Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Effects Of Stress Essays (Examples)

1000 results for “Effects Of Stress”.


image
4 Pages
Essay

Anatomy

Effects of Stress on Kidneys and Resistance Phone of Gas

Words: 1227
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

stress on Kidneys and esistance phone of GAS Effects of stress on Kidneys and esistance phase of GAS Biology Stress is an emotional or physical strain normally caused as…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

The Effects of Stress and Burnout

Words: 1632
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

Understandability of Controlled Burn: The Gendering of Stress and Burnout in Modern Policing Results The results presented in the article are understandable because the authors have presented the result…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Stress There Are as Many

Words: 1623
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

From these responses will be generated the even more specific and in-depth questions that will used to obtain a more complete picture from the focus group. The focus group,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
11 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Stress and Suicide in Law Enforcement Populations

Words: 3190
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Stress and Suicide in Law Enforcement Populations The paper is an understanding of what stress could have on law enforcement officials. The factors which cause stress for law enforcement…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Stress Disorders the Stress Is'so Great

Words: 909
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Stress disorders, the stress is so great that it is debilitating and dominates the person and interferes with living one's life. Stress can be good or bad. A skiing…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Research Proposal

Sports - Women

Stress Effects Memory in Adults

Words: 1578
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Annotated Bibliography

Teaching

Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities

Words: 880
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Annotated Bibliography

Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory Symptoms of Short-Term Memory Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Medical and Medicine

Effect of Nutrition on Stress

Words: 741
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Nutrition and Stress Stress affects eating habits by causing a person to exhibit patterns of disordered eating (Khansari, et al., 1990). Some people will choose to eat too much,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Sports

Stress and Exercise

Words: 619
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Managing Stress Exercise Managing Stress through Physical Exercise hat is the importance of flushing stress hormones out of the body according to Seaward? hat are the specific effects of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology - Therapy

Stress and Stress Management

Words: 1255
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Health Psychology Stress ManagementStress is a term that refers to the physical and emotional adaptive reaction to external situations that generate psychological, behavioral, or psychological deviations (Hailu, 2020).…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Research Paper

Criminal Justice

Police Officials and Stress

Words: 1736
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Stress in Law Enforcement Stress and Law Enforcement Professionals of law enforcements are responsible for some crucial and informative decision-making in their offices and fields which requires a standard…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Workplace Stress

Words: 657
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Stress Wiley, Carolyn. 2000. "A Synthesis of Research on the Causes, Effects, and Reduction Strategies of Teacher Stress." Journal of Instructional Psychology, June. Carolyn Wiley wrote an extensive review…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
10 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Study of Workplace Stress Factors

Words: 4615
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Stress in the Workplace The research topic under discussion is Stress at Workplace. Stress comes with different definitions, one of which is that stress is a 'physical, chemical or…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages

Psychiatry

The Impact of Stress Literature Review

Words: 1476
Length: 5 Pages
Type:

Stress affects children in many ways. From lacking confidence to developing eating disorders, to becoming antisocial, stress can take a toll on a child. Developing within an environment of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Business Proposal

Health - Nursing

Analyzing Stress Reduction & Workplace Wellness Program

Words: 791
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Business Proposal

Stress eduction & Workplace Wellness Program Online Mindfulness-Based Stress eduction (MBS) This is a 100% free online MBS training course, developed by a fully licensed MBS tutor, and modelled…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Stress Diary Analyzing My Stress Diary Maintaining

Words: 547
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Stress Diary Analyzing My Stress Diary Maintaining a stress diary has been a most useful experience, as it has led to some valuable personal insights. Though I have been…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
6 Pages
Research Paper

Children

Stress and Depression Among Adolescents

Words: 2014
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Anatomy

Stress Definition of Stress Researchers Define Stress

Words: 623
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Stress Definition of stress esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Article Critique

Military

Stress Cortisol Secretion in Any

Words: 657
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Article Critique

Current training paradigms have been found to create to relationship between traditional handgun training, for example, and the necessity of using handguns in the line of duty itself. Indeed,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Stress Factors in Law Enforcement This Brief

Words: 580
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Stress Factors in Law Enforcement his brief paper will look at some of the issues and circumstances that create stress in the lives of law enforcement officers. In particular…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Stress Factors as We Have Learned Throughout

Words: 597
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Stress Factors As we have learned throughout the course of our present studies, stress and anxiety disorders can render a debilitating effect for the subject. The incapacity to control…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Stress Among Police Stress Among the Police

Words: 641
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Stress Among Police Stress among the police Stress among the police force Police workforce remains an environment that is highly stressful being an occupation that a person has to…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Thesis

Children

Stress and the Breakup of

Words: 2867
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Thesis

227), creating a house-full of stress and tension. Another study delves into how much children "matter" to their stepparents -- because "to matter is to be noticed, to be…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Stress the Definition of Stress

Words: 736
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
15 Pages
Research Paper

Sports - Drugs

Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Research Paper

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
6 Pages
Lab Report

Psychology

Pressure on Performance the Effects of Time

Words: 1907
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Lab Report

Pressure on Performance The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students. Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Essay

Anatomy

Arousal Behavior Stress and Affect Differences Between

Words: 1006
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Arousal, Behavior, Stress and Affect: Differences between Physiological and Psychological Needs: While human beings share some simple requirements for sustaining life and health, these needs are always confused with…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
13 Pages
Thesis

Disease

Unresolved Stress Corrections Unmitigated and Unresolved

Words: 6020
Length: 13 Pages
Type: Thesis

Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Medicine

Drugs on Stress Perception and Stress Adaptation

Words: 1426
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

It was found that academic exam stress caused significant increases in P and TAI scores, which were related to high levels of serum, significantly more so in males than…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
15 Pages
Article Review

Business - Management

Occupational Stress in a Public

Words: 5453
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Article Review

The stress alarm, therefore, can actually assist the employee to improve her performance and is necessary especially, if positive perceptions regarding the challenges of the work environment exist. The…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Psychology How Stress Affects the

Words: 933
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Neonatal Stress on Adult Stress

Words: 1381
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The human stress response is influenced by a host of personality characteristics and life experiences that cannot be duplicated in animal studies. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241) Because…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Miscellaneous

Capsule Stress Management Techniques Outline

Words: 1026
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Prioritize. Try not to schedule too many things at once. In the words of one article by the health center at Colorado University entitled "10 Great Stress Reducers," learn…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Reducing Stress Through Intentional Measures

Words: 1419
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

stress conjures up different things for different people, yet stress is a universal: everyone experiences stress throughout their life. Stress can be both good and bad depending on how…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
44 Pages
Essay

Health - Public Health Issues

Combating Workplace Stress using Cognitive Behavioral Therpay

Words: 20851
Length: 44 Pages
Type: Essay

…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…OccupationalStressandScientificMonitoringLiteratureeview2.1IntroductionThedefinitionofthetermoccupationalstressisderivedfromthedefinitionofitstwoconstituentwords.Inthiscontext,occupationalreferstoanythingthatisrelatedtotheworkplacewhilestressisdefinedasanaturalbodyreactionfromphysical,mentaloremotionalstraininanindividual.Thus,occupationalstresscanbedefinedasanymechanismbywhichthebodyattemptstoadapttotheworkplaceenvironment.Theseincludenormalmechanismsfordealingwithworkplacestress,commonlyknownasthefightorflightresponseaswellasanyexpectedorunexpectedreactionsinresponsetotheworkplace.Theseincludeeyestrainbecauseofstaringatcomputerscreensfortoolong,emotionalandphysicalstress,depression,anxiety,aggression,cognitiveimpairmentsuchasdegradedmemoryorreducedconcentrationspan,etc.Allofthesereactionscanleadtopoorworkoutput,increasedemployeeturnover,higherabsenteeism,cardiovasculardisease,injuryorevendeath(Pattersonetal.,2005).Occupationalstresscanalsobedefinedasahazardundertherelevantoccupationalsafetyandhealthlegislationthatcancauseanyharmtoemployeehealthandtowhichemployershaveadutyofcaretoassess,identifyandcontrolasmuchaspossible.Itcanalsobedefinedinotherwordsastheconsequenceofanindividualbeingunabletocopewithpressuresintheworkplace(ees,1997).Theseundesirableoutcomescomeabouteitherbecauseofpoorfitbetweenthepersonsabilitiesandtherequirementofhisorherpositionorbecauseofworkplaceconditionsbeingotherwiseunfavorable.Becausethewell-beingofemployeesisinextricablyassociatedwithorganizationalperformanceandproductivity,occupationalstressdemandstimelyinvestigationtoidentifywaystomitigatetheseeffects(OsibanjoandSalau,2016).AlthoughunemploymentlevelsintheUnitedStateshavesteadilydeclinedinrecentyears,therehasbeenacorrespondingincreaseintheamountofoccupationalstresslevelsbeingreportedbyAmericanworkers.AsurveysponsoredbyEverestCollegeandconductedbyHarrisInteractivefoundthatfully83%ofallemployedworkersintheUnitedStatesreportbeingstressedbyatleastonejob-relatedfactor(anincreasefrom73%forthepreviousyear),withinadequatepayandinordinatelyexcessiveworkloadsbeingamongthetopfactorsreportedbyU.S.workers(Workstressontherise,2013).Basedonthefindingsthatemergedfromthissurvey,JohnSwartz,theregionaldirectorofcareerservicesatEverestCollege,concludedthat,Morecompaniesarehiring,butworkersarestillwearyandstressedoutfromyearsofatroubledeconomythathasbroughtaboutlongerhours,layoffsandbudgetcuts(ascitedinWorkstressontherise,2013,p.3).Althoughagrowingbodyofresearchconfirmsthatpaylevelsarenolongeramongthemostmotivationalfactorsforworkers,compensationlevelsremainatornearthetopofjob-relatedstressorstoday.Inthisregard,theHarrisInteractivesurveyfoundthatinordinatelyheavyworkloadstiedwithinadequatecompensationlevelsasbeingthetopjobstressorsatpresent,andbothofthesevariablesshowedsignificantincreasesoverthepreviousyear(Workstressontherise,2013).Otherjob-relatedfactorsthatwerefoundtoexacerbateoccupationalstresslevelsincludedpoorrelationshipswithcoworkers,theamountoftimerequiredtocommutetoandfromwork,beingcompelledtoworkinacareerfieldthatisnotalignedwiththeirpersonalinterests,poorwork-lifebalancesandapaucityofcareeradvancementopportunities(Workstressontherise,2013).Itisalsonoteworthythatthereweresomesignificantgender-relateddifferencesintheoccupationalstresslevelsreportedbyAmericanworkers,withnearlytwiceasmanyfemaleworkersasmaleworkers(18%vs.10%)reportinginadequatepaylevelsastheirprimaryjobstressor(Workstressontherise,2013).Inaddition,youngerworkersweremorelikelythantheiroldercounterparts(i.e.,BabyBoomers)toreportbeingstressedasaresultoftheiremployment(Workstressontherise,2013).Insum,youngerAmericanwomen(aged18to29years)arethemoststressedatworkbutothercategoriesofworkersremainathighriskofoccupationalstressaswell(Workstressontherise,2013).Althougheveryoneexperiencesthenegativeandpositiveeffectsofoccupationalstressuniquely,therearesomecommontypesofstressthataretypicalresponsestounmitigatedworkplacestressasdiscussedbelow.2.2TypesofstressStressisthehumanresponsetoanytypesofdemand,andsuchresponsescanbeeitherpositiveornegative(Sharma,2015).Fromabiophysicalperspective,stresscanberegardedasbeingamental,physical,oremotionalresponsethatresultsinmentalorphysicaltension(Sharma,2015).Occupationalstresscanalsobedefinedastheadversepsychologicalandphysicalreactionsthatoccurinanindividualasaresultoftheirbeingunabletocopewiththedemandsbeingmadeonthem(Omolara,2008).Stressthathappensduetoaperson\\\'semploymentistermedoccupationalstress.Thetermsworkplacestress,jobstressandoccupationalstressareusedinterchangeably(Dollard,2003).egardlessofwhatitiscalled,occupationalstresslevelsarenotoriouslydifficulttoquantifyandmeasure,makingtheevaluationofstress-managementinterventionsespeciallyproblematic.Inresponse,researchershavedevelopedanumberofdifferentcategoriesofjobstressorstofacilitatetheprocessasdiscussedbelow.Jobstressorshavebeenclassifiedintovariouscategoriesbydifferentinvestigatorsovertheyears.Forexample,El-KotandBurkenotethatresearchersduringthesecondhalfofthe20thccenturyidentifiedfivediscretecategoriesofjobstressorsasfollows:(1)stressorsintrinsictothejob,(2)fromone\\\'sroleintheorganization,(3)careerdevelopment,(4)relationshipswithothers,and(5)organizationalstructureandculture.Otherresearchershaveidentifiedfourmaincategoriesofjobstressors:(1)fromtaskdemands,(2)roledemands,(3)physicaldemands(fromelementsinone\\\'sphysicalsettingorenvironment),and(4)interpersonaldemands;inadditionandmorerecently,work-familydemandshavealsobeenincludedinthecategoriesofjobstressorsbysomeorganizationalbehavioralresearchers(El-KotandBurke,2011).Moresuccinctly,aspositedbyNordstrometal.(2001),therearetwomajortypesofstressthatcanoccurinaperson.Thesearephysicalandmentalstress.Physicalstressreferstoanyphysicalreactionofthebodytowardvarioustriggers.Physicalstressisamajorcauseofemotionalstresssincethetwomanifestsineachother.Mentalstress,ontheotherhand,referstomentalexhaustion.AccordingtoKeegeletal.(2009),mentalstressreferstomentalstrainasaresultofaharmfulagentthatcanleadtoillness.Itisreasonabletopositthatsustainedmentalstrainduetooccupationalstresscanhavesuchseriouseffects.Thetwodifferenttypesofstresshavedifferentsignsandsymptoms,someofwhicharemorereadilydiscerniblethanothers.Forexample,physicalstresscanbeseenwhenthepersonsheartratebecomeshighandtheybegintobreathfaster.Incertainsituations,thepersoncanalsostarttosweatprofuselyorevenhavecoldfeet,handsorskin.Anothercommonsignisthatthemouthoftheindividualdriesupandtheymayalso;feeltiredandfatiguedmorefrequently.Theremayalsobemusclespasms,shortnessofbreath,tighteningofmusclesandtensionofthebody(Iavicolietal.,2001).Othercommonsignsofphysicalstressincludethepersoneatingmoreorlessthannormalconstantlyfeelingnervous.Thisisoftendetectedinsignssuchastwitchingofmuscles,fiddling,talkingrapidlyortoomuch,grindingteeth,nailbiting,pacingupanddownrestlessly,orotheruncommonrepetitivehabits.Inotherextremesituations,thepersonmaydevelopdiseasesorconditionssuchasmigraines,asthma,stomachandskinproblems,achesandpains,flu,etc.Thesesignscomeaboutasaresultofthephysicalwell-beingofthepersonbeingoffbalance(CrouterandManke,1994).Asnotedabove,youngerAmericanwomencurrentlysufferthehighestlevelsofoccupationalstressinthecountry,andtheseindividualsarealsoathigherriskofexperiencingadverseeffectsfromjob-relatedphysicalstressaswellasthedeleteriouseffectsthatcanresultfromoccupationalmentalstress(Chitnis,2014).Inthisregard,mentalstressisoftenseenwhenthepersonhassleepingdisordersthatmakethemeithersleeplessormorethanusual,constantfeelingofworry,anxietyorconfusion,frequentmoodchangessuchasfrustration,depression,anger,defensiveness,irritability,irrationality,impatient,restlessnessoroverreaction.Othercommonsignsofoccupationalstressincludedependenceonharmfulsubstancessuchasdrugs,alcoholorcigarettes(Okechukwuetal.,2010).Incertainsituations,thepersonmayalsodevelopapoormemoryortheinabilitytomakedecisions.Inextremesituations,apersonmayevendevelopirrationalfearsofnormalsituationssuchasseeingsunlight,washingunderrunningwater,venturingoutdoors,etc.Allthesesignscomeaboutbecauseofthementalsituationofthepersonbeingadverselyaffectedbyjob-relatedstressors.2.3SignsofoccupationalstressOccupationalstressusuallystartsoutasacutestressthatoccursfromtheincreasingdemandandpressureoftheworksituation.Itcanleadapersontoemotionaldistressthatisseeninanger,anxiety,depression,orirritability.Itcanalsoleadapersontophysicalproblemssuchasmuscletension,achesandpains,frequentheadaches,jawandbackpain.Thesenormallycomefromthepersonbeingexposedtoalotofmanualworkintheworkplacesuchaswalkingorstandingforlongperiods.Suchactivitiesmayalsoleadtoelevationofbloodpressurelevels,sweatypalms,rapidheartbeat,dizziness,coldfeetandhands,chestorbackpain,migrainesorshortnessofbreath.Occupationalstresscanalsobeseenwhenapersondevelopsstomachorbowelproblemsincludingheartburn,diarrhea,constipation,flatulenceorirritablebowelsyndrome.Thesemaybeasaresultofphysicalormentalstressintheworkplace(EldonandShani,1991).Occupationalstressmayalsohaveothersignssuchaslonelinessorisolationofanindividual,agitationorthepersonbeingunabletorelax,pessimism,lossofconcentration,constantworrying,procrastinationorneglectingpersonalresponsibilityorothernervoushabitssuchaspacing,grindingteethandnailbiting.2.4Effects/ConsequencesofjobstressAsputbyHulshofetal.(1999),occupationalstressisquitenormal.However,whenitbecomesexcessive,therearecertainadverseeffectsthatitmaycause.Theseeffectscanbedividedintothreedistinctcategories.Theseareeffectsontheindividual,tofamilyandtotheorganization.Atallthesethreelevels,occupationalstressproducesawiderangeofexpensive,debilitatingandundesirableconsequences(oss,2005)asdiscussedfurtherbelow.2.5ConsequencestotheindividualWorkplacestresscanleadtovariouseffectsontheindividual.Thesemaybemildorseveredependingontheextentofthestress.Theycanbedividedintotwomajorgroups,whicharephysicalandpsychologicaleffects.Inthisregard,El-KotandBurke(2011,p.11)reportthat,Individualsreportinghigherlevelsofjobstressorsgenerallyindicatelowerlevelsofjobsatisfaction,moreabsenteeism,lowerjobperformance,greaterintenttoquit,andlowerlevelsofpsychologicalandphysicalhealth.Themajorphysicaleffectsareunwantedfeelingsandbehaviors,whichincludefatigue,stomachupset,headache,muscularachesandpains,disturbanceofsleeporsleepingdisorders,eatingdisordersandotherchronicormildillnesses.Othersincludelowmotivation,lowwork-lifebalance,lowoverallqualityofworklife,absenteeism,lowmorale,lowproductivity,unsounddecisions,intentiontogetabetterjob,occupationalburnout,alienation,increasedsubstanceabuse,sabotageorsolitude.Psychologicalproblemsincludeanxiety,irritabilityorshorttemper,psychologicaldistress,passive-aggressivebehaviors,lossofself-confidence,lossofself-esteem,feelingsoffatigueandfutility,impulsivebehavior,lossofcontactwithreality,jobandlifedissatisfaction,andemotionalfatigue(Spector,2002).Moretroublingstill,theconsequencesofunmitigatednegativeoccupationalstressontheindividualextendtoalltypesofsectorsandindustriesamongbothwhite-andblue-collarworkers(Chaudry,2012).Whenoccupationalstressisnotkeptincheck,itmaybecomechronicandleadtosignssuchastraumaorevendepression.Apersonmayalsochangetheirbeliefsorviewsregardingaparticularaspectoflifebecauseoftheiractiveself-examinationoftenwithoutprofessionalhelps.Otheradverseeffectsincludeheartattack,cancer,violence,suicideorevenparalysis(ManonMireilleandBarling,2004).InastudythatwasconductedintheUS(Smithetal.,1992),itwasfoundthatelectronicmonitoringofemployeesintheworkplaceledtoincreaseworkplacestressandthusmanyeitherexperiencedhighboredomlevels,anxiety,depression,healthcomplaints,psychologicaltension,anger,andfatigue.Theresearchersalsofoundthatthesecompanieshadhighemployeeturnoverbecauseofthismonitoring(Smithetal.,1992).2.6ConsequencestofamilyTheindividualsfamilyalsoexperiencesundesirableconsequencesbecauseofoccupationalstress.Consequently,ofoccupationalstress,theindividualmayalsocarrysomeofthestresstotheirhomethuscausingstresstotheotherfamilymembers.Thepersonmayalsofailtoprovideforthefamilybecauseoflosingtheirjoborspendingtoomuchmoneyonsubstanceabuseortreatment.Therearealsootheradverseeffectstothefamily.Theseincludedealingwithsicknessorevendeathoftheindividual(WindleandDumenci,1997).Incertainsituations,occupationalstressmayalsobreakmarriagesandfamiliesbecauseofthefamilynotbeingabletocopewiththeindividualsdysfunctionalresponses.Thecouplemayalsobeadverselyaffectedintheirsexlifebecauseofstress.Occupationalstressalsoincreasesdomesticpressuressuchasfinancialworriesandchildcareresponsibilitiesthusaffectingthequalityoflifeoutsidetheirwork(Suraj-Narayan,2005).Othereffectsincludetakingworkhome,whichreducestheamountoftimespentwithfamilymembers,jobrelocationsthatmaysplitfamiliesandalackofleisureactivities(Suraj-Narayan,2005).2.7ConsequencestotheorganizationAttheorganizationallevel,therearealsoconsequencesofoccupationalstressthatarefelt.Thesearemajorlydividedintotwosubgroups,whichareorganizationalsymptomsandcosts.Organizationalsymptomsincludediscontentandlowmoralethatmayalsospreadtoothermembersoftheworkforce,lowproductivity,poorqualityofservicetocustomersorclientsthatmayleadtolossofcustomers,badpublicityespeciallywhenanindividualsufferschroniceffectsofworkplacestress,highaccidentratesthatleadtohugeinsurancecompensations,prematureretirement,highstaffturnover,poorinternalcommunication,increasedinternalconflict,diminishedcooperationofstaffmembersoradysfunctionalworkplaceclimate(HuffmanandCohen,2004).Indeed,theresearchtodatesuggeststhatasmuchas50percentofallworkplaceabsencesattributableinsomefashiontooccupationalstress(Akpochafe,2012).Organizationalcostsincludereducedperformanceorproductivityofworkersthatleadstodecreasedaddedvaluetotheproductorservicethusdiminishingclientsatisfaction,highcostsasaresultofincreasedemployeeturnover,increasedstaffretrainingandtrainingcosts,increasedinsurancepremiumsasaresultoffrequentinsuranceclaimsandpayouts,increasedhealth-carecostsandsickpaytoemployees,increaseddisabilitypaymentsasaresultofworkplaceaccidents,increasedcostofrepairingdamagedequipment,andbadpublicitywhichalsodiminishesrevenuesgreatly(BjeanandSultan-Taeb,2005).Becauseoccupationalstresshavebeenswhontohaveadirectimpactonemployeeperformance,itisnotsurprisingthatthereisalsoacorrespondingdeclineintheoverallproductivitylevelofaffectedorganizations.Suchdeclinesinoverallproductivityhaveaconcomitanteffectoncompaniesprofitabilityandcanevenresultinanincreasinglynegativeperceptionofacompany(Sharma,2015).Consequently,theadverseeffectsofoccupationalstressultimatelycombinetoadverselyaffectemployeerelationsaswellasorganizationalperformanceandprofitability(Sharma,2015).AccordingtoastudyconductedbyDaniels(2004),occupationalstresshasbeenfoundtocosttheUKeconomyandestimated$4billioneveryyear(BrunandMilczarek,2007).Thesecostsaremajorlyfrominsuranceclaimsrelatedtooccupationalstress.Withsuchhugepayouts,theresearchersfoundthatthereisreasontoconcentrateonthesocioculturalvariationintheirfindings.Theyalsofoundthatthishugesumwasalsocomingfromlossofcustomers,highemployeeturnoverandnegativepublicitybecauseofoccupationalstress.IntheEuropeanUnionasawhole,itisestimatedthatroughly20millionEurosislosteachyearasaresultofwork-relatedstress(EuropeanCommission,2002,Milczareketal.,2009).2.8PositiveeffectsofworkplacestressThoughoccupationalstressisoftenassociatedwithnegativeeffects,therearecertainpositiveeffectsthatcomefromworkplacestress.However,expertsputacaveatonpositivityofstressstatingthatitonlyhappenswhenstressisbalancedandmoderated.Thisiswhattheycommonlyrefertoasgoodstress(Shigemietal.,2000).Forexample,SauderandMurphy(2016)reportthattherearesomemisperceptionsconcerningstressanditseffectsofhumansthatindicatethatallsuchstressisharmful.Agrowingbodyofevidence,however,confirmsthatsomelevelofstressisanessentialpartofthehumanconditionandpeopletendtorespondfavorablytosometypesofstress.AccordingtoSauderandMurphy(2016,p.6),Challengeenergizesuspsychologicallyandphysically,anditmotivatesustolearnnewskillsandmasterourjobs.Notwithstandingthepotentialdeleteriouseffectsofunmitigatedandrelentlessworkplacestress,itisclearthatwithoutsomelevelsofstress,employeeswouldbecomecomplacentwithcorrespondingdeclinesintheirjobsatisfactionandmoralelevelsjustastoomuchworkplacestresscancausetheseunwantedoutcomes.Insum,SauderandMurphy(2016,p.7)concludethat,Theimportanceofchallengeinourworklivesisprobablywhatpeoplearereferringtowhentheysayalittlebitofstressisgoodforyou.Oneofthemostsignificantoutcomesofgoodstressisincreasedcreativity.Consequently,ofanindividualexperiencingworkplacestressleadingtolonelinessorsolitude,thepersonmayhaveachancetobroadentheirmindandembracenewideasthusleadingthemtoincreasetheircreativityconsiderably.Tosomeindividuals,stressisalsoamotivatingfactor.Whentheseindividualsarestressedout,theyfindagoodwaytohandleitbychannelingtheiremotionalandphysicalresponsestowardsworkingharderorrectifyinganywrongstheyhaddoneforexampleprocrastination(Smith,2003).Stressisalsorecognizedasacognitiveenhancer.Workplacestressimprovessomeaspectsofintelligencebygivingthemindaboostassociatedwithincreasedfocusing.Whenapersonisstressed,theymaybeabletorecallormemorizethingsbetterandtheirconcentrationlevelsmayalso;increase.Italsoenhancesthephysicalperformanceandenduranceofanindividual.Whenthepersonisabletochanneltheirstresstowardsphysicalactivities,itleadstoreleaseofadrenaline.Thiscausestheheartbeatandmetabolismtoincrease.However,thesereturntonormallevelsafewminutesaftertheactivity.Therefore,thepersonwillhaveincreasedreflexesandreactionsthatbuildendurance,preventandfightfatigueandtiredness.esearchershavealsoshownthatstresshelpstoimproveimmuneresponses.InastudyreportpresentedbyStrikeretal.(1999),itwasfoundthatstresshelpstoincreaseproductionofthestresshormone,cortisol,whichincreasesthebodysimmunity.Thisalsohassomenegativeaspectsincecortisoloverloadingmayleadtoabdominalobesity,whichincreasestheriskofcardiovascularandcerebrovasculardiseaseanddiabetes.Stressmayalsohelpanindividualtosolvetheirproblems.Consequently,ofstress,theindividualmaybeabletolookatsomethingdifferentlywhichallowsthemtosolveissuesbetweenthem.Moderateanxietyhasbeenshowntohelppeopleindecisionmakingbyspurringthemtotherightdirection.2.9CausesofworkplacestressGivenitsenormousimpactonorganizationalperformanceandproductivity,itisnotsurprisingthatagrowingbodyofscholarshiphasbeendevotedtothecausesofworkplacestressinrecentyears.StudiesbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationhaveidentifiedthemaincausesofstressintheUnitedStatesasshowninTable1below.Table1CurrentleadingcausesofstressintheUnitedStatesCauseFactors1JobPressureCo-WorkerTension,Bosses,WorkOverload2MoneyLossofJob,educedetirement,MedicalExpenses3HealthHealthCrisis,TerminalorChronicIllness4elationshipsDivorce,DeathofSpouse,ArgumentswithFriends,Loneliness5PoorNutritionInadequateNutrition,Caffeine,ProcessedFoods,efinedSugars6MediaOverloadTelevision,adio,Internet,E-Mail,SocialNetworking7SleepDeprivationInabilitytoreleaseadrenalineandotherstresshormonesSource:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),2014StressStatisticsathttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthebreakdownoftheleadingcausesofstressintheUnitedStatestodayshowninTable1above,job-relatedstressorssuchaspoorrelationshipswithcoworkersandsuperiorsaswellasinordinatelyheavyworkloadsformtheprimarycauseofstresstoday.Likewise,thesecond-leadingcauseofstressintheUnitedStatesisalsojobrelated,withthelossofemploymentorbenefitsrepresentingthesecond-leadingcauseofstressinthecountry.Moreover,thenumbersofAmericansthatareexperiencedthesetypesofjob-relatedstressorsisstaggeringasshowninTable2below.Table2U.S.stressstatisticsCategoryDataPercentofpeoplewhoregularlyexperiencephysicalsymptomscausedbystress77%egularlyexperiencepsychologicalsymptomscausedbystress73%Feeltheyarelivingwithextremestress33%Feeltheirstresshasincreasedoverthepastfiveyears48%Citedmoneyandworkastheleadingcauseoftheirstress76%eportedlyingawakeatnightduetostress48%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),2014StressStatisticsathttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthedatapresentedinTable2above,morethanthree-quarters(77%)ofAmericanworkersreportexperiencingstress-relatedphysicalsymptomsandnearlyasmany(73%)reportregularlyexperiencingjob-relatedpsychologicalsymptoms.Inaddition,one-thirdofAmericanworkersreportfeelingasiftheyarelivingwithextremestressandnearlyhalf(48%)reportfeelingasiftheirlevelofstresshasintensifiedoverthepast5years.Giventhesedisturbingtrends,itisnotsurprisingthatmanyAmericanworkersalsoreportsufferingfromvariousjob-relatedstressorsassetforthinTable3below.Table3StressimpactstatisticsCategoryDataPercentwhosaystresshasanegativeimpactontheirpersonalandprofessionallife48%Employedadultswhosaytheyhavedifficultymanagingworkandfamilyresponsibilities.31%Percentwhocitedjobsinterferingwiththeirfamilyorpersonaltimeasasignificantsourceofstress.35%Percentwhosaidstresshascausedthemtofightwithpeopleclosetothem54%eportedbeingalienatedfromafriendorfamilymemberbecauseofstress26%Annualcoststoemployersinstressrelatedhealthcareandmissedwork.$300billionPercentwhosaytheyarealwaysoroftenunderstressatwork30%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),2014StressStatisticsathttps://www.stress.org/Whilesometypesofjob-relatedstressmaybeconducivetohigherlevelsofcreativityandserveasamotivationalfactor,thedatapresentedinTable3abovemakesitclearthatmanyAmericanworkerssufferfromoccupationalstress.Infact,nearlyhalf(48%)reportthatstresshashadanegativeeffectontheirpersonalandprofessionallives,andmorethanhalf(54%)reportthatstressthatcausedthemproblemswiththeirinterpersonalrelationships.Inaddition,almostone-third(30%)reportfeelingthattheyarefrequentlyoralwaysunderstressattheirjobs,andmorethanone-third(35%)reportthattheirjobshaveinterferedwiththeirfamilyorpersonalaffairsresultinginelevatedstresslevels.Beyondthehumantollexactedbyjob-relatedstress,theeconomicimpactisalsoenormous,standingatabout$300billionayearinhealthcarecostsandmissedwork.esearchbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationhasalsoidentifiedanumberofphysicalsymptomsthatarecausedbyoccupationalstressthatarecongruentwiththemostfrequentlycitedsymptomsintherelevantliteratureassetforthinTable4below.Table4PercentageofAmericanworkerscitingjob-relatedstress:physicalsymptomsCategoryDataFatigue51%Headache44%Upsetstomach34%Muscletension30%Changeinappetite23%Teethgrinding17%Changeinsexdrive15%Feelingdizzy13%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),2014StressStatisticsathttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthedatapresentedinTable4above,morethanhalf(51%)ofAmericanworkersreportexperiencingfatigueasaresultofjob-relatedstress,andnearlyasmany(44%)reportsufferingfromheadaches.Morethanone-thirdofAmericanworkers(34%)alsoreportexperiencingupsetstomachs,muscletension(30%)andalmostone-quarter(23%)reportchangesintheirappetitesduetojob-relatedstress.SmallerpercentagesofAmericanworkersalsoreportedsufferingfrombruxism(e.g.,teethgrinding),changesintheirlibidos,orfeelingdizzy.Inaddition,manyAmericanworkersalsoreportexperiencingawidearrayofpsychologicalsymptomsduetojob-relatedstressassetforthinTable5below.Table5Americanworkerscitingjob-relatedstress:psychologicalsymptomsCategoryDataIrritabilityoranger50%Feelingnervous45%Lackofenergy45%Feelingasthoughyoucouldcry35%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),2014StressStatisticsathttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthedatapresentedinTable5above,fullyhalfofAmericanworkersreportsufferingfromirritabilityorangerduetojob-relatedstressand45%eachreportfeelingnervousorexperiencingalackofenergy.Inaddition,morethanone-third(35%)reportingfeelingastheycouldcryatanytimeduetojob-relatedstress.Theserecentstatisticsunderscorethefactthatgettingupandgoingtoworkeachdaycanbeadeath-defyingexperienceformanyifnotmostAmericanstoday.Althoughthereisageneralconsensusamongresearchersthattheoverarchingcausesofworkplacestressincludevariousworkplaceconditionsandthemannerinwhichworkersinteractwiththeseconditions(SauterandMurphy,2016).Thereremainssomedebateamongresearchers,however,concerningthepreciseroleplayedbyindividualfactorssuchaspersonality,copingskillsandresilienceontheeffectsofworkplacestress(SauterandMurphy,2016).EmployeeresiliencetoworkplacestressisdefinedbyNilakantandWalker(2014,p.80),asbeingthemaintenanceofpositiveadjustmentunderchallengingconditionssuchthattheorganizationemergesfromthoseconditionsstrengthenedandmoreresourceful.Whileadditionalresearchisneededconcerningtheseindividualfactorsandtheirroleinemployeeresponsestoworkplacestress,itisreasonabletopositthatcertaintypesofworkingconditionsarethesourceofstressformostindividuals(SauterandMurphy,2016).ThisassertioniscongruentwiththeguidanceprovidedbytheU.S.NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthwhichhasrecognizedthatwhileviewsdifferontheimportanceofworkercharacteristicsversusworkingconditionsastheprimarycauseofjobstress,theoverarchingthemethatemergesfromtheresearchtodateconcerningoccupationalstressisthatcertainworkingconditions,suchasexcessiveworkloadsandconflictingexpectations,arestressfulandnegativelyaffectmostpeople(ascitedinSewell,2009p.37).Whatisknownforcertainatpresentisthattherearemanycausesofstressrangingfromworkdemand,supervisorystyle,organizationalcultureandsupport,workhazards,generalworkenvironment,roleconflict,workplacechanges,individualfactors,jobinvolvement,workflexibility,workplaceincidents,etc.SixmajorcausesofworkplacestresshavebeenidentifiedbytheHealthandSafetyExecutiveoftheUK(HealthandSafetyExecutive,2013)asfollows:2.9.1Unreasonabledemands:Thiscauseincludesissuessuchasworkload,workpatternsandtheworkenvironment;2.9.2Excessivecontrol:Howmuchsaythepersonhasinthewaytheydotheirwork;2.9.3Lackofsupport:Thisincludestheencouragement,sponsorshipandresourcesprovidedbytheorganization,linemanagementandcolleagues;2.9.4Lackofproperworkplacerelationships:Thisincludespromotingpositiveworkingtoavoidconflictanddealingwithunacceptablebehavior;2.9.5.Lackofunderstandingofroleofjobexpectation:Whetherpeopleunderstandtheirrolewithintheorganizationandwhethertheorganizationensuresthattheydonothaveconflictingroles;and,2.9.6Unmanagedworkplacechanges:Howorganizationalchange(largeorsmall)ismanagedandcommunicatedintheorganization(Workplacestressmanagementstandards,2017,p.2).ThesecausesofworkplacestressarealsosimilartothoseidentifiedbytheOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministrationintheUS(OccupationalSafety&HealthAdministration,1995)andarediscussedfurtherbelow.2.10UnreasonabledemandsWorkplacedemandsincludeissuesrelatingtoworkload,workenvironmentandpatterns.Occupationalstressmayoccurwhentheemployeesareunabletocopewiththeirworkplacedemands.Consequently,ofthis,thepersonmayfeelthattheyareunabletomatchtheskillsandabilities.Thereforetheemployeesdevelopstressasawayofcompensatingfortheirinabilitytomeettheworkplacedemands(Tarafdaretal.,2007).ThiscauseofworkplacestressisconsistentwiththedefinitionprovidedbySharma(2015)whichstatesthatoccupationalstresscanbedefinedastheadversepsychologicalandphysicalreactionsthatoccurinanindividualasaresultoftheirbeingunabletocopewiththedemandsbeingmadeonthem(p.53).2.11ExcessivecontrolControlappliedbyemployersandsupervisorsisalsoacontributingfactortoworkplacestress.Whenemployeesareexcessivelymonitoredintheworkplace,theydevelopboredom,dislike,lowmotivationandlowmorale,whichleadtoworkplacestress.Consequently,ofthisexcessivecontrol,theemployeesareunabletousetheirskills,creativityandinitiativetowardsthesuccessoftheorganization.Theemployeesalsobecomediscouragedtodevelopnewskillssincetheyaredemotivatedandunwillingtotakenewchallengesintheworkplace.AstudybyKirk-BrownandWallace(2009)foundthattheextenttowhichemployeesfeeltheylackpersonalday-to-daycontrolovertheirjobresponsibilitieswilllikelybetheextenttowhichtheseemployeesareatgreaterriskofdevelopingoccupationalstress.Forinstance,Kirk-BrownandWallace(2009,p.30)advisethat,Perceptionsofpersonalcontrolalleviatethenegativeimpactofjobdemands.Controlreferstotheworker\\\'sabilitytoreframeeventsorsituationsaslessthreatening.2.12LackofsupportWhenemployeeslackencouragement,resourcesandsponsorshipfromtheorganization,supervisorsandcolleagues,theydevelopstress.Thisisbecausetheyareunabletoachievetheperformancemeasuresattachedtotheirjobsandtheyexperiencechallengesandotherissuesthattheyareunabletoresolve.Thereforetheemployeesarediscouragedtoputtheirbesteffortstowardsthesuccessofthecompanyororganization(Verbeeketal.,2004).2.13LackofproperworkplacerelationshipsWorkplacerelationshipscreateconflictthatemployeesareunabletoresolve.Theseincludebullying,harassmentandotherundesirablebehaviors.Whentheorganizationlackspoliciesandprocedurestopreventorresolvesuchunacceptablebehavior,theyseemoutofcontrolandemployeesdevelopstressbecauseofthis.2.14LackofunderstandingofroleofjobexpectationWhenemployeesdonotunderstandtheirrolewithinanorganizationorwhentheyarenotappreciatedorvaluedwithinanorganization,theydevelopinternalconflictssincetheydonotunderstandtheirimportanceandjobexpectations.Employeesthusdonotmakeeffortstoensuretheirworkisdonetothebestoftheirabilityandtheybecomedemoralizedanddemotivatedtowork.2.15Unmanagedworkplacechangesesistancetochangeisoneofthemajorcausesofworkplacestress.Thisisespeciallysowhenthechangeinvolveslargeaspectsoftheorganizationsuchasanoverhaulofmanagementorstandardoperatingprocedures.Suchchangesmaybeoverwhelmingfortheemployeesandwhenchangemanagementisnotdone,theemployeeswillnotbeawareofthereasonforthechangeandthuswillresistitleadingtoworkplacestressastheyfeeluncomfortablewiththenewstatusquo(Vahteraetal.,1999).2.16FactorsthataffectjobperformancefromstressAnunfortunateconcomitantofvirtuallyanytypeofemploymentissomelevelofstress.Insomecases,thestressthatemployeesroutinelyexperienceismotivationalandcontributestogreaterlevelsofcreativity,butinfartoomanycasesjob-relatedstressislikeasilentkiller.Infact,leftunabated,job-relatedstresscanhaveaprofoundlyadverseeffectonjobperformance.Inthisregard,Lynott(2011,p.26)emphasizesthat,Stressisaconstantpresenceintheworkplace,andnevermoresothanindifficulteconomictimessuchasthese.Occasionallyiteruptsintoheadline-makinginstancesofdeadlyviolence.Moreoften,however,stresssimmersjustbeneaththesurface,silentlyeatingawayatmorale[and]productivity.Insum,itisapparentthattotheextentthatworkersarestressedoutduetojob-relatedfactorswilllikelybetheextenttowhichtheirjobperformanceisaffected,andtherehasalsobeenagrowingbodyofscholarshipdevotedtotheseissuesinrecentyears.Forinstance,inastudyconductedbyAbuAl-ub(2004),itwasshownthatthereisaU-shapedorcurvilinearrelationshipbetweenworkplacestressandjobperformance.Thestudyshowedthatworkerswhohadmoderatelevelsofoccupationalstressperformedworseintheirjobscomparedtothosewhohaveextremelyloworhighlevelsofworkplacestress.Inadifferentbutsimilarstudy,itwasshownthattheremightbefourdifferentrelationshipsbetweenworkplacestressandjobperformance.ThesearecurvilinearorU-shaped,negativelinear,positivelinearandnorelationship(Jamal,1984).Thesetwostudiescitedaboveidentifiedvariousfactorsthatemanatefromstressanddirectlyaffecttheemployeesjobperformance.Oneofthemajorfactorswaslackofresources.Whentheemployeelacksthenecessitiestoconducttheirjob,theyareunabletoperformintheirroles.Thesecondfactorwasworkoverload,whichmadetheworkerstobeoverwhelmedandlackdirectionwiththeirwork.Thirdwaslackofcommunicationbetweentheemployeesandsupervisors.Thismeantthattheemployeeslackeddirectionandwereunabletoconducttheirday-to-dayactivities.Italsocreatedadisconnectinpassingofdutiesthusmakingsupervisorstoberecognizedascommandersratherthanco-workers.Anotherstudyfoundthatemployeeswhowereunderstresswere50%morelikelytoerrintheirworkwhileanotherstudyshowedthatthiscouldbeashighas70%dependingonthelevelofstress.DatafromtheBureauofLaborStatisticsalsoshowsthatforeverydaythataworkerundergoesstresstheymayendupbeingoutoftheworkplaceforroughly20days.Toemployers,thisrepresentsahugereductioninjobperformance.Otherstudiesconductedintheearly50s(Lazarusetal.,1952)andlate60s(Wilkinson,1969)showthatoccupationalstressaffectstracking,verbalreasoning,signaldetectionandsentenceformationofemployees.Thismayalsoadverselyaffecttheclient-employeerelationsthusreducingthequalityofserviceorproductgiventotheemployer.Moreresearch(Cohen,1980,GlassandSinger,1972)hassupportedthesestatementsbyaddingthatstresscreatesperpetualdistractionsthatpreventtolerance,increasefrustration,decreaseclericalaccuracyandincreaseworkloadeitherperpetuallyoreventuallythroughprocrastination.Allthesefactorsleadtopoorjobperformance.AccordingtoMichie(2002),individualsdifferintheirstressriskandvulnerabilitytoadverseeffectsofstress.Individuals,theymaytendtoreactemotionallytosituations,whichresultsinthemdisconnectingwiththeworkplacethusreducingtheirjobperformance.Othersmayexperiencefatigueortirednessthatpreventsthemfromperformingtheirtasks.InanotherstudybyMichailidisandAsimenos(2002),itwasfoundthatoccupationalstressnegativelyimpactsthedegreeofsatisfactionoftheemployeewiththeirownachievement.Thisalsonegativelyaffectspersonalgrowth,skillutilizationandparticipationindecision-makingthusreducingjobperformance.2.17ManagementofstressStressmanagementhasbeenthesubjectofmanyworkplacechangesinordertocontrolthelevelsofstresstoimproveworkperformance.Itisinthebestinterestsoforganizationsofallsizesandtypestomanageworkplacestresstothemaximumextentpossibleduetothedocumentedadverseimpactthatunmitigatedstresscanhaveonemployeejobsatisfactionandphysicalwell-being(andallandBuys,2013).Likewise,themanagementofworkplacestressisalsoimportantduetotheincreasedworkerscompensationclaimsthatareassociatedwithelevatedlevelsofstress(andallandBuys,2013).Severaltechniqueshavebeenappliedtoimprovethegeneralwell-beingofemployeeswithvaryinglevelsofeffectiveness.Inaddition,fewofthesemethodshavereceivedattentionfromresearchersthereforetheamountandqualityofevidenceonthevarioustechniquesvariesgreatly.Managementofstressbuildsonthemodelsofstress,especiallythedemand-control-supportmodelthatstatesthatforstresstobemanagedeffectively,itisimportantfortheretobearewardandeffortstopromotebalance.Inadditiontothis,theorganizationmusthavesufficientsystemstoensureorganizationaljusticebyensuringmanagementofstressandanyprogramsadoptedareundertakenbyallemployeesincludingtheseniormanagement(JohnsonandHall,1990,KarasekandTheorell,1990).esearchersagreethattherearetwomajormodelsofworkplacestressmanagement.Thesearethetransactionalmodelandhealthrealizationorinnatehealthmodel.2.18TransactionalmodelThetransactionalmodelsuggeststhatstressresultsfromanimbalancebetweenthedemandsofanindividualandtheresourcesavailableorwhenpressureexceedstheabilityoftheindividualtocope.ItwasdevelopedbyLazarusandFolkman(1984)whopositedthatstressmanagementisbestwhentheindividualacceptsthatstressisasaresultoftheinabilityofthepersontocope.Therefore,stressmanagementispremisedonmediatingthestressresponsetoallowtheindividualtocontrolstresslevelsandincreasetheircopingability.Accordingtothetransactionalmodel,thepersonmustalsoidentifythefactorsthataffecttheirabilitytocontrolthestressinordertoidentifytherightinterventionmethodsthateffectivelytargettheidentifiedfactors.Theauthorsofthismodelarguethatstressisatransactionbetweentheindividualandtheirenvironmentthusbyidentifyingandcontrollingthemitigatingfactors,stresscanbemanagedeffectively.Thetransactionalmodelproposestheindividualtobetaughthowtomanagetheirstressorhowtheycanadequatelydevelopcopingskillstoimprovetheirlivesandbeabletohandleallmannerofstressors.2.19HealthrealizationorinnatehealthmodelThismodelwasputforthbySedgeman(2005)andMills(1995).Theauthorsarguethatstressisnotfoundedonthepresenceofanactualstressor.Themodeldoesnotfocusontheindividualsappraisalofthestressorratherontheirthoughtprocess,whichdeterminestheirresponsetothesituation.Theauthorsofthemodelarguethatstressismanagedbyself-appraisal,whichfiltersallfactorsofinsecurityofnegativityandcreatesafeelingofwell-beingbyputtingagriponnegativeorinsecurethinking.Theindividualwillthusbeabletodisengagefromthestressorandintroducenaturalpositivefeelingsthatultimatelyreducestress.2.20OrganizationallevelmanagementMichie(2002)positsthatfortheeffectivemanagementofworkplacestress,theremustbeorganizationallevelinterventions.Theneedfororganizationlevelstressmanagementisbecausetheworkplaceitselfisthestressor.Therefore,theorganizationmustintroduceinterventionsatthestructurallevelincludinghiringmorestaff,reducingorincreasingworkschedulesappropriately,orcreatingaconduciveenvironmentoratthepsychologicallevelincludingsocialsupport,effectivesupervisionratherthaninvasivesupervisionandincreasingemployeeparticipationindecision-making.Likewise,CooperandCartwright(1999)reportthat,Physicalcharacteristicsofthejob[such]asexcessiveheatandnoisemayproducestrainamongworkersandincreasetheprobabilityofaccidents.Shiftschedule,astructuralaspectofwork,canengendersignificantlevelofphysicalandmentaldiscomfortifnotorderedcorrectly.Theemphasishereisontheorganizationbeingthesourceofstressmanagementpracticesratherthantheindividualandithasbeenshowntobeeffective(GardellandGustavsen,1980,Williamsetal.,1998).2.21DefinitionofsupervisionSupervisionisdefinedastheregulationorcontrolofbehaviorthroughlaidoutrulesorrestrictions.Accordingtovariousauthors,therearedifferentaspectsofsupervisionthatneedtobelookedatindefiningit.Theseincludetakingupofideasandpracticesthatprovidetherightenvironmenttofollowthelaidoutrulesandrestrictions,overseeingthatemployeesareprovidedwiththerighttoolsandresourcestosucceedintheirtasks,providingadviceandsupport,organizingworktasksinagreatordertomakedecisions.2.22CategoriesofsupervisorymodelsSupervisionmodelscanbecategorizedintothreecategoriesbasedontheirdefiningcharacteristics.Thesecategoriesarethepsychotherapy-basedsupervisionmodels,developmentalmodels,andintegrativemodels(SmithandWitt,1993).2.23Psychotherapy-basedsupervisionmodelsThesemodelsdwellonthenaturalextensionofthetherapyitselfandinformtheobservationandselectionofdataforsupervisors(HollowayandWolleat,1994).Oneexampleofthesemodelsisthepsychodynamicapproachtosupervisionwhichstatesthatpsychodynamicsupervisioncanbedividedintothreecategorieswhicharesupervisor-centered,employee-centeredandsupervisory-matrix-centered(Loganbilletal.,1982).Employee-centeredsupervisioncamefromSigmundFreud,whichstatesthatsupervisionfocusesontheemployeebehaviors.Inthiscase,theroleofthesupervisordependsontheemployeesbehavior.Supervisor-centeredfocusesonthesupervisorscontentandprocesstoassistemployeesinmanagementofresistance,resolvinganxietiesandotherproblems.Thesupervisory-matrix-centeredapproachmeansthatthesupervisorsroleisnotthatofanuninvolvedexpertrathertheyshouldparticipateandreflectuponemployeedutiesandbehaviors(Haynesetal.,2003).Anotherexampleofthesemodelsisthecognitive-behavioralsupervisionmodelwhichstatesthatthesupervisorsmajortaskistoteachtheemployeethetheoreticalaspectsoftheirwork(LieseandBeck,1997).Anothermodelistheperson-centeredsupervisionmodel,whichstatesthatthesupervisorshouldensurethattheemployeeshavetherighttools,skillsandresourcestoperformtheirtasks.Thereforethesupervisorisacollaboratorinthesuccessoftheindividualbyprovidinganenvironmenttoengagetheemployeetowardssuccess(Lambers,2000).2.24DevelopmentalmodelsDevelopmentalmodelsdefineprogressivestagesofdevelopmentoftheemployeefromanovicetoanexpertwitheachstageconsistingofdiscreteskillsandcharacteristics.Accordingtothesemodels,thesupervisortakesadevelopmentalapproachtosupervisionbyaccuratelyidentifyingthecurrentstageoftheemployeeandfacilitatingtheirprogressiontothenextstage(ZimmermanandSchunk,2003).OneofthemostpopulardevelopmentalmodelsistheintegrateddevelopmentmodeldevelopedbyStoltenberg(1981)andStoltenbergandDelworth(1987).Themodeldescribesthreelevelsofemployeedevelopment.Thefirstisentry-levelwheretheyarefullofanxietyandfearofevaluation.Themid-leveliswheretheemployeesexperiencefluctuatinglevelsofconfidenceandmotivationwhilethethirdlevelisthatofsecurityandstablelevelsofmotivation.AnothermodelisonnestadandSkovholtsmodelwhichstatesthatemployeesdevelopinsixphases(onnestadandSkovholt,2003).Thefirstthreearebasedontheintegrateddevelopmentmodelwhiletheotherthreearethenoviceprofessional,experiencedprofessionalandseniorprofessionalphases,whichdefinetherelativeexperiencegainedbyemployeeintheircareer.2.25IntegrativemodelsIntegrativesupervisionmodelsrelyonseveraltheoriesandtechniques(Haynesetal.,2003).AgoodexampleofthesemodelsisBernardsdiscriminationmodeldevelopedbyBernard(1979)andrevisedbyBernardandGoodyear(2009).Thismodelstatesthattherearesixfociofsupervision.Thefirstthreearefoci,whichareintervention,conceptualizationandpersonalizationwhilethelastthreeareroles,whichareteacher,counselorandconsultant.Accordingtothemodel,thesupervisorrespondsusingoneoftheninewaysresultingfromthethreerolesxthethreefoci.Anothermodelisthesystemsapproachmodel(Holloway,1995)whicharguesthatthesupervisorandemployeehaveamutuallyinvolvingrelationshipwithsevendimensions.Thesearesupervisionfunctions,supervisiontasks,employee,trainee,supervisor,andtheinstitution(MimuraandGriffiths,2003).2.26SupervisorytasksAsupervisoryhasdifferenttaskstoconductdependingontheexactworkplacesetting.However,ingeneral,theybeginbyfamiliarizingthemselveswiththecurrentjobdescriptionsoftheemployees.Asupervisorcannotbeabletoconductanytaskwithoutbeingabletounderstandtherequirementsofeachoftheemployeespositions.Minoetal.(1999)arguesthattherearefourmajorsupervisorytasks.Thesearecoaching,mentoring,advocatingfortheorganizationandadvocatingfortheemployee.2.27CoachingAsacoach,thesupervisorisinvolvedinworkingwiththeemployeestoestablishgoals,plansandtimelinesforaccomplishmentoftasks.Thesupervisorthusprovidesongoingsupportandguidancefortheemployeestocompletetheirtaskswithease.Thesupervisorhelpstodemystifyjobtasks,whichmaymakeanemployee,feelthattheyareunabletomeetthegoalsofthepositiontheyarein.Ascoaches,supervisorsalsotakeintoconsiderationotheraspectsofemployeelifesuchastraining,utilizationofpersonalstrengthsandweaknesses.Themainthingisforthesupervisortoprovideeffectivesupervisionthatenablesemployeesmakebetterdecisionsandperformtheirtasksbetter.2.28MentoringAsamentor,asupervisorunderstandsthatanemployeeneedstohaveagoodwork-lifebalanceandtriestoupholdthat.Thesupervisorthusuniquelyprovidesadvicetoemployeesinvariousaspectsrelatingtotheirjobandlifeingeneral.Thesupervisormakestheemployeelookathimorherasamodelforpersonaldevelopmentanddirection.Thisaffirmstheage-oldphraseofleadingbyexample.2.29AdvocatingfortheorganizationAsupervisoristheorganizationschiefadvocatetotheemployees.Thesupervisorensuresthatemployeesconducttheirtaskswithutmostzealtoensurethattheymeettheirjobperformancestandardsandgoals.Thesupervisoralsoensurescompliancewithorganizationalpoliciesandprogramsthatcomefromthemanagement.Thoughemployeesmaybeconfusedorfrustratedbyactionsbyasupervisor,thereisneedtocheckemployeestoensuretheymeettheirexpectations.Thesupervisormustthusbestrictbuttactful.2.30AdvocatingforemployeesSupervisorsactasintermediariesbetweentheorganizationandtheemployees.Thusastheyadvocatefortheorganization,theyalsoneedtoadvocateforemployees.Employeerequeststothemanagementneedtobetakenintoconsideration.Thesupervisoralsoensuresfairnessandjusticeintheworkplaceinaspectssuchaspromotion.Thesupervisoralsoexplainssituationsfacingemployeestothemanagementtoensurethattheyarenotbeingtreatedunfairlyoragainsttheirwill(Manningetal.,1996).2.31OtherrolesApartfromthesefourmajorroles,supervisorsalsoplayotherrolesintheorganization.Oneisthattheyresolveemployeeconflictsandcomplaints.Here,thesupervisorhelpsemployeestoaddressandresolveanyworkplaceconcernstheymayhave.Thisincludesmediatingbetweenemployeesorbetweentheemployeeandthemanagement.Anotherroleistoapproverecordsandrequestsbystaffmembers.Supervisorsapproveallworkrelatedaspectsforemployeessuchasattendanceortimeoffrequests.2.32FrequencyofsupervisionForsupervisiontobeeffective,itneedstobeasregularaspossiblewithoutinvadingtheprivacyofemployees.Invasionofprivacyinvolvestoomuchclosesupervisionorregularmonitoringofemployeeemails,textsorotheraspects.Thefrequencyofsupervisionvariesfromoneorganizationtoanotherwithmostdeemingthatitdependsmajorlyontheemployeesexperience.Newemployeesneedtobesupervisedmoreoftencomparedtomoreexperiencedones.Inaddition,juniorlevelemployeesneedtobesupervisedmoreoftenthanmanagersorotherseniorlevelemployees(Leighetal.,1999).2.33ConfidentialityandsupervisionConfidentialityisakeyissueinemployeesupervision.Supervisorsandemployeesneedtodefineaclearandmutualunderstandingoftheboundariesofconfidentialityinrespecttosupervisorytasks.Thiswillenableasafeandeffectiveworkingrelationshiptobedevelopedbetweenthesupervisorandtheemployee.Confidentialityinvolvesthesupervisorshowingtheemployeethattheymeanwhattheyaresayingandthattheyarewillingtofollowthroughonanyagreementstheymakewiththeemployee.Thesupervisormustalsodemonstratethattheyarenon-judgmentalandthatnothingcanmakethembreaktheconfidentialityagreement.Ontheotherhand,theemployeegainsthesupervisorstrustbybeingashonestandopenaspossibletothesupervisorinwork-relatedtasks.Insodoing,apositiveworkingrelationshipwillbebuiltfoundedontrustandthiswillfosteranewthinkingprocessanddevelopmentoflearning(Grzywaczetal.,2002).Intheday-to-dayrunningofsupervisorytasks,thesupervisormayneedtoinvolveotherindividuals.Whenthisisrequired,thesupervisorneedstoprotectandhonortheconfidentialityagreementwiththeemployee.Thisisdonebyrequestingtheemployeetoallowthemtoincludeanotherindividualandexplainingtotheemployeewhyitmaybenecessarytoinvolveanotherindividual.Whenconsentisgivenbytheemployeetoinvolveothers,thesupervisorshouldonlydivulgetheminimuminformationrequiredbytheotherindividualthatallowsthemtoprovidetheirsupportinthedevelopingsituation.2.34AdvantagesofsupervisorysupportManyorganizationsemphasizetheimportantofsupervisorysupportforemployeesbecauseofitsadvantages.Amongthelargestadvantagesisitspositiveeffectonworkermoraleandjobsatisfaction.Supportivesupervisionhelpstoreduceoccupationalstress,whichhelpsemployeestohandletheiropportunitiesthusreducingtheinfluenceofotherfactorsthataffectjobperformanceorleadtolessthansatisfactoryproductsorservicestoclientsorcustomers.AccordingtoKadushin(1992),thesupportivesupervisionhelpstopreventpotentiallystressfulsituationsthusremovesemployeesfromstressandreducesstressontheworker.Thishelpsemployeestoadjusttotheworkenvironmentandincreasesmoraleandjobsatisfaction.Supportivesupervisionalsoenhancescommunicationintheworkplaceandcreatesasenseofcohesiveness.Thisisbecausetheemployeesfeelthesupervisoristheretohelpratherthandiscourageorcriticize.Therefore,workerswillbeabletotakeresponsibilityfortheirownactionsandbewillingtojustifythem.Thisgreatlyimprovesorganizationalcommunication.Anotheradvantageofsupportivesupervisionisthatitallowsforsharingofideasandresourcesintheworkplace.Sincetheemployeesseethesupervisorasmoreofacollaboratorthanfoe,theyareencouragedtogivetheirideastowardsthesuccessofthecompanyororganization.Supportivesupervisionalsohelpstoensurethatthecompanystickswithintheoutlinedpoliciesandprocedures.Consequently,offosteringcommunicationbetweenmembersofstaffandsupervisors,theemployeeswillbemorelikelytofollowcompanypoliciesandproceduressincetheyareabletorelatecloselytothem.Supportivesupervisionalsohasotheradvantagessuchasfosteringprofessionalandpersonaldevelopmentthatcomesfrommotivationofemployees,reducedoccupationalburnoutbecauseofemployeeshavingflexibleworkschedules,qualityserviceandproductstoclientsandconsumers,aswellasimprovingorganizationalculturesincestafffeeltheyaresupported.Supportivesupervisioncontributedmajorlytoensuringorganizationsprovideshighqualityservicesandproductsaswellasensuringconsistentoutcomesbyemployees.2.35EffectivesupervisionEffectivesupervisionisacriticalaspectforanyorganizationlookingforwardtodeveloppositiveoutcomesforitsemployees.Asaresult,organizationsthereforeneedtomakeapositiveandunambiguouscommitmenttowardshavingastrongsupervisionculturefortheiremployees.Thiscanbeachievedthroughdevelopingaclearpolicyonsupervisionaswellasencouragingpracticethatsupportsthispolicy.Anotherwayofachievingthisistohaveeffectivetrainingforitssupervisorsandhavingstrongleadsthroughtheseniormanagementteam.Anotherimportantwayofachievingeffectivesupervisionistoensurerealisticperformanceobjectivesaresetwhicharemonitoredregularlytocheckcompliance.Effectivesupervisionhelpsgreatlytoreduceworkplacestress.Thisisbecauseamongitsmajoradvantagesisthatithelpsineffectiveworkloadmanagement.Byhavingclearandrealisticperformanceobjectives,theorganizationisabletoknowwhatisexpectedfromeachemployeeandthusplanfortheachievementoftheseobjectivesthrougheffectivemanagementofeachemployeesworkload.Further,effectivesupervisioncontributestothewell-beingofemployeesbyreducingworkplacestresslevelswhicharepositivelycorrelatedwithincreasedemployeeproductivityandnegativelycorrelatedwithunplannedemployeeturnover,reducedproductivityandemployeewell-being(eubenandChiba,2017).Inadditiontotheforegoing,effectivesupervisionalsohelpstoensuresufficientplanningofemployeetasksaswellasotherimportantconsiderationsfortheorganization.Byembeddingeffectivesupervisiontoorganizationalculture,theorganizationisabletoensureitcompetentlymonitorsemployeeperformanceandthusplansaheadbasedonthis.2.36TherelationshipbetweenstressandsupervisionOccupationalstressisoftenassociatedwithemployeesnotbeingabletocopewithcertainsituationsintheirworkplace(Gnilkaetal.,2012).Thesemayincludestrictsupervision.Whenanemployeeisnotabletocopewiththesupervisionlevelintheorganization,theexperiencestress,whichmayleadtothenegativeaspects,mentionedearlier.Bordin(1979)alsostatedthatwhensupervisorsareunabletomotivatetheiremployees,thestrengthoftheworkingallianceisgreatlycompromisedmakingitharderforemployeestodischargetheirduties.Bordin(1983)alsoaddsthatthesupervisorsattitudecreatespersonaldevelopmentinthesuperviseewhichhelpsthemtocopewiththeworkplaceandthusreducesoccupationalstress.Italsohelpsthemtoappraisetheirworkdemandsandwhethertheyhavethenecessaryresourcesandabilitytocope.Thusithelpsthemtoexerciseemotional,socialandphysicalcontrolwhicheffectivelypreventsthenegativepsychologicaloutcomesthatareassociatedwithstress(Finneyetal.,2013).2.37TheimpactofleadershiponstressOvertheyears,organizationshavemovedfromcharismaticleadershiptointroducesharedordistributedleadershipwithmoreethicalvaluessuchasauthenticity,fairleadershipandethicsbeingemphasized.Thisisbecausetheorganizationshaveunderstoodthenegativeeffectsofpoorleadership,whichincludeabusivesupervision,highemployeeturnover,poorjobperformance,andpassive-avoidanceleadership.Itisestimatedthatorganizationsallovertheworldspendatotalor36to60billionUSdollarseveryyearonleadershipdevelopmentactivities(Leighetal.,1999).Thisindicatesthattheyarebeginningtounderstandthatleadershipisacriticalcomponentinorganizationalsuccessandinreducingoccupationalstress.Effectiveleadershiphelpstobuildtherightpsychosocialworkenvironmentthatfostersemployeestoutilizetheirabilitytowardsthesuccessoftheorganization.Poorleadershipontheotherhandcreatespoorsupervisionwhichcreatesoccupationalstressontheemployees(BlixandLee,1991).2.38QualitiesofeffectiveleadershipVirtuallyanyonewhohasworkedinanytypeofcapacity(whichistosaymostpeople)canreadilytestifyconcerningtheimportanceofthequalityofleadershipintheworkplace.Effectiveleaderscanmakethedifferencebetweenorganizationalsuccessandfailurebyvirtueoftheireffectsoftheirleadershipontheiremployeesandtheincidenceofoccupationalstressthatresults.AstudybyeubenandChiba(2017)foundthatthereisaninextricablerelationshipbetweeneffectiveleadershipandemployeewell-being.Basedonthesefindings,eubenandChina(2017,p.37)concludethat,Effectiveleadershipstylesarethereforerequiredtodevelophigh-qualityworkenvironmentsthatareconducivetoworkers\\\'well-beingandwhichultimatelycontributetoachievingorganizationalgoals.Effectiveleadershipischaracterizedbyvariousqualities.Firstisself-confidencewheretheleaderisabletotakeonanynewprojectsorroles,whichmaybeoutsidetheirnormalareaofcomfortandbelievethattheyareabletoworkreallywell.Thesecondqualityisgoodmorals.Effectiveleadersleadbyexamplemeaningthattheydefendtheirownbeliefsandideals,whicharebasedontheorganizationspoliciesandprocedures.Thirdisdecisiveness,whichmeansthattheleaderisabletoweighalltheavailableoptionstomakeacleardecision.Fourthisflexibility,whichmeansthattheleaderisabletochangetheirscheduleasprioritiesoftaskschangeorasnewtaskscomein.Anotherimportantqualityisdependability,whichmeansthattheemployeesareabletodependontheleaderorsupervisortotakecareofanyproblemsorconflictsthatarise.Patientisalsoanimportantqualitysincetheleaderneedstobeabletolistencarefullytoallthings.Patienceshouldbecoupledwithfairnessorjusticemeaningthattheleadershouldlistentobothsidesofanystoryorissuebeforegivingtheirjudgmentordecision.Aneffectiveleadershouldalsobearisk-takermeaningtheyshouldbeabletochallengetheprocessorsystembyfindinginnovativewaysfortheorganizationtochange,improveandgrowandimprove.2.39oleofasupervisorintheworkplaceSupervisorshavevariousrolesandresponsibilitiestoplayintheworkplace.Oneisdiscipline.Supervisorsareexpectedtoensurethatstaffmemberssticktocompanypoliciesandproceduresatalltimes.Thisensuresthatemployeesarekeptfocusedonproductiveactivitiesandmaintainsalevelfieldforallemployees.Thesupervisoralsohasaroleinemployeedevelopmentwheretheyareexpectedtohelpemployeesbuildskillsinareaswheretheyarelacking.Thishelpstodevelopandimprovetheperformanceofwork.Supervisorsarealsoexpectedtobepeacemakers.Amongtheirkeyrolesistoresolveworkplaceconflictsinanamicableandfairmanner.Theyneedtolistentobothsidesofthestorytodeterminewhoisrightandfindanamicablewaytoresolvetheconflict.Theconflictshouldberesolvedinaway,whichtheinvolvedpartiesunderstand.Thesupervisoralsoplaysaroleinensuringthattheorganizationsemployeesareproductivebyensuringtheyhavetherightskillsandresourcestoperformtheirduties.Theyalsoidentifyareasfortrainingofemployeesandincertainsituationsconductthetrainingbythemselves.2.40TheadverseeffectsofworkplaceambiguityItisdifficulttoquantifytheadverseeffectsofambiguityintheworkplaceincreatingstress,butitisclearthatemployeeswantandneedtimelyandaccurateguidanceconcerningwhatisexpectedofthemaswellastheiroverallroleincontributingtoachievinglargerorganizationalgoals.Whentheseissuesareunclear,employeescanexperienceelevatedstresslevels(Kirk-BrownandWallace,2009).Indeed,Osibanjo,andSalau(2016)emphasizethatroleambiguitycanexacerbateworkplacestresslevels,andthisprocessisfurtherintensifiedwhenworkloadsareespeciallyheavy.Certainly,mostpeoplehavebeencompelledtoworkharderthannormalfromtimetotimedependingontheexigenciesoftheirorganizationalneeds,butworkingharderthannormalandworkingharderthannormalwithoutdirectionareentirelydifferentissues.Asaresult,itisreasonabletosuggestthattheextenttowhichroleambiguityisallowedtopersistwillbetheextenttowhichoccupationalstresslevelsarecorrespondinglyincreased.Jobstressorssuchasroleambiguityhavebeenstudiedinawidearrayofculturalsettingsandthefollowingvariableshavebeenmostfrequentlyidentifiedasbeingpositivelycorrelatedwithroleambiguity:(1)tensionandfatigue,(2)absenteeism,(3)leavingthejobandanxiety,and(4)bothpsychologicalandphysicalstrain(El-KotandBurke,2011).Inaddition,roleambiguityhasalsobeenpositivelycorrelatedwith:(1)roleconflict:task/skillvariety,(2)locusofcontrol,(3)education,and(4)propensitytoleavetheorganization(El-KotandBurke,2011).Thevariablesthathavebeenidentifiedasbeingmostfrequentlynegativelycorrelatedwithroleambiguityinclude:(1)jobsatisfaction,(b)physicalwithdrawal,(3)supervisorysatisfaction,(4)jobperformance,(5)jobinvolvement,(6)decisionmaking,(7)jobinvolvement/engagement,(8)organizationalcommitment,(9)toleranceforconflictandgroupcohesion,and(10)reportedinfluence(El-KotandBurke,2011).Takentogether,itisapparentthatambiguityintheworkplacecanhaveprofoundimplicationsforoccupationalstresslevels,butthereareothervariablesinvolvedthatmakedeterminingwhichfactorsaremostoperativeintheprocessespeciallycomplex.Forexample,otherresearchershaveidentifiedsignificantnegativecorrelationsbetweenroleambiguityandthefollowingvariables:(1)participation,(2)taskidentity,(3)feedback,(4)jobsatisfactionacrosssub-levels,and(5)commitmentandinvolvement.Finally,studieshavealsoshownthatroleconflictandroleambiguityareconsistentlycorrelatedEl-KotandBurke,2011).Finally,theantecedentsofroleambiguityincludethefollowing:(1)workinginorganizationalboundaryroles,(2)beingaserviceemployee,(3)objectiverolerequirementsoftheemployee,(4)limitedparticipationindecisionmaking,(5)limiteduseofgoalsettingbysupervisors,(6)numberofsubordinates,and(7)levelofformalizationintheorganization(El-KotandBurke,2011).Therefore,identifyingthemostsalientvariablesthatcreateheightenedworkplaceambiguitylevelsandimplementinginterventionsthatarespecificallydesignedtoamelioratethemtothemaximumextentpossiblehelpstocreateabalancebetweentheemployeesbehavioralstrainsandproductivebehaviors.Thisisbecauseithelpstopreventcounterproductiveworkplacebehavior,whichmaybedirectedbythesupervisor.Italsohelpstoremovepsychologicalstrainswhichmayleadtoissuessuchasanger,anxiety,frustration,depression,intentiontoquit,jobdissatisfaction,cynicism,exhaustionandreductioninprofessionalefficacy.Theseworkplaceambiguityvariablesincluderoleambiguity,avoidanceofuncertainty,ortheauthoritarianleadershipstyle.Theyaffecttheperceivedjobcontrolthushelpingtomoderatelypreventworkplacestress.Thebesthumanresourcesstrategyforaddressingroleambiguityintheworkplaceistoensurethatemployeesjobdescriptionsactuallyreflecttheworktheydoratherthansomeabstractversionofwhatanorganizationbelievestheyshouldbedoing.AsBamber(2011,p.59)pointsout,Oneofthemainwaysinwhichanemployeesrolesandresponsibilitiesaremadeclearatworkisthroughtheirjobdescription.Insomecases,developingatimelyandaccuratejobdescriptionmayrequireadeskaudittoensurethatalltasksandresponsibilitiesthatarebeinghandledbyworkersareincludedintheirjobdescriptions(Bamber,2011).2.41Supervisor-TheimportanceoffeedbackTheresearchtodateconcerningtheimportanceofsupervisoryfeedbackconfirmsthatthisprocessisessentialformitigatingroleambiguityintheworkplaceandreducingoccupationalstresslevels.Asnotedabove,however,therearenumerousvariablesthatcanexacerbateroleambiguity,butsupervisoryfeedbackcanserveasausefulwaytoaddressmanyofthemeithersimultaneouslyorbasedonpriorityoftheseverityofthestressorlevels(ClarkeandCooper,2004).Fromoneperspective,supervisoryfeedbackrepresentsatypeofsocialsupportintheworkplacethathasbeenfoundtobeanessentialcomponentofjobsatisfactionandloweroccupationalstresslevels(ClarkeandCooper,2004).Inthisregard,ClarkeandCooper(2004,p.24)reportthat,Inanorganizationalsetting,socialsupportisoftenprovidedbyimmediatecolleaguesandfirst-linesupervisors;supervisorysupportisdefinedasthedegreeofconsiderationexpressedbytheimmediatesupervisorforthesubordinatesandco-workersupportasthedegreeofconsiderationexpressedbyco-workers.esearchbyClarkeandCooper(2004,p.24)identifiedfourdifferenttypesofsocialsupportinanorganizationcontextasfollows:(1)instrumentalsupport(i.e.,givingdirecthelp,oftenofapracticalnature);(2)emotionalsupport(i.e.,showinginterestin,understandingof,caringforandsympathywithapersonsdifficulties);(3)informationalsupport(i.e.,givingthepersoninformationthatmayhelphimorherdealwithproblems);and(4)appraisalsupport(i.e.,providingfeedbackaboutthepersonsfunctioningthatmayenhancehisorherself-esteem).Therefore,ongoingandmeaningfulfeedbackfromsupervisorsandfromcoworkersisimportantbecauseitfosterscommunicationwithintheorganizationandservesasaformofsocialsupport.Inaddition,timelysupervisoryfeedbackhelpstocreateworkingrelationshipsbetweenthesupervisorsandemployeessincethelatterfeelthattheyareinvolvedinthedecision-makingprocessandtheirviewsarevalued.Absentsuchfeedback,employeesareleftwonderingiftheyaresatisfyingand/orexceedingtheirperformanceobjectivesandachievingorganizationalgoals.Theseoutcomesalsodirectlycontributetoworkplaceambiguitywhichhasbeenshowntobeanantecedentofoccupationalstresstimeandagain.Thefeedbackchannelisanimportantwayofincreasingproductivityandperformanceofemployeesintheworkplace.Italsoactsasamotivatingfactorforemployeessinceitisinclusiveratherthanalienatingfortheemployees.Basedontheiranalysisofthevariousantecedentsofoccupationalstress,MijakoskiandKaradzinska-Bislimovska(2015,p.180)concludethat,Thepresenceofproperfeedback,adequatesupervisorandcoworkersupport,aswellasappropriateteamwork,leadstohighjobengagementandlowlevelofdepersonalization,whiletheirabsenceincreasesthelevelofcynicalattitudetowardswork.Moreover,timelyandhonestsupervisoryfeedbackisalsoacrucialaspectofperformancemanagementsinceitmaintainsanopenandhonestrelationshipbetweenthesupervisorandemployeethusthetwo-waydialoguewillenableperformanceappraisalstobeconductedhonestlyandthusimprovetheabilityoftheemployeestomeettheexpectationsofthecompanyororganization.2.42PreventionandfightingwithstressatworkGivenitsdocumentedexorbitanteconomiccostsandtheenormoushumantollthatisexactedbythecondition,thepreventionofworkplacestressisanimportantconsiderationforallorganizations.AsOsibanjoandSalau(2016,p.261)pointout,Highlevelsofworkplacestresscanbecomeharmfulforindividualemployeesandtheorganizationasawhole.Hence,toenhancecorporateimageandachievecompetitiveadvantage,stressmanagementandcopingstrategiesbecomeimperative.Occupationalstresscanbepreventedorminimizedbyintroducingeducationandtrainingprogramsforemployeestounderstandandrelatetooccupationalstress.Itcanalsobepreventedoramelioratedbychangingtheorganizationspoliciesandprocedurestoensurethatallrisksofoccupationalstressaremitigatedandsourcesofstresseliminated.Anotherwayofpreventingoccupationalstressistoestablishemployeeassistanceprogramstosupportemployeesundergoingoccupationalstress(andallandBuys,2013).Anin-depthstudyofoccupationalstressandefficaciousinterventionsbyichardsonandothstein(2008,p.69)definedjobstressasasituationwhereinjob-relatedfactorsinteractwiththeworkertochangehisorherpsychologicaland/orphysiologicalconditionsuchthatthepersonisforcedtodeviatefromnormalfunctioning.Thereisaninherentnotioncontainedinthisdefinitionthatwork-relatedstressorsrepresenttheoverarchingsourceofstressandthatindividualresponsestoelevatedwork-relatedstresscanmanifestinpsychological,physiological,oracombinationoftheseoutcomes(ichardsonandothstein,2008).Measuringtheefficacyofstressmanagementinterventionsisaccomplishedindifferentwaysdependingonthefocusoftheintervention.Insomecases,researchershaveevaluatedtheeffectivenessofstressmanagementinterventionsbasedontheireffectonquantifiableoutcomessuchasemployeeproductivitylevels,absenteeismrates,bloodpressurelevelsandweightgainorloss(ichardsonandothstein,2008).Inothercases,researchershaveevaluatedtheeffectivenessofstressmanagementinterventionsusingmoresubjectivecriteriasuchasemployeeengagement,moraleorjobsatisfactionlevels.egardlessoftheevaluationstrategythatisused,thereremainsasignificantamountofcontroversyconcerningwhichstressmanagementinterventionsaremosteffectiveinvarioussituationsandwhy(ichardsonandothstein,2008).Varioustypesofstressmanagementinterventionseitherseektomodifywork-relatedstressorfactors,provideemployeeswithassistanceandsupportinmitigatingtheadverseeffectsofsuchstressors,oracombinationofthesestrategies(ichardsonandothestein,2008).Basedonaconceptualframeworkdevelopedforthedesign,implementation,andevaluationofstressmanagementinterventions,interventionscanbedesignedtoaddressthreemainpointsinthestresscycle:(1)theintensityofstressorsintheworkplace,(2)theemployeesappraisalofstressfulsituations,or(3)theemployeesabilitytocopewiththeoutcomes(ichardsonandothstein,2008p.70).Theconstituentelementsofstressmanagementprogramsdifferbuttheygenerallyincludeinterventionsthatcanbecategorizedasprimary,secondaryortertiaryinitiativesasdescribedbelow:2.42.1Primaryinterventions:Thesetypesofstressmanagementinterventionsseektochangethemainsourcesofjob-relatedstress.Inthisregard,ichardsonandothstein(2011,p.70)reportthat,Examplesofprimarypreventionprogramsincluderedesigningjobstomodifyworkplacestressors,increasingworkersdecision-makingauthorityorprovidingcoworkersupportgroups.Inotherwords,primaryinterventionsarethoseintendedtoseekoutthesourceofjob-relatedstressandniptheminthebudbeforetheycanexactastress-relatedtollonworkers.Forinstance,accordingtoBamber(2011,p.42),.Primarylevelinterventionsareaimedatchangingtheworkenvironmentitselftoreduceoreliminatethecauseofthestressatitssource.Insomecases,though,changingtheworkenvironmentinsubstantivewaysisnotfeasibleduetothetypesofoccupationsthatareinvolved(e.g.,acute-carenurses,combatinfantrytroops,firefighters,amongothers)orduetotheexpensethatmaybeinvolved(Bamber,2011).Inthesetypesofcases,researchersbelievethatsecondaryinterventionsaremoreappropriateandeffectiveataddressingjob-relatedstressasdiscussedfurtherbelow.2.42.2Secondaryinterventions:Thesetypesofstressmanagementinterventionsaredesignedtominimizetheseverityofstresssymptomsbeforetheycancausemoreserioushealthissueswithworkers(ichardsonandothstein,2011,p.70).Secondarylevelinterventionsarealsodesignedtoeducateworkersconcerningvarioustypesofcopingstrategiesorskillsthatcanserveasbuffersagainststressfulworkplaceenvironmentsandprovidethemwiththetoolstheyneedtodeveloptheresiliencetheyneedtorespondinhealthierwaystojob-relatedstressors(Bamber,2011).AccordingtoSidle(2008,p.111),Cognitive-behavioralapproachesaresecondaryinterventionsthathelpemployeesrethinktheirbeliefsaboutchallengingsituations.Specifically,individualslearntorecognizehowtheirpessimisticandoftendistortedthoughtsofgloomanddoomleadtostress.Next,theylearntoreplacetheiroverlypessimisticthinkingwithmorerealisticormoreoptimisticthinking.2.42.3Tertiaryinterventions:Thesetypesofstressmanagementinterventionssuchastheaforementionedemployeeassistanceprogramsareintendedtotreatworkersstress-relatedhealthproblemswithappropriatementalhealthcarepractitioners(ichardsonandothstein,2008p.70).AccordingtoBamber(2011,p.42),Tertiarylevelinterventionsareappropriatewhensecondarylevelinterventionsareineffectiveandtheindividualisexperiencingstresssyndromeswhichareimpactingontheircapacitytobeproductiveintheworksetting,oreventoremainatwork.Althoughprimaryandtertiaryinterventionsmaybemostappropriateincertaincircumstances,secondaryinterventionsarethemostcommonlyusedworkplacestressmanagementprogramsusedatpresent,andthesetypesofinterventionsaretypicallytargetedathelpingindividualemployeesdevelopimprovedmethodsformanagingandcopingwithjob-relatedstressors.Someofthemostpopularsecondaryinterventionsformanagingandcopingwithoccupationalstressincludevariouscognitive-behavioralskillstrainingthateducateworkersconcerningtheeffectsoftheirthinkingontheirstresslevels,deep-breathingexercises,meditation,relaxation,physicalfitnessexercises,timemanagementskills,maintainingadailyjournalandsettinggoals,or,hereagain,acombinationofthesestrategies(ichardsonandothstein,2008).Accordingtoichardsonandothstein,cognitive-behavioralskillstrainingcanbeanespeciallyefficaciousandcost-effectiveinterventionforjob-relatedstress.Forexample,theseresearchersreportthat,Meditation,relaxation,anddeep-breathinginterventionsaredesignedtoenableemployeestoreduceadversereactionstostressesbybringingaboutaphysicaland/ormentalstatethatisthephysiologicaloppositeofstress(ichardsonandothstein,2008p.70).Althoughtheresearchtodateindicatesthatprimaryandsecondarylevelstressmanagementinterventionscanbeeffectiveinresolvingmildtomoderatelevelsofstress,thesestrategiesmaybelessefficaciousintreatingmoresevereanddebilitatingstresslevelsthatarelinkedwithoccupationalstress(Bamber,2011).Moreover,themoresevereanddebilitatinglevelsofstressassociatedwithoccupationalstresscanaffectworkersabilitytoperformtheirjobsoreventocontinuetheiremployment.Inthesetypesofcases,evidence-basedtertiarylevelinterventionsareneededtoassistworkersinmanagingtheirstresslevels(Bamber,2011).Whileformaltertiaryinterventionsareusuallyprovidedbyprimarycareandmentalhealthpractitioners,thereareseveralself-helpmethodsavailablethatcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeseinterventions.Forexample,beyondtheforegoing,therearesomeother,relativelysimplestepsthatemployeescantaketomitigatetheeffectsofjob-relatedstress.Inmanycases,thesestepscanbeappliedintheworkplaceasneeded.Inthisregard,Frandsen(2010,p.61)suggeststhatpeoplewhoareexperiencingoccupationalstressshouldemployvariousself-caremeasures,includingthefollowing:Starteachdaywitharelaxingritualsuchas15minutesformeditating,journaling,stretching,orreadingsomethinginspirational;Adopthealthyeating,exercising,andsleepinghabits;Establishboundariestoavoidoverextending;Takeadailybreakandsetasidetimetocompletelydisconnect;Nourishself-creativitybychoosingfunactivitiesthathavenothingtodowithwork;and,Learntomanagestress.Althoughthesestraightforwardstressmanagementinterventionsallprovidesomedegreeofbenefits,theresearchtodateindicatesthatcognitive-behavioralbasedinterventionsprovideconsistentlygreatereffectscomparedtoothertypesofinterventions.Interestingly,though,totheextentthatadditionaltreatmentelementsareaddedtothecognitive-behavioralinterventionswastheextenttowhichtheefficacyoftheseinterventionswasreduced(ichardsonandothstein,2008).Thesefindingssuggestthatthereisnoone-size-fits-allstressmanagementinterventionstrategythatworksequallywellinallcircumstancesbutratherreinforcestheneedforindividualizedtreatmentstrategiesthatarebasedontheuniqueneedsofthetargetedemployees.Inaddition,anumberofevidence-basedinterventionshavebeendevelopedthatarespecificallydesignedtohelppreventtheonsetofoccupationalstressandbettermanagetheconditionifitdoesariseamonghelpingprofessionalswheretheworkplaceenvironmentcannotbeeasilychangedsuchasacutecarenursesassetforthinTable6below.Table6Descriptionofevidence-basedinterventionsforworkplacestressSourceDescriptionofinterventionCohen-Katzetal.(2005)Thisinterventionconsistedofan8-weekmindfulness-basedstressreductionprogramthatwasgearedtowardsimprovingrelaxation,self-care,workandfamilyrelationshipsaswellasidentifyingbetterwaysofdealingwithdifficultemotionsintheworkplace.Hayesetal.(2005)Interventionsincludedamentoringprogramdesignedtosupportminoritynursesenteringoncology;oncologynursinggrandrounds,spiritrounds,andreflectivepracticerounds;narrativesforindividualreflectiononpractice;ambulatorynursingretreatsforreflectionandrenewal;andindividualmeetingswithapsychiatricclinicalnursespecialistfornewgraduates.Adams&Putrino(2010)Anexpressivewritingworkshopencouragedself-carebypresentingparticipantswithinformationonwaystogroundexpressivewritingandparticipateinexpressivewritingexercises.Bauer-Wu(2005)etreatswereheldoutsidetheworksettingwithparticipantschoiceoffourexperientialbreak-outsessions:KeepingtheHope,whichusedart,imagery,andstorytorestorehopefulnessasaself-carepractice;ComingHometoYourBody,whichusedtherapeuticmovement;BeingPeace,whichusedmindfulnessmeditationtofosterpeaceandbalanceineverydaylife;andWhatMattersMost,whichfosteredself-reflectionandexpressionthroughcollageandwriting.etreatsalsoincludedfreeafternoontimewiththeopportunityforallparticipantstoreceiveamassage;aneveningofliveentertainmentwithsinging,dancing,andlaughing;andamorningYogaclassortheoptiontotakeawalkorsleepin.Lambert&Steward(2007)Theovernightretreatbeganwithdinnerandaneveningoffunandlaughterusingroomandtableassignmentstopairstaffthatnormallydonotinteract.Thiswasfollowedbyafulldayofteambuildingfacilitatedbyanexpert.Topicsincludedunderstandingteamdynamics,personalbehaviorstyles,communicationwithothers,andcreatingsafeenvironmentsthatfostercandidcommunication.LeBlancetal.(2007)Theinterventionincludedastart-upprogramthatwasfollowedby3-hourprogramsdeliveredonamonthlybasisforaperiodof6monthswithanintroductionandquestionnaireonworksituations,communication,andfeedback.Inaddition,programtopicsincludedbuildingsocialsupport,balancingjob-relatedinvestmentsandoutcomes,solvingproblemsthroughteamactionplanning,andidentifyingpotentialproblemsandsolutionsfordealingwithchange.Programcounselorsmetwithparticipantspriortotheprogramtogatherinformationontheorganizationsstructuresandpoliciesaswellasmanagementsperceptionofthemainsourceofjobstress.Medlandetal.(2004)Day-longretreatsheldawayfromtheclinicalareasincludedinteractiveandinformalpresentationsonwellness,bereavement,developingstressmanagementskillssuchasrelaxation,journaling,cultivatingteameffectiveness,andart-makingactivities.Participantsalsoviewedavideotapeonpositivemanagementphilosophyanddiscussedaframeworkforincorporatingstressmanagementandself-careintopractice.Practicechangestodecreaseburnoutandincreaseongoingfocusonstaffsupportatthefacilitywereimplementedbasedonideasgenerated.Source:SummarizedandadaptedfromHenry(2014,p.212)Whilesomeoccupationsareinherentlymorestressful,otherauthoritieshavealsoevaluatedtheefficacyofstressmanagementinterventionstoidentifythosethatworkbestunderdifferentcircumstanceswithotheroccupationsaswell.ArecapitulationandsummaryofthesestudiesareprovidedinTable7below.Table7ecapitulationandsummaryoftheefficacyofvariousstressmanagementinterventionsSourceMethodesultsKim,JH(2007)Meta-analysisof46experimentalstudies.Thestudieswereclassifiedaccordingtothesamplecharacteristics,thetypesandmethodsoftheinterventions,andthetypesofoutcomevariables.Sixinterventiontypesweredistinguished:(1)cognitive-behavioralintervention(CBT),(2)relaxationtechniques(T),(3)exercise(EX),(4)multimodalprograms1and2(MT1,2),and(5)organizationfocusedinterventions(OTs).Effectsizeswerecalculatedfortheoutcomecategoriesacrossinterventiontypes:psychosocialoutcome,behavioral-personalresources,physiologic,andorganizationaloutcome.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatindividualworker-focusedinterventions(ITs)weremoreeffectivethanOTs.Asmallbutsignificantoveralleffectwasfound.AmoderateeffectwasfoundforT,andsmalleffectswerefoundforotherITs.TheeffectsizeforOTswasthesmallest.TheinterventionsinvolvingCBTandTappearedtobethepreferredmeansofreducingworker\\\'spsycho-socialandorganizationaloutcomes.Withregardtophysiologicoutcomes,Tappearedtobemosteffective.CBTappearedtobemosteffectiveinreducingpsycho-socialoutcomes.TheeffectsofOTwerenon-significant,exceptforthepsycho-socialoutcomes.Basedonthesefindings,theauthorconcludedthatallofthesestressmanagementinterventionsareeffective,butthatinterventionsinvolvingTandcognitive-behavioraltherapyaremoreeffectivethanothertypes.Sidle(2008)Systematicliteraturereviewofcurrentbestpracticesinstressmanagementinterventions.Eventhoughtheyaremoreeffectivethanotherstressmanagementinterventions,managersmayconsiderthecognitive-behavioraltechniquesmorechallengingthanotherapproachestoimplement.Typically,cognitive-behavioralinterventionsrequirethehiringofaprofessionaltoleadagroupsession.Consequently,managersmaygravitatetowardinterventionsthatareeasiertoimplementandrequireasmallerinvestmentofresources(e.g.,relaxationtraining);however,relaxationtraininginterventionsareoneofthemostpopularapproachestostressmanagement.Indeed,relaxationtechniquesareperceivedasoneoftheeasiestandleastexpensiveapproachestoimplement,primarilybecausetheycanbeself-taughtwithDVDsortheinternet.ichardsonandothstein(2008)Meta-analysisof36experimentalstudiesrepresenting55differentstressmanagementinterventions.Thetotalsamplesizeofthemeta-analysiswas2,847;oftheparticipants,59%werefemale,meanagewas35.4,andaveragelengthofinterventionwas7.4weeks.Interventionswerecodedascognitive-behavioral,relaxation,organizational,multimodal,oralternative.Analysesbasedonthesesubgroupssuggestedthatinterventiontypeplayedamoderatingrole.Cognitive-behavioralprogramsconsistentlyproducedlargereffectsthanothertypesofinterventions,butifadditionaltreatmentcomponentswereaddedtheeffectwasreduced.Withinthesampleofstudies,relaxationinterventionsweremostfrequentlyused,andorganizationalinterventionscontinuedtobescarce.Effectswerebasedmainlyonpsychologicaloutcomevariables,asopposedtophysiologicalororganizationalmeasures.KowalskiandHarmon(2009)Mixed-methodactionresearchwasusedtoevaluatetheeffectivenessofamulti-yearcognitive-behavioralstressmanagementinterventioncalledtheWorkplaceStressandAggressionProjectwith3,000employeesat11pilotsitesinDepartmentofVeteransAffairstertiaryhealthcarefacilities.Thecognitive-behavioralstressmanagementinterventionsthatwereimplementedpursuanttothisinitiativewerefoundsuperiortotheothertypesofstressmanagementinterventionsthathadbeenusedbytheDepartmentofVeteransAffairsandtheresearchersconcludethatcognitive-behavioralinterventionsrepresentthebestapproachformitigatingandtreatingstressmanagementintheworkplace.Stoughetal.(2014)Citingtheenormouscostsandadverseeffectsofoccupationalstress,theseresearchersemphasizetheneedfortime-andcost-effectiveinterventionsthathaveprovenefficacyinmitigatingstresslevels.Tothisend,Stoughandhisassociatesreportthatnutritionalinterventions,especiallyusingBgroupvitamins,hasbecomeincreasinglyrecognizedasaviablestressmanagementintervention.Thestudywasarandomized,double-blind,placebo-controlled,parallel-groupsclinicaltrialinvolving200subjectsrandomizedtoacontrolgrouporreceiveBlackmoresExecutiveBStressFormulaorplacebodailyforaperiodof6months.ThisstudyexaminedtheeffectsofBgroupvitaminsonworkplacestressandmoodvariableswithasampleoffull-timeemployedolderadultswhosubjectivelyreportfeelingstressed.ThefindingsthatemergedfromthisstudyconfirmedthatefficaciousinterventionstargetedatreducingoccupationalstresslevelsusingdietarysupplementationwithBgroupvitaminsisaneconomicallyviableandsustainableintervention.CooperandCartwright(1999)Emphasizingtheurgencyoftheneed,theseresearchersuseacontentanalysisofrelevantstudiestoidentifyinterventionsthathavebeenproveneffectiveinreducingworkplacestresslevels.Basedontheiranalysisofthestressmanagementinterventionsdevelopedtodate,theseresearchersconcludethatalthoughindividualcounselingandstressmanagementtrainingcanserveasusefulcomponents,organization-wideinitiativesareneededtoensurethatworkplacestressorsareaddressedfromastructuralpointofview.eidandomans(2014)NotingapaucityoftimelyandrelevantstudiesconcerningoccupationalstresslevelsamongAfricanAmericansingeneralandAfricanAmericanmalesinparticular,theseresearchersevaluatedthedegreetowhichacculturationstrategy(traditionalistbeliefs,traditionalistbehavior,assimilationistbeliefsandassimilationistbehaviors)measuredbytheMeasurementofAcculturationStrategiesforPeopleofAfricanDescent(whichhasknownvalidityandreliability)affectsperceivedjobstressasmeasuredbytheJobStressSurveyinasampleof87employedAfricanAmericanprofessionals.Thefindingsthatresultedfromthisstudyfailedtoidentifyarelationshipbetweentraditionalacculturationstrategiesandoccupationalstresslevelssuggestingthatthesubjectswhousetraditionaliststrategiesmayeitherexperiencelessstressandmoresupport.Thisfindingreinforcestheimportanceoftraditionalacculturativecopingstrategyasaprotectiveresourceagainstperceivedstress.Individualswithtraditionalacculturativecopingstrategiesmaybemoreawareofandunderstandingofthreatstoself-concept,whichisalsoprotective.Basedonthesefindings,theresearchersalsoemphasizetheneedforadditionalstudiesusingrace-relatedvariables.Ekman(2015)Usingacasestudyapproach,thisresearchercitesthelackofrelevantresearchintooccupationalstresslevelsamonglawenforcementauthoritiesincludingthosetaskedwithjuvenilejustice.Thequalitativethree-phasecasestudyfocusedona16-hourmindfulnessmeditationstrategycalledCultivatingEmotionalBalancepilotstressmanagementinterventionfor50juvenilejusticeofficersintwosettingsinSanMateoCounty,California.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatempathytrainingusingvignettes,themindfulnessskillsincludingbreathingexercises,andthemotivationexerciseswereespeciallyeffectiveinreducingoccupationalstresslevelsamongthispopulationofjuvenilejusticeofficers.Theresultsofthisstudyindicatethatstrengtheningempathylevelsandprovidingjuvenilejusticeofficerswithtoolssuchasrelaxationandmeditationareespeciallyvaluableadditionstostressmanagementinterventions.andallandBuys(2013)Usingasystematicreviewoftherelevantliterature,theseresearchersprovideacomprehensivebackgroundconcerningtheseverityofoccupationalstressandthetollitexactsonindividualsandorganizations.LiketheEkman(2015studyreviewedabove,thisstudyalsofocusedonmitigatingoccupationalstresslevelsamonglawenforcementofficers.Theseresearchersfoundthatstressmanagementthataredesignedtoaddressindividualfactorsbyprovidingemployeeswithtrainingandtoolssuchasteachingthemtocontrolstressresponsesusingbehavioralself-control,biofeedback,meditationandabdominalbreathing,progressivevisualizationandcognitiveprocessingareregardedaseffectiveevidence-basedtreatmentstrategies.Thesetypesofinterventionsaredesignedtominimizestressresponsesbycontrollingthought,physiologicalandbehavioralresponsestojob-relatedstressors.Likewise,interventionssuchascognitivebehavioraltherapyalsohavedemonstratedefficacy.McCratyetal.(2003)Thepurposeofthisrandomizedexperimentalstudywastoexaminetheeffectsofaworkplace-basedstressmanagementprogramonbloodpressure,emotionalhealth,andworkplace-relatedmeasuresin38hypertensiveemployeesofaglobalinformationtechnologycompany.Thesubjectswererandomlyassignedtoacontrolgroupwhichreceivednointerventionoragroupthatreceivedthestress-reductionintervention.Thetreatmentgroupparticipatedina16-hourprogram,whichincludedinstructioninpositiveemotionrefocusingandemotionalrestructuringtechniquesintendedtoreducesympatheticnervoussystemarousal,stress,andnegativeaffect,increasepositiveaffect,andimproveperformance.Learningandpracticeofthetechniqueswasenhancedbyheartratevariabilityfeedback,whichhelpedparticipantslearntoself-generatephysiologicalcoherence,abeneficialphysiologicmodethatareassociatedwithincreasedheartrhythmcoherence,physiologicentrainment,parasympatheticactivity,andvascularresonance.Bloodpressure,emotionalhealth,andworkplace-relatedmeasureswerealsoevaluatedassessedbeforeand3monthsaftertheprogram.Thisstudyfoundthatthetreatmentgroupexhibitedameanadjustedreductionof10.6mmHginsystolicbloodpressureandof6.3mmHgindiastolicbloodpressure.3-monthspost-intervention.Thereductioninsystolicbloodpressurewasregardedassignificantinrelationtothecontrolgroup.Thetreatmentgroupalsodemonstratedimprovementsinemotionalhealth,includingsignificantreductionsinstresssymptoms,depression,andglobalpsychologicaldistressandsignificantincreasesinpeacefulnessandpositiveoutlook.educedsystolicbloodpressurewascorrelatedwithreducedstresssymptoms.Inaddition,thetrainedemployeesdemonstratedsignificantincreasesinthework-relatedscalesofworkplacesatisfactionandvalueofcontribution.Theseresultsindicatethatabriefworkplacestressmanagementinterventioncanproduceclinicallysignificantreductionsinbloodpressureandimproveemotionalhealthamonghypertensiveemployees.Theimplicationsofthesefindingsarethatsuchinterventionsmayproduceahealthierandmoreproductiveworkforce,enhancingperformanceandreducinglossestotheorganizationresultingfromcognitivedecline,illness,andprematuremortality.KinmanandJones(2005)Thisstudyinvestigatedlayrepresentationsofworkstressusingsemi-structuredinterviewswith45individualsfromarangeofoccupations.Themeaningofoccupationalstress,itsantecedentsandoutcomes,andwaysbywhichitmaybemanagedwereexamined.Dominantfactorswereestablishedthroughtheuseofthematiccontentanalysis.Similaritiesanddifferenceswerefoundbetweenlayandprofessionaldiscoursesonworkstress.Theresultsthatemergedfromthisstudyindicatethatlayrepresentationsofoccupationalstressaremulti-faceted.Thereremainsalackofconsensus,however,concerninghowparticipantsinterpretedtheconcept:adiverserangeofpersonal,environmental,andsocietalfactorswashighlighted.Adifferent(andarguablymorecomplex)rangeofdefinitionsofjobstressandthemannerinwhichitimpactsonindividualswasrevealedthanhasbeenreportedinpreviousstudies.Thecausesofstressatworkwereperceivedasbeingpredominantlyorganizational,buttheimpactofstressontheemployeewasmoresalientthanorganizationaloutcomes.Secondaryandtertiarystressmanagementtechniqueswerethoughttobemoreeffectivethaninterventionsdesignedtopreventstressatwork.Intervieweeswithlinemanagementresponsibilityweremorelikelytoemphasizeindividualresponsibilityformanagingstress,mostothersmaintainedthattheindividualandtheorganizationareequallyresponsible.Saksviketal.(2003)Thestudyevaluatedsevendifferentindividualandorganizationalstressmanagementinterventions.DataforthestudywasobtainedfromasampleusedasapartoftheevaluationofaNorwegiannationalinterventionprogramcalled`HealthatWork.ThestudywasconductedinthreeDifferententerprises(twofromthepublicsector(theNorwegianPostalServiceandamunicipality)andthelocalgovernmentofadistrictthatincludedamid-sizedNorwegiantownandonefromtheprivatesector(ashoppingmall).Interviewswereconductedin22postoffices,12organizationalunits(i.e.,carehomesandlocaladministrativeunits)ofaNorwegianmunicipality,andin10shopsinashoppingmall.Theinterviewstookplacebeforeandaftertheinterventions.Thefollowingkeyprocessfactorswereidentified:(1)theabilitytolearnfromfailureandtomotivateparticipants;(2)multi-levelparticipationandnegotiation,anddifferencesinorganizationalperception;(3)insightintotacitandinformalorganizationalbehavior;(4)clarificationofrolesandresponsibilities,especiallytheroleofmiddlemanagement;and(5)competingprojectsandreorganization.Basedontheresultsthatemergedfromthisambitiousstudy,theseresearchersconcludethatquantitativetechniquesaloneoftenfailtocapturethemagnitudeandthemeaningofaccomplishinginterventionswithinorganizations;however,quantitativeinvestigationsarecrucialindocumentingthesignificanceofimprovingoccupationalhealthinordertoinfluencethosestakeholderswhohavethepowertoinitiatechange.Gyllenstenetal.(2005)Thisqualitativestudyoftwomalesandthreefemalesexaminedtheattitudesoffinanceorganizationstowardsworkplacestressandstressinterventions.Semi-structuredinterviewswereusedandsevenindividuals,eachrepresentingtheirorganization,participatedinthestudy.InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis(IPA)wasusedtoanalyzethedatathatresulted.ThegoalofIPAistoexploretheinsiderviewsoftheparticipants,andthiswastheaimofthecurrentstudy.InIPAitisassumedthatthereisanassociationbetweenwhattheparticipantsaysandwhattheythink.IPAseekstocapturethemeaningsoftheparticipantsaccounts,andthisisdonethroughaprocessofinterpretativeanalysis.AnadditionalbenefitofIPAisthatitfacilitatesthediscoveryofrarethemeswithintheareaofinvestigation.Theoverarchingfindingthatemergedfromthisstudywasthatsubjectsheldstrongviewsthatpeoplewhoseekcounselingforoccupationalstress,irrespectiveoftheseverityoftheirconditions,maybeperceivedashavingsometypeofmentalillness.Thestigmathatisassociatedwiththisperceptionisbelievedtopreventmanyemployeeswhoaremostinneedofefficaciousstressmanagementinterventionsfromseekingassistanceintheworkplace.Thefindingsunderscoretheneedforadditionaleducationofemployeestoensurethattheyrecognizethesignsandsymptomsofjob-relatedstressandfeelcomfortableinseekingassistancefortheseproblems.Bironetal.(2016)Theseresearchersusedanadaptedstudydesigntoevaluatetheeffectivenessofaninterventionexposureandtocreateanartificialcontrolandinterventiongroups.Thisstudyalsoincludedlongitudinaldata(i.e.,twoassessments)withaddedprocessmeasuresattime,twogatheredfromthreecomplexparticipatoryinterventionprojectsinCanadainahospitalandauniversity.Structuralequationmodelingwasusedtoexplorethespecificworkingmechanismsofparticularinterventionsonstressoutcomes.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthathigherexposuretointerventionsaimingtomodifytasksandworkingconditionsreduceddemandsandimprovedsocialsupport,butnotjobcontrol,whichinturn,reducedpsychologicaldistress.Exposuretointerventionsaimingtoimproverelationshipswasnotrelatedtopsychosocialrisks.Moststudiescannotexplainhowinterventionsproducetheireffectsonoutcomes,especiallywhentherearemultipleconcurrentinterventionsdeliveredinseveralcontexts.Thisstudyadvancesknowledgeonprocessevaluationbyusinganadaptedstudydesigntocapturetheactiveingredientsofmulti-componentinterventionsandsuggestingsomemechanismsbywhichtheinterventionsproducetheireffectsonstressoutcomes.Inaddition,thesefindingsalsoprovideanillustrationofhowtoconductprocessevaluationandrelateexposurelevelstoobservedoutcomes.Pignataetal.(2016)Theseresearchersusedthesocial-exchangetheoreticalframeworktoexaminetheeffectofemployeesawarenessofstressreductioninterventionsontheirlevelsofpsychologicalstrain,jobsatisfaction,organizationalcommitment,perceptionsofseniormanagementtrustworthinessandproceduraljustice.Theresearcherspresentlongitudinalpaneldatafrom869employeeswhocompletedquestionnairesattwotimepointsat13Australianuniversities.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatemployeeswhoreportedanawarenessofstress-reductioninterventionsundertakenattheiruniversityscoredloweronpsychologicalstrainandhigheronjobsatisfactionandcommitmentthanthosewhowereunawareoftheinterventions.Theresultsindicatethatsimplytheawarenessofstressinterventionscanbelinkedtopositiveemployeeoutcomes.Thestudyfurtherrevealedthatseniormanagementtrustworthinessandproceduraljusticemediatetherelationshipbetweenawarenessandemployeeoutcomes.Bowenetal.(2014)Thisstudyusedanonlinesurveytocollectopinionsfromarchitects(n=3,025),civilengineers(n=1,842),quantitysurveyors(n=1,449),andprojectandconstructionmanagers(n=3,359)inSouthAfrica.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatamajorityoftherespondentsexperiencehighlevelsofstressatwork.Architects(morethanengineers,quantitysurveyors,andprojectandconstructionmanagers)andfemale(morethanmale)professionalsfeelstressed.Psychologicaleffectsofworkplacestressincludethefeelingofnotbeingappreciatedbyothersforajobwell-done,feelingdissatisfiedwithonesownperformanceatwork,andfeelingtenseatwork.Physiologicaleffectsincludedisturbancestousualsleeppatterns,difficultyinrelaxingafterhours,anddifficultyinconcentrating.Sociologicaleffectsincludeastrainonfamilylife,socialactivities,andsocialrelationships.Awiderangeofpositivecopingmechanismsareusedbytherespondents,includingphysicalexercise,spendingtimewithfamilyandfriends,traveling,watchingtelevisionandmovies,surfingandwatersports,jogging,archery,meditationandprayer,yoga,cycling,shooting,fishing,hikingandcamping,golf,gardening,squash,cooking,reading,card-playing,model-building,wininganddining,photography,woodwork,gaming,listeningtomusic,participatinginmartialarts,motorbikeriding,44driving,andtryingtogetmoresleep.LemaireandWallace(2010)TheseresearchersusedamixedmethodsstrategytoexplorefactorsrelatedtophysicianwellnesswithinalargehealthregioninWesternCanada.Thestudyfocusedonthecopingstrategiesthatphysiciansuseinresponsetowork-relatedstress.Thequalitativecomponentexploresphysiciansselfreportedcopingstrategiesthroughopenendedinterviewsof42physiciansrepresentingdiversemedicalspecialtiesandsettings(91%responserate).Themajorthemesextractedfromthequalitativeinterviewswereusedtoconstruct12surveyitemsthatwereincludedinthecomprehensivequantitativequestionnaire.Questionnairesweresenttoalleligiblephysiciansinthehealthregionwith1178completedsurveys(40%responserate.)Questionnaireitemswereusedtomeasurehowoftenphysiciansdrawonthevariouscopingstrategies.Feelingsofburnoutwerealsomeasuredinthesurveyby5itemsfromtheEmotionalExhaustionsubscaleoftheevisedMaslachBurnoutInventory.Themajorthemesthatemergedfromthedataanalysisincludedthecopingstrategiesthatthesubjectsusedintheworkplace(i.e.,workingthroughstress,talkingwithco-workers,takingatimeout,usinghumor)andafterwork(e.g.,exercise,quiettime,spendingtimewithfamily).Analysisofthequestionnairedatashowedthreeoftenusedworkplacecopingstrategieswerepositivelycorrelatedwithfeelingemotionallyexhausted(i.e.,keepingstresstooneself(r=.23),concentratingonwhattodonext(r=.16),andgoingonasifnothinghappened(r=.07)).Somelessoftenusedworkplacecopingstrategies(i.e.,takingatimeout)andallthoseusedafterworkwerenegativelycorrelatedwithfrequencyofemotionalexhaustion.Basedonthesefindings,theseresearchersconcludethatphysiciansselfreportedcopingstrategiesarenotallcreatedequalintermsoffrequencyofuseandcorrelationwithfeelingemotionallyexhaustedfromoneswork.Theresearchersalsoconcludethatthesefindingscanbeintegratedintopracticalphysicianstressreductioninterventions.Harknessetal.(2005)Thisstudyuseddiscourseanalysistoexplorethewayinwhichemployeesunderstandworkstress.Twenty-twofemaleclericalworkersinaCanadiancityparticipatedinfocusgroupmeetingswheretheytalkedaboutandmadesenseoftheirexperiencesofworkstress.Thewomensaccountswereanalyzedusingdiscourseanalysismethods(i.e.,anexaminationofhowtalkisconstructed).Thefindingsthatemergedfromthisstudyshowedthatsimplytalkingaboutbeingstressedprovidesasociallyacceptablewayofexpressingdiscomfortandregainingasenseofimportancethatislostthroughfeelingunder-valuedandunderappreciatedintheorganization.Incontrast,admittingtobeingunabletocopewithstresswasconsideredtobeabnormal.Thestressdiscoursefostersasenseofhelplessnessandambiguitybynotacknowledgingexternalinfluencesonclericalworkersexperiences,suchastheirplacewithinthepowerstructureoftheorganization,andbylimitingtheirsenseofagencyandcontroloverproblemsexperiencedatwork.Theimplicationsofthesefindingsfororganizationalcultureandinterventionsincludetheneedforemployerstobeconsciousofthemessagesbeingsenttoemployeesabouthownegativeemotionsordistressingexperiencesatworkaretobeaddressed(i.e.,howstressistobemanaged).Therecommendationsthatwereprovidedbytheseresearchersincludedtheneedfortheexaminationofalternativediscoursesthataimtoimproveconditionsatwork.Howard(2008)Usingasystematicreviewoftherelevantliteratureandacasestudyofsupervisoryinterventionsforoccupationalstressmanagement,thisresearcherdrewonconceptsfromthefieldofpositivepsychologysuchasworkengagement,senseofcoherence,self-efficacy,flowandresiliencehasbeguntoprovidedetailedunderstandingofworkershappiness,healthandbettermentBasedonthefindingsthatresultedfromthisstudy,Howardconcludedthattherelationshipbetweensupervisorandsuperviseeneedstobeoneinwhichtrustandempathyarebuiltfromtheoutset.Inaddition,itisalsoimportanttoconsiderwhentoapplythesemethods.Therearemanyopportunitiesforthesupervisortodoso.Opportunitiesmayincludecasediscussion,video-oraudio-tapereview,reviewingsuccess,learningneedsassessment,evaluationprocesses,professionalcompetencereviews,andteamworkanalysis.Dedicatedsessionsmaybeseenasimportantfromtimetotime,especiallywhenreviewsofthesupervisionhavebeenplanned.Adedicatedsessioncouldalsobecomeanopportunityforacelebrationofachievement.Gunn(2013)Thestudyusedacasestudyandhistoricprospectivemixed-methoddesign,comprisedofsixhomecareunitsinaNorwegianmunicipality(n=138respondents;responserate=76.2%or17informants.Thestudyincludedquantitativeestimations,registerdataofsickleave,atimelineofsignificanteventsandchanges,andqualitativedescriptionsofemployeeappraisalsoftheirworksituationgatheredthroughsemi-structuredinterviewsandopensurveyresponses.Thefindingsofthestudyshowedthattheworkenvironmentinterventionswereingeneralregardedaspositivebythehomecareworkers;allunits,though,weresimultaneouslysubjectedtosubstantialcontextualinstability,involvingnewworkprograms,newtechnology,restructurings,unitmergers,andmanagementreplacements,perceivedbythehomecareworkerstobemajorsourcesofstress.Thesefindingssuggestthatconcurrentchangesinducedthroughrationalizationresultedinnegativeexposureeffectsthatnegatedpositiveworkenvironmentinterventioneffects,causinganoveralldeterioratedworksituationforthehomecareworkers.inaldietal.(2010)Thisrandomized,controlledstudyevaluatedtheeffectivenessintheimprovementofthepsychicandsymptomaticstress-relateddisordersbymeansofradio-electricstimulationonsomeauricularreflexpointswithadevicenamedtheradio-electricasymmetricconveyer(EAC).Thestudywasconductedon124subjectswithpsychologicaldistresssymptomsthatwereassessedbytheSymptomaticCheckList-90pre-andpost-intervention.Afterrandomization,twogroupswerecreated:agrouptreatedwitheffectiveEACandagroupthatunderwentthesametreatmentwithdisarmedEAC(theplacebogroup).ThefindingsthatresultedfromthisstudyshowedthattherewasasignificantreductioninSCL-90scoresinthetreatedgroupcomparedwiththeplacebogroup.Theresultsofthepsychometrictestsshowedthatthesubjectswhounderwenteffectivetherapyshowedastatisticallysignificant(p

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Research Paper

Anatomy

Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Words: 1831
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Management

Job Stress Levels and Its Effect on

Words: 1591
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Job Stress Levels and its Effect on Production Mitsuka Technologies Inc. Mitsuka Technologies Inc. is involved in the manufacture of auto parts and components for one of the major…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
20 Pages
Term Paper

Careers

Job Stress

Words: 6333
Length: 20 Pages
Type: Term Paper

American today, works more that an American worker of even a generation ago. A 1999 Government report stated that workers worked 8% more hours than the previous generation. This…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
10 Pages
Dissertation or Thesis complete

Psychology

Critical Incident Stress Management CISM

Words: 3578
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete

CISM Program Surry Nuclear Power Plant What is CISM? Why is a CISM program necessary for the agency? Agency description, community, and social context Prevention and Interventions Primary Secondary…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Research Paper

Health - Nursing

Links Between Stress and Diseases

Words: 697
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Health Self-Assessment Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
7 Pages
Research Paper

Careers

Workplace Stress More Organizations May

Words: 2371
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Research Paper

9. Supporting organizational teams provides employees with a medium to discuss concerns and problems as well as an opportunity to help discharge emotional pressure. Sharing in a group serves…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Research Paper

Careers

How to Handle Stress

Words: 1663
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

demands of contemporary society and the accelerated pace that contribute to stress in the home, office, or workplace. By sheer economic necessity, organizations and individuals must be ready at…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Stresses and Challenges Facing Inmate Families Especially

Words: 1302
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

stresses and challenges facing inmate families, especially children? Children of imprisoned parents suffer the most. Children whose parents are imprisoned face adverse impacts. Criminal justice system focuses more on…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Research Paper

Business - Advertising

Stress This Enough The Media Industry Has

Words: 589
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

STRESS THIS ENOUGH). The Media industry has a severe influence on the masses and people often end up being unable to differentiate between normal attitudes and attitudes that they…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

effects of poverty on the brain

Words: 737
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

.....backed by other research works, is chiefly grounded in Luby and coworkers' 2013 research project titled "The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
9 Pages
Term Paper

Health - Nursing

Stress Response Associated With Cardiac Bypass Surgery and Anesthesia Concerns

Words: 2550
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
10 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Management

Stress in the Workplace Scenario

Words: 2621
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The first step in project management involves identifying the requirements. The second step is establishment of a clear and achievable objective. The third step is finding a balance for…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Case Study

Music

Effects of Listening to Music on Worker Productivity

Words: 1311
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Case Study

Listening to Music on orker Productivity: Music can basically serve various purposes with some of these purposes being fulfilled at the individual level while others at the level of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
7 Pages
Term Paper

Children

Effects of Deployments on Children

Words: 2177
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Military Children and the Effects of Long Deployments on Them Over the last several years, the children of parents who are serving in the military are facing increasing amounts…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
10 Pages
Term Paper

Disease

Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies.…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Stress in Education & Effects on Move to Workplace

Words: 1554
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

Student Stress he education to employment paradigm in Canada and around the world is stressful enough. However, stress really needs to be addressed and dealt with before that transition…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Terrorism

Stress Caused by September 11th on the Children of America

Words: 1339
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Post- Traumatic Stress as a Psychological Effect of the 9/11 ombings to Americans On September 11, 2001, America and the whole world witnessed the most recent terrorist attack of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
7 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Effects of Massage on Depression in Newly Widowed Elderly Females

Words: 1789
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
9 Pages
Term Paper

Children

Effects of Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 4184
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Domestic Violence on Children Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Research Paper

Children

Effects and Treatments

Words: 2434
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Infants Who Witness Violence: Effects and Treatments INFANTS WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: EFFECTS AND 1 Age Span Differences Effects on Infants A Sleeper Effect Stunt Babies' Intellectual Development Cerebral Effects…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Research Paper

Music

Effects of Music on Memory

Words: 2435
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Music on Emotions and Behavior Music and education Psychological implications The effect of music on word recall Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Research Paper

Terrorism

Effects of Terrorism on the American Psyche

Words: 968
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Terrorism and the American Psyche The attacks of September 11, 2001 not only affected those who were killed and injured, but also millions of ordinary Americans. The impact of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
14 Pages
Term Paper

Terrorism

Effects of the Media on Terrorism

Words: 3734
Length: 14 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Media on Terrorism Acts of anti-American terrorism are becoming increasingly common, and more and more are occurring on American soil, according to Columbia political scientist rigitte L. Nacos (Nacos,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Effects of PTSD on the US Military

Words: 1573
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Paper

PTSD on the U.S. Military In order to fully understand the issues with PTSD and the military, one must consider the idea that military service can have a serious…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Literature Review Chapter

Children

Effects of Homosexual Parents on Children

Words: 1266
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Literature Review Chapter

Homosexual Parents on Children Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of…

Read Full Paper  ❯