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82788345

Economies of the UAE

Economics of the UAE

Current analysis of UAE Economy

Historical economic aspects

Discussion of basic economic indicators

GDP: per capita GDP; growth rate of GDP

Inflation rate

Budget

Trade balance

Natural / Human resources & Infrastructure

Exchange ate Behavior and Forecasting

Demographics (age distribution)

Short-term and long-term prospects/forecasts for UAE Economy

Current analysis of UAE Economy:

The Persian Gulf states including Abu Dhabi, 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Umm al Qaywayn, and a's al Qaywan are represented as UAE. The states follow an open economic and moderate political policy. The states are rich in oil reserves providing a structured support for their economic and social progress. The strong economic position of the states has enabled them to earn a competing position with the developed western countries. The continuous growth in economy has also enabled the businesses to invest in UAE. The governments of UAE are…… [Read More]

References:

Al-Kaabi, M.K. (2012). The Strategic Alternatives of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disruption of Maritime Traffic in the Arabian Gulf as a result of Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School).

CIA. (2013). The world Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html 

Elbadawi, I.A. (2012). The State of Open Government Data in GCC Countries. In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on e-Government (Vol. 36, No. 41, p. 193). Academic Conferences Limited.

Ramamurti, R., & Singh, J.V. (Eds.). (2009). Emerging multinationals in emerging markets. Cambridge University Press.
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Economic Outlook of the US Economy

Words: 3696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78714332

Summary

Economic forecasting refers to the process of trying to predict the future state of the economy through a series of different indicators. This process helps to understand the probable future of a nation’s economy and for policymaking to help promote economic growth. When developing an economic forecast, various macroeconomic factors/conditions are taken into consideration. This paper provides an economic forecast of the U.S. economy based on recent economic indicators in 2017 and 2018.

Based on seasonally adjusted annual rates in the fourth quarter of 2017, the gross domestic product growth rate is expected to increase moderately in the first quarter of 2018. As shown in these indicators and based on recent macroeconomic conditions, GDP growth rate in the first quarter of this year is expected to be approximately 2.8%. Additionally, GDP growth rate will continue to increase moderately in the second half of the year to exceed 3.0%.

In…… [Read More]

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Economic Development

Words: 2868 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68510566

Kenyan reform policy Successful?

The need for reform in Kenya has been clearly demonstrated. But the question remains, has this reform been successful? The slogan of "Harambe" fueled the passions of the Kenyan people and drove them to strive as one nation to lift themselves up from poverty and oppression. It has been ten years since the last reform and it is now time to look back and see what has been accomplished.

To measure the success of the reforms we will consider several economic indicators both before the reform and after to see how they have changed. Then these factors will be considered as a whole to develop a better outlook on the entire picture. e will consider education, the performance of the industrial sector, the trade and tourism sector, the finance sector, rate of inflation, employment and wages, the agricultural sector, construction, social services and some comments on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Martin. LAND REFORM: NEW SEEDS ON OLD GROUND? Overseas Development Institute. Number 6, October 1995.

African Perspective. Kenya at the Crossroads. Fourth Issue - Winter 2000/2001.  http://www.sis.gov.eg/public/africanmag/issue04/html/enafr12.htm 

Appleton, Simon, Arne Bigsten and Damiano Kulundu Manda Educational expansion and Economic decline: returns to education in Kenya,1978-1995.

Bureau for Africa U.S. Agency for International Development KEN YA Country Profile U.S.
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Economic Strategies

Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23264809

Home Building Industry: An Economic Strategy

This paper will briefly explore how recent economic indicators such as record low interest rates for mortgages and housing starts should motivate house builders to strategize for continued economic growth. At this time while the housing bubble has not burst, it is important for such companies to focus on strategy in order to remain competitive when the bubble does burst.

This type of boom in originations has spawned tremendous economic growth with regards to employment rates, reurbanization, new home building, consumer spending and confidence and made hundreds of billions of dollars for the players involved. The housing boom kept this country afloat during the darkest moments after September 11, 2001 when other industries like travel, hospitality, entertainment, energy and telecommunications seemed uncertain. One can argue that such a relationship is cyclical; what comes around goes around in the manner of economic trends such as…… [Read More]

References

America's Homeownership Challenge. Retrieved June 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web: .

Hecht, B. Housing-Led Economic Development. Retrieved June 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web:
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Economic Stress and Intimate Violence

Words: 885 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 71290456

Domestic violence often occurs outside of marital bonds, and so will go underreported in analysis which employs the NSFH data set.

In researching the NSFH, some shortcomings are revealed. The NSFH asks short series of questions based on outcome, which do not draw the respondent in to answer the questions in a thoughtful, and ultimately, honest fashion. NSFH questions appear in the middle of a lengthy interview, and respondents may be tired, or simply lose attention at that point. Additionally, the importance of domestic violence issues may be lower in the mind of the respondents than in those of the interviewers, so reports of domestic violence may be underrepresented. Moreover, the NSFH did not consider the extent that nonviolent argumentative tactics are used as means of intimidation.

In a study that is trying to determine whether economic variables are salient risk factors in increasing domestic violence on women, a fatal…… [Read More]

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GCC Economic Outlook 2014

Words: 3797 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62867023

Economic Integration of GCC Countries: Developments Since

Economic Integration of GCC Countries: Latest Developments Since 2010

It is important to examine the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Key Economic Indicators. Primarily, 2014 Key economic indicators will present statistical information, which will seek to foster economic determination and engineer the determination of current and future performances. A collective economic indicator examines aggregate earning reports, list of economic summaries relating to this region and as well as, reflecting on various macroeconomic indices. This report will prove that the GCC (2014) economic indicators are collective in answering aggregate macroeconomic challenges. This study is a collective possible research leading to the construction of key economic indicators (2014) analysis as adopted by GCC partners. GCC economies have been growing tremendously in the past ten years. This study focuses solely on some of the serious economic developments and polices evident in the region in the past four…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Al-Busaidi, Samir. "Modelling Macroeconomic Shocks in the GCC: Is Monetary Unification Viable?" Review of Middle East Economics and Finance 9.1 (2013): 1-36

Cevik, Serhan, and Katerina Teksoz. "Lost In Transmission? The Effectiveness Of Monetary Policy Transmission Channels In The GCC Countries." Middle East Development Journal 05.03 (2013): 1350018. Print

Espinoza, Raphael A, Ghada Fayad, and A Prasad. The Macroeconomics of the Arab States of the Gulf. 2013. Print

Espinoza, Raphael. Williams, Oral., & Prasad, Ananthakrishnan. Regional Financial Integration in the GCC. New York: International Monetary Fund, 2010. Print.
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Economic Trends in Terms of Output and

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87710504

Economic Trends

In terms of output and growth, Canada's real GDP was 2.96% higher than it was a year ago, but the growth trend is slowing down from a growth rate high of 3.81% in Q3 2010. Japan's economy has contracted in Q2 2011 by 0.76%. It's rate has been volatile, growing rapidly over the past year only to contract again. The UK's growth rate is 1.63%, and that country has had fairly stable, if sluggish, real GDP growth. The current GDP growth rate in the United States is 2.33%. Real GDP growth is on a downward trend in the U.S. But has maintained healthy levels since Q4 2009.

All four countries were affected by the recession. Each experienced real GDP declines during the 2008-2009 period. Japan was the hardest hit. Yet each nation recovered in 2010, only to see the rate of economic growth slow again in 2011.

Canada…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

BoC. (2011). Inflation control target. Bank of Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from  http://www.bankofcanada.ca/monetary-policy-introduction/framework/inflation-control-target/ 

Estrella, A. & Trubin, M. (2006). The yield curve as a leading indicator: Some practical issues. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from  http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/current_issues/ci12-5/ci12-5.html 

Investopedia. (2011). Yield curve. Investopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/y/yieldcurve.asp#axzz1VCSWJAY8 

St. Louis Fed. (2011). International economic trends: August 2011. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from  http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/iet/
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Economics Is the Study of

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54684209

If there is a risk that one of the family members will lose his or her job, that will add risk to the purchase decision. The riskier the purchase decision, the lower the price will need to be in order to compensate for that. Another factor here is the expected change in housing prices or interest rates. Buyers are inclined to enter the market if they believe that the cost of home ownership will be higher next year, but they may delay purchases if they believe that costs will be lower next year.

ith new home sales last summer, the dip could be in part due to worries about a double-dip recession. The summer was characterized by an inane fight over the debt ceiling, something that shattered confidence of many in the political system, and some of the key actors within that system. A fractured political system is one that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hauser, C. (2011, Aug 24). Sales of new homes fell again in july. New York Times, pp. B.6-B.6.  http://search.proquest.com/docview/884825381?accountid=35812
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Economics Unemployment if You Loose

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60408692

d.).

In order to understand this idea about inventories, it is necessary to understand that if the prices were to change and not be rigid, then it would be the prices and not the inventories that would guide companies in their decisions about production. For example, if prices were increasing, a company would know that their product is popular and that they should increase the production of it. And if the prices were decreasing, the company would know that their product is not selling well and that they should probably reduce its production. In an economy though where the prices are fixed, companies need another way of deciding whether they should increase or decrease production. This is where Keynes came to the conclusion that the key is to observe the changes in the inventories in order to drive production (hat Causes a Recession to be a Recession, n.d.).

Over the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harrison, Edward. "Chart of the Day: Unemployment as a Recession Indicator." 2008. Credit

Writedowns. 7 April 2009

Reddy, Sudeep. "Jobless Rate Hits 8.5%." The Wall street Journal. April 2009

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Economics Is the U S Really Recovering Faster

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76791109

Economics

Is the U.S. really recovering faster than the EEC and Japan-Asian trading partners?

The economic climate improved for all during the second half of 2003. owever, the U.S. recorded a more accelerated upturn during this period that many attribute to extensive tax cuts. Expansion in private consumption has been dramatic and business spending has also increased recently.

Japan's economy grew for a seventh quarter in Q3, 2003 the longest expansionary phase since 1997. Real growth came in at +.6% q/q, double the forecast. The economy expanded by 2.7%. In 2003, driven by exports and private capital investment. owever, deflation is set to continue, albeit at a lower pace, and the general government deficit is expected to exceed 7% of GDP for the next two years.

The performance of the Western European economy was weaker. After a prolonged phase of stagnation, signs of a gradual economic recovery became visible in…… [Read More]

Historically, GDP has increased in wealthy countries through productivity increases. Conversely, countries with a low productivity increase are among the poorest in the world.

Productivity differentials are the main cause of dispersion of per-capita income. Higher productivity first impacts profits. These profits are the basic source of increases in real wages and living standards. If production costs are not greater than increase in productivity, unit cost of production will be lower, opening the possibility for price decreases that will increase international competitiveness. Productivity growth is also an anti-inflationary force in that it offsets increases in nominal wages.

As evidence of the importance of productivity, researchers have estimated that about one-half of the productivity growth over the 1959-98 period was due to increases in the quantity of capital. The other half was due to increases in labor quality and improvements in efficiency.
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Economic Crisis Iceland 2008 Current

Words: 1162 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38859627

This program is focused onto the following directions:

Generating stability with exchange rates

ebuilding confidence in the monetary policy

Better managing and restricting public debt

eforming and restructuring the banking sector to insure more transparency and the implementation of internationally recognized policies (The Icelandic Government Information Center, 2008).

4. Short-term forecast for the economy

The 2008 has severely impacted the Icelandic economy. In light of the dramatic effects as well as the efforts put into the reconstruction and reconsolidation of the Islanding economy, major growths are not expected. In other words, it is generally assumed that the country will regain its stability through small and gradual victories, which will, for the time being, only manage to stabilize the economy. Growth rates are expected to remain low and for 2010 for instance, the growth rate of the gross domestic product is expected to be close to zero (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010).…… [Read More]

References:

2008, Economic programme in cooperation with IMF, The Icelandic Government Information Center,  http://www.iceland.org/info/iceland-imf-program  / last accessed on August 2, 2010

2008, Economic outlook 2008-2012, Landsbanki,  http://www.landsbanki.is/Uploads/Maillist/Docs/economicoutlook2008-2012.pdf  last accessed on August 2, 2010

2008, Glitnir releases economic forecast for Iceland, IceNews,  http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2008/06/02/glitnir-releases-economic-forecast-for-iceland  / last accessed on August 2, 2010

2010, Iceland economic statistics and indicators, Economy Watch,  http://www.economywatch.com/economic-statistics/country/Iceland  / last accessed on August 2, 2010
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Economic Situation Cobb Halstead and

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37241551



Similarly, the subprime crisis represents well the argument between GDP and GPI. The housing bubble resulted in strong profits for the banking, real estate sales and construction industries. Each contributed to GDP growth. Yet, GPI argues that very little real value was created. The sale of a home from one speculator to another increases the GDP, but it creates no value. If that home is flipped three or four times in a year, it inflates the GDP without creating any real wealth for the nation. Churning the economy and growing it are two different things. Therefore in GPI terms, the housing bubble would be deducted from the GDP figure.

Likewise the Iraq ar would be deducted. ar spending increases GDP dramatically, but death, destruction and erosion of goodwill are not "progress" as defined by GPI proponents. hen the negative forces that have propped up the GDP over the past eight…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cobb, Clifford; Halstead, Ted & Rowe, Jonathan. (1995). If the GDP is up, why is America down? The Atlantic. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at  http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/ecbig/gdp.htm
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Economic Performance Under the Bush

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8118961



One of the other key measures of our economy is the unemployment rate. This measure provides something of a counterpoint to a growing GDP. The unemployment rate increased in October 2008 to 6.5%. The ability to find meaningful work is a key component of GPI, yet the GDP can grow even if unemployment is high. One of the reasons is that the GDP does not measure wealth distribution. The wealth gap has increased over the past eight years. Average household wealth has increased, but the rate of increase is faster in the top quartile of households. Real wealth in the lower quartiles has stagnated. Again, the GDP would measure the wealth as having grown nationally. But over the past eight years wealth distribution has worsened. hile this clearly constitutes economic success for some individuals, it does not constitute economic success for the majority.

The current account deficit has continued to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cobb, Clifford; Halstead, Ted & Rowe, Jonathan. (1995). If the GDP is up, why is America down? The Atlantic. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at  http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/ecbig/gdp.htm
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Economic Challenges Canada Faces in Recent Years

Words: 2957 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67866735

Economic Challenges Canada Faces

In recent years, the challenging economic condition in Canada has emerged as a concern for citizens, policy makers and the government alike. Canada faces challenges in terms of creating a more innovative society, as the country continues to experience a significant productivity gap compared to other advanced industrial economies. The Canadian industry appears to be slower in successfully developing, applying and marketing innovative products, processes and services than a majority of other nations. This lack of innovation is the cause of Canada's low productivity growth and competitiveness, and therefore must be addressed in order to increase employment growth, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life for all Canadians.

Current research predicts that although Canada's economic performance will gradually strengthen out of the recent mild slowdown into a better pattern of growth in 2004, Canada's economy still faces the longer-term challenge of increasing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Department of Finance Canada. (2004). The Economy in Brief. Retrieved March 8,

2005, from the Department of Finance Web site: http://www.fin.gc.ca/ECONBR/ecbr04- 12e.html

Economic Survey Canada. (2004). Building Partnerships for Progress. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the Economic Survey Canada Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/24/0.02340.en_2649

Environment Canada, Informing Canadians on Pollution. (2002) Highlights of the 2002 National Pollutant Release Inventory, Environment Canada.
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Economics Discussions Production Costs Postal Service USPS

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65287506

Economics Discussions

Production Costs

Postal Service (USPS) operates at a loss but its closest competitors -- UPS and FedEx -- both operate at a profit. Suggest how fixed costs have contributed to the situation of the USPS. Provide support for your response.

I would suspect that the fixed costs of contributing to employee's retirement funds (Risk Analysis Research Center, 2009, p. 4) and also their restriction from closing local offices (Slentz and McCann, 2009, p. 12) contributes to higher fixed cost at USPS than FedEx because FedEx is not unionized and while UPS is unionized, and thus experiences a fixed cost that is incurred to the level of union contracts, those contracts are more negotiable for UPS than USPS, and nonexistent or fluid for FedEx. Furthermore while union contracts probably affect the rate of closure for physical facilities for UPS, this would probably be more negotiable than for USPS and…… [Read More]

Lemon Law

5. From the e-Activity, compare and contrast the lemon law in two different states and analyze which offers the best protection for the consumer. Suggest what both states could do to improve their laws. Provide support for your response.

The California and Alaska Lemon Laws are largely the same except the California law (State of California Department of Justice 2012) restricts replacement / compensation to vehicles driven under 18,000 miles within the warranty period but the Alaska law (Carlemon.com, n.d.) does not restrict the warranty period by number of miles driven. All states could benefit from a uniform definition of "reasonable attempt" to replace or refund, which depends upon, and thus also entails, a standardization
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Economics Causes of Contraction 2001-2003

Words: 1894 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54162552

Bush implied unemployment figures were declining and Kerry touted very high unemployment figures. In hindsight, it appears that the labor department statistics concurred with the Kerry camp. When Bush still won, unemployment trend indicators seem to be coming true now and there seems to be more problems on the horizon for the economy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated recently that new jobs being created in the economy were the types of jobs that cannot fuel economic growth. Thus, the economy is and will continue to lose jobs to cheaper labor markets around the globe.

The Federal eserve has dictated the cost of capital for businesses to borrow. Trends show that cash shortages in corporate American are increasing and borrowing heavily will be a likely result. Therefore, future actions of the Federal eserve impacts a major aspect of America's future. Trends to observe by the Fed relate to consumer consumption…… [Read More]

References

Employment Situation Summary. Ed. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 12/3/2003. Department of Labor. Retrieved on 4/13/2005, from  http://www.bls.gov/ news.release/empsit.nr0.htm.

Heilbroner, Robert, & Thurow, Lester (1982). Economics Explained: Everything You Need to Know About How the Economy Works and Where it Is Going. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Marx, Karl (1977). Capital, Volume 1. New York: Random House.

Marx, Karl (1978). Capital, Volume 2. New York: Random House.
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Economics Is the Name of

Words: 1169 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28267379

Inevitably, the level of economic development has a direct contact with the marketing strategy of a company. Basically a company's marketing strategy is a mixture of three things which are distribution, promotion and pricing.

Companies usually make its marketing strategies according to the level of economic development in both the multinational and global context. For a developed country, the organizations have an idea that promotion and pricing strategies will be crucial for them merely to accelerate the level of their earnings. There can be a marginal difference between the standardized form of marketing and local method of marketing. Standardized form of marketing compel the organizations to facilitate the consumers in the same way as they wanted while the domestic marketing makes their own rules of entertaining the consumers, this is the main thing why the standardized form is more productive than the domestic form. Standardized form of marketing includes tailoring…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Economic Development, retrieved from <  http://www.edrgroup.com/library/economic-development  / >, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]

John, E (1999), Economic Development, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications

Michael, P & Stephen, S (2009), Economic Development, McGraw Hill Publications

What is Economic Development, retrieved from http://www.valleycountyeconomicdevelopment.com/pages/what_is_econ.htm, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
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Economics Growth the Retailer Sector Was Lately

Words: 3394 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93111117

Economics

Growth The retailer sector was lately affected by the back-to-school shopping season, which did not start so well, as midprice department stores, discounters and specialty-apparel retailers announced disappointing sales results during August, which reinforced the already much debated concerns that consumers are not comfortable with the current state of the economy and are reluctant to consume, considering the shaky and uneven economic recovery.

However, luxury department-store chains managed to post significant earnings, as they benefited from the help of an important number of upscale shoppers. Still, the effects of higher gas prices and the rising value of grocery bills, combined with lackluster job growth were severely felt by moderate- and lower-income shoppers.

Michael Niemira, chief economist and director of research at the International Council of Shopping Centers feels that "There's weaker-than-expected performance," due to the fact that "there was a slowdown in spending, but some results are exaggerated by…… [Read More]

References

1. Higher energy prices depress overall economy. Charles Stein.

Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Washington:

Aug 6, 2004. On the Internet at  http://gateway.proquest.com.libproxy.unm.edu/openurl-url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:pqd&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&rft_dat=xri:pqd:did=000000674708321&svc_dat=xri:pqil:fmt=text&req_dat=xri:pqil:pq_clntid=2877 

2. Retailers' Sales Come In Weaker Than Expected; Soft Results Reinforce Fears About Consumer Confidence; Discounters Saw Biggest Hit. Kortney Stringer.
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Economics Country Analysis

Words: 3685 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10554050

Economics - Country Analysis

Country Overview and Current Events (News)

Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.

Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014  http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf 

This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.

Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014  http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf 

This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
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Economic Strategies in the Middle

Words: 4994 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90026075

One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.

Investment

Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.

Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CIA. (2007). World Fact Book. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from CIA: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/is.html

Collins, G. (2007, July 1). LNG Observer. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from China making bid to lead LNG carrier building:  http://www.ogj.com/articles/save_screen.cfm?ARTICLE_ID=297535 

Economist. (2007, July 26). Vigorous but Vulnerable. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from Economist: www.economist.com

Ford, N. (2006). Oil Producers Spend Windfall Wisely: There Has Long Been Global Fascination with How and Where the Arab Oil Producing Nations Spend Their Cash. Neil Ford Reports That the Trends of 2006 Are Very Different to Those of 30 Years Ago. The Middle East, 36.
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Economic Instability and Ethnic &

Words: 2638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7932585



Shift from Central Planning to Market Economy

The Turkish economy is in what might be termed semi-precarious health. It could certainly be worse, but also certainly be better. Since its birth as a nation-state into its current shape in 1923 in the wake of World War I, Turkey has operated a mixed economy, in which both state and private enterprise have contributed to economic development. (Indeed, it is arguable that all country's in the world today have a mixed economy; the United States may be a bastion for private enterprise but many workers also benefit from government money, such as the money awarded by the federal government to private companies in the form of defense industry contracts.) Since the end of World War II, the economy has been transformed from a predominantly agricultural one to one in which industry and services are the most productive and rapidly expanding sectors even…… [Read More]

References

Abramowitz, M. (ed.) (2001). Turkey's transformation and American policy. New York: Century Foundation.

Hershlag, Z.Y. (1998). The contemporary Turkish economy. New York: Routledge Kegan & Paul.

Howe, M. (2001). The Kurdish conflict in Turkey: Obstacles and chances for peace and democracy. London: Palgrave. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov  http://www.imf.org   http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb/turkey_economy.html   http://www.rt66.com/~korteng/tudemog.htm 

Ibrahim, F. (ed.) (2000). Turkey today: A nation divided over Islam's revival.
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Economics Changing Strategies and the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45006842

The customers want to watch out the promotional offers, and a recent survey showed that in many cases it would take discounts of up to 50% to persuade customers to make a purchase (Business Insider, 2012). Therefore, rather than appreciating the more consistent everyday low prices, the JC Penney customers have seen the move as taking away their opportunity to purchase goods on promotional offers. The result has been significant, in the first quarter alone the company saw revenue drop by 20%, with the firm losing 10% of their customers (Bickle, 2012). The strategies continue to struggle, with the 2012 revenues amounting $17,260 million, compared to $17,759 million in 2011, the result of 2012 was the lowest revenue in the last five years (Morning Star, 2013). This has had an undeniable negative impact on the company stock, following an initial gain of the strategy was announced, the firm has struggled,…… [Read More]

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Economics What Was the Ultimate

Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50799982

To examine the causes the independent variables will be the costs associated with the production and sale of the cars, looking a both the direct and the overhead costs in the years prior to the bailouts, to assess the degree to which the firms appeared to have control over their costs. If there was a lack of control over the costs, the level of costs may be a predictor of future problems.

Definition of Terms

Before undertaking the research it is necessary to define some of the terms which will be used. The failure of a firm relates to whether a firm entered into bankruptcy. Bailout funding was the funding that was received from the government as part of an official bailout package in order to help the firm survive.

The costs will be assessed in terms of the overall costs incurred to manufacture cars; this may be the cost…… [Read More]

References

Isidore, C. (2008, November 17). Auto Bailout: Showdown. CNNMoney.com. Retrieved from  http://money.cnn.com/2008/11/17/news/companies/gm_showdown 

Hiraide Norikatsu; Chakraborty, Kalyan, (2012) Surviving the Global Recession and the Demand for Auto Industry in the U.S. -- a Case for Ford Motor Company, International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(5), 85-94

Ooghe, Hubert; De Prijcker Sofie, (2008), Failure Processes and Causes of Company Bankruptcy: a typology, Management Decisions, 46 (1-2), 223-242

Watson, Thomas, (2009), Automotive Trouble, Journal of Domestic Car Production, 82(7), 11-12.
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Macro-Economic Choices the Three Major Categories for

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16699388

Macro-Economic Choices

The three major categories for the federal government's revenues include: individual incomes taxes, corporate income taxes and social insurance taxes. Individual income taxes accounts for the largest amounts of spending for the federal government. As, these figure increased from: $1.1 trillion in 2010 to $1.3 trillion in 2011. While social insurance taxes are the second largest source of revenues with them providing at total of: $938 billion for 2010 and $978 billion for 2011. Then, there are corporate income taxes that are accounting for revenues of: $252 billion for 2010 and $292 for 2011. ("The udget and Economic Outlook," 2011)

What are the three major categories of expenditures for the federal government? Please comment on each and indicate their relative importance to each other. Relative importance can be indicated by dollar amounts, percent of total revenue or expenditure or, though less informative, by ranking.

Three categories for the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Budget and Economic Outlook. (2011). CBO. Retrieved from:  http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/99xx/doc9957/01-07-Outlook.pdf 

Debt Panels Plan would cut $4 Trillion. (2010). CNN. Retrieved from:  http://money.cnn.com/2010/12/01/news/economy/fiscal_commission_final_report/index.htm 

What are Leading, Lagging and Coincident Indicators. (2011). Investopedia. Retrieved from:  http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/177.asp#axzz1dPfs5OIY 

Freid, C. (2011). Deficit Reduction Proposals. CBS News. Retrieved from:  http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505123_162-41141567/deficit-reduction-proposals-what-they-could-mean-for-you/?tag=mwuser
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U S Economic Performances in the Past 5

Words: 2485 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93457060

U.S. ECONOMIC PEFOMANCES IN THE PAST 5 YEAS

U.S Economic Performance in the past 5 years

Major indicator of healthy state of an economy is the real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate. The GDP growth rate reveals the performances of an economy. United States is one of the richest country in the world and "has the largest gross domestic product (GDP) in the world." (Jabir, 2009 P. 3171). The country total GDP in 2010 was $14.5 trillion. (World Bank, 2012). Since 2006, the U.S. GDP has continued to fluctuate. Between 2006 and 2007, the U.S. enjoyed the growth in the GDP. In 2006, the country recorded 2.70% point of annual rate in the GDP, and in 2007, the country GDP slightly declined to 1.9%. While the U.S. demonstrated health growth rate between 2006 and 2007, the country recorded negative growth in the GDP between 2008 and 2009. In 2008,…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of Economic Analysis (2011). Contributions to Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product. USA.

Congress Budget Office (2012). The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012-2022. Congress of the United States.

Congressional Budget Office (2011).Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2010-2021. Government Printing Office. USA.

Economic Intelligent Unit (2011). Country Report, United States of America. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.
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How Positive and Normative Economics Relates to the US Government

Words: 2078 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17995914

POSITIVE AND NOMATIVE ECONOMICS ELATES TO THE U.S. GOVENMENT

The objective to the success of a specific science is the capability to identify and delineate opinions on 'what is' from 'what ought to happen'. This includes providing a demarcation between positive statements and normative statements. Positive statements deal with 'what is, was or what will be' but the normative statements deals with 'what ought to be' and are based on value judgments regarding what is good or what is bad. The positive conclusions could be considered as those which are extensively applicable throughout the whole world and they are testable whereas the normative instructions are not testable but constitute the basis for formulation of positive statements. Positive statements are for example, when we ask economists to inform us regarding how the price system operates, we are asking them to travel us along the road of positive economics. The following statement…… [Read More]

References

"Americans on Globalization: A Study of U.S. Public Attitudes." (28 March, 2000) Retrieved from http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/Globalization/introduction.html Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Deardorff, Alan V; Stern, Robert M. "An Overview of the Modeling of the Choices and Consequences of U.S. Trade Policy." The University of Michigan. Discussion Paper No: 400. Retrieved from  http://www.fordschool.umich.edu/rsie/workingpapers/Papers376-400/r400.pdf  Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Economics 104B - Lecture Notes Part III (November 9, 2004) "The Demand Side: Keynesian Economics" Retrieved from  http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:1BoqrVQy0tgJ:economics.wustl.edu/~e104sf/lec-notes-III.doc  Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Higgs, Robert. "Book Review: The Future of U.S. Capitalism." New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www. the.net/bookreviews/library/0554.shtml Accessed on 14 May, 2005
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Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science

Words: 12148 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 52622125

Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science

The international political perspectives of free trade

A Global Analysis

International Trade Impact on Tunisia

The Export of agricultural products

International trade and development of Tunisia

Balance in the Trade egime

Imports and exports of Tunisia

Exports

Imports

Coping With External and Internal Pressures

The Common External Tariff (CET)

Safeguard Measures

Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)

ules of origin

The New Commercial Policy Instrument

Sector Based Aspects

GATT/WTO's Main Principles

Non-discriminatory trade

Multilateral negotiation and free trade

The Trading Policies of European Union

Critical Political Economy

Tunisia

The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia

The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia

The Smith Co Company

The Softkim and Lovers Limited

The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43

Findings 44

Conclusion 44

eferences 46

Abbreviations

ACP

Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific

AMC

Alternative Mediterranean Conference

APEC

Asia-Pacific…… [Read More]

References

Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Labor Economic

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99131376

Labor Economics

Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.

Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.

Outline

Abstract

Introduction

Important Components of Labor Economics

Labor Supply and Demand

Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)

Wages

Non-Wage Labor Costs

Wage Differentials

Workers Mobility

Pay & Productivity

8. Economics of Discrimination

9. Social Accountability

10. Trade Unions…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005,  http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~dackerma/labsyllabus.pdf#search= 'What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'

2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005,  http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/wage-labour/Ch04.htm 

3. Labor Economics, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005,  http://www.oswego.edu/~economic/eco350/chap2.htm 

4. From Encyclopedia Wikipedia, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_%28economics%29
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Making a Global Economic Analysis

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87428496

Global Economic Analysis

Describe the Economic State of the Country

The state of the economy of any nation or region is influenced by the economic conditions that change over time, consistent with the business cycle. The economic state of France, in accordance to the research findings, is at a contraction phase. This is owing to the fact that the economic conditions within the research are adverse. The absence of extensive and prevalent economic weakness throughout the whole economy is indicative that France is not presently going through contraction. This is largely because the weakness disseminates throughout the economy, not just in a geographic sense, but also in the sense of different sectors such as employment. This can be perceived through the different economic indicators analyzed. The real GDP, Productivity and GDP per Capita PPP are all declining, indicative of adverse conditions of the economic state.

Describe the Current Business Cycle…… [Read More]

References

B2B International. (2016). Effective marketing strategies for a recession. Retrieved 28 January, 2016 from: https://www.b2binternational.com/assets/ebooks/marketing_recession/recession_marketing_4.pdf 

Baumohl, B. (2012). The Secrets of Economic Indicators: Hidden Clues to Future Economic Trends and Investment Opportunities. New Jersey: Princeton.

English, C. (2013). HARD MARKET VS. SOFT MARKET: THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY'S CYCLE AND WHY WE'RE CURRENTLY IN A HARD MARKET. PSA Financial. Retrieved 28 January, 2016 from:  http://www.psafinancial.com/2013/01/hard-market-vs.-soft-market-the-insurance-industrys-cycle-and-why-were-currently-in-a-hard-market/
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International Development Studies Economic Development

Words: 1827 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44147697



Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.

African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.

1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.

Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.

A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Andrew Apter. The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle of Culture in Nigeria.

University of Chicago Press (2005)

Only the Introduction and Chapter 1)

2. Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, eds. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. UC Press (1997)
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Long-Term Economic Repercussions to the

Words: 2419 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37020903

While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.

Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…… [Read More]

References:

Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review

Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31617.pdf on April 22, 2009

North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge,  http://econedge.org/01/war-on-terrorisms-economic-effects  / last accessed on April 23, 2009

O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor,  http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/monitor/monm05d.htm  last accessed on April 23, 2009
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Economic Revival Sukuk Investments

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56572646

Islamic Bonds: Sukuk and the World of Finance

Stocks and bonds are among some of the most common ways of investing and raising capital in the financial markets today. Investors in the international arena are presented with a myriad of choices in terms of bond types. One of these is a relatively recent bond market that has emerged from the Islamic community, known as "Sukuk." This term is used to describe Islamic bonds. This type of bond distinguishes itself from its Western counterpart by its adherence to Shari'ah principles, one of which is the prohibition on charging or paying interest (Islamic Development Bank, 2010). This is accomplished by granting the investor a share of the investment asset, with its cash flows and risk. The growth and success of the Sukuk market has been remarkable, in that it caters to an investor market that seeks to diversify its holdings beyond the…… [Read More]

References

Financial Times (2011). Definition of Sukuk. Retrieved from:  http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=sukuk -(Islamic-bonds)

Islamic Development Bank (2010). What is Sukuk? Retrieved from:  http://thatswhy.isdb.org/irj/go/km/docs/documents/IDBDevelopments/Internet/thatswhy/en/sukuk/what-is-sukuk.html 

Rana, S. (2014, Nov. 27). Pakistan raises $1b through Sukuk bonds. The Express Tribune. Retrieved from:  http://tribune.com.pk/story/798044/pakistan-raises-1b-through-sukuk-bonds/ 

Reuters (2014, May 1). Pakistan will issue dollar-denominated sukuk soon: Dar. Dawn. Retrieved from:  http://www.dawn.com/news/1103402
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Economic Crisis Was Born Ultimately

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 19603660

Subprime mortgages were not by any means a major component of the total market, yet when they crashed, the high degree of market interdependency led to sharp declines in the value of many companies, not just banks that happened to be burdened with toxic assets. The methodology will therefore begin by comparing the interdependence of different markets over time. This will reveal whether or not sectors and global markets have become increasingly correlated over time. It is hypothesized that they have, which in turn has contributed to an increase in systemic risk as such interdependence reduces the value of diversification.

The second component of the paper will examine what is being done with respect to reducing systemic risk. This component will include an overview of the traditional theory and a review of the current literature on systemic risk. The crisis has spurred new work on systemic risk, including work specific…… [Read More]

References:

Weisman, J. & Paletta, D. (2009). Summers says more regulators could join Fed to police risk. Wall Street Journal. Vol. 254, 62, A3.

Huang, X; Zhou, H. & Zhu, H. (2009). A framework for assessing the systemic risk of major financial institutions. Journal of Banking and Finance. Vol. 33, 11, 2036-2049.
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Economics of Forestry in an Evolving Society

Words: 2871 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84536466

Economics of Forestry

Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradley, Dennis. "One of two parts of a chapter on EE for the Ecosystem Stewardship."

Workshop held in Tucson Arizona, December 4-14, 1995.

Bradley, D.P. Xu, Zhi, and Lewis, B.J. "Forests as Natural Capital: Parallels, Problems, and Implications." Unpublished paper: NCFES, Forest Service, USDA, St. Paul, Minn. 43

Bradley, D. And D. Lothner (ed.). "Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern
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Economic Tools Concepts to Evaluate a Current

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13612395

economic tools concepts to evaluate a current issue situation which exist today in the U.S. health care industry

Health Industry:

There are two sets of health issues and many players in the health industry. One set of paradigm deals with the public and private health care issues, and another the emerging trend of market oriented changes in the health care industry. Hitherto health care was a public service but has now transformed itself into a competitive industry. In other words it has become a part of the national economy and economic analysis is not only important to care givers and institutions, but is also important to doctors and medical workers because the health industry is highly competitive. The debate on public health issues changed in the past with more scientific developments and insight into community care and medicine. (Fox; Ludden, 1998)

Some of the modern developments of the end of…… [Read More]

Value creation to day is mostly done by pharmacy benefit managers -- PBMs and health maintenance organizations -- HMOs. The new healthcare players are thus in need of these tools to improve the medical cost management skills, and creating a competitive organizational culture. (Goh; Pritula, 1996) Another tool to analyze the economy of the health care industry is the way the demand for and the supply of the care grows or subsides. Today health-care markets like all others have been influenced by supply and demand, and the more competitive environment which has created purchasers like insurers and investors in the industry have now become beneficiaries of the market forces and the cost of health-care is now a great percentage of the gross national product -- GNP as a result of the interplay of demand and supply changes. (Fox; Ludden, 1998)

Here the supply and demand in the health industry is taken by the public and private sector, and this has paved way for the growth of medical science. For example the changes in the healthcare spending and patient revenue and hospital utilization shown in table one was computed by Sensenig et al. (1996). Likewise are the changes in consumer prices for medical care services. There are many other indicators which show the way the industry behaves given the specific economic condition. To this variables some specific conditions for example inflation, and other economic situations are detected and the comparison provides the mechanism why the health care expenditure change. The table 1 shows the fact that "Medical care prices are now growing at roughly twice the rate as overall prices." (Sensenig, et al., 1996)

Health care professionals now use concepts like Utilization review for case management and this analysis will be beneficial to social workers making them indispensable to the management and
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Economics Finance and Management in

Words: 3112 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23917516

This could indicate that the latter two countries seek to join the EU in hopes of more prosperous futures.

e) State of education in the country

From the standpoint of education, this is best ranked in Belgium, with a score of 8.8 on a scale from 1 to ten, and it is closely followed by France, with a score of 8.5, on the same scale. The Germans ranked their educational system with an 8, and the Dutch ranked their educational system with a 7. Turkey reveals a similar perception of its educational system as the Dutch, but the Croatians and the Turks have less positive perceptions over their educational systems.

From this standpoint then, it could be argued that all three non-EU member states would benefit from the accession to the EU as this would serve as grounds for improvement of their educational sectors.

f) State of health services in…… [Read More]

References:

Ozturc, Y., 2007, Negotiating modernity: early childhood education policy in Turkey in the context of seeking European Union membership -- a case study of the General Directorate of Preschool Education,

Tunah, I., Bashevent, C., Female labor supply in Turkey, in The Turkish economy: the real economy, corporate governance and reform, Routledge

Round 4 of the European Social Survey,  http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org  / last accessed on January 12, 2012
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Economic Alternative to Lecture-Based Education

Words: 2673 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91443480



esearch Questions:

Unfortunately, as promising as the potential benefits of incorporating brain-based, active learning, inquiry-based, hands-on participation, and multiple intelligence-based methods of academic instruction is, comprehensive programs of this nature are largely unavailable on a wide scale, owing to budgetary considerations. However, since virtually every tested addition of multidimensional instruction has been associated with beneficial results (Schroeder & Spannagel 2006), intuition would suggest that the addition of instruction via educational programming is also likely to be conducive to improvement over traditional lecture and textbook-only methods of instruction.

Obviously, if given the choice between non-academic programming and educational programming, most middle and secondary school students would prefer the former. On the other hand, where methods of instruction depart from the traditional limitation to lecture and textbooks only (Bimonte 2005), even voluntary class attendance increases. Nevertheless, contemporary education programs generally neglect the potentially valuable medium of televised instruction except in connection with…… [Read More]

References

Active Learning: Getting students to work and think in the classroom (1993). Speaking of Teaching, 5(1). Retrieved May 1, 2008, at http://ctl.stanford. edu/Newsletter

Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New designs for teaching and learning: Promoting active learning in tomorrow's schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bickman, M. (2003). Minding American education: Reclaiming the tradition of active learning. New York City: Teachers College Press.

Bimonte, R. (2005, November/December). If your class were optional, would anyone attend. Momentum, 36(4), 6.