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Bernie Sanders's economic platform is based on the concept of income inequality. As a socialist liberal, his main thesis is that the U.S. economy is producing wealth, but, at the same time, a large income inequality. His platform explores an interesting dichotomy, namely the fact that, despite the continuous increase in economic productivity over the years and despite the tremendous advances in technology, which should theoretically balance a reducing of economic disparities, workers have to work longer hours for the same or lower wages.
Sanders's approach is more complex than just emphasizing economic disparities. He is interested in building his platform around a transfer of wealth, not only on wealth disparities, between the middle class and the rich and very rich classes. As all know, the U.S. was built around the proliferation of a rich middle class, so this transfer should be of concern to potential voters. At the same…
Economic Challenges Canada Faces
In recent years, the challenging economic condition in Canada has emerged as a concern for citizens, policy makers and the government alike. Canada faces challenges in terms of creating a more innovative society, as the country continues to experience a significant productivity gap compared to other advanced industrial economies. The Canadian industry appears to be slower in successfully developing, applying and marketing innovative products, processes and services than a majority of other nations. This lack of innovation is the cause of Canada's low productivity growth and competitiveness, and therefore must be addressed in order to increase employment growth, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life for all Canadians.
Current research predicts that although Canada's economic performance will gradually strengthen out of the recent mild slowdown into a better pattern of growth in 2004, Canada's economy still faces the longer-term challenge of increasing…
Department of Finance Canada. (2004). The Economy in Brief. Retrieved March 8,
2005, from the Department of Finance Web site: http://www.fin.gc.ca/ECONBR/ecbr04- 12e.html
Economic Survey Canada. (2004). Building Partnerships for Progress. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the Economic Survey Canada Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/24/0.02340.en_2649
Environment Canada, Informing Canadians on Pollution. (2002) Highlights of the 2002 National Pollutant Release Inventory, Environment Canada.
Federated funding is a financing option used by non-profits whose mission and vision are more clearly defined and easier to implement. An example of a federated fund is the March of Dimes charity. The benefits of using a federated fund include the ease of making and accepting employee contributions via the inclusion of payroll deductions. Charitable dollars can also be aggregated to more than one group or to target more than one issue associated with the operations of the charitable group. Therefore, a level of flexibility is associated with the designation of a federated funding arm.
The disadvantages of a federated funds is that its use is not common to major medical research facilities and other charitable organizations that have large, temporary budgets for programs that may not exceed 3 years in duration. Typically speaking, the use of a federated fund is the optimal solution for a service-based charity and…
The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).
Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…
Avizius, R. 2009. Financial Crisis Big Picture: What has the Government Response Been? [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article9229.html . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Centeno, M.A. & Cohen, J.N. 2012. The Arc of Neoliberalism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/transitionstomodernity/papers/CentenoCohen.pdf . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Crotty, J. 2009. Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the 'new financial architecture' . [ONLINE] Available at: http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/563.full . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Esteva, G. (n.d.). The Meaning of the Global Crisis and "Recovery" for Study Abroad: What are we Preparing Students for? [ONLINE] Available at: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1110&context=faculty_symposium . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.
A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:
ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).
A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…
Budowsky, B., January 22, 2008, the Economic Crisis, the Hill
Kilmister, a., December 2008, the Economic Crisis and Its Effects, World Economy, No. 407
Miller, J., Jackson, B., Who Cause the Economic Crisis? The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania
http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/who_caused_the_economic_crisis.html , last accessed on January 7, 2009
In this regard, Green and her colleagues emphasize that, "The corporate wealth of logging giant Gunns, Ltd. (which controls over 85% of the state's logging, is the world's largest hardwood woodchip exporter, and is worth over one billion dollars) has not trickled down into the state's economy" (2007, p. 95).
Despite the enormous range of wood products, particularly its valuable hardwoods, that could be produced from Tasmania's forests, more than 90 per cent of the country's hardwood timber is simply processed into woodchips annually, representing 5,000,000 tons of Tasmanian native forest which are then marketed to paper mills in Asia, primarily in Japan but in South Korea and increasingly China as well, accounting for around 70 per cent of Tasmania's total woodchip export production (Green et al., 2007). The sustainment practices used by the forestry industry, though, have been insufficient to replenish what is being extracted.
Forestry Tasmania. The Board…
Australia. (2010). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html.
Brown, B. (2001). Revelations of a green senator. In H. Gee (ed.), for the forests: A history of the Tasmania Forest Campaigns. Hobart: The Wilderness Society, 2001, p. 334 in Owen
Carter, N. (2007). The Politics of the Environment. Ideas. Activism. Policy. 2nd Edn. Cambridge:
He also said that it was high time that every person in the world stopped being economically defensive and started to become politically courageous. At the same summit, the Minister of Sustainable Development and Planning and Head of the Economic and Social and Ministerial Council of Bolivia said that a responsible community would make up and constitute the very basis of global sustainability and stability, and sustainable development was what had helped Bolivia survive through all the years of economic instability and political unrests that it had been subjected to all the previous years. (esponsibility for each other- as Johannesburg's High-Level Segment Begins)
However, though it is widely accepted that Bolivia is indeed heading in the right direction today, it is still lacking in clear markets, and in a complete access to the various technologies that exist in the world today, and also in a guiding mechanism that would help…
Background Note: Bolivia. (August, 2004) Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35751.htm . Accessed on 22 February, 2005
Background Notes, Bolivia. (March 1998) U.S. Department of State. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/bolivia_0398_bgn.html . Accessed on 22 February, 2005
Bolivia, Geography. Retrieved at http://reference.allrefer.com/world/countries/bolivia/geography.html . Accessed on 22 February, 2005
Nicholls, Peter. (Autumn, 2003) Bolivia, between a rock and a hard place. Capital and Class. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3780/is_200310/ai_n9324747/pg_3Accessed on 22 February, 2005
Eco Footwear & Repair
Our Shoes' have Souls
Eco Footwear & Repair -- Business Model Proposal
Proposed Export Location: Chile
Proponent: Maria G. Lozano
The many firms in the footwear industry operate with an unethical and unsustainable business model. They utilize foreign sweatshops that often employ child labor. Furthermore, the industry is notorious for promoting product obsolesces and the products end up in landfills well before the end of their useful lives. Our mission is to revolutionize the current industry norms by producing products that are both environmentally and socially sustainable.
Export Marketing Plan
Export Marketing Strategies
This project proposes to begin constructing the production facilities for Eco Footwear Repair. On a high level, the vision for the organization is to provide all the goods and services necessary to extend the useful lives of clients' shoes or footwear. This footwear…
America News. (2011, March 15). Business Growth: South America. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from News of America: http://amerivanews.con10.com/business-growth-south-america.html
Badame, D. (2001). Planet Reebok. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from Rogivue: http://www.rogivue.com/downloads/Planet%20Reebok.pdf
Golder, P., & Tellis, G. (2010). Product Life Cycle. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing.
Pfeiffer, M. (2010, February 1). How CSR is seen in Chile. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from CSR360: http://www.csr360gpn.org/magazine/feature/how-csr-is-seen-in-chile/
" (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) Market saturation is possible according to Traventec, Ltd., due to the constant "influx of new entrants into the low cost carrier and regional space and continued expansion of existing players. When and whether market saturation is actually reached in specific regions of the world depends on how mature regional and low cost air transport is in the first place and the size of the yet under-served demographic area." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) There is stated to be a potentially huge regional aviation market in South East Asia yet untapped with more than half of the population of the entire world within six hours flying radiuses from "Kuala Lumpur and a five hour flying radius from angkok." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) the airports in this area have only recently been liberalized with the "international bilateral agreements and vested in the development of airport capacity." (Traventec, Ltd., 2005) When this…
The Impact of Low Cost Carriers in Europe (2003) Online available at http://www.icao.int/icao/en/atb/ecp/CaseStudies/Europe_LowCost_En.pdf .
The Inevitable Convergence of Regional and Low Cost Carriers (2005) Traventec - the Travel Technology People. July-August 2005. Traventec Ltd. Galway Business Park, Dangan, Ireland Online available at http://www.sourceit-travel.com/directory/downloads/traventec/trav entec_publication_july2005.pdf
Sean D. Barrett (2004) the sustainability of the Ryanair model 1 Dec 2004. International Journal of Transport Management Volume 2, Issue 2, 2004, Pages 89-98. Online available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W83-4FHJYDN-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=6c4406b7409fa7b9f01b15b1ae584273
Europe's Airports (2006) Mintel International Group Ltd. Published: Feb. 1, 2006 - Online available at http://www.marketresearch.com/map/prod/1224216.html
Sustainability Balanced Scorecard
The balanced scorecard is a tool for management that supports the positive execution of strategies instigated by the corporation. This report makes the aim to assist Wave Master Limited Company (WML) with the further analysis of sustainability. In particular, the report comes up with a strategic map for the company's objectives and thereafter creates a scheme for the formation of a sustainable balanced score card (SBSC). These strategic objectives are categorized in accordance to the perspectives of the SBSC that is suggested. The study goes on to further offer justification as to why such strategic objectives were classified and categorized in that particular manner. In concurrence with assignment two, we make the assumption that the sustainability reports and analysis made previously are appropriate and suitable to be used for this study. In developing the sustainable balance score card, the approach used in this study is that of…
Armitage, H.M., & Scholey, C. (2006). Using Strategy Maps to Drive Performance. CMA Canada.
Butler, J.B., Henderson, S.C., & Raiborn, C. (2011). Sustainability and the balanced scorecard. Management Accounting Quarterly, 12(2), 1-10.
Esau, G., & Malone, M. (2013). CSR in natural resources: rhetoric and reality. Journal of Global Responsibility, 4(2), pp. 168-187.
Figge, F., Hahn, T., Schaltegger, S., & Wagner, M. (2002). The sustainability balanced scorecard -- linking sustainability management to business strategy. Business strategy and the Environment, 11(5), 269-284.
Phase 4 Discussion Board
The article that I will be reviewing is "Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development." This article was published in the journal Sustainability Science and directly covers the development of the academic discipline. The authors note that as the discipline matures into a full-fledged academic discipline, there is a need to understand the nature of sustainability science and what the key competencies are going to be to understand the discipline. The authors have studied a number of journal articles on the subject to make a determination about what competencies are required: systems thinking, anticipatory, strategic, interpersonal and normative.
The authors have a good understanding of what sustainability science is. They point out rightfully that systems thinking is critical, because sustainability science is about the systems that support human life. Strategic competencies is required because interventions are required to save us…
Coca-Cola 2011/2012 Sustainability Report. Retrieved October 29, 2014 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/sustainabilityreport/world/water-stewardship.html
Engelman, R. & LeRoy, P. (1993). Sustaining water: Population and the future of renewable water supplies. Population Action International Retrieved October 29, 2014 from http://www.popline.org/node/331603
Saal, D. & Parker, D. (2011). Productivity and price performance in the privatized water and sewerage companies of England and Wales. Journal of Regulatory Economics. Vol. 20 (1) 61-90.
Wiek, A., Withycombe, L. & Redman, C. (2011). Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development. Sustainability Science. Vol. 6 (2011) 203-208.
Like many companies today, Cadbury Chocolate started issuing case studies in 2008 over concerns raised over chocolate picked in the Ivory Coast that made use of child slave labor. However, in addition to the issue of the child labor, it opened a wicket of other issues that many corporations have to deal with in terms of dealing with ethical issues, sustainable technology and taking into consideration the opinions of people who were not considered stakeholders previously (such as customers and employees).
To the outside observer, this may seem to have been unnecessary. However, one must examine the issues of sustainability and responsible corporate management to understand Cadbury's strategy.
Polling and incorporating those opinions is critical to establishing a basis for establishing and executing company plans. Without considerations of sustainability, it is now becoming impossible for companies to continue with anything resembling what could be considered normal. In such…
but, one must wash the towel. The cycle continues and the family member has to choose the way of washing this cloth towel. it's embodied net energy is less than that of the paper towel. Another way of reducing the amount of energy a house expends in the window setup in that house. The larger the windows, the more light that comes into the home, and the less lighting is need to keep the house comfortable. (Steffen)
There are many ways in which humans could quicken -- in a humane way -- reindustrialization from the petroleum based overshoot industrial society of the present to a more diverse, efficient and flourishing society based on energy sources such as solar, wind geothermal, water, resource production, and creativity, as well as on such values as compassion, altruism and fairness.
Rainwater harvesting, a well-known practice in the poor economies of the world, is catching…
In fact, San Francisco now puts $100,000 toward how-to-worshops, rebates and discounts on rainwater catchment tanks. Such efforts, furthermore, help alleviate the mess of storm runoff. Asphalt covered roads, sidewalks and parking lots repel storm water, leading it down storm drains and into creaks instead of into soil -- big flushes of storm water in water treatment systems can force raw sewage into the ocean. Overloaded streams can lead to flooding which damages salmon habitats.
Water catchment tanks may be key to a new, sustainable way of life for families. The California drought is anticipated to be the worst in modern times. Already thousands of acres of crops are fallow, with no sign of slowing. Furthermore, the Northern Sierra snowpack for the winter of 2008 turned out to be 51% lighter than usual. According to the Los Angeles Times, the state is nearly out of water, leaving it with prayers of rain and a dwindling Northern California supply. Los Angeles has already begun allocation of water. (Thill)
Cultures across time and space saw their relationships with nature in a myriad of ways, many of which succeeding so much in their niche as to improve the environments they inhabited. What follows, is a quick look at how other cultures have interacted with nature. There are many examples from South America of indigenous living harmoniously off their landbase. The Kayapo, for example, subsist primarily on the produce of their gardens and managed forests. Their societies, despite their subsistence methods, were discovered to be large and complex and their ceremonies plentiful and rich. One Kayapo family, it was found, in its fifty-year lifetime, may clear just ten hectares of forest. A Kayapo swidden, furthermore, will remain fecund throughout its fallow, and once the land does finally return to canopy forest it will have been enriched by the process. A Kayapo swidden
3. Contributions of ourism to GDP
he individual contributions of the touristy industry to the gross domestic product of each country vary based on numerous indicators, such as number of visitors, the quality of the services delivered, the hospitality of the national citizens or any cultural barriers, alongside with financial indicators (such as exchange rates) or legislative measures which limit or encourage tourism. In 2000 for instance, the Japanese tourism accounted for 2.2% in total GDP; Australia's percentage was of 4.5, the U.S.' was of 3.5, Chile's was of 3.8, New Zeeland's was of 3.4 and Canada's was of 2.4. "In particular, the ratio of tourism consumption by foreign visitors to overall tourism consumption has been remarkably smaller in Japan compared with foreign countries. [...] the ratio was only 6.2% in Japan, whereas the ratio was as high as 35.6% in France, 30.0% in Canada, 22.0% in Australia, and 20.9%…
Taylor, T., Fredotovic, M., Povh, D., Markandya, a., Sustainable Tourism and Economic Instruments: The Case of Hvar, Croatia, Retrieved at http://www.bath.ac.uk/cpe/workingpapers/economic-instruments-taylor-fredotovic-povh_Markandya.pdfon August 7, 2008
Tietenberg, T., Oates, W.E., Folmer, H., 2003, the International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 2002/2003: A Survey of Current Issues, Edward Elgar Publishing Inc.
2002, National Tourism Policy Review of Japan, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/48/33649824.pdfon August 7, 2008
2% of the total GDP and 2.9 in the employment; the proportions are expected to increase and are still considered relatively low in comparison to other countries, generally due to the tardy response of the Japanese authorities. "As the tourism market continues to grow steadily, tourism industry is expected to become the leading industry of Japan throughout the 21st century" (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2002).
Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of eproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, outledge
Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23
Hudman, L., Jackson, ., Essa, E., 2002, Geography of Travel and Tourism, 4th Edition, Cengage Delmar Learning
Ishikawa, N., Fukushige, M., 2006, Impacts…
Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of Reproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, Routledge
Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23
ules and Institutions of the Bretton Woods System
The increasing popularity of the importance of monetary unions has gained much focus in the recent past. Most states consider forming monetary unions a solution to most of their financial problems. However, they fail to realize the challenges associated with its establishment and sustainability. Therefore, this research paper analyzes two different monetary unions, their policies, failures and successes and lessons learnt from their experiences for future success of the monetary unions.
The key design features of the System
The system was designed with the fundamental aim of establishing an international financial system to overcome the real and perceived financial problems. Among the problems included the competitive devaluation, subordination of the monetary policy in relation to the external bane and the need for the establishment of a system that facilitated exchange rates for different foreign transactions (Eichengreen, 2004). The design of the system…
Ardy, B., 2000. Economic and monetary union: A review article. JCMS: Journal of Common
Market Studies, 38 (7), p.667.
Avgouleas, E. 2010. The governance of global financial markets and international financial regulation: Legal framework and policy directions. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Bernstein, E.M., and Kirshner, O. 1996. The Bretton Woods GATT system: Retrospect and prospect after fifty years. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…
Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]
Available at: http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/new-metrics/bt-climate-stabilization-economic-prosperity [Accessed 30 March 2014].
BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalservices.bt.com/uk/en/products/bttrace [Accessed 30 March 2014].
mechanisms behind self-sustainability in Costa ica in regards to the environment and job creation. The world knows Costa ica as a self-sustained country; however, what kind of sustainability and the kinds of organizations that carry out such endeavors is also important to know. I would change this portion of the research paper in terms of providing visual aids like maps and pictures of the people in charge of the self-sustaining practices and organizations. The thing I like most about this portion of the paper is the ability to reflect on a topic that remains important throughout the world. That is conservation of the environment and job creation. The thing I like least about this section is the lack of use of visual aids to represent better the idea or concept.
What do you think is the best way to generate self-sustainability in an environmentally conscious country that also creates jobs…
Castro-Tanzi, S., Dietsch, T., Urena, N., Vindas, L., & Chandler, M. (2012). Analysis of management and site factors to improve the sustainability of smallholder coffee production in Tarrazu, Costa Rica. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 155, 172-181. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.04.013
Davies, A., & Leonard, L. (2012). Enterprising Communities. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kuzdas, C., Wiek, A., Warner, B., Vignola, R., & Morataya, R. (2014). Sustainability Appraisal of Water Governance Regimes: The Case of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Environmental Management,54(2), 205-222. doi:10.1007/s00267-014-0292-0
Morgan, M. (2013). "Social Entrepreneurship: The Ideal Business for Humanity and the Econo" by Maya D. Horgan. Scholarship.claremont.edu. Retrieved 14 February 2015, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/pomona_theses/79
Soure Kodakanhi et al. (2006) iting Shreyer (1999), Table, page 19
Further reported by Kodakanhi et. al, is the fat that one of the Afrian ountries, and there are many, that faes poverty and inequality disaster is the ountry of Ghana. Advanes in tehnology in Ghana are stated to be "meager sine its independene in 1957." (2006) the eonomi development model based on it for developing ountries takes into aount the major onerns to it advent into these ountries whih are those of the: (1) Inability to invest in the it field due to poor finanial infrastruture; and (2) inadequate human power with the knowledge of it." (Ibid) the eonomi model, whih has been proposed, is one that has larger foreign investment and government poliies in support of it development as well as an awareness on the…
cited in Raji, Ayoade and Usoro, 2006) the roles that government play in the facilitation of appropriate use of ICT include: (1) approval of policies for the major sectors of the industry [National Telecommunications Policy, National Information
Sustainability in Fashion
This study seeks to answer the question of how the concept of sustainability applies to local fashion production and to explain the connection between global fashion industries and fast fashion business to the sustainability fashion products.
The Designers Speak
Sustainable fashion is defined differently depending on who is asked to define the concept. Freda Giannini, Gucci creative director defines sustainable fashion as, "Quality items that stand the test of time -- it is the concept of sustainability, symbolized by a timeless handbag that you wear again and again, and can pass on…" (Friedman, 2010, p.1)
Oscar de la Renta, designer and brand founder stated that sustainable fashion "…implies a commitment to the traditional techniques, and not just the art, of making clothes." (Friedman, 2010, p.1) Oscar de la Renta designer stated that today, she worked in the same manner that she learned first "in the anteliers of…
Friedman, Vanessa (2010) Sustainable Fashion: What Does Green Mean? Style. Retrieved from: http://www.ft.com/international/cms/s/2/2b27447e-11e4-11df-b6e3-00144feab49a.html#axzz1vQqZoWId
Sustainable Fashion (2011) More Intelligent Life. The Economist, Retrieved from: http://moreintelligentlife.com/content/lifestyle/intelligent-life/sceptical-shopper-sustainable-fashion
Sustainable Fashion and Textiles: Design Journeys (2008) Kate Fletcher Sustainability Design Fashion. Retrieved from: http://katefletcher.com/publications/books/sustainable-fashion-and-textiles-design-journeys/
Sustainable Road Action Plan (2010) Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Feb 2010. Nobel House, London. Retrieved from: http://www.defra.gov.uk/publications/files/pb13206-clothing-action-plan-100216.pdf
sustainability equated with no growth?
The central analogy of treadmill represented in the 'Treadmill of Production' was a type of running in place as in a typical treadmill without moving forward. It symbolizes a gradual decrease in the efficiency of the productive system. The post Second World War USA's economic system was a type wherein every unit of ecosystem involved in the production system produced less support for the country's workers and their families. However for the investors, it was quite favorable as it helped in the speedier growth towards profits and returns on investments made. Its results worked wonders for the investors but spelled doom for the workers and hence sustainability is equated with zero growth. (Gould; Pellow; Schnaiberg, 2003)
Workers suffered lay-offs in the capital-intensive form of production because of the growing treadmill and the most important perspectives that they were forced to accept was that taking on…
Ayres, Robert U; Jeroen C.J. M; Bergh, van den; Gowdy, John M. (n. d.) "Viewpoint: Weak
versus Strong Sustainability" Retrieved 4 May 2012 from http://www.tinbergen.nl/discussionpapers/98103.pdf
Boughey, Joseph. (2000) "The Cutting Edge 2000: Environmental valuation, real property and sustainability" Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 4 May 2012 from http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2477&fileExtension=PDF
Gould, Kenneth. A; Pellow, David N; Schnaiberg, Allan. (2003) "Interrogating the Treadmill
economic compensation enough for wrongfully convicted inmates?
The pronouncement of a crime charge against a person marks the begging of a legal battle for freedom of that individual. When the accused stand in court, their sole hope, is to have a plea of not guilty, which convinces the judges to let them free? At the end of any hearing, the prosecutors present their submissions, from which the court makes the final judgment. The expectations are either, a declaration of innocence or guilt. The incarnated have a chance to apply an appeal against the case progressively, until the highest order of court authority (Butler 11). Those declared innocent need and deserve equal treatment as the other free people. This necessitates a call for compensation of the released persons.
The cases of wrongfully convicted inmates
Statistics indicate that, every year, the American prisons releases approximately 700,000 men and women from their custody.…
Petersilia, Joan. When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Gould, Jon B. The Innocence Commission: Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the Criminal Justice System. New York: New York University Press, 2008. Internet resource.
Schehr, Robert Carl. "The criminal cases review commission as a state strategic selection mechanism." The American Criminal Law Review 42.4 (2005): 1289-
Economics of Production and esource Management: Assessment of the Environmental Impact Associated with Human Waste Fertilizer in Agricultural Production
The objective of this study is to conduct an assessment of the environmental impact associated with human waste fertilizer in agricultural production. National Geographic News reporter Tasha Eichenseher reported that 200 million farmers in developing countries are making use of raw sewage due to water shortages and rising costs of fertilizer to irrigate and fertilize approximately 49 million acres of cropland. It is reported by Eichenseher (2008) that this practice "carries serious health risks for many" however, it is reported that the dangers of the use of human waste fertilizer are "eclipsed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food." (Eichenseher, 2008)
The 200 million farmers reported to be using this type of fertilizer are those in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin…
Eichenseher, Tasha (2008) Human Waste Used by 200 Million Farmers, Study Says. 21 Aug 2008. National Geographic News. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/08/080821-human-waste.html
Environmental Fact Sheet (1998) Waste-Derived Fertilizers. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from:
Franceys, Pickford & Reed (1992) Franceys, R., Pickford, J. And Reed, R., A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation, WHO, Geneva, 1992. Pickford, John., Low-cost Sanitation: A survey of practical experience, IT Publications, London, 1995. WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AT LONDON AND LOUGHBOROUGH (WELL) is a resource centre funded by the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID) to promote environmental health and well-being in developing and transitional countries. It is managed by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University.
This will save students the cost of printing off materials, while also saving on the amount of paper wasted in the school. In addition, providing more books and resources online, instead of in a traditional library, will cut back on paper usage and waste.
The failure to initialize this "modernization" will have severe negative effects, the largest of which will be a limited access to research materials. Library supplies are an excellent resource, but there is far more information available on online databases and journals. These online resources, however, can only exist as long as there is a demand from students and professors, and schools continue to pay for them (Williams, 2010). Staying with the traditional library form of paper-bound books will result in less funds being allocated to online databases, which would in turn cut off revenue and limit the database's expansion; e-journals will not be able to pay…
Werbach, a. (2009). When sustainability means more than green. McKinsey Quarterly, (4), 74-79. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Williams, P., Nicholas, D., & Rowlands, I. (2010). E-Journal Usage and Impact in Scholarly Research: A Review of the Literature. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 16(2), 192-207. doi:10.1080/13614533.2010.503645
Economics of Forestry
Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…
Bradley, Dennis. "One of two parts of a chapter on EE for the Ecosystem Stewardship."
Workshop held in Tucson Arizona, December 4-14, 1995.
Bradley, D.P. Xu, Zhi, and Lewis, B.J. "Forests as Natural Capital: Parallels, Problems, and Implications." Unpublished paper: NCFES, Forest Service, USDA, St. Paul, Minn. 43
Bradley, D. And D. Lothner (ed.). "Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern
An Interest in Sustainability
To many the term sustainability is the new buzzword, a fad which will dissipate in the complexities of the global community, and to others the concept is foreign. In either case however, the necessity of reaching out and providing information on sustainability is crucial to the amelioration of environmental, societal, and economic problems. To advance the sustainability concept it becomes necessary to limn the discussion in the context of an interconnected world in which resources are finite and demand will steadily increase. Individual countries are no longer capable of isolation to the effects of global activity. To present and teach sustainability requires a focus on interdependency and connectivity, a realization that the global environment is a central commonality to all humanity.
A conclusion which concatenates the three articles on sustainability is that existing political, social, and economic agents are not fully capable of initiating or…
Holmes, R. (2007). Critical Issues in Future Environmental Ethics. Ethics and the Environment.12, (2) pp. 139-142. 2007.
Leiserowitz, a. & Fernandez, L. September October 2008). Toward a New
Consciousness: Values to Sustain Human and Natural Communities. EnvironmentMagazine.org. Vol. 50 Number 5. pp. 62-69
Simola, S. (2007). The Pragmatics of Care in Sustainable Global Enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 74. pp 131-147.
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008)
The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great Lakes were among the most contaminated samples. (Steinhart; Doyle; Food esearch Institute, Cochrane, 1995) the paper and pulp industry has also grown with the growth of the economy. However, contaminant discharge from this industry still continues despite the various environmental measures taken by the paper and pulp industry of Canada. This industry has also caused disturbance to the huge boreal landscape of Canada. Approximately 50% of Canada's fresh water is located in these boreal forests. Developmental activities have affected these…
Agioutantis, Zacharias. (2007) "Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development..." SDIMI.
Burton, Philip Joseph; National Research Council Canada; Adamowicz, WL. (2005)
Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest" NRC Research Press.
Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Duncan, Justin. et. al. (2008) "Balancing
Another concept that arises in the discourse on sustainability is what responsibility one generation has for the next in terms of caring for the environment and preventing problems like pollution or climate change. Thus, there are ecological, economic, and social issues as well as political problems at stake. The author also points out the legal and institutional issues involved in sustainability discourse as well as the technological implications.
Sustainability is at once a theoretical and practical concept. Both abstract and concrete, sustainability has different implications depending on the field of application. Therefore, an engineer will conceive of sustainability differently from an attorney or a consumer. The author outlines the various ideological underpinnings of sustainability discourse and presents a comprehensive model for a systems approach to sustainability science. Sustainability represents the intersection between science, philosophy, economics, ethics, and politics. Therefore, sustainability must be understood as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary issue.
Hansa, a.M. (2010). Sustainability classifications in engineering: discipline and approach. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 3:4, 258-276, First published on: 14 September 2010.
Business sustainability is about realizing the pathway to preserving and protecting profits, people, and the planet. It is expressed through a company’s focus on the triple bottom line, also defined as the management of financial, social and environmental risks, duties and opportunities. Firms that engage in sustainable practices typically have some form of corporate social responsibility (CSR) program or policy in place that allows them to support and promote initiatives that are considered to be important either to the communities in which the firm operates or else good for the overall environment as a whole. Sustainable practices that businesses focus on can include anything from “going green,” reducing one’s environmental footprint, protecting water supplies, promoting scholarships in communities where economic disadvantages are high, and so on. Engaging in sustainable practice is the essence of maintaining a commitment to culture and to one’s core values. This paper will define the term…
Sea Shipping Services in Europe
The study aims to identify the impact, benefits, and drawback of implementing a short sea shipping policy within Greece. Within the paper, arguments have been made for supporting the adoption of the policy, and there have been clear facts presented. The paper also attempts to make comparisons between the different modes of transport available with an aim to show how cost effective and environmentally friendly short sea shipping is to a country. The results presented are backed by previous research that has shown the impact of marine transportation and made comparisons with road or rail transportation.
Short Sea Shipping is defined as the movement of passengers and cargo by sea, between ports that have a shared coastline without crossing an ocean. Short seas shipping has been at the forefront of the European Union's transport policy mainly because it offers the potential to reduce road congestion…
Airlines Strict Policies: Beneficial or Not
he airline industry is back to the 5% long-term growth rate, after facing impact of economic crunch and downturn along with other industries (Boing). It is becoming difficult for airline companies to survive and sustain in this changing and challenging conditions. he growth or sustainability of any business is directly linked to the satisfaction level of the customers. Same goes with the airlines, the sustainability and growth of any airline is dependent on the passengers' satisfaction level (Borenstein, & Rose, 2007).
It is expected that there will be a 6% increase in the passenger traffic in the following year. Apart from this it is also expected that there will be one billion fliers per year in 2021 (Pawlowski, 2011). his expected growth in the passenger traffic on one hand raise growth opportunities for airline industry but at the same time reflects the increasing competitiveness…
The customers pay money for the products or services and want value and quality against it and have a certain level of expectations which if are not fulfilled then they are not happy and this decrease the customer satisfaction level (Mason, 2001).
EFFECT OF AIRLINES STRICT POLICIES ON PASSENGERS' SATISFACTION:
The strict policies of airlines are negatively affecting the satisfaction level of passengers. The passengers who have already paid for the ticket are bothered by the
They want to maintain that livelihood. And for 90% of the world, being sustainable is a matter of life and death (Agnew n.d.)." To that end in 2007 they Architecture for Humanity launched the Open Architecture Network "an online, open source community dedicated to improving living conditions through innovative and sustainable design" where designers, engineers, and anyone else, professional or otherwise can share their ideas, designs and plans, collaborate, manage design projects from concept to implementation and build a more sustainable future (Open Architecture Network n.d.)
In addition to Sinclair and McDonough there are a wide range of architects and designers who are beginning to understand that their role is not simply to satisfy their own egos or curiosities but rather to help facilitate the sustainability of communities and human society at large. The New York-ased consulting firm Terrapin right Green, for example, was started by four architects who recognized…
Agnew, Singeli. "India: Design Like You Give a Damn Interview." Front Line. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/india705/history/extended.html (accessed April 15, 2010).
Alter, Bonnie. "Sustainable Futures Exhibition Asks Can Design Make a Difference?" Treehuger.com. April 14, 2010. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/sustainable-futures-design-difference.php (accessed April 15, 2010).
-- . "Yves Behar and Puma Roll Out The Clever Little Bag." Treehugger. April 14, 2010. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/yves-behar-and-puma.php (accessed April 15, 2010).
Braungart, Michael, and William McDonough. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. North Point Press, 2002.
As Lisa Mastny, an expert for the Worldwatch Institute, argues that sustainable tourism has been a new approach that forces many within the tourism business to take positive steps to "become more environmentally and socially responsible" (Mastny, npg). Eco-tourism has become a modern trend not only because of pressure towards greater environmental initiatives, but that having such a practice will ensure the future sustainability of the industry itself. Mastny argues that current eco-tourism measures has restructured management and operations along environmental lines (Mastny, npg). Principally that new measures are being instituted to reduce the damage to local environments and cultures by changing the way they use water, energy and resources to reduce consumption and efficiently dispose of waste. echnologies are being developed in the past ten years to provide renewable energy use, and ecologically sound chemical management practices. he general trend of the industry is to modify its behavior to…
Tourism. Retrieved January 25, 2007, at http://www.gdrc.org/uem / eco-tour/jburg-etour.html
Geis, D. (n.d.). Developing Sustainable Communities: The Future is Now.
Retrieved January 25, 2007, at http://www.smartcommunities.ncat.org / articles/develop.shtml
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
Food security is a critical issue for any food & beverage company. It is self-evident that food is the business for such a company, so any macro-level issue regarding food is inherently important, but there are specific considerations that drive the relevance of food security.
First, food security reflects on the long-run sustainability of the business. It may sound silly to say it, but food companies need food in order to survive. They need to grow it, process it, package it and sell it. So at the supply chain level, threats to food security need to be taken seriously. The world today is just now starting to legitimately look like a zero sum game with respect to many resources, food being one. If the world needs to produce much more food than what has been produced in the past, but as much as a quarter of agriculture land is already…
AP (2011). UN: Farmers must produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed population. The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/nov/28/un-farmers-produce-food-population
Satran, J. (2013). Water scarcity must be addressed urgently to avoid food shortages, Nestle CEO Paul Bulcke says. Huffington Post Retrieved December 11, 2014 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/26/water-scarcity-nestle-ceo-paul-bulcke_n_2768390.html
Wheeler, T. & von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science. Vol. 341 (6145) 508-513.
Sustainability and the benefits derived from its implementation have become a contentious issue within the hotel industry. Populations, particularly in emerging markets, continue to expand at a very rapid pace. In fact, it is estimated that the population will grow to nearly 10 Billion people by the year 2050. This rapid expansion of population, although exciting, will require sustainability practices that meet present needs without compromising the needs of future generations. As such, resources, and their subsequent management will be paramount to the overall success of the hotel industry. Sustainability practices, to a large extent will require hotels to reevaluate how they operate. Through proper implementation, hotels can benefit both financially and from a customer loyalty perspective. As indicated above, the overall population is increasing rapidly. As such, the tourism market will expand alongside it. According to the article, tourism is already the largest industry in the world, with nearly…
1) Blewitt, J. (2008). Understanding Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-454-9
2) Daly, H. & J. Cobb (1989). For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment and a Sustainable Future. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-4703-1.
In other words, these companies expand their business, reach a peak in their business activity, and then go through a period of recession, followed by a period of business expansion, and so on.
It is important that companies understand that the economic sector they represent follows the same business cycle. Therefore, it is difficult for companies to expand their business during periods of recession in the economic sector they represent. But they can expand their business during recession periods of other business sectors, represented by products from indirect competition. This situation can be observed in McDonald's situation.
This can be an explanation of the fact that the company's sales have significantly increased during the crisis. The incomes of most people have been reduced, which means that their purchasing behavior has modified. In such cases, people usually spend less. This means that they purchase less, or they purchase cheaper products. In…
The third degree discrimination is when businesses set prices depending on the location and the market segments. Here the supplier will identify the various market segments and have varying prices for the same item due to the varying consumer classes in these regions. The sales managers always have to look at the characteristics of the market and the customers in general.
The factors that the sellers consider here are age of the potential clients and their population in a given area, the economic standards and their purchasing history. This will enable the recommendation of varying prices for the different market segments. This is a discrimination criterion frequently used by the textile industry run by my father in Indonesia and particularly on the export textile. He has countries that will generally buy at higher rates than others hence he does his research and sets the prices accordingly.
It is noteworthy that…
Business Growth Strategies, (2011). Value Propositions. Retrieved August 17, 2011 from http://www.mccraigh.com/Archives/value_proposition.html
Merriam Webster, (2011). Economics. Retrieved August 17, 2011 from http://www.merriam-
Michael E.P. & Mark R.K., (2006). Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive
(Chandrasekhar and Ghosh, 2005)
Chandrasekhar and Ghosh state that the macroeconomic policy in China resulted in macroeconomic mechanisms that "differed substantially from those in predominantly market-driven economies. These differences relate to the availability of monetary or fiscal levers of the kind available in market economies, to the nature of the institutionally determined transmission mechanisms and to the outcomes of what appear to be similar policies. Only inasmuch as "economic reform" results in the generation of features characteristic of market driven economies in centrally planned systems, would the transition result in a gradual process of convergence in the nature of the policies, mechanisms and outcomes being addressed." (2005) It is related that despite the complete control of the Chinese government over the creation of money and fiscal policy "..., in the sense of using deficit financed expenditures to prime the economy, does not appear to have been a major thrust of…
Fischer, Stanley (2003) Globalization and Its Challenges. Ely Lecture. Online available at: http://www.iie.com/fischer/pdf/Fischer011903.pdf
Chandrasekhar, C.P. And Ghosh, Jayati (2005) Macroeconomic Policy, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in India and China. Online available at: http://www.ideaswebsite.org/featart/dec2005/IND_CHN.pdf
Srinivasan, T.N. (2002) China and India: Economic Performance, Competition and Cooperation. Paper presented at seminar on WTO Accession, Policy Reform and Poverty sponsored by the World Trade Organization in Beijing, China June 2002. Online available at: http://www.econ.yale.edu/~srinivas/C&I%20Economic%20Performance%20Update.pdf
Khanna, Tarun (2003) It's India Above China in New World Order. Working Knowledge. 28 Jul 2003. Online available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/3604.html
Select macro-economic indicators feel greatest impact operations / planning DirecTV. emember economic indicator measures a change general a specific aspect economy assessing macro-economic change chosen affects DirecTV Satellite Company.
DirecTV Satellite Company specializes in providing digital satellite broadcasting service in the Latin America and the United States. It has a customer base close to 20 million subscribers offering 1800 channels, various movie and sports packages, High definition channels, and capabilities of DV.
Gross domestic Product GDP
Gross domestic is a core macro economic indicator that measures the total economic output for an economy. GDP gives the measure of all goods and services realized within a country for a given time period. As a macro economic indicator, it gives the earning per year in the economy thereby, indicating the health of an economy especially given the economy's total demand Oxelheim, 2003.
GDP looks at the…
Mankiw, N. (2002). Principals of Economics. Stamford, U.S.: Thomson Learning.
Oxelheim, L. (2003). Macroeconomic Variables and Corporate Performance. Financial Analysts Journal, 59(4), 36-50.
Wickens, M. (2008). Macroeconomic Theory: A Dynamic General Equilibrium Approach. Princeton University Press.
For most of the time since the subject of economics was first studied, the idea of resource constraints has been irrelevant. The world was simply not viewed as a finite place. The concept of resource constraints was limited, more or less, to the consideration of constraints on an individual economy. Adam Smith recognized that all economies would face resource constraints of one type or another. As Snowdon (2003) points out, "to Smith, it was obvious that all economies were faced with resource constraints and that free trade was a policy that would allow any nation to achieve the most efficient allocation of its scarce resources." This notion was built into the Ricardian trade theory and classical economics. It has not been until recent times, however, that the concept of worldwide scarcity has become relevant. The idea of peak oil and a world with seven billion people (or more) has…
Alexandratos, N. (2005). Countries with rapid population growth and resource constraints: Issues of food, agriculture and development. Population and Development Review. Vol. 31 (2) 237-258.
Asheim, G., Buchholz, W., Hartwick, J., Mitra, T. & Withagen, C. (2005). Constant savings rates and quasi-arithmetic population growth under exhaustible resource constraints. CESInfo Working Paper No. 1573
Ellis, K., Cantore, N., Keane, J., Peskett, L., Brown, D. & te Velde, D. (2010). Growth in a carbon constrained global economy. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=4984&title=growth-carbon-constrained-global-economy
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
5. Strategic recommendation
The strategic possibilities mentioned above are all important and have the ability to provide the financial institution with long-term stability. Nonetheless, since the company possesses limited financial resources at the time being, but also due to the complexity of the external and internal environments, not all four strategies can be developed. It is at this stage necessary to implement strictly those strategies which serve the immediate needs of the company and the stakeholders. In order to identify these needed strategies, it is important to assess them through the lenses of four specific criteria:
esource availability to implement the strategy
Urgency of strategy implementation and esults availability of the strategies.
The table below reveals the criteria-based assessment of the four strategies.
esource availability for strategy implementation
Urgency of strategy
Expectancy of results (in the short-term)
Carsewell, S., 2010, Fingleton's successor says events at INBS an outrage, Irish Times, http://www.webcitation.org/5rqiBQWJl last accessed on November 18, 2011
Doddy, J., The Irish banking sector, Deloitte, http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Ireland/Local%20Assets/Documents/Real%20estate/IE_PS_John%20Doddy_Soc_Chartered_Surveyors_Presentation_0311.pdf last accessed on November 18, 2011
Farrell, S.., 2009, Anglo Iris Bank nationalized, The Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/anglo-irish-bank-nationalised-1380495.html last accessed on November 18, 2011
Kuenkeel, P., Gerlach, S., Frieg, V., 2011, Working with stakeholder dialogues, BoD -- Books on Demand, ISBN 3839183022
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
As the organization attempts to sell cheap and expensive brands an exact identity may not be apparent and disillusion many customers that don't know what to expect. As mentioned before, the retail industry is squarely opposed to sustainable practices and this in itself is a blaring weakness that needs to be addressed if the company expects to be successful in the long-term.
Another step in a retail SWOT analysis is identifying key opportunities in the market.
In this case, the demand for sustainable practices are at an all time high. If Woolworths can somehow master this transition, the opportunity for domination within this industry is possible. Introducing new technologies that promote sustainable practices will surely help in exploiting many of these opportunities.
The internet and wireless shopping has provided many new threats to the retail industry. This threat is more serious because online shopping appears to be more…
Dowse, J. (2012) a view on Woolworths' corporate responsibility report, the Sustainability Report: Integrating ESG for Risk and Return at http://www.thesustainabilityreport.com.au/a-view-on-woolworths-corporate - responsibility-report/3137/: Accessed 10 May, 2013
Dwivedi, a., Merrilees, B., Miller, D. And Hemington, C. (2012) Brand Value and relationship equities and loyalty intentions in the Australian Supermarket Industry, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.19, Iss.5, pp.526-536
Hampl, N. And Loock, M. (2013) Sustainable Development in Retailing: What is the Impact on Store Choice?, Business Strategy and Environment, Vol.22, pp.202-216
Iles, a. (2007) Seeing Sustainability in Business Operations: U.S. And British Food Retailer Experiments with Accountability, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol.16, pp.290-301
Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
ITT Project Management - Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
Although the sustainability movement has been advocated predominately in response to the irresponsible expansion of inefficient infrastructure by industrialized nations, with the United States and Japan now making significant efforts to embrace "green" growth practices, a growing movement has emerged that promoting sustainability throughout developing nations presents the most productive path. Even as the most modernized nations continue to update their consumption patterns to better suit the technological age, seeking efficiency and effectiveness that is sustainable for the foreseeable future, rising powers like China, India, and Brazil are expanding their spheres of influence at the expense of the natural environment. To address the threats posed by developing nations repeating the mistakes of prior generations, mistakes which run the gamut from China's reckless damming of its nation's natural waterways to India's inability to address its…
Carroll, J. (2009). Project management for effective business change in easy steps. UK: In Easy Steps, Ltd.
Cleland, D., Bursic, K., Puerzer, R., and Vlasak, A. (Ed.). (1998). Project management casebook. Sylva, NC: Project Management Institute.
Collyer, S. (2009) Project management approaches for dynamic environments. International Journal of Project Management, 27 (4), p.355-364. Retrieved from website http://espace.uq.edu.au/eserv/UQ:175094/Project_Management.pdf
Finkbeiner, M. (2009). Carbon footprinting: Opportunities and threats. The Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 14, 91-94. Retrieved from http://www.lifecycleinitiative.org/wp - content/uploads/2012/12/Carbon-Footprinting-opportunities-ans-threats.pdf
Lewis Group Sustainability Model:
The Lewis Group is a retail furniture company operating in South Africa that sells its furniture to low-income customers. Notably, approximately 60% of the company's merchandise is being imported from some countries in Brazil and China. As the leading retailer of household furniture, home electronics, and electrical appliances, The Lewis Group sold its products mainly on credit through Best Home and Electric, the Lewis, and My Home Brands. The success and profitability of the Lewis Group is associated with the scope of its business and its business model. Currently, the company has more than 600 stores throughout the main metropolitan areas and has a strong presence in the rural areas in South Africa. Moreover, 56 of the firm's stores are located in the neighboring southern African nations like Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, and Lesotho.
The Lewis Group Business Model:
The Lewis Group business model basically revolves around…
Chamberlain, T. (n.d.). Sustainable Development -- Retailing. Retrieved August 25, 2012, from http://www.enviropaedia.com/topic/default.php?topic_id=272
"Environmental Sustainability." (n.d.). Lewis Group Ltd. Retrieved August 25, 2012, from http://www.lewisgroup.co.za/pdf/2012/lewis%20SusReport.pdf
Hart, S.L. & Milstein, M.B. (2003). Creating Sustainable Value. Academy of Management
Executive, 17(2), 56-69.
Searching for Sustainability
When researchers analyzed the global resource flow trends that emerged between 1980 and 2002 they found a 25% worldwide increase in material extraction and natural resource use (Behren, Giljum, Kovanda, and Niza, 2005). The increased material extraction rates were attributed to growing economies in developing nations like China and the growing size of the consumer class in these countries. When compared to trends in economic activity in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), the percent generated by material extraction shrank by 25% during the same study period. The rapid growth in the size of the less resource-intensive service sector was blamed for this finding.
The growing size of the service sector has some advantages in terms of sustainability, including lower resource utilization and cleaner technologies, but based on the findings of Behren and colleagues (2007) the growth in material extraction and utilization outstrips…
Behren, Arno, Giljum, Stefan, Kovanda, Jan, and Niza, Samuel. (2007). The material basis of the global economy worldwide patterns of natural resource extraction and their implications for sustainable resource use policies. Ecological Economics, 64, 444-453.
They feel they have survived and overcome harsh business environment and want to operate in risky markets like razil. Some of them benefited from privatization or part-privatization. The current government dislikes the notion of privatization, which tends to improve businesses. ut it likes national champions to succeed abroad. A government minister wrote the World Economic Forum in 1996 that it was not in the interest of the government for razilian companies to expand abroad. He said that capital was limited and they wanted to create local jobs. razil's laws also make the sending of profits from foreign subsidiaries back to razil impossible. They also refuse to recognize losses incurred abroad in company accounts. Some of the olivian assets of foreign investor Petrobras were nationalized by razil's president, Evo Morales. Multinationals are likely to encounter similar obstacles, but commodity producers, consumers or traders can be sure that their built-in comparative advantage…
Ardichvili, a. et al. (2010). Ethical business practices in BRICs. Society for Business
Ethics: Center for Ethical Business Cultures. Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.cebglobal.org/uploadedfiles/Ethical_Business_Practices_in_BRICs.pdf
Banham, R. (2010). The party gets started in Brazil. Treasury & Risk: the Free Library.
Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/the+party+gets+started+in+Brazil%3A+multinational+corporations+are...-a02212023634
sustainability and reviews the implications and impact of various sustainability modes, all of which appear to be positive. To begin this review requires coming to an understanding of what sustainability is. As the Interface (2008) website describes it, "Sustainability can be many different things -- a motto, an ideal, a way to do business, a way to live your life or a call to action." Because this seems an appropriate way to view the many aspects of sustainability, this paper adopts this viewpoint as well.
Raven (2002) discusses how we got to this point facing the difficult challenges of human sustainability. Over the course of 400 generations, or about 10,000 years, the human population has grown from several million to over 6 billion. Humans continue to depend on a series of ancient, genetically and socially determined habits and attitudes which seem dysfunctionally inappropriate for modern society. As a consequence then,…
United Nations. 1987. Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm
What is Sustainability. 2008. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from http://www.interfaceglobal.com/Sustainability/What-is-Sustainability-.aspx
Whiteman, G. 1999. Sustainability for the planet: a marketing perspective. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 13. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from:: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art13/
The management was also supportive shown by will to take part in extensive inquiry. In order to attain sustainability, there is the need to incorporate holistic integration because it can lead to a sustainable enterprise. Some of the sustainable companies include such elements all around in certain aspects of development sustainability such as concern for environmental stewardship (Wirtenberg, Harmon & Fairfield, 2006).
Making sustainability the core of business strategy and the Human esource may act as fundamentals to achieving sustainability. Sustainability may also be realized by having a strategic focus, and having initiatives, around the development of the organization and management of talents in the company. The top management or the HM sees the initiatives and talents nurtured. Companies should spend time to strengthen their organizational capabilities instead of worrying about the losses incurred in a day. The acknowledgement of the H as leaders is also a key step to…
Aggerholm, H.K., Andersen, S.E., & Thomsen, C. (2011). Conceptualizing employer branding in sustainable organizations. Corporate Communications: An International
Journal, 16: 105 -- 123
Liebowitz, J. (2010). The Role of HR in Achieving a Sustainability Culture. Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(4). Retrieved from www.ccsenet.org/jsd
Wirtenberg, J., Harmon, J. & Fairfield, K.D. (2006). HR's Role in Building a Sustainable
Joseph Tainter, Sustainability
What does moving toward sustainability really entail? Joseph Tainter's article on "Social Complexity and Sustainability" makes a crucial distinction at the outset, differentiating sustainability from resiliency. Sustainability entails a society's ability to continue along in current patterns or modes of existence, whereas resiliency is a society's ability to adjust and reorient itself during conditions of change. It is possible that unsustainable policies or activities may have put is in a position where drastic changes are to be expected, and where resiliency may be something we all require -- but as Tainter notes, "the goal of human groups is more often sustainability or continuity than resilience" (Tainter 92). Yet the concept of resiliency is important to understand Tainter's insight that "Given the role of complexity in both sustainability and collapse, 'success' consists substantially of staying in the game." I would like to consider Tainter's insight while ultimately pondering…
The topic for this project is sustainability in the way food is processed and packaged. This paper will investigate the cost effectiveness of processing and packaging food in a sustainable manner over the long-term. Industries are slowly making sustainable changes in the packaging of products, but not necessarily in the processing of the foods (Pollan, 2002). Sustainability has been a major marketing factor in the way food is delivered (Author). Research has demonstrated that the current food system plays an important role in causing climate change and how better food choices could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This makes the production of the food supply an important factor in sustainability with environmentally and social affects.
The "Our Common Future" report describes sustainability as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (owden, 2011). As the meanings…
Author, U. (2012). Connecting family, community, and health from a food system perspective. Retrieved from Iowa State University: http://www.liopold.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/grants/M2010-30.pdf
Author, U. (n.d.). Soil Association. Retrieved from Feeding the Olympics.
Bowden, C. (2011, Aug 16). Woodbury University. Retrieved from The Sustainability Reading List: Sustainability_Reading_List_2_0-1/pdf.
Davis, A.S. (2012). Increasing cropping system diversity balances, productivity, profitability and environmental health. PloS ONE, 7(10), E47, 149.
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…
Agyeman, J., & Evans, B. (2004). 'Just sustainability': The emerging discourse of environmental justice in Britain? The Geographical Journal, 170, 155-164.
Apitz, S.E. (2010). Waste or resource? classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10(8), 1657-1668.
Babin, R., & Nicholson, B. (2011). How green is my outsourcer? Measuring sustainability in global it outsourcing. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 4(1), 47-66.
Ball, S., & Abou Taleb, M. (2011). Benchmarking waste disposal in the Egyptian hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(1), 1-18.
Sustainability in Australian Food Exporting
Sustainability is an increasingly important consideration in both built and natural environments, as human endeavors are revealed to be increasingly fragile and enormously dependent on natural resources that could potentially be eradicated through overuse and unsustainable practices. This affects almost all areas of human activity, including many that might seem not directly related to sustainability issues such as import and export levels. When considered from a regional perspective, however, the exportation of resources -- whether purely natural resources or a combination of natural and built procedures -- becomes directly related to certain concepts in sustainability. This paper will examine current features of Australia's food exportation activities and determine their degree of sustainability.
The amount of arable -- i.e. food-producing -- land in the world is diminishing, in some regions at alarming rates, meaning that agricultural products are already becoming increasingly rare (Midmore…
Fresco, L. & Kroonenberg, S. (1992). Time and spatial scales in ecological sustainability. Land use policy July: 155-68.
Midmore, D. (1993). Agronomic modification of resource use and intercrop productivity. Field crops research 34: 357-80.
Midmore, D. (1998). Agriculture and the modern society. Acres 6(2): 33-6.
Shaw, R., Gallopin, G., Weaver, P. & Oberg, S. (1992). Sustainable development: a systems approach. International institute for applied systems analysis status report.
Socio-economic accounting as a term and as a subdiscipline of accounting is a relatively new phenomenon. It is sometimes confused with social accounting, which is an established field of accounting and economics. Social accounting was first introduced by J.R. Hicks of Oxford University in The Social Framework: An Introduction to Economics, published in 1942. The accounting research of the time interpreted it as the whole system of accounts and balance sheets of a nation or a region, the price and quantity components of these accounts, and the various considerations to be derived there from. Social accounting was basically associated with national income accounting. An examination of the early publications in the accounting literature proves that point. A general theme in the early literature is the failure of the accountant to be involved in social accounting. The presence of business in initiatives implicating social accounting is so pervasive today…
Bailey, D., Harte, G. And Sugden, R. 1994, Making Transnationals Accountable: A Significant Step for Britain, London: Routledge.
Carroll, A.B., and Buchholtz, A.K. 2000, Business and Society: Ethics and stakeholder management, 4th ed, Chapter 4, Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing, .
Easterly, William, and Ross Levine. 1996. Africas Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions. World Bank. April.
Elkington, J. 1998, Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of the 21st Century, London: Capstone.
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011, but has been embroiled in civil conflict ever since. This instability has hampered the ability of the country to lay the groundwork for developing its economy. The evidence shows that there is a pathway to economic development, even for the least-developed country, and this paper will elaborate on what those steps might be.
South Sudan is a landlocked country of 12.5 million people that split off from the Sudan in 2011. South Sudan is a multiethnic society, with different tribal groups living in the basin of the White Nile, which flows from Lake Victoria until it meets with the Blue Nile. The split of Sudan came after years of civil war. The north of Sudan was Muslim, the south Christian, and that is largely the fault line along which the border between Sudan and South Sudan is presently split. The country is…
While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.
Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…
Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review
Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31617.pdf on April 22, 2009
North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge, http://econedge.org/01/war-on-terrorisms-economic-effects / last accessed on April 23, 2009
O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor, http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/monitor/monm05d.htm last accessed on April 23, 2009
165) and he argued for a change in consciousness to go along with the economic globalization. Arias argued that the current climate is not interdependent, but actually fiercely independent and insular and moreover dedicated to self-aggrandizement, not cooperation to spread economic justice around the globe. Other voices are also arguing this, again presupposing that globalization is no longer an issue, but a fact, but that the globalization that exists is one of independence, not interdependence. Two of those voices specifically argue the twin issues of social justice in global interdependence, and ethics.
Social justice as a measure of global interdependence
Polack proposes that currently, "social work is confronted with a global system in which the world's people are bound together in a complex web of economic relationships. People's lives are now linked to lives of distant others through the clothes that they wear, the energy that warms them, and even…
Bartholomew, S. (1997). National systems of biotechnology innovation: Complex interdependence in the global system. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2), 241+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Breitenfellner, a. (1997). Global unionism: A potential player. International Labour Review, 136(4), 531+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database,