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Fiscal policy is defined as a government spending policy that influences macroeconomic conditions (Investopedia, 2009). The business side of the Stimulus Act is essentially a tax policy in disguise, because the net effect of the stimulus is a reduction in taxes paid. However, the tax rate is not specifically addressed.
On the individual side, the stimulus is strictly microeconomic in nature and is not policy related. It is essentially a cash handout. Thus, on the whole the bill cannot genuinely be considered a component of fiscal policy. Rather, it is a one-time cash giveaway.
There is a potential multiplier effect of this legislation, but that effect is likely overestimated by the government. In principle, this influx of cash into the economy will lead to increased consumer demand and increased corporate spending. However, declining consumer confidence means that much of the stimulus money went into savings.
Likewise, businesses were not enticed…
No author. (2008). 2008 Economic Stimulus Act Provides Tax Benefits to Businesses. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.irs.gov/newsroom/article/0,id=179227,00.html
No author. (2009). Fiscal Policy. Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fiscalpolicy.asp
The theory was that by giving consumers tax rebates, aggregate demand could be increased. This in turn would, along with the corporate tax cuts, give firms more confidence to increase their own spending. hen the bill was being drafted, the economy was not yet in a state of total devastation, but there were signs of a pending recession. By drafting a bill that would increase aggregate demand, it was hoped by that business cycle could be forestalled or reversed. The government did not view recession as inevitable at the time. Rather, they felt that with sufficient increase in aggregate demand, the recession could be averted. As we have seen, the recessionary conditions at the outset of 2008 were merely the tip of the iceberg and the stimulus package was therefore woefully inadequate.
The hope, though, was that the multiplier effect would take hold. If consumers spent more, companies would be…
Pender, Kathleen. (2008). How Tax Rebates Work in Stimulus Package. SF Gate. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/02/12/BUOAV0BJP.DTL
Herships, Sally. (2009). Decoder: The Multiplier Effect. American Public Media. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://marketplace.publicradio.org/display/web/2009/02/06/mm_decoder_multiplier
The intention of the Act was to stimulate consumer spending. It focused on lower and middle income Americans, who might be more apt to spend rather than invest or save their tax refund. In other words, a wealthier individual might not hesitate to make a large purchase at any time, regardless of tax policy. But a lower or middle class individual who had been putting off necessary repairs, payments, or other large purchases could not do so, because of a lack of funds. Having received the rebate, the recipient could now spend it on a vital purchase. Some individuals would even receive rebates who had never filed taxes before because their income was so low.
hen individuals make purchases, particularly large purchases, cash is infused into the economy. Inventories that have been piling up because of consumer fears of a likelihood of a recession go down. Businesses hire new workers,…
The multiplier effect. (2009). CFA -- Level 1. Investopedia: Study Guide. Forbes.
Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://www.investopedia.com/study-guide/cfa-exam/level-1/macroeconomics/cfa23.asp
Pender, Kathleen. (2008, February 12). How tax rebates work. SF Gate.
Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/02/12/BUOAV0BJP.DTL
They may feel and actually be 'out of the loop' of office politics because they lack a physical presence in front of their colleagues and superiors. As Woody Allen once observed, sometimes the most important thing in life is just showing up.
Additionally, not all telecommuting workers are conscientious about doing their work. Without the supervision of a living, breathing manager they may use the extra freedom to slack in their duties, and unless an effective monitoring program is in place, workers at home may cost the company money. They may even be less productive, relatively speaking, than they would be in the office because of the lack of a motivational presence of colleagues, whose input and socially facilitating team spirit can encourage productivity.
Call centers are another way in which companies have used technology to reduce labor costs. In this case, the company usually employs workers in countries with…
Stimulus Bill Political Communication
Political Communication during the Stimulus Bill Debate
In times of economic uncertainty and national emergency, the government has the capacity to make decisions that it believes will aid the country in its time of need. Such a time of need occurred in 2009 when the country continued to face an existence of dire economic circumstances involving national cash-flow and jobs. In order to set economic recovery into motion, President Obama called for the passing of the American ecovery and einvestment Act of 2009 (AA), otherwise regarded as the stimulus bill. While such a bill was considered pivotal by many government officials in order to get the country back on its feet, crucial differences in policy and bill structure could be viewed in assessing the opinions Democrats and epublicans brought to the floor in terms of the bill's passing. In understanding the basis of the bill itself,…
Alarkon, W. (2009 January 25). Boehner says he will vote no on stimulus. The Hill. Web.
Retrieved from: http://www.thehill.com/leading-the-news/boehner-says-he-will-vote-no-on-stimulus-2009-01-25.html on 19 October 2011.
Associated Press. (2009 February 2). Obama calls Senate stimulus vote a good start.
Web. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29118636 / on 19 October 2011.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Economic Crisis Policies
US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…
ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml
Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781
Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis: http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/
Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.
Discuss the long-range effects of a stimulus plan as it affects the banking sector, on the one hand, and increases aggregate demand, on the other hand.
A stimulus plan by the federal government is designed to increase aggregate demand and boost economic production, lifting the nation out of a recession. By infusing money into the economy through public works projects and other government investments, newly hired workers have more income, and can thus contribute to the expansion of the economy as a whole through their spending. However, a long-range stimulus plan can occasionally make the banking sector nervous, because of fears of rising inflation. Inflation is feared by the banking sector because this reduces the value of their current holdings, and also means that current loans will yield a less profitable dividend, as prices increase and the purchasing power of the dollar goes down. Additionally, most stimulus plans couple…
An analysis of the latest figures for key economic indicators and the factors which have affected these indicators. This should include the figures for unemployment, inflation and economic growth.
The unemployment rate is a very important indicator of the overall health of the economy. Currently the unemployment rate is at 7.8% (Office for National Statistics, 2012). However, this figure does not affect the population equally. Different segments of the population have different employment rates. Furthermore, the unemployment rate does not include people that are not actively seeking employment. In the chart these people are considered to be "inactive." Another interesting item listed in the report is that the unemployment rate for the youth demographic was falling due to a record number of 16 to 24-year-olds being enrolled in some type of educational program.
Employment in the UK has suffered from recession. In 2008 there was a…
Financial Times, 2013. Question 3: Fiscal Policy. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1115c770-545a-11e2-9d25-00144feab49a.html#axzz2IAShLpER
[Accessed 1 January 2013].
Kirka, D., 2011. UK recession fears grow as manufacturing drops. [Online]
American Investment ecovery Act
Throughout American history there has been an emphasis on maintaining a balance of power between different branches of government. This is from the belief that concentrating too much authority in one area will lead to inevitable abuses in others. To prevent this, the federal government and states have always practiced these basic principles. As a result, there are varying interpretations as to the overall scope of power given to particular branch. (McNeese, 2001)
In 2009, these issues were continually being brought to forefront with the American ecovery Act and einvestment Act of 2009. This law was designed to provide the economy with additional amounts of stimulus to address the lingering challenges from the financial crisis. However, the process of enacting this legislation, there were increased amounts of controversy surrounding the balance of power between the President and Congress. This is because the Democrats had an overwhelming…
The American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). Fiscal Accountability. Retrieved from: http://www.fiscalaccountability.org/index.php?content=cog09-13#
The American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). GPO. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hr1enr/pdf/BILLS-111hr1enr.pdf
Estimated Impact of American Investment and Recovery Act. (2012). CBO. Retrieved from: http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/05-25-Impact_of_ARRA.pdf
Wickard v. Filburn. (2012). Case Briefs. Retrieved from: http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-law/constitutional-law-keyed-to-stone/the-powers-of-congress/wickard-v-filburn-2/
As banks faltered and default rates rose, rates of consumption and demand plummeted. Unemployment began to increase, and in a predictable Keynesian fashion, as individuals grew more insecure about their job prospects they began to spend less money. The United States has a particularly consumer-driven economy -- Americans are known for having historically low rates of savings and to engage in high rates of spending -- so this was particularly disruptive to the usual rhythms of the economy.
Young people graduating from college suffered some of the worst effects of the recession. "Unemployment rates for individuals younger than 25 are currently 21% in the euro area and 19% in the U.S." (Branchflower 2010). They were competing with older, more experienced workers who had recently lost their jobs. The fear is that today's low starting salaries create a class of permanently low-earning graduates, many of whom have high levels of college…
Branchflower, David G. "Credit crisis creates Lost Generation." Bloomberg Business.
January 21, 2010. August 28, 2001.
Ferguson, Niall. "Where did all the money go?" From the Great Hangover. Edited by Graydon
The article concedes, however, that declining business confidence is an absolute danger that must be dealt with and the government not being an active partner with businesses and in favor of the recovery will just make things worse (Pollin, 2010).
A similar point is made in a different article that states that the role of fiscal policy in pushing an economy towards recovery cannot be over-estimated or over-analyzed because of the vital role fiscal policy plays in said recovery. The article notes that the impact (or lack thereof) of programs like Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Medicare, tax credits, Social Security, direct subsidies, unemployment insurance and such are often included in any analysis of fiscal policy but it also noted that many parties that look at this topic glaringly omit are transfer payments and other assistance paid directly to financial institutions (Tcherneva, 2012).
This perhaps became a much less…
2012 Forecast: Recovery…or Recession?. (2012). Financial Executive, 28(1), 21-23.
Auerbach, a., Gale, W., & Harris, B. (2010). Activist Fiscal Policy. Journal of Economic
Perspectives, 24(4), 141-164. doi:10.1257/jep.24.4.141
Baily, M., & Lawrence, R.Z. (2004). What Happened to the Great U.S. Job Machine?
History tells us, evidently, that the worse a slump, the quicker the recovery because there's nowhere else to go but up. The rebounds from a bad economy were very strong. Now there's something to look forward to for those millions of Americans who can't put bread on the table for their kids.
ut, why is the stimulus not working all that well. In actuality, the government threw in around $800 billion for President Obama's Recover and Reinvestment Act of 2009. How could it not work? ecause it spent money on the wrong things. Remember when we were told all the wonderful new green investments it would allow to create thousands of jobs. And, do you recall how it would bring the U.S. transportation system up-to-date with highway and bridge repairs?
Pork. That's what happened, plus huge support for existing social programs which brought zero new jobs. The Wall Street Journal…
Associated Press. (2010, January 22). Jobless rates rose in 42 states in November. Retrieved February 4, 2010, from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/business/economy/23jobless.html?fta=y
Bandyk, M. (2009, February 19). Finding the pork in the Obama stimulus bill. Retrieved February 4, 2010, from usnews.com: http://www.usnews.com/money/business-economy/articles/2009/02/19/finding-the-pork-in-the-obama-stimulus-bill.html?PageNr=2
Bloomberg. (2010, January 14). Fed beige book: U.S. economy's on the improve. Retrieved February 3, 2010, from businessday.com: http://www.businessday.com.au/business/markets/fed-beige-book-us-economys-on-the-improve-20100114-m7eu.html
Doughroller. (n.d.). 2009 Economic stimulus package FAQs. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from doughroller.net: http://www.doughroller.net/news-analysis/2009-economic-stimulus-package/
The more jobs that can be created with this money, the more people that can get back to work and the money people that can get on with their lives. And that is exactly what the people of New York City want to do.
Hill, Jeffery. "hat the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7
June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm
"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.
McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
Light, Larry. "Stimulus Package Offers a Break for Mass-Transit Commuters." 2009. The all
Street Journal, 7 June 2009, http://blogs.wsj.com/wallet/2009/03/11/stimulus-package-offers-a-break-for-mass-transit-commuters/
Mason, J.. "Federal Stimulus and Medicaid: How Big a Savings for the City?" 2009. IBO
eblog, 7 June 2009, http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park/?p=7
Meckler, Laura. "Obama Signs Stimulus Into Law." 2009. The all Street Journal, 7 June 2009,
Hill, Jeffery. "What the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7
June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm
"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.
McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
The local and regional councils that administer the Porirua City metropolitan area have different, but interrelated responsibilities that must be taken into account in formulating effective economic developmental initiatives as described in Table 1 below.
espective esponsibilities and Areas of Interest for egional and Local Councils in New Zealand
Description of esponsibilities and Areas of Interest
esponsible for the integrated management of natural and physical resources, management of natural resources such as water and soil.
esponsible for carrying out multiple functions that enable them, among other things, to promote development projects with the private sector; also responsible for land-use planning, subdivision, service delivery, etc.; however, local councils are not involved in educational, health and welfare matters and these remain in the domain of national government.
Source: Gouldson & oberts, p. 54
Therefore, local councils would be best suited for establishing priorities for…
Blair, J.P. & Carroll. (2009). Local economic development: Analysis, practices, and globalization. New York: Sage Publishing.
-. Social capital in local economic development. In Theories of local economic development:
linking theory to practice, J.E. Rowe (ed.) (2009), Auckland: Ashgate Publishing.
Colbert, E. (1997). The Pacific Islands: Paths to the present. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Santerre and Neun
a) What are the three legs of the medical stool? Explain how trade-offs might take place among the three legs.
The three legs are cost, quality and access. Trade-offs take place among the three legs in the sense that sometimes cost might be high, but quality and access will be better. Or access might be good and cost low, but quality might suffer.
It all depends on the situation of the patient and the nature of the provider. The ideal situation is that all three legs of the medical stool are supportive of both patient and provider needs -- but that is not always the case.
b) What are the four basic questions and how do they relate to the concepts of productive and allocative efficiency?
The four basic questions are:
What mix of nonmedical and medical goods and services should be produced in the macroeconomy? 2.…
economic situation U.S. compared (5) years ago. Include interest rates, inflation, unemployment analysis. 2.Propose (2) strategies federal government implement encourage people spend money order create employment opportunities.
Q1.Analyze the current economic situation in the U.S. As compared to five (5) years ago. Include interest rates, inflation, and unemployment in your analysis.
The unemployment rate in January 2012 was 8.3%. The relative improvement in the economy has caused many to pressure Fed chairman Ben Bernanke to raise interest rates above their current record lows to curb inflation, although Bernanke still feels that the economy is fragile enough to justify keeping rates extremely low. "The unemployment rate has fallen for five straight months and employers have added an average of 200,000 net jobs per month from November through January" (Crustinger 2012). Until recently, the Fed has believed that there has been little risk of inflation due to an excess in the money…
Barger, Melvin. (1984). What killed Ma Bell? AT&T Divestiture. Porticus. Retrieved:
Block, Sandra. (2012). Inflation could lead to a modest tax cut. USA Today. Retrieved:
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
(Major Schools of Economic Thought) This theory was born from the crucible of a Great Depression and a orld ar. Chicago theorists vehemently disagreed. They made the argument that the wealth of nation's increase when the market is allowed to naturally price goods and services. Spending would unnaturally change the prices of these goods, thus changing the reaction of the market to the goods, causing a misallocation of wealth or goods.
According to the Chicago theorists, the role of a government was to make sure individual rights were not trodden upon during market interactions and to mitigate the damage of neighborhood effects. Neighborhood effects are defined by Milton Friedman, the godfather of Chicago Economists, as when, "the action of one individual imposes significant costs on other individuals for which it is not feasible to make him compensate them or yields significant gains to them for which it is not feasible…
Friedman, M. (1955). School Choices. Retrieved June 25, 2010 from the ROLE of GOVERNMENT in EDUCATION: http://www.schoolchoices.org/?roo/?fried1.htm.
The Federal Reserve Bank of San Fransisco. (2010). Retrieved June 25, 2010 from Major Schools of Economic Theory: http://www.frbsf.org/?publications/?education/?greateconomists/ ? grtschls.html#a8.
chief economic principle that must be confronted in the horrifying picture Steven Brill paints in "Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us" is the devastating effect caused by economic monopoly. Brill tiptoes around the issue, and basically defines monopoly by the concept of "powerless buyers" -- -but the economic conditions that render buyers powerless are economic conditions that restrict a buyer's freedom of choice, which is precisely the problem with American medicine in Brill's article. Doctors -- or by extension the Medical Industry -- represent a monopoly. There may be a plethora of pharmeceutical companies that exist, and which ostensibly compete under heavily regulated industries (which include a close government supervision on potentially monopolistic new inventions, such that copyrights and patents in pharmaceuticals are guarded under law for a mere fraction of the time that the copyrights and patents, for example, involved with Walt Disney's trademark cartoon character Mickey…
Traditional manufacturing industries are at a loss due to the trade deficit and many setbacks the whole nation has faced. Consumers are very dependent on debt due to re-mortgaging the properties to attain higher loans. Due to the sub-prime market fall, the services sector is likely to suffer a lot. A significant amount of people are without pensions or health insurance. The housing and mortgage markets are still in crisis. Consumers are paying more for the basic necessities such as food, fuel, medical care, college tuition etc. (Hunkar, D. 2009).
To recap, the number one market for Shin Shii tea outside Taiwan would be the United States. Certainly, it can be argued that possibility is there. This would be the best indication that the company should definitely choose a global approach to marketing, rather than localization. The U.S. is also the safest market to start. In addition, due to globalization,…
Chandon, P. & Wansink, B. (2002). When are stockpiled products consumed faster? a
convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Journal of Marketing Research. 39 (1), 321-335.
CIA. (2010). CIA World Factbook: United States. Available:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html . Last accessed 3rd Mar 2011.
Bonus Depreciation and Section 179 Tax Deductibles
Type of assets that typically qualified for bonus depreciation
This exceptional "bonus depreciation" stipend is accessible to all organizations and applies to most types of tangible individual property and PC software obtained and put in administration [a specific year]. Recently built or unique use property with a recuperation time of 20 years or less (genuine or individual), water utility property, qualified leasehold changes, and certain PC software are qualified for bonus depreciation. The qualification for bonus depreciation is only exceptional to new property; a utilized property does not qualify. The qualification of Long production property is also likely for bonus depreciation. The property whose recovery period is of a minimum of 10 years is the long production property; an expected production time of over two years, or an expected production time of over a year and an expense exceeding $1 million (Smith, 2011).…
Battersby, Mark E. "Computers and Software Bear Tax Breaks and Pitfalls." Rock
Products 113.1 (2010): 26-29. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Sept. 2015.
Lucas, Randy M. "The Win3 of 2011 Green Bonus Depreciation." Heating/Piping/Air
Conditioning Engineering (2011): 40-42. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Sept. 2015.
2009 timulus Package. The stimulus was $787 billion. The questions: What is the breakdown of spending allocated by state? Where did the money go?
The 2009 timulus Package
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, (ARRA) otherwise known as the timulus package was signed in 2009 by Obama as reaction to the recession and designed to create jobs as soon as possible and to help those hit by the recession. Other objectives were to provide temporary relief for those impacted by the recession and to create solutions for infrastructure, education, health, and 'green' energy. The approximate cost of the package at the time of passing was $787 billion. This was later revised to $831 billion between 2009 and 2019 (CBO (2012)
The timulus package was based on Keynesian economics that argued that during periods of economic hardship, the government should step in by increasing public spending which would in…
CBO (2012) Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output from October 2011 Through December 2011 http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/02-22-ARRA.pdf
USA Today. (2009) How the stimulus plan breaks down http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/economy/2009-02-12-stimulus-plan-breakdown_N.htm
WSJ. (2009) Who gets what from the stimulus package http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/info-STIMULUS0109.html
NY Times (2013) The Stimulus Plan: How to Spend $787 Billion
Investment Sections - 2009 Recovery and Reinvestment Act:
Source: Wikimedia Commons.
The largest grouping in the Act is for tax cuts. As an example of how money in one grouping gets divided, the following shows what is being allotted for tax relief:
$116 billion: Payroll tax credit of $400 per worker and $800 per couple in both 2009 and 2010 (American, 2010).
$70 billion: Alternative minimum tax: a one year increase in AMT floor to $70,950 for joint filers for 2009 (American, 2010).
$15 billion: Expansion of the child tax credit: A $1,000 credit to a larger number of families (including those that do not make enough money to pay taxes) (American, 2010).
$14 billion: Expanded college credit to provide a $2,500 tax credit for college tuition and related expenses for 2009 and 2010 (American, 2010).
$6.6 billion: Homebuyer tax credit: $8,000 refundable credit for all homes bought between 1/1/2009…
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. 2010. Recovery.gov. http://www.recovery.gov/Pages/home.aspx
Dems power stimulus bill through Congress. February 14, 2009. Associated Press. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29179041/ .
Economists say stimulus won't work. January 29, 2009. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/blogzone/mound-city-money/us-economy/2009/01/economists-say-stimulus-wont-work. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
Gross, D. 12 October 2009. The $800 Billion Deception: Conservatives claim the stimulus has already failed. But it has barely started. Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2232185/ .
American Jobs Act
The American Jobs Act of 2011
The American Jobs Act
This paper advocates passage of the American Jobs Act of 2011. Two years after the Great Recession of 2007-2009 ended, unemployment continues at near record highs. As of September 2011, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate held at 9.1%, with the number of unemployed persons at 14.0 million. The unemployment rates for adult men (8.8%), adult women (8.1%), teenagers (24.6%), whites (8.0%), blacks (16.0%), and Hispanics (11.3%) were essentially unchanged for September. The number of long-term unemployed, those who were jobless for 27 weeks or longer, was 6.2 million individuals, accounting for 44.4% of the unemployed. The number of individuals employed part-time for economic reasons, also referred to as involuntary part-time workers, rose to 9.3 million in September. These persons worked part-time because their hours had been cut back, or because…
Boushey, Heather and Gadi Dechter. "The American Jobs Act." Center for American Progress. 14 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Oct. 2011.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "The Employment Situation -- September 2011." BLS.gov. 7 Oct. 2011. Web. 18 Oct. 2011.
Calmes, Jackie and Binyamin Appelbaum. "Bigger Economic Role for Washington." New York Times. 13 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Oct. 2011.
Costa, Kristina and Adam Hersh. "Infrastructure Spending Builds American jobs." Center for American Progress. 8 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Oct. 2011.
Japan was once on a stellar track to economic prosperity. The end of the twentieth century saw promising chances for the island nation's economy. In 1991, the government spending was one of the lowest the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED) and 31.6% of the nation's GDP (Utt 2008). That same year, Japan's national income was at 86% of the U.S. gross national per capita income, a big improvement from just 20 years ago when the nation was only making 66% of the U.S. per capita income. This was an impressive feat for the nation to embark on. Yet, this was to change in the following years dramatically. During the later decade of the 1990s, the Japanese government took on the practice of vastly increasing government spending as a way to stimulate an economy that was beginning to lag. As the growth of the economy began to go stale,…
Associated Press. 2009, 'North Korea 'Panic' After Surprise Currency Revaluation,' Guardian [Online] Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/03/north-korea-won-currency-revaluation
Bozyk, Pawel. 2006. Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy, Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Chait, Jonathon. 2010, 'The Budget-Cutting Cycle: Delusion, Failure, Recimination,' the New Republic, [Online] Available at http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-chait/78735/the-budget-cutting-cycle-delusion-failure-recrimination
Eberstadt, Nick. 2007, the North Korean Economy: Between Crisis and Catastrophe, Transaction Publishers.
How large would your sample be and why?
The sample size will be 100 people. This was selected because these amounts can ensure that a model is developed which will mirrors the general attitudes in society. It is at this point, when the comparisons will be much easier for everyone. (Buchanan, 2009)
What problems or concerns would you encounter in the selection of the sample?
The biggest problems that will be encountered are subjects may not be completely honest. This can hurt the quality of the research by making it difficult to objectively understand different opinions and insights. To counteract these challenges, an anonymous survey will be provided. This will allow subjects to be as open as possible with their responses. (Buchanan, 2009)
What do you think the sample will tell you and why?
The sample will show that there are tremendous divisions with the law and its…
The Recovery Act. (2009). Recovery.org. Retrieved from: http://www.recovery.gov/About/Pages/The_Act.aspx
Buchanan, E. (2009). Online Survey Tools. Journal of Empirical Research, 4 (2), 37 -- 48.
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
The plan also calls for contributions to improve public education, to modernize schools and to improve Pell Grants. There is also money for research in science in technology to improve the broad band capabilities of the Internet infrastructure. Money has also been allocated for small business owners.
This infusion will be over several years. Critics of this plan concur that the amounts of money spread out over several years will not be sufficient to achieve the results the plan puts forth. Also, a lot of money has been given to banks, financial institutions and lending agencies. Money has also been given to the auto industry so that they can be more competitive with foreign auto manufacturers. But soon after, what the critics feared happened. The President asked the CEO of General Motors ick Wagoner to resign. Critics believe that such an unprecedented rise of the power of the Federal government…
Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: Fdr's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Aravosis, John. Summary of Final Stimulus Package. 2009. America Blog. Available: http://www.americablog.com/2009/02/summary-of-final-stimulus-package.html .
Calmes, Jackie. "House Passes Stimulus Plan with No G.O.P Votes." New York Times 2009.
Fox, Justin. "
China's Economy During and After the Economic Crisis
All of these factors created major growth for China for the three decades following the beginnings of its economic reforms, and then the financial crisis hit. China began the twenty-first century with a growth rate of 8.4% in 2000, peaking in 2007 with a 13% growth rate (IMF 2010). In 2008, this rate fell to 9.6% -- a significant drop, but still a significant growth rate as well (IMF 2010). The estimated growth rate in 2009 showed a slower drop to 8.7%, and forecasted growth in 2010 showed the rate climbing back up to 10%, with an average rate for the decade still at 9.9% despite the hiccup caused by the global downturn (IMF 2010).
A large reason hat China was so insulated form the economic shock that was so devastating in other parts of the world was because of the swift…
CIA. (2010). "China." World Factbook. Accessed 3 November 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html#
Goldstein, M. & Lardy, N. (2007). "China's Exchange Rate Policy: An Overview of Some Key Issues." Peterson institute for International Economics. Accessed 3 November 2010. http://www.iie.com/publications/papers/goldstein-lardy1007.pdf
Helicon. (2009). "Balance of payments." Farlex Encyclopedia. Accessed 3 November 2010. http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/balance+of+international+payments
IMF. (2010). "Countries with the highest GDP growth rates." Accessed 3 November 2010. http://www.gfmag.com/tools/global-database/economic-data/10304-countries-with-the-highest-gdp-growth-2000-2010.html
3. At its heart, this editorial promotes the underlying principles of free market capitalism. Trade is assumed to be a net generator of wealth by the authors; therefore the reduction of trade will result in a reduction of wealth. One of the key points they authors make is with regards to capital flows. Economic nationalism, they point out, will alter and in some cases diminish global capital flows to the detriment of the nationalists.
Global trade, they argue, needs leaders that strongly support its institutions and mechanisms. They advocate the completion of the Doha Round, and reduced trade sanctions. Such sanctions are the inevitable consequence of economic nationalism, and will reduce trade overall.
The issue of sovereignty also comes up in this piece. Each nation must deal with its own crisis, but to put sovereignty and local interests ahead of global economic development would be a mistake - sovereignty itself…
Editorial. (2009). The Return of Economic Nationalism. The Economist. Retrieved February 9, 2009 at http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13061443
However, some people might regard my decision as unwise: after all, what 'goes up, must come down,' and interest rates will inevitably go up. I may regret not borrowing now, if I have to pay a higher rate on a car payment in the future. On the other hand, given that the low interest rates and economic stimulus have not has a seismic effect on job growth, I am still wary about spending too much, despite the fact that money in a savings account with a low interest rate is actually 'losing' value, because of the inevitability of inflation. My uncertainty about borrowing for anything other than what I absolutely need (other than student loans, which is 'spending' that does not directly result in higher levels of production in enterprise and takes me out of the full-time labor force) means that the government must find more direct ways to stimulate…
The lack of construction jobs means that people do not have enough money to buy other items, and this hurts other businesses, who must also lay off their workers. Unemployment, although it is entrenched in the construction industry, has been spiraling out of control in all sectors, in Oregon. "Thousands more of the unemployed will exhaust their jobless benefits in coming months…This region, and others like it around the state and nation, face the prospect of growing hunger and homelessness this winter as our neighbors run out of benefits and lose their ability to provide food and shelter for their families" wrote ead in the Oregonian (ead 2010).
"Nationally in terms of monetary policy, the Federal eserve appears ready to act…quantitative easing" or steps to increase the money supply seem likely in the near future (ead 2010). When the Fed wishes to expand the money supply, it expands its purchase…
Hauser, Christine. (2010, July 21). Home construction decline. The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/21/business/economy/21econ.html
Hooson, Paul. (2009, April 15). Oregon's unemployment rate soars to the worst in the nation.
Wiz Bang blue. Retrieved November 13, 2010 at http://wizbangblue.com/2009/04/15/oregons-unemployment-soars-to-the-worst-in-the-nation.php
Manning, Jeff. (2001, October 19). Intel announcement promises thousands of jobs in Hillsboro.
The state of the global economy has been an issue at the forefront of discussion and debate for the last several years. In his 2011 State of the Union Address, President Barack Obama urged bipartisan cooperation for the continued economic revival of the nation, which drives the economic recovery of the world. The President promised increased spending on education, technology, transportation and research, all of which should strengthen the economy by making the U.S. A stronger competitor in the global marketplace. He also promised to slash spending and reduce the deficit, although the specifics of these cuts were not detailed in his speech (Benac, Kuhnhenn, Werner & Superville, 2011). Various economic indicators support the claim of the President, and economists that the economy has improved since its devastating crash in 2008. Yet, full recovery may still be years away.
Tanneeru (2009) noted that was debate about when and…
Benac, N., Kuhnhenn, J., Werner, E., & Superville, D. (2011). State of the union 2011: It's the economy again. Huffington Post 1/25/11. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/25/state-of-the-union-2011-i_n_813612.html
Brown, G.W., & Lundblad, C. (2009). The U.S. economic crisis: Root causes and the road to Recovery. Journal of Accountancy 208 (4), 42-49.
Credit-card gotchas. (2010). Consumer Reports 75 (11), 13-16.
Dampier, M. (2011). Japan's economic recovery will be swift. The Independent Online March
Private-label securitization has basically ended, and Fannie and Freddie were positioned into conservatorship by their controller subsequent to working in a dangerous and unsteady way. The job currently is to figure out how best to restore a connection between homebuyers and capital markets in a manner that deals with the problems of the old arrangement (Bernanke, 2008).
One alternative that has been talked about is that of privatizing the GSE's and letting them contend in the marketplace as private mortgage insurers and securitizers. In order to get rid of the assumption of government backing and to arouse competition, some suggestions supporting privatization call for collapsing the corporation into less significant components prior to privatizing them. Privatization would resolve a number of troubles connected with the present GSE model. It would get rid of the disagreement amid private shareholders and public policy and probably reduce the total dangers as well (Bernanke,…
Bernanke, Ben S. (2008). The Future of Mortgage Finance in the United States. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from Federal Reserve Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20081031a.htm
Housel, Morgan. (2010). Why the U.S. Can't Inflate Its Way Out of Debt. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from the Motley Fool Web site: http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2010/04/16/why-the-us-cant-inflate-its-way-out-of-debt.aspx
US Congress passes stimulus plan. (2009). Retrieved November 13, 2010, from BBC Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7889897.stm
Woodhill, Louis. (2010). You Can't Tax Your Way Out of a Debt Crisis. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from Real Clear Markets Web site: http://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2010/05/11/you_cant_tax_your_way_out_of_a_debt_crisis_98459.html
Thorndike, Joseph J. "The IRS Is Hiding Its History." The ashington Times.
December 19, 1997, p. A23. February 18, 2008. http://www.taxhistory.org/thp/readings.nsf/cf7c9c870b600b9585256df80075b9dd/9de7fcd59915a3be85256e430079327d?OpenDocument
After 9/11, the Federal Reserve Bank, then led by Alan Greenspan, used monetary policy reduced the interest rate, or the rate that consumers must pay to borrow money. This did encourage individuals to spend more. However, it is still debatable if this was the most vital component in extricating America from the throws of economic recession. Government spending, or fiscal as opposed to monetary policy, is often seen as a more direct and superior way to rapidly change economic conditions. Fiscal policy was required to stimulate America's recovery from the Great Depression, according to conventional wisdom, although some still argue that it was the Hoover administration's monetary policy that was ineffective, not that monetary policy was ineffective altogether.
But most economists believe that, to get the…
Heakal, Reem. "What is fiscal policy?" Investopedia. October 22, 2008. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/04/051904.asp
Fairness does matter when creating a tax system. In terms of a consumption tax, the poor often consume more than the rich, at least in terms of a percentage of their income. While for a wealthy individual, much of his income can be locked up in assets, making money off of money, for a poor individual, the bulk of his or her income is devoted to buying necessary goods, including rent and food. The consumption tax taxes everyone equally on the surface, regardless of how someone has benefited from the economic system of a particular society, and actually favors those who can allocate their income to sectors of the economy that are not taxed (such as investments, which are not technically consumption).
A flat tax, where everyone pays the same amount, has similar problems in terms of allocating wealth. 15% of a poor person's income, a person who must pay for his or her rent, food, and necessities out of his or her weekly paycheck, means more to that individual than 15% of an income where much of that income can be devoted to investments and luxuries. While not as unfair as a consumption tax as investment income is also taxed, a flat tax is still unfair, and finding the right percentage to finance government operations yet not to be prohibitively costly for the poorest members of society is a difficult balance to strike. The only good thing about the flat tax is its simplicity, as along with the consumption tax as it requires less bureaucracy to enforce. Bureaucracy is expensive as well as frustrating (as anyone who has ever had to fill out a tax form beyond the standard EZ-file well knows!).
Another trend that makes the American economy seem weak after September 11th is a change in spending habits. Many economists attribute a change in retail spending to the aftermath of September 11th when really it mostly reflects an evolution in the retail industry. Over time the American consumer's needs have changed and so have the demographics. For instance, "women are the driving force behind retail purchases" (Six Months, 2002) as more of them are head household now. According to BIGresearch, "consumers say they have changed and become more practical and realistic when making a purchase and 52.2% of them say this change is long-term" (Six Months, 2002). In this respect, September 11th did have a direct influence on the American consumer in that their retail spending tastes changed. Because of the attacks and fear, Americans spent more time with their families in the months after the attacks. This resulted in…
Delong, Bradford. "Wal-Mart dumps cold water on U.S. economic bulls. Strange Third Quarter News From Wal-Mart." Forbes.com 13 Nov 2003. 27 May 2005 ht tp:/ / www.j-bradford-delong.net/movable_type/2003_archives/002718.html. Accessed 2005 Jan 7.
Hubbard, Glen, R. "Huh? A Surprising Success! First Came the Bursting of the Clinton Bubble,
Then 9/11 the Accounting Scandals and All the Other Shocks to the System. Who Would
Have Predicted Such a Vigorous U.S. Recovery?" The International Economy 18, 2 (2004):
Conclusions -- Was TAP Necessary -- A five member Congressional committee echoed a number of criticisms regarding TAP that many consumers, academics, and fiscal analysts were considering. What exactly was the Treasury's strategy with the $700 billion dollars for the supposed bail out? How can Treasury explain the significant gaps in their ability to find hundreds of billions of taxpayer money? In a nutshell, it appears that the departments that control the money given by the Congress (from the American people) have no ability to ensure that the bailed out banks will do what was needed and lend money; have no real standards of measuring success of failure of the program; and for ignoring pointed and specific questions from Congress about their performance (M. Crittenden).
The fact that many of the institutions bailed out with TAP funds, funds from the American taxpayer, did not distribute these funds back into the…
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What needs to happen is that economic stimulus aimed at savings and investment, not necessarily nationalization of financial institutions, needs to occur. There is a difference, and with nationalization there is the assumption of risk by a government which will naturally be one of the most risk-averse, and therefore unable to capitalize on economic growth mindsets there are. A financial strategy of seeking to infuse greater levels of trust in financial institutions by tighter regulations on them and the development of programs to get the most critical of resources, oil and gas, free form inflation, is essential for a recession to not be prolonged due to inflation. Stabilizing these two factors, GNP and controlling inflation, are what can restore trust in an economy and help it to turn around. There are no quick fixes to a recession, rather the gradual spiral that creates one need to be used to get…
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While it was generally agreed that the increase in prices was due mainly to an insufficient offer as the stock house was limited, opinions have also been forwarded according to which the buy-to-let purchases have contributed to the inflation of the house prices (Property Mark).
The debate concerning the reasons for the massive price increases for residential properties (materialized mostly between 1996 and 2005) is however still ongoing. On the one hand, there are the property bulls, who argue that the increase in the prices of residential builds is the result of natural processes of economic growth and development. In other words, they state that the increase in prices was the natural reaction to higher levels of employment, economic stability and lower interest rates. On the other hand however, sit the property bears, who claim that the increase in property prices is not linked to any economic processes, but is…
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Keeping all these facts and figures in mind, it would not be wrong to conclude that low wage is one of the more serious problems of the country and needs urgent remedy. The government needs to address the issue properly and effectively keeping in view the current demographic trends.
1. Anthony Bimba, The Molly Maguires: The True Story of Labor's Martyred Pioneers in the Coalfields (1950; reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1975), pp. 54-66.
2. Ibid., p. 65.
3. Ibid., p. 66.
4. Edward Wolff, "ecent Trends in Living Standards in the United States," New York University and the Jerome Levy Institute of Economics, New York, 2002 p. 1.
5. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook: Tomorrow's Jobs. Online. Available: http://www.bls.gov/oco/oco2003.htm. Accessed: September 9, 2006.
9. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor Force Statistics…
1. Anthony Bimba, The Molly Maguires: The True Story of Labor's Martyred Pioneers in the Coalfields (1950; reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1975), pp. 54-66.
2. Ibid., p. 65.
3. Ibid., p. 66.
4. Edward Wolff, "Recent Trends in Living Standards in the United States," New York University and the Jerome Levy Institute of Economics, New York, 2002 p. 1.
doind a research project pay green?
I collected an articles .
In order to be able to comprehend how being green pays off, one must concentrate on the relationship between employing environmental attitudes and economic performance at a company level. Being green is especially important in the present and there is a wide range of domains that people have addressed when concerning the concept. "Some studies have shown that students who go to green schools have higher test scores, get sick less often and are healthier and happier" (Boys' Life 12). This makes it possible for someone to understand that profits associated with being green do not only involve financial aspects, as they are also likely to reflect positively on individuals when regarding matters from a series of other perspectives.
hile this concept is surely important, people should not only focus on profits when trying to devise strategies of being…
Best, C., (2012). UN tourism chief Taleb Rifai gives carbon tax warning. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/travel/news/un-tourism-chief-taleb-rifai-gives-carbon-tax-warning/story-e6frg8ro-1226427265472
Bowers, Simon. M&S promises radical change with £200m environmental action plan. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jan/15/marksspencer.retail
Dagher, Grace K.; Itani, Omar S. "The Influence of Environmental Attitude, Environmental Concern and Social Influence on Green Purchasing Behavior," Review of Business Research, Vol. 12, No. 2
De Giovanni, Pietro, (2012), "Do internal and external environmental management contribute to the triple bottom line?," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 32 Iss: 3 pp. 265-290
S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).
One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…
Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.
De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/
Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.
Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm .
Clinton, Bush, and Obama administrations and their support from Congress. With Barack Obama the first Democratic president since Bill Clinton, there are bound to be comparisons between the two administrations. They have some commonalities, such as a desire for health care reform, that are difficult to ignore. What the Obama administration manages to accomplish remains to be seen, but comparisons to their first year in office can now be analyzed for similarities and differences.
The Clinton administration ran on a platform of being "outsiders" in Washington D.C., and they believed they could clean up Washington and give the government back to the people. Unfortunately, that did not happen. The Clinton administration was extremely controversial, especially because of the sex scandals and the Whitewater Scandal that turned up during the first year of Clinton's presidency. He may be most remembered for the Monica Lewinsky affair, but he did accomplish many things…
Carroll, C. (2009). Bush deficit vs. Obama deficit in pictures. Retrieved 1 Dec. 2009 from the Heritage Foundation Web site: http://blog.heritage.org/2009/03/24/bush-deficit-vs.-obama-deficit-in-pictures .
Dickinson, M.J. (1998). No place for amateurs: Some thoughts on the Clinton administration and the presidential staff. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(4), 768.
Editors. (2009). Bill Clinton's transformative change vs. Barack Obama's incremental change. Retrieved 1 Dec. 2009 from the Talk Left.com Web site: http://www.talkleft.com/story/2009/12/1/111950/911 .
Eksterowicz, A., & Hastedt, G. (1998). Modern presidential transitions: Problems, pitfalls, and lessons for success. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(2), 299+.
None of the findings are not surprising to a lot of experts. Apart from large systems that are integrated, like Kaiser Permanente in California and the Veteran's Administration, a lot of doctor practices are adopting different EMs. Also in so many different situations they do not talk to one another (Sittig & Singh 2012). So, a doctor's record is not necessarily able to get access notes from his regional hospital if different systems were utilized. A lot of doctors in that condition could just re-order a test, instead of going through all of the changes of finding the records from the hospital.
Actually many experts make the point that the true power of digital records come when using a sole, unified system that can be retrieved by altered health sites. With the exclusion of large combined health arrangements, there sometimes can be fragmented EMs. Experts mention that perhaps with the…
Cook, P.J., Lawrence, B.A., Ludwig, J., & Miller, T.R. (1999). The medical costs of gunshot injuries in the United States. JAMA, 282(5), 447-54.
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Heselmans, a., Aertgeerts, B., Donceel, P., Geens, S., Van, d. V., & Ramaekers, D. (2012). Family physicians' perceptions and use of electronic clinical decision support during the first year of implementation. Journal of Medical Systems, 36(6), 3677-3684.
Simons, W.V., Mandl, K.D., & Kohane, I.S. (2005). The PING personally controlled electronic medical record system: Technical architecture. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 12(1), 47-54.
When it comes to government administration and due diligence, there are two things that need to be kept in mind. First, any overall program or agency to manage an issue is not just one bill or one cog in the machine but is rather a system of legislation bills, agencies and frameworks. Indeed, the Department of Homeland Security, for example, is technically a single agency but it has a lot of sub-agencies and all of those agencies require their own personnel, funding and frameworks to function. Whether it be a single part of the government or a bigger swath of it, a portfolio approach is necessary to address all of the needs and concerns involved. Further, there needs to be a focus on what brings the greatest amount of good because no portfolio, no matter how well-intentioned or funded, is going to address concerns and issues. While it would…
Benen, S. (2016). Bill for 9/11 first responders finally passes Congress. MSNBC. Retrieved 9
January 2016, from http://www.msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/bill-911-first-responders-finally-passes-congress
Duggal, J. (2008). Cultivating a portfolio mindset. Projectize Group LLC. Community Post.
Retrieved from http://www.projectize.com/portfolioMindset.html
public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…
Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.
Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.
Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller
Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.
organization can use to help reduce the gender wage gap, which is a complex problem in the modern labor force. The comparison begins with a discussion of the background information regarding this problem and its causes. The importance of reducing the gender wage gap in the workforce to the businesses, workers, and the overall economy is also examined. Following this analysis, the article presents negotiation and flexible work schedules as the two major ways that organizations can use to address the problem. Based on the comparison of these measures, flexible work schedules are recommended as the most appropriate strategy to help deal with the issue.
educing Gender Gap in Pay:
The achievement of stronger and sustainable growth through increasing the productivity of labor and human capital requires equal economic opportunities for men and women. In the past few years, this process has largely been affected by gender wage gap regardless…
Bassett, L 2012, 'Closing the Gender Wage Gap would Create "Huge" Economic Stimulus,
Economists Say,' The Huffington Post, viewed 5 May 2013,
Bennett, J 2012, 'How to Attack the Gender Wage Gap? Speak Up,' The New York Times,
viewed 5 May 2013,
Minimizing Poverty Is a Government Initiative
The Progressive Era
Poverty reduction has remained a central debate in periodical democratic societies. Schemes have been established to enable citizens to be economically viable either at paid-employment or self-employment level. Activists, philosophers, and politicians have suggested technical, liberal, and legal approaches towards poverty eradication. In fact, most of the debate in relation to the field of poverty examines whether poverty is a natural phenomenon associated with human beings. As this report will identify, fighting poverty is a double-edged sword since, after all, poverty is not the only member of the league. Close players include capitalism and politics. The commencing research proves that reducing poverty is a sequential process that requires considerate participation from all stakeholders. The research will principally cite Darwin's Social Darwinism theory, the 1933-1936 national initiative New Deal and Johnson Lyndon Economic Opportunity Act.
Social Darwinism vs. Progressivism
Claeys, G. (2000). The "Survival Of The Fittest" And The Origins Of Social Darwinism. Journal of the History of Ideas, 61(2), 223.
Davies, G. (1992). War On Dependency: Liberal Individualism And The Economic Opportunity Act Of 1964. Journal of American Studies, 26(02), 205.
Hausman, W.J. (2007). Jason Scott Smith. Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956. Enterprise and Society, 8 (2), 459-461.
Johnston, R.D. (2013). Review Class Unknown: Undercover Investigations of American Work and Poverty from the Progressive Era to the Present Pittenger Mark New York University Press New York. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1998), 106 (2), 347-349.
Moseley, chair of the Coalition advisory board and president and CEO of the Academy for Educational Development. "It is not a luxury that can be addressed at some point in the future, but rather it provides people with the tools to survive and improve their lives" (Basic Education Coalition 2004). There is no one magical, quick fix solution to Bermuda's dropout problem. The problem is complex and requires a complex array of solutions. It is the intent of this paper to study the scope of this hidden crisis, the poor dropout and graduation rates of Bermuda's Public High School System, by reviewing the most recent and accurate data on graduation and dropout rates, exploring the reasons that young people drop out of school, and presenting the most promising models for helping high school students graduate with their peers.
CHAPTER TO: LITERATURE REVIE
This chapter provides a review of the…
Winters, K.C.; Rubenstein, M.; and Winters, R.A. An Investigation of Education Options for Youth-at-Risk, Ages 9 to 15: Demographics, Legislation, and Model Programs. Research Report No. 88-10. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), May 1988.
Wood, G.D., & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-62.
Wood, L.A. "An Unitended Impact of One Grading Practice." Urban Education 29/2 (1994): 188-201.
The possibilities for job creation are truly endless.
At the same time, there's a tremendous downside to the possibility of HS2 being created. We live in the 21st and the days of polluting the planet and worrying about it later are long gone. The international community is worried about the fate of the earth, and with good reason. Thus, all forms of new transportation need to be scrutinized in order to see if they will help or hinder the environment. This subject deserves the most careful critique as on the one hand -- any form of mass transit seems like it would be good for the environment as opposed to the single car driver. On the other hand, this is far too unique of a viewpoint to readily embrace. The supporters and leaders behind HS2 say that its fine for the environment, but this may not be the case. "However…
Betterthanhs2.org. (2011). A Better Railway for Britain. betterthanhs2.org, 1-11.
Bluespace. (2010). A Review of High Speed Rail - HS2 proposals. Bluesoace.
HS2. (2011). Demand for Long Distance Travel. HS2, 2-16.
HS2. (2011). Valuing the Benefits of HS2. HS2, 2-18.
economic crisis in Europe and the increasing costs for European countries to borrow money and bail out other Euro countries in financial distress. The EU nations that use the Euro have experienced a crisis among certain countries with high debt requiring bailouts for Greece and Ireland and the likelihood that Portugal and Spain may also need a bailout. Postponing the restructuring of high interest debts has led to further crisis rather than resolving any of the problems faced by insolvent countries. Huge transfer payments from the more powerful Euro countries, like Germany, to the failed economies of Greece and Ireland have made investors nervous and led to less investment at a crucial time. The author suggests that the debts of troubled countries need to be restructured now in order to create a sustainable payment to increase confidence and secure future payments.
Creditors will also have to shoulder some of the…
Bamberger, K.. (2010). Technologies of Compliance: Risk and Regulation in a Digital Age. Texas Law Review, 88(4), 669-739. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1995143041). http://www.egloballibrary.com/egl/html/institutes/1086/homepage/library.jsp
Corder, J. (2009). The Federal Reserve System and the Credit Crisis. Public Administration Review, 69(4), 623-631. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02011.x http://ehis.ebscohost.com.csuproxy.egloballibrary.com/ehost/detail?hid=6&sid=feb1c9d6-ff89-462b-9741-b5b3cfdd54aa%40sessionmgr12&vid=8&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=buh&AN=42960193
Europe finance: Time for Plan B. (2011, January). EIU ViewsWire. Retrieved January 19, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2241366821).
Canadian Current Events Magazine
Prduced by NAME
This article describes the grwing trend in the crprate wrld f eliminating perfrmance reviews, which many find t be ineffective and even cunterprductive. The article ntes that wrkers and managers alike ften feel that perfrmance reviews d nt measure what they are meant t measure, and that they fail t prvide
Cntinued n New Mining Activity in Alberta
Letters t the Editr
Interview with Financial Expert
Prjected Grwth in 2012
Signs f imprvement in the labr market in the United States cntinue as the rate f peple applying fr unemplyment benefits hit its lwest number since May f 2008, accrding t recent numbers released by the U.S.
Canada is a cuntry whse main exprts are hckey players and cld frnts. Our main imprts are baseball players and acid rain.…
other: 3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
American ecovery and einvestment Act
In the wake of the 2008 market crash and the ensuing recession, the U.S. government developed a plan to shore up the economy in the face of dwindling economic activity. That plan combined federal stimulus with tax breaks to help fill the gap created by cuts in consumer spending. The steps taken by the government were meant to create a short-term solution -- but the controversy surrounding the steps was similar to that of a doctor treating only the symptoms of a disease by placing a temporary bandage over an obviously infected wound: it did nothing to address the symptoms directly. Part of that reason was that those in charge of addressing the issue were not situated to address the actual causes of the problem. This paper will examine the steps taken by the government via the American ecovery and einvestment Act of 2009 and…
Economic Report of the President. (2014). DC: Council of Economic Advisors.
Elwell, C. (2013). Economic recovery: Sustaining U.S. economic growth in a post-
crisis economy. Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada and Mexico, 15(3): 369-404.
Goldberg, G., Rosenthal, M. (2011). The jobs crisis: How to solve it and begin to fix our broken economy. New Politics, 13(2): 60-67.
Since their introduction in the early 2000s, the tax cuts have diminished the nation's tax bill by hundreds of billions every year. Over the next ten years, they are expected to add $3.6 trillion to the debt. Without these cuts, our medium-term budget (say, over the next decade) would be sustainable. As long as new revenues are off-limits, attacking the deficit is equivalent to attacking the functions of government. That gives the anti-deficit argument strong ideological support from small-government advocates. But there are others who are not motivated by anti-government ideology but are misguided nevertheless. The ecovery Act, with a price tag of about $800 billion, was a historically large stimulus, and it was wholly paid for by borrowing. But by 2012 it will add less than 0.5% to the deficit-to-GDP ratio, and nothing to the growth in the debt (it does add to the level of debt, of course;…
Burnstien, Jared. "Rethinking Debt." Democracy Journal. Last modified 2012. http://www.democracyjournal.org/23/rethinking-the-debt.php?page=all
Chicago Format / http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/05/
Jared Burnstien, "Rethinking Debt." Democracy Journal, last modified 2012.
As governments continue to print money, the relative value of this money will continue to decline, ultimately harming the consumers it was intended to help. Furthermore, this low interest rate environment is harming those who depend on their savings to generate income. With interest rates at record lows, and savings accounts generating very little income, inflation will erode the purchasing power of these savings (obert, 1988). Inflation could further erode an already shrinking middle class. The median income as I indicated earlier is already shrinking. Further constriction of purchasing power would cause more damage to the confidence of consumers and their willingness to purchase goods and services.
ead CNN article DUG_TESTING_GOES_OFFSHOE and summarize:
What you think are the advantages and disadvantages of offshoring some of these trials?
Many of the advantages of drug testing offshore correspond directly with the advantages of globalization within a market economy. First, drug…
1) Robert J. Gordon (1988), Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy, 2nd ed., Chapter 22.4, 'Modern theories of inflation'. McGraw-Hill.
2) Tobin, James, American Economic Review, march (1969), "Inflation and Unemployment
Down? The Value of the Dollar
International Currency Exchanges
Current Trends and Initiatives
Impact of the Euro on Dollar Valuation
Analysis of Current Trends and Initiatives on Dollar Valuation in the Future
Up or Down? The Value of the Dollar: A Historical Analysis of the Valuation of the U.S. Dollar
According to Michael Artis, Elizabeth Hennessy, and Axel eber (2000), capital losses can be caused by differential changes in the value of assets and liabilities, primarily exchange rate changes; these changes affect the value of a central bank's foreign exchange reserves. To date, exchange rate changes have only been a major problem for national central banks with very large foreign exchange reserves (i.e., Portugal); however, it might also become a problem for the European Central Bank in the future, whose balance sheet on the asset side will be dominated by the approximately 40 billion euro in foreign exchange reserves it…
Arthurs, Harry. (1996). "Globalization and Its Discontents." Journal of Business
Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 132.
Artis, Michael, Elizabeth Hennessy and Axel Weber (Eds.). The Euro: A Challenge and Opportunity for Financial Markets. London: Routledge, 2000.
Charrette, Susan and Juann Hung. (1997). "The Looming U.S. External Debt. How Serious is
However, the same Republicans in the House and Senate who resisted the passage of the last stimulus bill, despite double-digit unemployment, are agitating for Ben Bernanke to raise interest rates and to curtail the expansive open market operations policy. They also said that the bank bailouts "rewarded" failure, despite the risks of global insolvency posed by mass bank failures (Isidore 2009).
hile the Fed certainly could have been more proactive in preventing the credit crisis and recession by demanding greater regulation of creative financial instruments like derivatives and not setting interest rates at historically low levels during the last recession after the dot.com bubble burst, the Fed's policy at present seems sound. Regarding the continued high rate of unemployment, the Fed cannot create jobs: that is a simulative tool that lies in the hands of the federal government, and was the justification for the size of the last stimulus bill.…
Isidore, Chris. "Bernanke faces fire at confirmation hearing." CNN.com. December 3, 2009.
January 29, 2010.
Indiviglio, Daniel. "Is the Fed doing enough to curb unemployment?" The Atlantic Magazine.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
Mexico's Trade Strategy
Mexico has pursued a three-dimensional trade strategy perhaps more diligently than even the United States according to Schott (Studer & Wise, 2007). Mexico has been an active participant in multilateral talks since its GATT accession in 1986 and was the host country for the special Summit of the Americas in Monterrey and for the hemispheric trade talks in Puebla. Mexico is perhaps most famous as the instigator of NAFTA as well as many other FTAs with countries around the world including key industrial markets such as the European Union (EU, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and Japan. In addition, Mexico entered in FTAs with olivia, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, The G3 (Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela), Honduras, Israel and Nicaragua during the period January 1995 to June 2001 (Schott in Studer & Wise, 2007). It is important to emphasize that Mexico has many more FTAs…
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, 1988. Basel Convention. Retrieved from: http://www.basel.int/
Bown, C.P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 33 (1), winter/spring 2009, pp. 27-48.
Bown, C.P & McCulloch (2005). U.S. Trade Policy Toward China: Discrimination and its Implications.
China and Mercosur: Perpectives for Bilateral Trade (2007). China Programme 11 (7). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. Retrieved from: http://ictsd.org/i/news/bridges/3164/