Economic Events and Economic Models
A Micro-Economic Event
An Analysis of the Motivations behind Kroes' Proposals
Price Controls: Dissenting Views
A Macro Economic Event
Probable Causes of Inflation
Probable Effects of the Increasing Inflation
Economic events take place around us on a daily basis. An economic event could be a move by the government to stem inflation by regulating interest rates or even the imposition of price controls by relevant agencies in regard to certain products or services to either protect consumers or stimulate/encourage production. It is however important to note that in most cases, economic events either fall under micro-economics or macro-economics. In this text, I seek to bring out associations existing between real-life economic events and the various economic concepts as well as models learnt in class. In so doing, I will concern myself with two articles published in the dailies recently while seeking to explain…… [Read More]
C. revealed some factors affecting healthcare costs. This includes (Francis, 2003).
Drug companies who are spending roughly as much on advertising and promotion - $20 billion a year - as they do on research and development of new drugs.
American pharmaceutical firms employing one sales person for every physician in the country. They also pick up the tab for doctors to attend seminars promoting their products.
New technology - from diagnostic devices to surgical techniques - which usually accounts for more than half the rise in total healthcare spending in the past three years.
Profit margins on healthcare products and services, including health insurance, have been continuously going up - rapidly - rather than down.
How to Solve the Issue
hat's to be done about rising medical costs? Here are some suggestions by experts (Francis, 2003).
Provide more information to consumers on what drug works, what procedures are best, which…… [Read More]
Financial risk is currently at the center of all economic activity due to the incredibly unstable financial environment of the world economy. As a consequence the search for ways to reduce risk has taken a front seat in the important issues of our day. Several instruments exist in order to increase risk reduction possibilities, these include forward and futures contracts as well as various derivatives. That the most optimal number of risk reduction tools is used is vital. That ratio, the optimal number of risk reduction instruments, is decided by the relationship that exists between the spot instrument and the risk reduction tool. A time varying parameter model has been proven to be more effective in finding the relationship between economic variables and can therefore find an optimal reduction risk ratio that is not constant and can be controlled (Hatemi-J and oca, 2006). The economic exposure can be…… [Read More]
economics? A simple materialistic description simply does not do the subject justice. The economic approach is much more that an approach whose calculations are restricted to material goods and markets. Rather, it also should factor in other information that will explain human behavior. This can include actions based upon incomplete information, as well as the existence of costs (monetary and mental) that affect personal choices.
Certainly, this type of economic approach is much more comprehensive. It includes all of the human dialectic. This is the approach that Becker has embraced. Truly, human behavior in its totality has to be used to explain economic behavior. E-commerce aficionados make a total study of their potential customers in much the same way. They consider all of the data and spy on their quarry with "cookies" to scientifically study them. Becker is essentially remarking upon what Adam Smith and Karl Marx already knew (despite…… [Read More]
equations for a macroeconomic model including private, public, and international sectors. Derive the aggregate demand function. List the forces (i.e., factors) which are held constant for each behavioral equation. Select four of these and, for each, explain how a change in the exogenous factor will affect the aggregate demand function. Explain the effect of each change on real income and output, employment, the price level, the interest rate, the foreign exchange rate, and the government budget balance.
While this question asks us to derive the aggregate demand function, it should be noted that aggregate demand models do not exist sui generis but rather as a part of the paired set of aggregate supply and aggregate demand. These paired ideas together form a model of an aggregate economy, which is simply one in which the price level of any good is set by a balance that exists (or is sought) between…… [Read More]
ExxonMobil is the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company (ExxonMobil, N.d.). The industry is multifaceted and is composed of many different segments -- everything from the exploration of oil, the refinement process, and the transportation via ship, tanker, or pipeline. The oil and gas is of critical importance to the world's economy because there are many other industries are directly dependent upon these fuels. For example, oil can be used as a raw material to produce many other goods. Furthermore, oil and gas are the preferred fuel for the world's transportation system that is responsible for moving goods and services globally, which has also become increasingly important as the world has rapidly become more globalized.
John Galbraith challenged much of the conventional wisdom associated with classical economics (Economist View, 2006). One of his criticisms deal with what he refers to as the dependence effect. This…… [Read More]
Economic indicators are used to measure the financial health of the economy. There are many methods and tools for measuring the economy and every economist has his favorite method. The health of the economy is measured by tracking certain indicators. Different economists use these indicators in various combinations. Some economists place more or less weight on different ones in making their predictions about which direction the economy will go. It is important to note the differences in measurement when assessing the opinions of popular economists of today.
This paper will be primarily concerned with the indicators, which would indicate whether we are currently in an inflationary economy or a deflationary economy. A recession occurs when real GDP declines for two successive quarters. However, the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) officially defines a recession as a "significant decline in activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months."…… [Read More]
Economics of Alchohol Abuse
Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).
In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…… [Read More]
Soure Kodakanhi et al. (2006) iting Shreyer (1999), Table, page 19
Further reported by Kodakanhi et. al, is the fat that one of the Afrian ountries, and there are many, that faes poverty and inequality disaster is the ountry of Ghana. Advanes in tehnology in Ghana are stated to be "meager sine its independene in 1957." (2006) the eonomi development model based on it for developing ountries takes into aount the major onerns to it advent into these ountries whih are those of the: (1) Inability to invest in the it field due to poor finanial infrastruture; and (2) inadequate human power with the knowledge of it." (Ibid) the eonomi model, whih has been proposed, is one that has larger foreign investment and government poliies in support of it development as well as an awareness on the…… [Read More]
In the future, the politicians could support an agenda promoting the national manufacturers in an attempt to reduce imports and increase exports. The direct impact for the mechanic could be that he might have more work in the future.
Another example of how the book is useful is given by the need or desire to understand the features of the contemporaneous economic crisis. Despite the fact that the media present apocalyptic stories of today's financial challenges, a reading of Clayton and Giesbrecht's book would reveal that the economy has often been confronted with challenging times and that times of economic boom and recession are normal. Otherwise put, a Guide to Everyday Economic Statistics would help the reader understand the cyclic character of an economy and he would as such be less pessimistic. Listening only to the media coverage of one bankruptcy following another would definitely take a negative toll on…… [Read More]
International Trade Theory and Export Promotion
The two graphs represent the production outputs of two countries. The first graph represents a developed country, which specializes in the production of machines, which is capital intensive.
The second graph represents a developing country which specializes in textiles, which is labor intensive. The factor endowments model of international trade is based on the concept that each country has a certain specialty that they are skilled at producing and that there are not enough resources or skills in every country to produce everything that is needed. Each country specializes what it is good at producing and trades for goods that it cannot product itself.
In perfect trade equilibrium, the production and consumption of both items would be increased. When the value of exports and the value of imports for both countries are equal, then both countries are at maximum consumption of both goods. In…… [Read More]
Economic Impacts of egulation
egulation is a written instrument that contains rules with the force of law (Ogus, 2004). egulation as a process involves monitoring and enforcing rules, established through primary or delegated legislation. egulation usually creates, constrains or limits a right. In addition, regulation creates and limits a duty besides allocating responsibilities (Ogus, 2004). egulation may take several forms depending on its application. These includes legal restrictions made by the government, contractual obligations, which binds several parties together, self-regulations by industries, third party regulation, co-regulation, market regulation, certification and accreditation
egulation made by a state tries to produce outcomes that might not occur (Ogus, 2004). In addition, it attempts to prevent or produce outcomes in various places to what might occur. Through this, regulation becomes an implementation object of policy statements. Examples of regulation include controls on prices, market entries, wages, pollution effects, employment of particular people within certain…… [Read More]
Two alternative solutions are available. The first sees that the U.S. federal authority uses the budget allocated to support the development of the national industries, without raising barriers to imports. The second possible solution is for the United States to strive to increase its exports by focusing more on international operations.
Criteria / goals
The evaluation criteria for the proposed solutions revolve around the benefits they generate, as well as the costs they imply. Otherwise put, the decision will be made in accordance with the arguments in favour and against each of the two alternatives, and by the solution's ability to meet the established goals. These goals include the insurance of economic stability within the United States (for all population, corporations and the entire system), the maintenance or even development of international relations, as well as the sustained development of the domestic industries.
Evaluation of alternatives
Pro: does…… [Read More]
In order to understand this idea about inventories, it is necessary to understand that if the prices were to change and not be rigid, then it would be the prices and not the inventories that would guide companies in their decisions about production. For example, if prices were increasing, a company would know that their product is popular and that they should increase the production of it. And if the prices were decreasing, the company would know that their product is not selling well and that they should probably reduce its production. In an economy though where the prices are fixed, companies need another way of deciding whether they should increase or decrease production. This is where Keynes came to the conclusion that the key is to observe the changes in the inventories in order to drive production (hat Causes a Recession to be a Recession, n.d.).
Over the…… [Read More]
Energy costs increased substantially and the yen's exchange rate was shifted to a floating rate. The eventual recession reduced expectations of future growth and reduced private investment. Economic growth went down from 10% to 3.6% during the period 1974-79 and to 4.4% in the decade of the 80s. ut despite the oil crisis and its consequences, Japan's major export industries stayed competitive through its cost-cutting policy and increasing efficiency. It reduced industrial energy demands and allowed the automobile industry, along with other industries, to improve. y the late 70s, the computer, semiconductor and other technology and information-intensive industries entered a period of rapid growth. During this high-growth era, exports continued to support Japan's robust economic growth in the 70s and in the 80s. However, the problems encountered on account of its growing balance of payments surplus urged for the opening of domestic markets and a stronger focus on domestic demands…… [Read More]
When unemployment is high, companies may decide to delay the release of their new updated phone as a means to maximize profit. By withholding the release of the phone, not only does demand build but the ability of more consumers to enter into the market to purchase the phone does occur. At this point, the profit maximization curve peaks earlier and is likely to have a prolonged parabola at the top of the curve which is a short-term profit maximization curve.
With a low employment rate, the likelihood of the smart phone market to do very well is limited by the low employment rate and is subject to constraints when considering the smart phone market and the consumer's ability to pay.
Supply & Demand
Law of demand and substitutes how the demand of these phones are very high. Which again ties back to scarcity but how substitutes are so readily…… [Read More]
Economic Order Quantity Analysis:
Management of Emergency Food Provision by NGOs
When ordering supplies, managers of both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations must answer the deceptively difficult question: how large an order should my organization place? The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) analysis method gives an accurate picture of the variables involved in making order quantity decisions (Finkler, 2009). Some organizations like food pantries, for example, may not have the flexibility to adjust some of these variables (e.g. how much is available from particular suppliers; how much demand is made on resources), so the EOQ equation allows supply managers to adjust other variables to accommodate changes in supply and demand in nuanced ways.
The case study I will examine is a food bank that supplies meals for the homeless. They order large quantities of ingredients through government-subsidized contracts at a fixed price, but demand is not constant and thus carrying cost can…… [Read More]
In order to understand the ways that different changes in the external environment will affect the demand for milk, some assumptions need to be made with respect to the milk market. e know that demand for milk will increase as wealth increases, which is the result of milk being something of a luxury item (Arnold, 2007). This means that there is some degree of correlation between wealth and milk consumption, and that implies that if wealth declines, milk consumption will also decline.
e also know that demand for milk is somewhat price inelastic. hen prices rise, people still pay them (Dohery, 2007). This is the result of two factors. The first is that there is a baseline demand for milk that is not going to be affected by price. The second is that the demand for milk is affected more by the wealth of the purchaser than the cost…… [Read More]
"The explosive growth of the global economy threatens the natural systems that sustain life on Earth. Despite some significant successes in reducing industrial pollution and increasing efficiency, globalization is devastating natural habitats, speeding global warming, and increasing air and water pollution" (Anonymous). It is in the nature of such an economic globalization to cause negative effects. Globalization has its benefits as well which hold substantial weight.
Advocates for economic globalization state that it is aimed at removing poverty and increasing wealth among the poor. This has been seen not to be entirely true and the gain of wealth is seen only in the upper or elite classes. The rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer. Although food has increased, hunger rates have also increased. It is seen that the top class is becoming multibillionaires and today there are more billionaires than yesterday. However the lower class is…… [Read More]
Economic Events: 1980-1989
the decade of greed. The era of onald eagan when the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Despite this common wisdom, 1980 started off auspiciously. On May 8, 1980 the World Health Organization hailed "one of the century's greatest medical accomplishments," the final and total eradication of smallpox (Dickson 247). But how quickly times change - barely a quarter century has passed and this same disease is making headlines once again.
Attitudes change also. While many in this day and age would still agree that the 1980's was a selfish period in American history, a sea-change has occurred in the rhetoric issuing forth from Washington D.C. In a very fundamental way, party politics has been thrust aside as concerns for homeland security take precedence over petty partisanship. Michael Barone notes this in his analysis of a speech made by Democrat ichard Gephardt in the Summer…… [Read More]
S. The societal system practiced in France serves as a model towards which the U.S. aspire.
President Barack Obama's healthcare reform plan is considered by many as being a socialist experiment that will significantly hurt the economy (CBS, 2009). In opposition, the President has stated that he does not intend to implement a healthcare system that depends on the government. Instead, he would prefer a system in which the government competes with private insurance companies for selling coverage.
The Invisible Hand Principle
The invisible hand principle was developed as an opposition to the protectionist system. This principle is actually a metaphor describing the self-regulating characteristic of the market. In other words, such a system can be implemented due to a combination of factors, like self-interest, competition, supply and demand. Adam Smith, who developed this theory, considered that the action of these forces and their effects are able to allocate resources…… [Read More]
Thus, a region or nation experiencing economic depression will be unable to use the interest rate lever to boost the economy. Similarly a country with high inflation will be unable to independently raise interest rates to contain inflation. Moreover, Islamic countries, which form a large part of the geography, do not believe in interest rates.
Political barriers -- Political differences between nations make it extremely difficult for them to adopt a common currency. It can lead to a loss in political sovereignty as monetary interests would need to surpass political interests. This is unlikely to be acceptable to most of the nations and the idea of a single currency may be difficult to implement (Gimp, 2008).
Will Pros and Cons change Over Time? Depending On the Country?
The economic conditions to determine a monetary union depend on: the openness and size of the economy involved to trade; the free movements…… [Read More]
There are several factors that could contribute to increased demand for owner-occupied housing in the United Kingdom. Given that this demand is presently suppressed by a poor economy, most of the conditions under which demand would increase involve finding ways to boost overall economic performance. One normal policy prescription, lowering interest rates, is effectively off the table with the current rate at 0.5% and the Bank of England expected to maintain this rock bottom rate for the foreseeable future (Oxlade, 2013). Banks could lower lending rates to buyers, but these rates are usually based on spreads relative to the rate at which banks borrow, so there might not be much flexibility for banks to lower rates profitably.
One way would be to boost the economy through fiscal stimulus, government putting money into the economy instead of taking it out. This would create better demand conditions, and would also give…… [Read More]
A price discrimination strategy is one where different customers are charged different amounts. The price charged for my shop's submarine sandwiches will therefore be different for locals than for visitors. There are a number of ways to achieve this. In the context of a sandwich shop, the prices are going to be listed publicly on the menu, so it is impossible to openly discriminate with respect to prices. One technique that can be utilized to lower the average cost for each sub-for locals is to offer a loyalty card. The local would then receive either a discount or a free sub-after making enough purchases. This would deliver a lower price to locals in the long run. Alternately, a loyalty club can allow the locals to receive discounts if they are members of the club. A certain amount of annual sales would be required for club membership, or even a…… [Read More]
Presently the government manipulates the books around in order to compensate for any tax cuts that they give. In reality, the vital thing for the government to do is to discontinue spending money. While this is not always reasonable, it is essential to make sure that the people and corporations of the nation can flourish. Tax cuts, when put into practice for long-term consequences, will offer a momentous increase in the market (How Do Tax Cuts Help the Economy, n.d.).
Due to the model of fairness, cutting taxes is by no means an easy task. There are two distinct notions that are at play. These are horizontal equity and vertical equity. Horizontal equity is the scheme that all people should be taxed uniformly. An instance of horizontal equity is the sales tax, where the quantity paid is a proportion of the object being bought. The tax rate remains the…… [Read More]
To understand this, consider when the curve begins on the upside. At that point, the firm may need a new factory, increasing AC beyond a certain point of output; or other inefficiencies could emerge relating to the costs of managing a larger organization. Essentially, on the downside efficiencies are improving as the output nears capacity. When output hits capacity, the LRAC begins to move upwards again.
5. The new camera explain is part of price discrimination and there are three distinct factors at work when considering this form of price discrimination. The first is strictly marketing -- when new technology arrives in the marketplace the first buyers are typically early adopters. These are more driven by the technology than by the price, so they have low price sensitivity. Firms take advantage of this by charging more, to recoup more of their investment as early as possible.
The second reason is…… [Read More]
The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).
Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…… [Read More]
Another fiscal policy that could be implemented is for the government to spend more, thereby increasing aggregate demand. This may have an impact on consumer confidence about the long-run state of the economy, but those long-run concerns are not driving consumer spending today. At this time, the spending policy is something that government can pursue. If poorly targeted, however, its impacts will be temporary. Indeed, if everybody knows that the measure is temporary, this will not affect consumer confidence or business investment in the long run. However, if the policy appears permanent, then the responses could be more permanent in nature as well.
Lowering taxes on that bottom 80% will increase consumer spending, but again might not improve consumer confidence because it only makes the long-run deficit problem worse. Only spending on job creation, therefore, is recommended because it serves to a) address some of the crippling issues relating to…… [Read More]
Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.
A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:
ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).
A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…… [Read More]
Postal Service (USPS) operates at a loss but its closest competitors -- UPS and FedEx -- both operate at a profit. Suggest how fixed costs have contributed to the situation of the USPS. Provide support for your response.
I would suspect that the fixed costs of contributing to employee's retirement funds (Risk Analysis Research Center, 2009, p. 4) and also their restriction from closing local offices (Slentz and McCann, 2009, p. 12) contributes to higher fixed cost at USPS than FedEx because FedEx is not unionized and while UPS is unionized, and thus experiences a fixed cost that is incurred to the level of union contracts, those contracts are more negotiable for UPS than USPS, and nonexistent or fluid for FedEx. Furthermore while union contracts probably affect the rate of closure for physical facilities for UPS, this would probably be more negotiable than for USPS and…… [Read More]
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…… [Read More]
ealth does not equate to happiness, a sense of purpose, dignity or respect. One of the key underlying assumptions of neoliberal philosophy, as derived from Milton Friedman, is that financial wealth is the ideal end goal of all activity. hile financial wealth solves many problems it does not solve all problems. Opponents of globalization, whatever their other arguments, incorporate this understanding into their protestations.
Naomi Klein goes further, suggesting that the unequal wealth distribution in the globalized economy is deliberate. The march towards globalization is not an altruistic endeavor borne of a firm belief in the power of the free market, but is a calculated strategy on the part of the world's elite to seize the world's wealth and power at whatever expense is necessary. Indeed, any economic benefits realized by the masses are incidental. Casualties -- be they citizens of Iraq, indigenous peoples or indeed any of the world's…… [Read More]
The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.
The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.
FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…… [Read More]
Both Keynes and Kalecki use Marx's theories as a starting point but quickly moved into new ways of thinking, particularly with regard to effective demand being oriented toward the demand-side. Marx had remained rooted in supply-side demand function, rejecting Say's Law only to note that demand did not necessarily meet supply.
Marx, K. (1867). Das kapital: A critique of political economy.
Mandel, E. (1995). Marx's theory of crises. International Viewpoint. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article289
Argitis, G. (2003). Finance, instability and economic crisis: The Marx, Keynes and Minsky problems in contemporary capitalism. University of Crete working paper no. 0307.
Green, F. (1991). Marx, Malthus and wages: A comment on Cotrell and Darity. History of Political Economy. Vol. 23 (1) 95-100.
Magdoff, F. & Magdoff, H. (2004). Disposable workers: Todays' reserve army of labor. CBS Marketwatch. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_11_55/ai_n6137106/
Sebastiani, M. (1989). Kalecki and Marx…… [Read More]
The study includes an analysis of market structures. The paper discusses the market type which Amazon operates in and the effects on their business of the market structure. Amazon is operating in an oligopoly market structure which is discussed in the study.
The role that the market plays in an economy is a crucial aspect of how businesses make their strategies and perform. There are different kinds of market structures; there are competitive markets, oligopolies and monopolies. In a competitive market the market has many sellers and buyers who are trading the same products which make the each seller and buyer a price taker. In such competitive markets each seller and buyer has to accept the predetermined price of the good. The cost is determined by the willingness of the buyers to pay for a product and the seller to sell the product. Another significant characteristic of a competitive…… [Read More]
Source: Kelly, Herring (2012).
Fig 3: France Construction Growth ate (%)
Source: Kelly and Herring (2012)
Economic theory points out the factors leading to the decline in the construction output in France. Economic theory argues that the changes in demand for construction activities may be due to several economic factors such as changes in Gross National Product, and changes in interest rates. (Finkel, 1997). Akintola and Martin (1994) argue that the level of a national economy is a primary factor that could affect the construction demand in a given economy. Typically, "there is a relationship between construction demand and the growth in GNP, as a measure of the economic well being of a nation." (Akintola, and Martin 1994 P. 9). During the period of economic prosperity, there is a general increase in demand for consumer goods which triggers up the demand for construction activities.…… [Read More]
The process would take centuries, but by Elizabethan times it had surely begun. Serfdom had all but disappeared from England, and money rents and wages had largely replaced other forms of compensation and exchange. The new importance of trade contributed to a profound change in attitudes, one that was beginning to re-shape society itself. In 1579, Thomas Churchyard defined as nobles, "Merchauntes that sail forrain countreys," a statement that underscores the importance of generating wealth.
Though not legally noble, these individuals were already beginning to emerge as substantial players in English society.
Economic Expansion: The Manor as Productive Estate
The vast expansion of trade and commerce in Early Modern England found its fullest expression in the thirst for new outlets for national enterprise. England's growing collection of colonies represented an attempt to compete economically on a world stage. Rivalry with other European powers encouraged the discovery and settlement of the…… [Read More]
Peer Avg: 12.99
Peer Avg: 12.66
EMC Corp. (MA)
Fixed and Variable Cost Analysis
The following table defines the fixed and variable costs associated with the new venture. At a minimum to create an enterprise-wide content management system that has the ability to manage per-content transactions, it costs approximately $1.5M. SG&A at $200K and Marketing at $120K are all fixed as this is needed to launch the company. Variable costs are all defined on a per customer engagement model.
Next, benchmarks comparing the dominant competitors in the web content management arena who could easily move into the monetization market are analyzed in Table 2.
Financial Analysis of Enterprise Content Management Systems Competitors -- Industry benchmarks
Operating Income - 2008
Net Income - 2008
Gross Margin % - 2008
Inventory Turnover - 2008…… [Read More]
Economics for Business
The company that I am studying is Apple. The company is a designer and marketer of consumer electronics, specifically computers, smartphones, tablets, mp3 players and software. The company has experienced a strong run of great performance in recent years, but it has not always been that way for Apple. The company struggled considerably, especially in the 1990s, before breaking loose. The key thing about Apple is that it has always sought to differentiate itself. Over the course of the past ten years, we have seen most of Apple's former competitors in the personal computer space leave the industry. The reason is that the computer industry is moving towards the strategic hell of perfect competition.
The term strategic hell reflects the condition of perfect competition. In the real world outside of economics textbooks, few markets can be truly understood to be perfectly competitive. Perhaps a vegetable…… [Read More]
e. D (0), the cost of fighting crime / proportion of corrections i.e. C (P0) and the crimes / social costs / negative impacts on to offender i.e. FO. These different elements are important, because the combination of them is helping us to understand the total impact of crime and punishment on the economy.
As a result, these different factors are used in a basic formula to comprehend the effects of social phenomenon and crime on the economy. elow is the equation that is used to objectively evaluate what is occurring.
L (social / economic impact) = D (0) + C (P0) + FO
This formula is important, because it is providing us with a basic strategy that can be used to objectively evaluate the how crime and punishment are impacting society. Once this occurs, is when we can see the total economic impact of this on communities and the…… [Read More]
Economics of Healthcare
The Economics of Health Care
The healthcare in the United States is a system of economics that has been referred to as a Ponzi scheme and most assuredly, the economics of the U.S. healthcare system are unsound at best. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world that fails to provide universal access to basic health care and according to the work of Kilchevsky (2004), 'the absence of universal health coverage has been called 'one of the great unsolved problems facing the United States at the onset of the 21st century." (p.1) This work intends to examine the economics of health care in the United States.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that national health expenditures for 2009 totaled $2.5 trillion, which is stated to be $58,086 per person. (erdine, 2011, p.1) The estimated total for health expenditures in 2008…… [Read More]
It is also argued that the insurance mandate is not constitutional since the government does not have the right to tell the United States citizens what products to purchase, even when these products are beneficial for them, and even less when the socio-economic impact of purchasing the respective items is questionable (Savage, 2009).
Arguments against changing the direction of the policy
Once again delaying any measures to restructure and resolve the two impending problems in the health care system (raising costs and insufficient coverage) does not constitute a constructive approach to resolving the impending problems
Aside the socio-economic problems it raises, the mandatory health insurance would ensure that all the U.S. citizens benefit at least from the basic health care services and this does not put tremendous strains on the federal budgets.
5. ationale of the suggestion to change the direction
Despite the benefits the mandatory health insurance would generate…… [Read More]
S. exports, but only reduced them, to increase imports from Mexico, to stimulate the opening of manufacturing plants in Mexico and to lead to the loss of jobs for the American population
Ultimately then, the free market is a beneficial theoretical model, but its practical implementation has only proven profitable for the corporations in the highly developed western economies.
3. Are impediments to economic and financial reconstruction worse in a particular region of the developing world?
The tumultuous world history has impregnated its effects upon all players. And these effects are multiple and depend on various other features. On the other hand, they can be used to explain the contemporaneous stages of economic development presented by each state. While some countries enjoy the benefits of high levels of economic growth and development, others still strive to make do. And the differences are not only obvious among the groups of developed,…… [Read More]
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.
Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly…… [Read More]
Purchase of any item may be an ordinary activity for most people, but in economic terms, it is probably one of the most significant activities that govern and shape the business cycle and affects the economic conditions of any organization or country. Purchasing is directly connected with the concept of consumption. The more a person purchases, the higher is the rate of consumption and vice versa. But purchasing or consumption, for that matter, doesn't take place in isolation and several different concepts come into operation when a single consumption activity takes place.
Let us illustrate this with the help of an example. Suppose a couple decides to purchase a car. On the surface this might be an ordinary everyday transaction where money goes from one party to another as the result of which ownership changes. The car becomes the property of the consumer while his money becomes addition…… [Read More]
Game theory is a model that can be used to examine and explain the way that different actors in a given situation may choose to act and develop strategy, using a mathematic approach. The model looks at how players will make decisions which will be based on both the firms own position and resources as well as the way their competitors are or are expected to act. Game theory can therefore be used to help try and identify the optimal course of action (McEachern, 2009).
There are many scenarios where Game Theory will be useful; in the commercial environment game theory is most applicable in oligopoly situations
To consider the application of the theory the concept needs to be described. The situation examined is a game. For there to be a game players are required; these are the firms (Nellis and Parker, 2006). For a game to…… [Read More]
Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy
An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present
In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…… [Read More]
He also said that it was high time that every person in the world stopped being economically defensive and started to become politically courageous. At the same summit, the Minister of Sustainable Development and Planning and Head of the Economic and Social and Ministerial Council of Bolivia said that a responsible community would make up and constitute the very basis of global sustainability and stability, and sustainable development was what had helped Bolivia survive through all the years of economic instability and political unrests that it had been subjected to all the previous years. (esponsibility for each other- as Johannesburg's High-Level Segment Begins)
However, though it is widely accepted that Bolivia is indeed heading in the right direction today, it is still lacking in clear markets, and in a complete access to the various technologies that exist in the world today, and also in a guiding mechanism that would help…… [Read More]
Now that I have achieved many of the goals I had growing up, I know need to take the next step to becoming a global leader. The complexities of U.S.-Japan trade relations, and other trade relationships in the Asia-Pacific region, are where my future lies. I feel that with my dual country experience, I will be able to make significant contributions to the study and practice of economics in this field. What I have accomplished thus far in life supports this goal, and earning an economics education is the next step.
Prompt 2. My move to the United States has been a challenge for me. I have worked long hours to pay my international student fees. However, this experience has helped me to grow into a successful woman, able to manage any challenge. I arrived in the United States with international experience and strong English skills, but the differences in…… [Read More]
Economic Forces and Health Care
Evaluation of Economic Forces and Impact on Health Care
This paper examines the impact of economic forces on the health care industry and health care management. According to Economy atch, the health care industry plays an important part in the country's economy. The health care industry determines the gross domestic product (GDP), exports status, employment, capital investment etc. The industry is likely to be dominated by continued expansion of demands in the market, increasing prices, and increasing awareness among customers, likely triggering a change in the industry for the better (Health Care Industry, 2011).
Industry analysts point to the healthcare industry as the one bright spot in an otherwise sluggish economy. According to the healthcare Financial Management Association (HFMA), the health care industry is creating new jobs, companies and markets. Job growth as the result of health care demands increased by 65% from 1990 to…… [Read More]
Economics in the IT Industry -- Additional Four Pages for Your Essay
Making Information Technologies a Competitive Strength
The pace and depth of innovation continues to accelerate in all sectors of IT. Across all sectors, enterprise and organizations that choose to automate their core business processes using IT systems and platforms are gaining the greatest impact of all however. Manufacturing and services companies are adopting Enterprise esource Planning (EP) systems to streamline their supply chain, sourcing, procurement, production and service strategies (Sternad, Gradisar, Bobek, 1511). EP systems are proving to be extremely valuable for these organizations as they strive to create a more unified series of business strategies across all their divisions. IT has emerged as an agile platform to support business' growth over the long-term as a result.
IT investments are also now entirely tied to business objectives and strategies as well. This has made IT critical form any…… [Read More]
Eco Footwear & Repair
Our Shoes' have Souls
Eco Footwear & Repair -- Business Model Proposal
Proposed Export Location: Chile
Proponent: Maria G. Lozano
The many firms in the footwear industry operate with an unethical and unsustainable business model. They utilize foreign sweatshops that often employ child labor. Furthermore, the industry is notorious for promoting product obsolesces and the products end up in landfills well before the end of their useful lives. Our mission is to revolutionize the current industry norms by producing products that are both environmentally and socially sustainable.
Export Marketing Plan
Export Marketing Strategies
This project proposes to begin constructing the production facilities for Eco Footwear Repair. On a high level, the vision for the organization is to provide all the goods and services necessary to extend the useful lives of clients' shoes or footwear. This footwear…… [Read More]
For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)
At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…… [Read More]
However, when it comes to the long-term effects, the policies are exacerbating social problems, by forcing the poor and middle class from their homes. This is because many of these communities are targeted by wealthy developers. Over the course of time, this causes large projects to be constructed that are not economically viable. At which point, many governments are facing the twin forces of having to maintain such facilities, while seeing an increase in social assistance from those who lost their homes. In order to prevent this situation from becoming worse, alternative policies need to be coordinated with members of the community. There also needs to be a long-term economic viability studies conducted in the initial stages of planning, where various members of the community and businesses should play a major role. This will help to determine if such projects are sustainable in the community. If these two elements can…… [Read More]
Economic Principles -- Perfectly Competitive Markets
Generally, gasoline and related petroleum products intended for automobiles are all products whose sale in the United States represents a close approximation but not necessarily an exact model of a perfectly competitive market. That is because entering the market is not completely barrier-free in that it requires a significant investment of capital. In that regard, the primary barrier to entering the market is the overhead cost associated with establishing the gas station facilities and qualifying for government licensing.
However, that is not substantially different from many other industries or even the simplest markets because virtually every business in modern American society requires the purchase or lease of land or facilities. Therefore, the existence of these barriers is not, in principle, enough to take gasoline and petroleum sales out of the perfect market description because the barrier is equally surmountable by anybody with sufficient capital…… [Read More]
A teenager relates with another teenager, member of the same social framework (be it group of friends, school, etc.), partially through the products he or she uses. Many of these need to be the latest style and embody not necessarily a social status, but a sense of style. At the same time, many of these are products that are used in the household, such as the car that the family drives or the electronics used.
This type of approach also has an important aspect to be considered in the marketing segment: the lifecycle of the product is much shorter than for other products and for other periods of time. ecause of this trend imposed by teenagers to be continuously in style, as well as by certain characteristics of a teenager that are reflected in the purchasing behavior (such as the fact, for example, that a teenager will tend to get…… [Read More]
By means of automation, specialized works that were predominantly done by men in the manufacturing industries situated in the developed nations were diminished. Conversely, non-specialized jobs mainly in the electronic parts manufacturing industries, particularly the microchip, in which unskilled women in a number of developing nations find employment, became bigger. Thus, the electronic parts manufacturers, instead of investing in huge capital-based units, had favored to make use of manual workers based in nations wherein inexpensive, quiet, and for that reason mostly women workers was quickly accessible. (Mitter; owbotham, 1995) Hence, women in Asia could get several jobs from the electronics manufacturing industry. Fresh high school passed out graduates from the tiny villages moved to the cities for jobs available in the semiconductor units. Usually the daughters of those villagers who were high-incomes, these young females, irritated by the absence of clerical as well as semi-skilled employment prospects in their villages,…… [Read More]
Economics in China (Manufacture)
There is a time and stage for all types of manufacturing and what may be seen to succeed in China is not likely to succeed in many other countries like the United States. Chinese economy has developed very fast and that has attracted attention from all over the world in the business community. This has led to a rapid increase in their foreign direct investment and share in international trade. There are continuously new businesses coming into China, trade agreements are being finalized, and a lot of foreigners are rapidly coming into China. The point where the foreign managers and the Chinese managers are meeting is being studied by many consultants. Some reasons for the growth of business in china are also due to their culture, and that is one of the oldest cultures in the world. Their culture has always had a system of client…… [Read More]
Product Differentiation in the Competitive Open Market of Today's Economy
Product differentiation is one of the most difficult things for a firm to achieve in a competitive, open market. In a market with a large number of potential product competitors, it is difficult to convey to the consumer what makes a particular product unique. The problem of product differentiation highlights the fact that it is not simply enough that a consumer wishes to buy more soda, for instance, to increase sales. Rather it is important that the potential consumer wishes to buy a specific company's soda, one's own particular brand of soda, and only that brand of soda. For consumers to demand a particular product, there must be a sense of 'specialness' conveyed to the product produced by one's own firm as opposed to other firms. This sense of specialness can be a uniqueness of cheapness, quality,…… [Read More]
economics pricing system that allows smaller practices and organizations to buy and sell affordable prices is a must today. The use of technology to determine pricing strategys is prevalent in todays times. This can be illustrated with the following examples where companies have used technology to formulate their pricing strategy.
The pricing model for MDoffice offers an affordable entry price for smaller, less-demanding medical offices such as solo practitioners. These practices can extend their investment in MDoffice by easily moving from standalone PC's or laptops, to peer-to-peer networks, to sophisticated client/server installations involving LANs (Local Area Networks) and perhaps ANs (ide Area Networks). This easy migration from platform to platform can be accomplished in affordable increments.
The overall objective in all our pricing decisions is to offer great products at a fair price allowing our clients to get an excellent return on their investment and to have an affordable growth…… [Read More]