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Anyone can be a manager. That is, anyone can learn to do the daily paperwork and routines necessary to function. However, leadership implies something completely different. Leadership requires self-reflection and self-assessment on a daily basis. Leaders are faced with many challenges in their daily routine. It is sometimes difficult to know when one is making the correct decision.
Norman and Peale (1998) suggest using one's own emotions as a gauge to assess their leadership decisions. If a decision makes you feel guilty or uneasy, there is probably a good reason for it. If a decision makes you feel good, then there is a good indication that the decision passes the test of being for the good of all. Not all managerial answers are in the numbers. The job of a manager goes beyond the numbers and into the ability to inspire those under them. Emotions should not be ignored for…
Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. Simon and Schuster, 1989.
Blanchard, Kenneth & Norman Vincent Peale. The Power of Ethical Management. Fawcett Columbine, 1998.
leadership concepts related with the effective leadership development. It chooses and evaluates the transformational leadership style. It addresses the following questions. What are the qualities associated with transformational leadership style? How to motivate the followers? How to master communication skills? What is the importance of emotional intelligence? What is the concept of empowerment? All these concepts in respect of transformational leadership style are evaluated along with ethical issues inherent in them.
A definition of leadership is:
"Leadership is a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task."(Chemers, 1997, p. 1)
This definition suggests that leadership is a group activity, has a social influence and revolves around a common task. Leadership is a complex process in reality. Both intrapersonal factors (thoughts and emotions etc.), and interpersonal processes (communication and attraction etc.) interact together in…
Agin, E., & Gibson, T. (2010). Developing an Innovative Culture: Leadership Development Has Evolved with the Times. Today, Engaging a Workforce and Grooming Young Employees for Future Leadership Positions Requires a Focus on Innovation, Creativity, and Open Communication. T&D, 64 (7), pp.52+
Chemers, M.M. (1997). An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ciulla, J.B. (2004). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Crawford, M., Kydd, L., & Riches, C. (1997). Leadership and Teams in Educational Management. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Leadership Styles -- Saving Private yan
There are many films, plays, and even books that clearly illustrate effective leadership styles. Examples of films that reflect various leadership theories include, but they are not limited to, Saving Private yan, Platoon, and The Thin ed Line. In this text, I focus on Saving Pirate yan. In so doing, I will highlight some of the leadership theories, traits, as well as qualities that could be derived from the film.
Saving Private yan
Set during the World War II Normandy Invasion, this particular film largely concerns itself with the aftermath of the said invasion. Once General George Marshall learns that three members of the yan family -- all brothers -- lost their lives in active combat, he orders that the only surviving member, James Francis yan, be rescued. For this particular undertaking, he dispatches a team of eight in a mission to not only…
Daft, R (2014). The Leadership Experience (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Spielberg, S. (Director). (1998). Saving Private Ryan [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
Vadell, J. (2009). The Role of Trust in Leadership: U.S. Air Force Officers' Commitment and Intention to Leave the Military. New York, NY: Universal Publishers.
How do you think that leadership would be different for a person who leads only persons between 18 and 35 years of age compared with a person whose followers are mostly over the age of 40? What strategies would you recommend for a person who becomes the leader of a mixed group?
There are significant differences between employees from various age groups in nursing as well as more generally within vocational environments (Swearingen, 2004). In many respects, those differences are directly attributable to the dominant goals, values, and norms to which individuals were exposed during their formative years and throughout their vocational training and early work experiences (Swearingen, 2004).
The obvious implications for a leader of a mixed-age group of workers is that a single leadership or management approach may not be equally effective for all members of the team. Ideally, to the extent different team members are receptive to…
Swearingen, S. (2004). Nursing Leadership Characteristics: Effect on Nursing Job
Satisfaction and Retention of Baby Boomer and Generation x Nurses. Retrieved January 9, 2011 from:
Medley, F. And LaRochelle, D.R. "Transformational leadership and job satisfaction."
Effective leadership is hardly a matter of chance or luck. It constitutes some sound competencies and traits which every leader must either possess naturally or acquire during his career. Leaders are expected to have major essential competencies in five areas namely, Analytical, Positional, Personal, Communication and Organizational. Not every leader may possess all these but they are widely desired based on literature review and hence a leader lacking any of these might face serious problems. When we look at the real world, we notice that some of the best leaders of the world possessed these competencies. Napoleon is believed to have said that a good leader is the one who can inspire others to share his vision. This would fall under the communication competency and it appears that truly great leaders did not need to read books to learn leadership; they naturally possessed the traits needed to become…
1. Tow, W. 2008 Still An 'Excellent' Relationship: Australian-American Relations In Testing Times. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies February. The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS)
2. Soutphommasane, T. 2007 Who is Kevin Rudd? Prospect Magazine, Issue 141, December.
3. Kador, J. 2009 Effective Apology: Mending Fences, Building Bridges, and Restoring Trust Berrett-Koehler Publishers
4. Hartcher, P. 2009 To the bitter end: the dramatic story of the fall of John Howard and the rise of Kevin Rudd. Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited
Emotional intelligence and effective leadership, an article written by Bano Fakhra Batool (2013) studies the effect emotional intelligence and mode of leadership has on, specifically, the Pakistani banking industry. This research helps increase the knowledge of the duties leadership has in the Pakistani banking industry.
In order to tackle this challenge, this paper’s objectives include the description of the relationship existing between effective leadership and emotional intelligence, higher knowledge of what emotional intelligence entails, emotional intelligence basics, reasons why leadership cannot do without emotional intelligence and the ways of applying emotional intelligence for improving leadership. Every one of these listed objectives is single sentenced and phrased specially so that it is easy and possible to make a relevant conclusion from the research. They are very specific and clearly make it known that the basic action is description and hence elucidation (Ary et al., 2013). The ambition and also the…
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2013). Introduction to research in education. Cengage Learning.
Batool, B. F. (2013). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 4(3), 84.
McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537-542.
Community Leadership / Diverse Community
Community Leadership: Effective Leadership for a Diverse Community
Ethical and Social esponsibility
There are both ethical and social responsibilities that community leaders need to be aware of, especially when they are working with a diverse community (Taylor, 2011). Communities offer valuable means of support for all of their members, but only if the leaders of those communities are able to provide for all of their members in a way that is respectful of cultural differences (Anderson, O'Loughlin, & Salt, 2001; Cnann & Milofsky, 2012; Miller, 2009). Failure to do that can make people in a community feel isolated, and stop them from getting involved with others who might be able to help them -- and who they might be able to help (Barry, 2002). While it is possible for people to come together simply because they care about one another and are interested in the…
Anderson L., O'Loughlin P., & Salt A. (2001). Community leadership programs in New South Wales, UTS Shopfront, for the Strengthening Communities Unit, NSW Premier's Department, Australia.
Barry, B. (2002). Culture and equality: An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. NY: Harvard University Press.
Barzilai, G. (2005). Communities and law: Politics and cultures of legal identities. NY: University of Michigan Press.
Baumann, G. (1999). The multicultural riddle: Rethinking national, ethnic, and religious identities. NY: Psychology Press.
One of the greatest challenges in attempting to meets its ambitions as a socially conscious organization is the refinement of its ability to tend to the diverse needs of those who might specifically benefit from its services. This may be with respect to racial, ethnic, social, geographical, professional or economic diversity, indicating that in all areas there is a constant imperative to shape procedures according to the needs of manifold groups. As the research here encountered indicates, "no program is ever completely homogeneous. Its clientele usually fall into categories, though one category may predominate at a particular point in time. It is important to know who are your clients and what are their primary characteristics and needs, if you wish to service them properly. You will discover that diverse clientele groups may possess different needs and wants that may be in conflict. The government attempt to meet the needs of…
Barrett, H., Balloun, J., & Weinstein, a. (2005). Success Factors for Organizational Performance: Comparing Business Services, Health Care, and Education. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 70(4), 16+. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014693559
Bell, J.R., Bell, R.R., & Elkins, S.A. (2005). Embedding Ethical Frameworks in the Leadership System of Not-for-Profits: The Special Case of Volunteers. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 70(4), 29+. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014632679 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114057019
Brinckerhoff, P.C. (1999). Faith-Based Management: Leading Organizations That Are Based on More Than Just Mission. New York: Wiley. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114057019
For the most current reporting period, a national 90% rate of compliance with these measures has been reported (Hospitals Discuss Their Efforts to educe Surgical Site Infection, 2008).
All of these institutions had good results once they implement their individual plans. They all identified where there greatest risk were and then put specific measures into place in order to eradicate that those risks. My plan was on the right track with identifying the risks that were present and then educating staff on how to fix those risks. My plan in order to be successful would also need to include the development of specific processes along with the development of measures that would be used to gauge success. This plan is a good start for the hospital to begin working to improve both quality and patient safety while reducing costs.
Hospitals Discuss Their Efforts to educe Surgical Site Infections. (2008).…
Hospitals Discuss Their Efforts to Reduce Surgical Site Infections. (2008). Retrieved January 16,
2010, from Web site:
Jankowski, Kathy A., Zywiak, Walt and Metzger, Jane. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2010, from Web site:
Pope John Paul II
Background and Demographics
Pope John Paul II was born on May 18, 1920 as Karol Jozef Wojty -- a in Wadowice, a small Polish city that lay 50 kilometers from Krakow. He had two siblings, and his parents were Karol Wojty -- a and Emilia Kaczorowska. The future pope became well-acquainted with loss at an early age. His mother died in 1929, his brother Edmund died in 1932, and his father 1941. Perhaps this played a role in his search for comfort in faith. Young Karol Jozef took his First Holy Communion at 9 and was confirmed at the age of 18 (Holy See Press Office, 2005).
He attended high school at Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, after which he began his studies at Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938. At this time, he also enrolled in a school for drama. His plans for tertiary education,…
Holy See Press Office (2005, Jun. 30). His Holiness John Paul II. Retrieved from: http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/santopadre_biografie/giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en.html
Leadership Theory and Behavior. (2010, Sept. 22). Retrieved from: http://leadershiptheory3450.blogspot.com/2010/09/john-paul-ii-rebel-with-cause.html
Shaw, R. (2014). Centered on the Savior: A biography of Pope John Paul II. Our Sunday Visitor. Retrieved from: https://www.osv.com/OSVNewsweekly/Article/TabId/535/artmid/13567/articleid/14208/Default.aspx
The Tablet (2011). Strengths and Weaknesses of a Pope. Retrieved from: http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/15th-october-1983/3/strengths-and-weaknesses-of-a-pope
Level 5 Leadership
Communication and leadership
Level 5 leadership: Steve Jobs
According to Jim Collins, Level 5 leadership is a kind of transformational, selfless style of leadership that few CEOs possess. Level 5 leadership is not synonymous with charisma -- although some Level 5 leaders are charismatic, some are not. Level 5 leaders "build enduring greatness" rather than merely show competency and drive and blend willfulness and fearlessness in their approach to leading people (Collins 2005:4). They can be unbending in their objectives, but their objectives always place the interests of the company first, not the flattery of their own egos. Level 5 leaders are humble enough to acknowledge the contribution of others to their success. This ability to focus on what needs to be done, rather than what will satisfy their personal wants, ensures their success at their endeavors. But this lack of egoism also means that they are…
Collins, Jim. (2005). Level 5 leadership. The Best of the Harvard Business Review 2001, 1-10.
Kazenbach, Jon. (2012). The Steve Jobs way. Strategy-Business, 67. Retrieved:
McInerney, Sarah. (2011). Steve Jobs: An unconventional leader. The Sydney Morning Herald.
Leadership is an important trait that influences personal and organizational success. It relates to the ability to establish a vision and set the direction for other people. Leadership is not always about creating what a team should do to win, but it is a dynamic and inspiring concept. Leaders should also use their management skills to guide other people in an efficient way towards the right direction (Allio 4). It is important to note that leadership has a different meaning to different people in the many areas around the world. It can be defined by the various spectrums such as politics, religion, business or community. Steve Jobs is renowned personality and leader in the tech world. Under his leadership, the company invented some revolutionary technologies that include the iPhone, MacBook, iPod and Apple smartwatch among many others (Howard 33). Steve had specific characteristics that made him be on a…
Allio, Robert J. \\"Leaders and Leadership–Many Theories, But What Advice Is Reliable?\\" Strategy & Leadership 41.1 (2012): 4-14.
Dickson, Marcus W., et al. \\"Conceptualizing Leadership Across Cultures.\\" Journal of World Business 47.4 (2012): 483-492.
Howard, H. Yu. \\"Decoding Leadership: How Steve Jobs Transformed Apple to Spearhead a Technological Informal Economy.\\" Journal of Business and Management 19.1 (2013): 33.
Hunter, S. T., Cushenbery, L., Fairchild, J., & Boatman, J. (2012). Partnerships in Leading for Innovation: A Dyadic Model of Collective Leadership. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(4), 424-428.
Isaacson, Walter. \\"The Real Leadership Lessons of Steve Jobs.\\" Harvard business review 90.4 (2012): 92-102.
Lunenburg, Fred C. \\"Power and Leadership: An Influence Process.\\" International journal of management, business, and administration15.1 (2012): 1-9.
Shah, Tanvi, and Zubin R. Mulla. \\"Leader Motives, Impression Management, and Charisma: A Comparison of Steve Jobs and Bill Gates.\\" Management and Labour Studies 38.3 (2013): 155-184.
Sharma, Abz, and David Grant. \\"Narrative, Drama and Charismatic Leadership: The case of Apple’s Steve Jobs.\\" Leadership 7.1 (2011): 3-26.
Within this turbulent economy that includes quickly changing national priorities and reduced political cooperation, there is true chaos and havoc being wreaked on the federal landscape (Neumark, Muz, & National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014). Almost each agency grapples with increase performance mandates, reduced risk tolerance, and lower budgets. From this arises an environment of smaller opportunities, compressed margins, and lower labor rates. Because of these many businesses fail. What can companies do to survive the pitfalls of current existing market conditions? They need to create value.
Companies and businesses aim to provide value for their customers through additional services and benefits. For example, Amazon.com, Inc gives customers an excellent return policy where the company pays for return shipping and if a customer is unhappy with their product, they can get a full refund (Davis, 2016). Furthermore, Amazon.com, Inc, makes it easy for customers to speak to a customer service…
Davis, S. (2016, July 14). How Amazon\\\\'s Brand and Customer Experience Became Synonymous. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottdavis/2016/07/14/how-amazons-brand-and-customer-experience-became-synonymous/#6db1672c3cd5
Dudycz, T., Osbert-Pociecha, G., & Brycz, B. (2016). The Essence and Measurement of Organizational Efficiency. Springer.
Mahajan, G. (2016). Value creation: The definitive guide for business leaders. SAGE Publishing India.
Neumark, D., Muz, J. E., & National Bureau of Economic Research. (2014). The \\\\"business climate\\\\" and economic inequality.
Schiuma, G. (2011). Managing knowledge assets and business value creation in organizations: Measures and dynamics. Hershey PA: Business Science Reference.
Wuyts, S., Rindfleisch, A., & Citrin, A. (2015). Outsourcing customer support: The role of provider customer focus. Journal of Operations Management, 35, 40-55. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2014.10.004
Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills
Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).
Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills…
Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books, Inc.
Yukl, G.A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education
However, this finding is dependent on the culture from which the leader comes from. This assessment is best applied, as was the case in Liu's study, among Japanese leaders being assessed by their Chinese employees; the same finding cannot be applied when Chinese employees were asked to assess their Chinese leaders'/managers' effectiveness in terms of leadership. Correspondingly, Chinese leaders are considered effective if they maintain a "frequent, mutually beneficial interaction" with their Chinese employees."
This "discovery" on the unequal assessment of organizational members on leaders with different cultural backgrounds, demonstrates the complex nature of effective leadership in multicultural settings. Liu's conclusions include the insight that,
The synergistic rule suggests that both cultural groups must together overcome difficulties and strengthen their relationship. Unilateral effort is typically inadequate for developing strong intercultural bonds. Together they discuss the nature of effective leadership and publicly decide whether they want the teams to adopt cooperative…
Corderman, D. (2006). "What is leadership?" FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 75, Issue 2.
Dulewicz, V. (2003). "Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations." International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 11, Issue 3.
Hughes, R. (2005). "Five steps to leading strategically." T+D, Vol. 59, Issue 12.
Liu, C. (2004). "Effective Japanese leadership in China: co-operative goals and applying abilities for mutual benefit." International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 15, Issue 4/5.
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Models of leadership and management
Comparison and contrast of leadership models
Application of leadership model: Case of Mark Zuckerberg
Table 1- Leadership Table
Leadership in public and private sector businesses is important for the growth of these businesses. Of late, many researchers have thoroughly investigated the role leadership in promoting businesses. Researchers have also tried to explore the common characteristics of global business leaders that have led their businesses to successful heights. Different models of effective leadership in corporations have also been drafted. One major aspect of leaders being explored in their ability to inspire people surrounding them and use this inspiration to achieve results that could be achieved without having complete trust of followers. While followers might be hard to make for a leader, and yet harder to retain, few researchers have put forth consolidated models of inspirational leaders that effectively make and retain followers.…
Brio, M.M. (2013). Think like Zuck: How Leadership diversity Sparks Innovation. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [ http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2013/01/27/think-like-zuck-how-leadership-diversity-sparks-innovation/ ]
Forbes. (2013). The World's Billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [ http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg/ ]
Drucker, P.F. (2004). What makes an effective executive? Harvard Business Review, 58-63.
Goffee, R., & Jones, G. (2001). Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? IEEE Engineering Management Review, 29(1), 94-100.
Self-confidence is one of the most universally agreed-upon traits of a leader. In order for the organization as a whole to have confidence, the leader must exude confidence. There will be moments in any initiative the followers cannot see the benefits of the initiative or do not feel that they will be able to execute the initiative. It takes the confidence of the leader in order to enable the rest of the organization to believe in the initiative.
Locke's knowledge, skills and ability form the second of the four key to leadership. These are relatively self-evident, but they are still important aspects of genuine leadership. Knowledge of the industry, for example, is built up over the course of years. This knowledge allows the leader to make the right decisions and forge the right strategies. In addition, the leader will also have more ability to instill confidence in their followers if…
Locke, E. (1991). The Essence of leadership: The four keys to leading successfully. New York: Lexington- Macmillan.
Website of Edwin A. Locke, Ph.D., various pages. (2009). Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://www.edwinlocke.com/
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
Leadership and Management Training Guide:
Leadership and management are terms that have been used interchangeably as many people assume that they are similar despite of their fundamental differences. The main reason attributed to this trend is the fact that these concepts must go hand in hand because they are complementary and linked together. Actually, attempts to separate leadership and management always contribute to several problems more than it solves. However, much has been written regarding the importance and difference between leadership and management. The effectiveness of managers and leadership abilities in a management team basically depends on their understanding of the differences between the two.
Differences in Leadership and Management:
Effective leaders and managers have become necessary for the successful operation of teams, organizations, and groups. This is because of the similarities and differences that exist between leadership and management for effective functioning of each. Leadership is basically described as…
Bacon, T.R. (2011, June 3). Five Deadly Leadership Power Drains. Retrieved May 6, 2012,
DiMaio, R.O. (2011). How To Be A Leader. Retrieved May 6, 2012, from http://www.leadershipinstitute.org/resources/writing.cfm?w=6
Ricketts, K.G. (2009, February). Leadership vs. Management. Retrieved from University of Kentucky -- College of Agriculture website: http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/elk1/elk1103/elk1103.pdf
Over the last several years, a wide variety of organizations have been addressing challenges associated with effective leadership. This is because most firms have traditionally created strategies behind closed doors and then introduced these ideas to everyone. The problem with this kind of approach is that no one is able to share the same kind of vision as the individuals in the planning group. The reason why is, most people were left out of the process (which makes it difficult to become excited about the new strategy). Once this takes place, is when a firm will waste time, money and resources in trying to implement an approach that has very little support.
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Lussier (2009) he determined that vision and sharing is essential for any kind of organization to be successful. Commenting about these ideas Lussier observed, "Organizational leaders too…
Baker, T. (2010). Effective Leadership. Flushing, NY: Loose Leaf Law.
Chait, J. (2007). The Big Con. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Goldsmith, M. (2012). Coaching for Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Kantabutra, S. (2010). The Power of Vision. Journal of Business Strategy, 31 (1), 37 -- 45.
Leadeship Style Inventoy
Leadeship cises have been bewing since the past centuy. Evidently, the latest global economic lapses of financial makets aised a highe need fo an effective leadeship than it had been befoe. These cises led to a call fo contempoay oganizations to scutinize o assess the leadeship potential among thei employees and new ecuitments. Following the cuent changes in oganizational ules and business games, as well as andomly emeging competitions, the most fundamental pioity fo businesses and/o oganizations is to ascetain new leadeship potentials, develop them, and find the most appopiate ways to gow them. This pape theeby ecommends the need fo developing authentic and visionay leades by utilizing the "Leadeship Style Inventoy (LSI)" and matching the leadeship esults obtained, with distinguished job equiements. It futhe majos on the use of Kiesey Tempeament Sote and DiSC assessment as tools of evaluation, used in detemining an individual's leadeship competence…
references of cooperative extension faculty. Mexico: New Mexico StateUniversity.
Howell, R.E., Michael, J.A., & Wong, S.K. (1993). Leadership development in extension.
Journal of Extension, 31(1), 27-46.
Nahavandi, A. (2000).The art and science of leadership, 2nd Edition. Upper SaddleRiver, NJ:
Sustainability in Leadership
Current global occurrences have posed a great challenge to the continued existence of living things on earth. At this stage in the history of man, humanity is struggling with a lot of challenges; and these challenges are not restricted to region or race. Problems associated with climate change, increased rate of poverty, inconsistent democracy, and lack of justice and fairness in society are common to all nations. At this critical moment, there becomes a vacuum to be filled with urgency by leaders whose sole desire and purpose is to salvage the earth from total destruction. The world needs leaders who possess strategies to effectively combat these challenges and lead their followers into lifestyles that are self-sustaining. Leaders who could bring about this much needed sustainability to our environments are regarded as Sustainability Leaders.
Purpose of Sustainable Development in Modern Leadership
Leadership in the traditional setting is,…
Banuri, T. & Najam, A. (2002). Civic Entrepreneurship: A Civil Society Perspective on Sustainable Development (Vol. 1: Global Synthesis). Boston, MA: Stockholm Environment Institute -- Boston Center.
Bennis, W. & Goldsmith, J. (2003). Learning to Lead: A Workbook On Becoming a Leader. 3rd ed. New York: Basic Books.
Brown, D. (2000). What Practical Difference Would the Adoption of the Earth Charter Mean to the Resolution of Global Warming Issues? P. Miller & L. Westra (Eds.), Just Ecological Integrity: The Ethics of Maintaining Planetary Life (pp. 205-214). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Boutros-Ghali, B. (1998). Leadership and Conflict. In Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict (Ed.), Essays on Leadership (pp. 1-6). New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay (2013) cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management. The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership.
In "The Best etail Companies to Work for ight Now," Smith (2013) describes Costco's approach toward human resources management. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security. Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…
Gay, M. (2013). Women see slow progress in leadership. The Wall Street Journal. 14 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303289904579196123043065800
Greenleaf, R. (2013). Ten principles of servant leadership. Butler University. Retrieved online: http://www.butler.edu/volunteer/resources/principles-of-servant-leadership/
Lavinsky, D. (2013). Are you a visionary business leader? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/davelavinsky/2013/04/26/are-you-a-visionary-business-leader/
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership (2013). What is servant leadership? Retrieved online: https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
Effective leadership has a big role to play when it comes to the life and success of any organization. Leadership normally transforms what is potential into a reality. Leadership is therefore the successful act that brings success to all of the potent potential that is in an organization as well as its people. Each day there are new paradigms that are proposed and at the same time the old ones are loosing their effectiveness. Leadership is therefore a major way through which people normally change the minds of other people and steer forward towards the accomplishment of the goals that have been identified within an organization. Organizations need leaders so as to orient and make new employees familiar with how things go about in the organization.in this case George Latour is making attempts of leading and coaching a new employee into the organization, Sherry Stern. However the relationship…
Fryer, B., Goodnight, J., Goulston, M., Lawrie, J.M. & Chappelow, C. (2004). The Micromanager. Harvard Business Review, 82(9), 31-39.
Chambers, H. (2005, Summer). Surviving the Micromanager. How to Succeed with Away Boss. Canadian Manager, 30(2), 24-25.
Simonton B.(2010). Good Leadership vs. Bad Leadership. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.bensimonton.com/good-vs.-bad-leadership.html#.U0evb8uLrFw
Benincasa R.(2007). 6 Leadership Styles, And When You Should Use Them. Retrieved April 10,2014 from http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
It is highly likely that I will be able to develop high quality leadership traits with the passage of time.
Values and personality:
It is hard to become familiar with your personality because you cannot see the flaws in yourself. No matter how hard you try the positive aspects will come forward leaving the negative ones far behind. But observing yourself every once in a while is the key to success. It helps you change your personality according to the situation. If I had to put my values and my personality on a piece of paper I would begin it by telling about my behavior with my closed ones, my associates and especially with the ones I deal with on daily basis. I believe on taking everyone with me and not being competitive as competitiveness leads you nowhere. It might lead you to success somehow but leaves you…
Adair, John (2009) Effective Leadership London. Pan Macmillan.
Montana, Patrick J.; Bruce H. (2008). Management. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Schultz, Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen (2010). Psychology and work today: an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed. ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Zaccaro, S.J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62, 6-16.
Over the decades, much research has been devoted to studying leadership traits and the qualities of an effective leader. Some of the approaches to assessing leadership include personality theory, as well as the qualitative approach to leadership research.
In the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (1988), D.K. Simonton used the personality basis of leadership research that looks at the effectiveness of a leader as a result of particular personality traits. For this study, Simonton carried out an archival analysis of the personalities and personal histories of thirty-nine American presidents, and related that to their perceived effectiveness as Heads of State. An analysis of eight-two separate personality characteristics were ultimately reduced to five general categories; "The interpersonal, charismatic, deliberative, creative, and neurotic styles." (Simonton, 1988).
Simonton makes the point that research into leadership is frequently concerned with the question of whether a great leader is born, or becomes a…
Bryman, A., Stephens, M., & Campo, C. (1996). The importance of context:
Qualitative research and the study of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3),
Simonton, D.K. (1988). Presidential style: Personality, biography and performance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(6), 928-936.
So was this true for Cornwallis, who must bear the
dubious association of his side's historical failure to retain the American
colonies even as evidence suggests that his best efforts were extended as
exemplary traits of leadership. Certainly, as Buchanan reports, "it is
also a measure of his leadership that in all the actions in which we have
observed him his militia performed like seasoned regulars." (Buchanan, 190)
This relationship between leader and organizational members is an expected
demand of the military.
Perhaps more surprising and pleasing with consideration of unique
anecdotal detail of the Buchanan text is the core competency listed by the
military requiring "the ability to operate in an environment, encompassing
higher and lower command structures, and using one's influence outside the
traditional chain of command." (DoA, 67) This means that a leader is
expected even such formally and bureaucratically impacted contexts to hold
a certain degree…
Buchanan, J. (1999). The road to Guilford Courthouse: The American
Revolution in the Carolinas. Wiley.
Department of the Army (DoA). (2006). Army Leadership: Competent,
Confident, and Agile (FM6-22). Defense Link. Online at
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
It was after this season that Phil Jackson left the Platoons of Albany and joined the Chicago Bulls as an Assistant Coach, and as it is generally said, the 'rest is history'. (Lakers Coach Phil Jackson signs with WMA and Original Entertainment)
In a nutshell, a leader can be seen as a person or an individual who is inevitably the most important person within the group or organization where he is working or associated with in any way. It is this very leader who is most often responsible for the successes and the failures of the group or the team, which is under him. However, it is sometimes said that success and failure also lies in the hands of the followers, and in nay sort of organization or group, it is in the hands of the follower that the leader's goals and dreams are generally carried out or executed. Chris…
DuPree, David. Phil Jackson, Zen and Now. USA TODAY. 6 June, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/nba/02playoffs/2002-06-05-cover-jackson.htm . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Empowerment: Developing Effective Followers. Retrieved From www.surcon.com/Surcon_Empowerment.doc+the+career+and+leadership+of+Phil+Jackson&hl=en" http://www.surcon.com/Surcon_Empowerment.doc . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Evaluate Performance Constantly. Retrieved From www.teamsthatwin.com/ftp/EVALUATE%2520PERFORMANCE%2520CONSTANTLY.pdf+how+was+Coach+Phil+Jackson+effective+in+enabling+players+to+reach+their+peak+performance+levels+&hl=en" http://www.teamsthatwin.com/ftp/EVALUATE%20PERFORMANCE%20CONSTANTLY.pdf . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Lakers Coach Phil Jackson signs with WMA and Original Entertainment. William Morris Agency, Press Releases. Retrieved at http://www.wma.com/0/press/pressreleases/Phil_Jackson_Final.html . Accessed on 24 January, 2004
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
The Leader is interested in aligning the beliefs and values of people with the overall goals and vision of the organization. In the Leadership role one can bring about change by providing direction, by setting an example, by motivating through inspiration, and by building teams based on respect and trust. A leader is focused on results rather than methods, systems and procedures. Leaders ask themselves "For what purpose?" And "What are the consequences for the system as a whole?" (Chait, 1997)
Different organizations offer various training programs for developing leadership skills in relation to planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. The following paper analyzes the subject matter of these leadership trainings from various training writings and programs, in the light of the aforementioned human resource and management functions within an organization.
Planning is concerned with the future impact of today's decisions. It is the fundamental function of…
Altbach, P.G., Berdahl, O., Gumport, P.J. (1998). American higher education in the twenty- first century. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Angelo, T.A. (1997) The campus as learning community: Seven promising shifts and seven powerful levers. AAHE Bulletin.
Chait, R. (1997) Contradictions of leadership and application of common sense. Speech delivered at the Leadership Conference of the California State University System, Long
y providing 'Role clarity' formalization eliminates the confusion pertaining to 'who does what' in an organization. Formalization also results in 'specialization of tasks'. Formalization is a process by which organizations try to standardize employee behavior. Larger organizations are generally more formalized due to greater manageability.
The downside of formalizing is well-known. If an organization wants to implement formalization it would be met with resistance. Managing employee resistance will be a big problem for managers who attempt to standardize work procedures. Employees in a formalized organization strictly perform the duties allotted to them and not more which causes a serious effect on the productivity. The lack of initiative by workers and the consequent loss of productivity and increased operating costs imply a loss of competitive advantage. Also, the one sided bureaucracy witnessed in a formal organization may in some instances lead to opportunistic behaviors by leaders resulting in misuse of power.…
1) Anita Hall, (March 2007), 'Influence: The Essence of Leadership', Retrieved Aug 17th 2009, from, http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/live/g1695/build/g1695.pdf
2) California State University, 'Influence Tactics', Retrieved Aug 17th 2009, from, [HIDDEN]
tactics are most likely to change followers' attitude?
3) Kotterman, James, (July 2006), 'Leadership vs. Management: What's the Difference?', Journal for Quality and Participation,
e. child care and health insurance). As, they can negotiate lower group rates for: the company and offer them as part of the total compensation package that everyone is receiving. (Northouse, 2010, pp. 89 -- 93)
Was urton a charismatic leader in the company at this time? Explain your answer.
Yes, urton was a charismatic leader. The reason why, is because he would utilize strategies that went above and beyond what traditional leaders were using to motivate employees. This is important, because his ability to use this technique helped him to be able to receive greater concessions out of employees in comparison with other carriers. At the same time, he was given greater amounts of flexibility in making adjustments to: the kinds tasks employees were able to do and their schedules. This gave urton the ability to adapt to changes that were taking place inside the industry. As, this allowed…
Butler, D. (2000). Business Planning. Oxford: Butterworth.
Harris, J. (2002). Organizational Behavior. Binghamton, NY: West Publishing Company
Nelson, D. (2007). Understanding Organizational Behavior. Mason, OH: Thomason
Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace
Proposed Leadership Model
For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…
Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.
Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.
Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.
Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Leadership in Nursing: "The How and What of Leadership"
There are those who would define leadership "as a social influence process in which leaders use interpersonal behaviors to motivate followers to contribute to group goals" (Kaiser, McGinnis, & Overfield, 2012, p 119). Yet, there are staunchly different opinions which present a much different view of leadership and the role it plays within contemporary organizations. According to modern business perspectives, there is less emphasis on the individual being motivating, and more importance placed on the whole of the organization. Thus, there is an internal conflict with using leadership strategies based on a psychological perspective within a business context. Kaiser, McGinnis, and Overfield (2012) explores what real managers working in the field feel about the two polar opposite views of leadership; understanding what elements of leadership are deemed most effective can then be used in contemporary healthcare settings in order to lead…
Domjan, Michael & Grau, James W. (2009). The Principles of Learning and Behavior. Cengage Learning.
Gazzaniga, Michael, Heatherton, Todd, & Halpern, Diane. (2009). Psychological Science. 3rd ed. W.W. Norton & Company.
Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves & Kaplan, Frederic. (2007). What is intrinsic motivation? A typology of computational approaches. Front Nuerobiotics, 1(6). doi: 10.3389/neuro.12.006.2007
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Also, virtue ethics must ensure that the leader acts in the best interest of those who he represents, works with, and works for. However, this does not suffice in order to implement an effective leadership style.
In addition to this, the leader must be surrounded by individuals with similar ethical behavior. This would help the leader to achieve ethical responsibilities. Also, it would make it easier to observe any unethical conduct from the leader.
As mentioned above, there are also different levels of ethics, like mandatory and aspirational ethics. The lowest level of ethics, but not the least important, is represented by mandatory ethics. This type of ethics refers to compliance with the law. In this case, things are clear. All individuals, especially leaders, must respect the law.
Aspirational ethics refer to the effects and influence that leaders' actions have on others. The first people leaders influence are represented by…
1. Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in Top Management Teams: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation. Academy of Management Journal. No. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
2. Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. (1992). Integrated Manufacturing Resources Management, A Human Capital Perspective. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 35, No. 2. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
3. Kings, Queens, and Dictators (2000). Forbes.com, Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/0703/6515256a.html?partner=whiteglove_google .
4. Saddam Hussein (2005). Global Security Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/saddam.htm .
49). That goes for leaders in the learning community as well. Thessin asserts that while it is important to teach students to solve problems, there is a lack of focus on another important, related goal: "the need for teachers to learn to do the same" (49). Teachers are leaders and they must be given the training to develop problem solving skills along with the other important skills mentioned in this paper.
Alansari, Eissa M., and Albustan, Suad A. (2009). Center for Continuing Education and Community Service at Kuwait University: A Model in Leadership for Adult and Continuing
Education. College Student Journal, 43(2), 1-8.
Fulton-Calkins, Patsy, and Milling, Charlie. (2005). Community-College Leadership: An Art to be Practiced: 2010 and Beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol.
Jameson, Jill, Ferrell, Gill, Kelly, Jacquie, alker, Simon, and Ryan, Malcolm. (2006). Building
trust and shared knowledge in communities…
Alansari, Eissa M., and Albustan, Suad A. (2009). Center for Continuing Education and Community Service at Kuwait University: A Model in Leadership for Adult and Continuing
Education. College Student Journal, 43(2), 1-8.
Fulton-Calkins, Patsy, and Milling, Charlie. (2005). Community-College Leadership: An Art to be Practiced: 2010 and Beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol.
Indeed, without these legitimacy criteria, a leader would not be able to influence followers to either change or progress towards organizational goals: "The acceptance of leadership from another person involves an implicit contract in which followers sacrifice some level of personal autonomy and pledge loyalty and effort to the leader.... The followers must be sure that the leader has the competency to lead effectively and the trustworthiness and loyalty to the group and its goals to lead in the direction promised." (Chemers, 1997, p. 153) Since the focus of management is to build power, the nature of the image that ensues will perforce differ from that of leadership.
It is evident, by the discussion so far, that relationship building, image management, and inspiring confidence are essential parts of the leadership phenomenon. However, it must be noted that ultimately performance and productivity are the goals of effective leadership. Therefore, it is…
Chemers, M.M. (1997). An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles, and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Course No -- Leadership
It had often been said earlier that leadership is an inherent quality in certain individuals, but there are also leaders who are made through management institutions, by organizations, through institutions like the armed forces and even through political relationships, etc. There are certain qualities that a leader must have or develop to be a leader and remain a leader and those are the subject matter of discussion now.
The situation in the world is changing and it has come to a position in the beginning of the twenty-first century, that certain characteristics are seen as requirements for being able to influence future changes. Some of them are the ability to bring together individuals as much as possible for them to take a collective action, demonstrate collaborative decision and inclusive decision making for the entire group, maintain a flexible and responsive reaction in reference to all…
"Devolution in Practice: An Update" Retrieved from http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Devolution/Pub3623.pdf Accessed 10 September, 2005
"Leadership" Retrieved from http://www.productivesolutions.com.au/leadership.htm Accessed 10 September, 2005
Leboeuf, Maureen K. "Developing a Leadership Philosophy" Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/leboeuf.htm
Accessed 10 September, 2005
After completing the self-analysis in Hackman & Johnson's (2008) book Leadership: A communication perspective, I have evaluated myself as follows: For competence I rated myself as being skilled, informed and trained. In regards to trustworthiness I evaluated that I am honest, kind and friendly. For dynamism, I regard myself as assertive and active. This paper will summarize the results that I found and discuss what those results illustrate or reveal about my leadership communication behaviors.
I rated myself as skilled, informed and trained when it comes to competence. When it comes to leadership, the higher the individual is in a leadership role, the more important communication competence becomes. I rated myself as skilled because I have been in leadership roles where I have had to communicate information effectively. Being in these positions helped me hone my leadership communication skills. I feel that being in smaller leadership roles were good…
Hackman, M.Z. & Johnson, C.E. (2008). Leadership: A communication perspective. (5th edition). Waveland Pr Inc.
Mr. Smith has been the president of our social club for a very long time. He has been reelected as the president unanimously for more than three times since he started his term. The reason as to why he has held this position is because of his effective leadership.
There are various traits that he holds which have made him an effective leader for this entire while. These traits include vision; he is a visionary leader. He looks forward to the future of the club with a lot of expectations. He has envisioned the club to be a success and attain a significant growth. He has an idea of the club which is clear and exciting of where the club is headed and at the same time try to accomplish the goals of the club. Secondly he is a courageous leader. This means that he is…
Mind Tools Ltd., (2013). Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 1,2013 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Cherry, K.,(2010). Lewin's Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/leadstyles.htm
University of Missouri, (2010). Important Personal Traits of Effective Leaders. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://web.missouri.edu/~campbellr/Leadership/chapter4.htm
At the core of leadership is the interaction between the leader and the follower. Much of leadership theory can be understood in terms of how leaders and followers interact and what the underlying assumptions are with respect to the roles and nature of leadership. Because of the many different types of leaders, and successful examples thereof, leadership scholarship has developed multiple branches that seek to explain leadership, but no one branch has yet proved definitive. Instead of understanding leadership through a single paradigm, and it better to understand it in terms of multiple paradigms, and different leadership theories can be applied to the same situation, and any given leader might apply multiple leadership styles at the same time.
Part of the appeal of leadership scholarship is that it encompasses so many unique academic disciplines. Leadership scholarship began life as in business schools but has been studied in the psychological…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.
Boyatzis, R., Smith, M., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing sustainable leaders through coaching and compassion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 5 (1) 8-24.
Falk, S. & Rogers, S. (2011). Junior military officer retention: Challenges & opportunities. Harvard University. In possession of the author.
Kocolowski, M. (2010). Shared leadership: Is it time for a change? Emerging Leadership Journeys. Vol. 3 (1) 22-32.
Though there has been a strong correlation shown between the possession of certain key traits and effective leadership, no trait (or combination of traits) guarantees good leadership. More importantly, effective leadership does not really depend upon specific character traits so much as specific choices. The personality traits that can lead to good leadership tend to be those that allow for decisive and informed decisions based on the needs of the group or organization being led; charisma is certainly not among these, and the traits themselves are secondary to the decisions they lead to, regardless (Kirkpatrick & Locke 1991). Charisma no more makes a leader than attractiveness or another physical attribute.
Going back to charisma specifically, some have questioned whether the use of charisma as an enhancement to leadership -- or at least a tool of persuasion used by one in authority -- is even an ethical way to lead. In…
Elliott, M. (2009). "No charisma? Don't worry, you can still be a leader." Time. Accessed 29 January 2010. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1909616-3,00.html
Howell, J. & Avolio, B. (1992). "The ethics of charismatic leadership." Academy of management executive 6(2), pp. 43-54.
Kirkpatrick, S. & Locke, E. (1991). "Leadership: Do Traits Matter?" The Executive 5(2), pp. 48-60
Nye, J. (2008). "Charisma and leadership." Accessed 29 January 2010, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-nye/charisma-and-leadership_b_99466.html
" This sometimes leads to a lack of improvement through the use of new ideas, thus having an overall negative effect on the department's efficiency.
When looking at Mr. Shaiban through the six characteristics of a leader in which Wren identifies, it can be concluded that Mr. Shaiban exhibits a majority of them and thus can be considered a leader. For example, Mr. Shaiban is clearly driven and has leadership motivation in that he often is seen leading by example and is not the type of supervisor who is not willing to get directly involved in a project. Further, Mr. Shaiban is honest and has a high respect from his employees and his superiors, which demonstrates his integrity. More s, as can clearly be seen by his ability to function in a complex, high-tech based industry, he has both the cognitive ability and industry knowledge needed to be a successful…
Wren, Thomas J. (1995): The Leaders Companion: Insights on Leadership throughout the Ages. New York: The Free Press.
Leadership in Nursing
Excellence in leadership is an inherently innate skill set that over time emerges in the attitude, commitment and performance of subordinates. It is also reflected in how a given business unit or department coordinate, collaborates and trusts each other (Cohen, 2013). Compounding these factors are the often complex, highly intricate and often challenging aspects of managing and leading a nursing department (Swearingen, Liberman, 2004). The stresses and requirements of nursing leadership serve as a catalyst that accelerates leadership skills in nurse leaders. The challenges of orchestrating and leading a department are in many ways a crucible that leads to stronger nurse leaders capable of overcoming challenges and continually growing over time (Wong, Cummings, 2009). The most effective transformational leaders know how and when to rely on individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and idealized influence (ao, 2013). Taken together these are the attributes that are essential for…
Cohen, S. (2013). Transitioning new leaders: Seven steps for success. Nursing Management, 44(2), 9.
Rao, M.S. (2013). Smart leadership blends hard and soft skills. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(4), 38-40.
Swearingen, S., & Liberman, A. (2004). Nursing leadership - serving those who serve others. The Health Care Manager, 23(2), 100-109.
Wong, C., & Cummings, G. (2009). Authentic leadership: A new theory for nursing or back to basics? Journal of Health Organization and Management, 23(5), 522-38.
Leadership in an International Business
Changing oles of Managers & Teams
Leadership and Employees Behavior in International Business
With the change in the structure of enterprises from national to international, the organizations are forced to hire talent from cross-cultural background. Due to this, a complexity for an organization while handling their human capital increases. In order to combat this complexity, it is important that the individuals inducted show an acceptance to diversity and eagerness to work in a cross-cultural environment. Similarly, the individual needs of such employees should also be satisfied in order to motivate them and enhance the effectiveness of their performance.
Where the nature of human resources changes in an international business, so does the role and responsibility of managers. Manager in such environment are expected to play a role of a leader who knows how to motivate his team, celebrate difference, handle conflicts effectively and improves overall…
Griffin, Ricky & Pustay, Michael, 2004, International Business, 4th ed, Prentice Hall.
Kets De Vries, Manfred.F.R. 2005. Characteristics of effective leadership. Management Today, 20 (10), 14-16.
Kotter, John, 2003. Leading change. What leaders really do? Management Today, 19 (3), 4-7.
Northouse, Peter G. 2004, Leadership: Theory and practice. 3rd ed. California. SAGE Publications.
Thus, in comparison to King's leadership style of pacifism and quiet strength, Powell's is a style involving the characteristics of confrontation, sacrifice of personal desires for the best interest of the groups, and confidence in the leader. While Powell's leadership style does not make him a better leader than King, it certainly exemplifies the fact that leadership styles must change based on circumstance. King's quiet strength gained him the respect he needed to become a champion of the civil rights movement. Powell's confrontational attitude gave him the motivation and confidence he needed to confront other nations in the name of peace.
Finally, Harriet Tubman's leadership style involved a combination of the styles and characteristics advocated by both King and Powell. Tubman's situation as a slave and eventual leader of the Underground ailroad forced her to accept the confrontational style of Powell to some degree. She displayed both confidence in herself…
Ling, P.J. (2003, April 1). Martin Luther King's Style of Leadership. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from the BBC. Web Site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/recent/martin_luther_king_01.shtml
Harari, O.A Leadership Primer from General (Ret.) Colin Powell, Secretary of State.
Retreived March 29, 2009, from the HR Chally Group. Web Site: http://www.chally.com/enews/powell.html
U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. (2008, April
Some say that leadership is just getting a job done. I wish to dispute that it does not work that way. Every professional's job is now the front lines, and the skills of leadership are now becoming pivotal to everyone's imagination of himself or herself as a professional. It is well-known fact that simply declaring yourself a leader will not induce anyone to follow you. The course of becoming a leader does not happen overnight. Leadership is growing and beginning to incorporate its significance in every aspects of work. The former command and control model of leadership is dwindling, and self-organizing systems are becoming new practices of looking at leadership.
Leadership is an inner journey, one that never halts. If you take this journey from the viewpoint of following your calling, listening to your heart, and exploring how you can be of service to something greater than yourself, then…
Community service awardee Bob Adams honored for his work with local youth
Publication Date: May 22, 2002
Town Crier Correspondent
The Town Crier Company, Inc., Los Altos, California. All rights reserved. http://www.losaltosonline.com/latc/arch/2002/21/Communit/1adams/1adams.html
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
Leadership and Change Management
History and experience suggest that effective leadership is integral to organizational success, as well as the success of individual members within the organization. Well, studies have given different perspectives as to what exactly constitutes effective leadership; however, what they all agree on is that effective leadership aids in the effective and efficient management of organizational resources and relationships as well as in the building of power and strength in the organization. Employees need leadership to inspire and motivate them to align their personal goals with those of the organization, and to give their all in the conduction of their duties. In the same way, clients and customers need leadership to inspire confidence and trust in an organization's output. Investors too need leadership to inspire confidence in the organization's stocks and assets. Good leadership, therefore, invariably produces greater benefits for the organization in terms of motivated employees,…
Daft, R., The Leadership Experience. 6th ed. Stamford, CA: Cengage Learning
Griffin, R., 2012. Management. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Hamilton, C., 2010. Communicating for Results: A Guide for Business and the Professions. 9th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Hitt, M., Ireland, R.D., and Hoskisson, R., 2006. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 7th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
One of the most insightful things that I ever read about leadership and leading a group of people, is that "leadership is less about your needs, and more about the needs of the people and the organization you are leading" (wsj, 2014). I totally believe that effective leadership continually needs to be adapted to the needs and demands of a given situation, the needs of the people involved and the particular obstacles that face the group as a whole. I believe that ultimately, a good leader has a repertoire or a toolbox of different leadership styles that he or she can use when a specific situation calls for it. Having different leadership styles in this manner helps one to continually adapt more rapidly and specifically to particular situations, empowering one to apply the most relevant tactic. I consider my own personal leadership style to be a hybrid or…
Fera, R. (n.d.). Principles of Creative Leadership. Retrieved from fastcompany.com: http://www.fastcompany.com/1764044/ken-robinson-principles-creative-leadership
George, J. (2000). Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved from sagepub.com: http://hum.sagepub.com/content/53/8/1027.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr
Sonoma.edu. (2014). Daniel Goleman's five components of emotional intelligence. Retrieved from sonoma.edu: http://www.sonoma.edu/users/s/swijtink/teaching/philosophy_101/paper1/goleman.htm
WSJ. (2014). Leadership Styles. Retrieved from wsj.com: http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
The SMEs are competitive in ussia, but many under developments are causing a lag in the developments of the companies. There are many inconsistencies in the leadership, but other factors also discourage the improvement of the small companies. These issues include lack of resources in ussia, and also lack of capabilities. The development in infrastructure has proven to be slow and also lack of equipment. Many companies are waiving from the ussian market mainly because of the complexities and also the issue of transition economies.
SMEs are not taking advantage of strategies that will elevate them to economy driven positions. The SMEs are not taking the right measures to establish business relation. The SMEs have to commit themselves in the market, it terms of investing, acquire the best personnel and realize their potential through time management. Modes of success have to be analyzed and adopted through joint ventures, engaging in…
Albertini, F. (2011). Entry Strategy for SMEs in the Russian Market. School of Business and Economy. 8(2), 3-5.
Analovi, F. & Karami, a. (2003). Strategic management in small and medium enterprises. New York: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Bolden, R. (2001). Leadership Development in Small and Medium sized Enterprises. Retrieved October 11, 2012 from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/cls/documents/SME2.pdf
Dallago, B. (2012). Small and Medium Enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe. University of Trento, Tokyo. Retrieved October 11, 2012 from http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/pdf_seminar/031210smes_3.pdf
Leadership -- Al Gini
Leadership is more than management; hence not all managers are leaders. Leadership involves the capacity to motivate workers and employee to work towards a common goal. Leaders also influence the employees towards certain behaviors they want. The modern organization should therefore acquire the best team of managers, who should have leadership traits and accept changes in the organization when necessary, including technological change. Management and leadership are most certainly not the same, despite the fact that many, even in business, use the terms in the same manner. In general, managers are more concerned with organizing people, plans, and projects. Managing gleans authority by a particular organization and must, in turn, utilize followers (subordinates). They may be in charge of a group or a project, but that definition does not make them leaders. Managers tend to operate in a manner in which they receive and depend upon…
Gini, Al. (1997). Leadership: An Overview. Journal of Business Ethics. 16 (2).
Leadership Style Application
The leadership style adopted by different companies and how these companies motivate their employees should be that which can work in multicultural context. This can enhance employee productivity and job satisfaction. Cross-cultural motivation is imperative in a person's work and personal life. People work for various reasons. Some work so that they can access economic necessities like food, housing, and clothing. Some are motivated by what work provides other than money like achievement, honor, and social contacts (Bedrow & Lane, 2003). Others work because they have some emotional attachment to work. Studies have shown that the higher the mean-work centrality score, the more motivated and committed the workers would be. Maslow's upper level needs are very important at managerial levels. Work related values and needs are similar across nationalities. Maslow and Herzberg motivational categories also apply universally. In fact, there are common clusters of goals and needs…
Bedrow, I. & Lane, H.W. (2003). International Joint Ventures: Creating Value through
Successful Knowledge Management. Journal of World Business, 38(1), 15-30.
Danis, W.M. (2003). Differences in Values, Practices, and Systems among Hungarian Managers
and Western Expatriates: An Organizing Framework and Typology. Journal of World
Conversely, those who are psychologically insecure, mistrustful of others without cause, and who regularly project negative expectations onto social interactions tend to make other uncomfortable and to provoke negative responses from others (Maxwell, 2007; Fitch, 2010).
This point can be illustrated by the following example. A male Soldier (PVT John Doe) arrives to his first unit after graduation from basic training. He hasn't taken any initiative within his team, does only what he is told, and fails to show any leadership qualities. A female Soldiers reports to the same unit during the same time and is promoted ahead of her peers because she take the initiative and gets the mission accomplished.
Those who lead with anger does more damage than the good they were hoping for. It tears down the fabric, the pride that unite an organization are costumed to having. The command climate of an organization is a true…
The only constant in life is change. Perhaps, it is the recognition of this fact that led the management guru, Peter Drucker, to observe, "Leaders grow; they are not made." Peter Drucker's words are significant because they imply that the test of true leadership lies in the ability to grow by leading change (1999). Indeed, some of the world's greatest leaders such as Franklin D. oosevelt, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King are admired precisely because they possessed such a quality: "Effective leadership, research suggests ... is a function of the situation in which it is found." (Kotter, 1988, p. 21) Thus, it is evident that good leaders are people who continuously engage in a process of change in order to secure a better future.
The examples of oosevelt, Gandhi, and King also serve to illustrate another quality that a good leader must possess, which is the quality of…
Drucker, P. (1999, June). The new commandments of change. Excerpt from Management
Challenges for the 21st Century. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990601/804.html
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Heart Quotes Center. (2004). Leadership Quotes and Proverbs. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: