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stress on Kidneys and esistance phone of GAS
Effects of stress on Kidneys and esistance phase of GAS
Stress is an emotional or physical strain normally caused as a result to the tension or pressure from the outside world. Some of the most prominent reactions to stress include tension, agitation, increased heart beat and lack of concentration. Although, it is inevitable to lead a life without stress still there are ways in which this situation can be controlled. (Health Information Publications 2002-11). This research essay aims to delineate the affects of stress on the renal system. It seeks to explain the physiological activities of the kidney under normal homeostatic conditions, and what may occur in the kidneys when the body is experiencing the resistance phase of the general adaptive syndrome
STESS AND THE GAS
A human brain works in mysterious ways. It can regulate functions throughout the body, without…
Sapolsky, R.M. (2004) Why Zebras don't get ulcers. Pp, 19-36
Health Information Publication. Available from [Accessed on 3rd April 2011]
Birmingham City University January 2011 Available from [Accessed on 3rd April 2011]
Health News Network. Available from
Understandability of Controlled Burn: The Gendering of Stress and Burnout in Modern Policing Results
The results presented in the article are understandable because the authors have presented the result in a well detailed and formulated manner. The article has clearly indicated a number of factors that are directly associated with law enforcement. The authors have also identified some of the major causes of stress and burnout to police officers. By categorizing the factors according to gender, the authors have shown how different factors have an impact on different individuals. For example, it has been shown that women are more stressed when they hear they have to undergo internal investigations as compared to men. Presenting data in this manner makes it easy for any reader to understand and differentiate how various factors would impact individuals based on gender (LoBiondo-Wood, 2014). There have also been differences noted based on race. African Americans…
Gregor, S., & Hevner, A. R. (2013). Positioning and presenting design science research for maximum impact. MIS Quarterly, 37(2).
Klychova, G., Zakirova, A., Mukhamedzyanov, K., & Faskhutdinova, ?. (2014). Management reporting and its use for information ensuring of agriculture organization management. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(24), 104.
Labani, S., & Asthana, S. (2015). Basics of biostatistics for understanding research findings. MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences, 1(3), 136.
LoBiondo-Wood, G. (2014). Understanding research findings. Nursing Research-E-Book: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice, 334.
Wincup, E. (2017). Criminological research: Understanding qualitative methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
From these responses will be generated the even more specific and in-depth questions that will used to obtain a more complete picture from the focus group.
The focus group, as mentioned above, will be composed of five students from each of the three groups. That will provide the study with a big enough focus group to discern certain trends and by seeking a more in-depth knowledge of how the students feel about certain scenarios could be helpful in providing more insight into how different events are perceived by students from different backgrounds.
David L. Morgan writes in his book; Focus Groups as Qualitative esearch that "most rewarding...is the fact that focus groups are now a much more widely practiced research method within the social sciences" (p. vii).
Morgan continues by writing "there is a sizeable literature about focus groups in anthropology, communication studies, education, evaluation, nursing, political science, psychology, public…
Dole, N., Savitz, D.A., Hertz-Picciotto, I and others (2003) Maternal stress and preterm birth, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 157, No. 1, pp. 14-24
Feliciano, C., (2005) Educational selectivity in U.S. immigration: How do immigrants compare to those left behind?, Demography, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 131-52
Goodrick, G., Kneuper, S., Steinbauer, J.; (2005) Stress perceptions in community clinic: a pilot survey of patients and physicians, Journal of Community Health, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 75-88
Moloney, D.M., (2007) in a new land, Journal of Social History, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 1061-1063
Stress and Suicide in Law Enforcement Populations
The paper is an understanding of what stress could have on law enforcement officials. The factors which cause stress for law enforcement officials are varied ranging from personal life issues, the pressures of work, the public response towards police job, the entire criminal law system and the entire rules and procedures involved in the law system. If this stress is not alleviated then the officers start reacting in negative ways. The biggest stress on most police officers is suicide. The numbers of police officers that face death by committing suicide are very high when compared to those who are killed when they are on duty. During 1934 and 1960 the suicide rates of the police officers were nearly half of the general population. But then from 1980 to the current date this situation has changed so drastically that the death rates as to…
Stress disorders, the stress is so great that it is debilitating and dominates the person and interferes with living one's life. Stress can be good or bad. A skiing champion described how stress helped him perform his best, but a Viet Nam War veteran describes how horrific things he had seen haunted him and intruded into his mind, while awake and while asleep.
Our bodies show clear responses to stress. We perspire, breath quicker, heartbeat rises, and muscles tense for action. WE may also turn pale, or get "goose bumps," or feel sick to the stomach. Stress can trigger anxiety problems. In stressful situations, the brain triggers a variety of body-function changes. The sympathetic nervous system rallies body functions for fight 0r flight; the parasympathetic nervous system restores us to normal functioning.
One of the most devastating of the stress disorders is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It makes sense to…
The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.
The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.
Implication of the esults
If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…
Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.
Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null
Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.
Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.
Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory
Symptoms of Short-Term Memory
Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory
When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).
The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).
This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…
Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774
Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html
HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm
Nutrition and Stress
Stress affects eating habits by causing a person to exhibit patterns of disordered eating (Khansari, et al., 1990). Some people will choose to eat too much, and others will eat too little (Seaward, n.d.). Additionally, it is not just the amount of food a person is taking in, but the type of food that is being consumed. Comfort foods are commonly seen in the eating habits of people who are stressed, even if the person would not normally consume those foods or would not eat them as often (Khansari, et al., 1990). When a person is experiencing stress, though, he or she unconsciously reaches for foods that bring psychological comfort, and that can actually cause more harm to the body. It is very important that a person under stress focuses on eating properly, such as having three meals per day, eating only appropriate snacks, and avoiding a…
Khansari, D.N., Murgo, A.J., et al. (1990). Effects of stress on the immune system. Immunology Today, 44(26): 170-175.
Seaward, B.L. (n.d.). The domino effect. Authenticliving.com. Retrieved from: http://www.brianlukeseaward.com/downloads/DominoEffect.pdf
Managing Stress Exercise
Managing Stress through Physical Exercise
hat is the importance of flushing stress hormones out of the body according to Seaward? hat are the specific effects of physical exercise on managing and preventing stress?
During a period of exercise, the body is responding to stress hormones the way it was intended to. Stress hormones on the body generally prompt something of a fight or flight trigger. Using exercise to burn out the energy caused by the stimulus to the stress can be an effective method of dealing with stress. Exercise has been shown to reduce the level of cortisol in the body and even effect mood. Exercise attacks stress in two ways, according to Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Ph.D., a kinesiologist at the Yale Stress Center (Menlinck, 2013):
He says "that raising one's heart rate can actually reverse damage to the brain caused by stressful events: "Stress atrophies the brain…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, July 12). Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469
Menlinck, M. (2013, May 21). How Does Exercise Reduce Stress? Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/21/exercise-reduces-stress-levels-anxiety-cortisol_n_3307325.html
Health Psychology Stress ManagementStress is a term that refers to the physical and emotional adaptive reaction to external situations that generate psychological, behavioral, or psychological deviations (Hailu, 2020). Stress is brought by various factors relating to the experiences of daily life. As a result, individuals need to develop stress management techniques to learn to cope with stress and mitigate its impacts on physical and emotional health and wellbeing. Students in secondary schools and higher learning institutions are increasingly exposed to a series of ongoing normative stressors relating to daily academic demands (Pascoe, Hetrick & Parker, 2019). Academic-related stress affects the health and wellbeing of these students as well as lessens academic performance, increases the risk of school dropout, and decreases motivation. While numerous stress management techniques and behaviors exist, the impact of stress management behaviors on academic-related stress remains unknown. This study seeks to address the gap in existing…
ReferencesAlborzkouh, P., Nabati, M., Zainali, M., Abed, Y. & Ghahfarokhi, F.S. (2015). A review of the effectiveness of stress management skills training on academic vitality and psychological well-being of college students. Journal of Medicine and Life, 8(4), 39-44.Bistricky, S.L., Carper, K.L., Roberts, C.M., Cook, D.M., Schield, S.L., Bui, J. & Short, M.B. (2017). Understanding and promoting stress management practices among college students through an Integrated Health Behavior Model. American Journal of Health Education, 49(1), 12-27. Boke, B.N., Mills, D.J., Mettler, J. & Heath, N.L. (2019). Stress and coping patterns of university students. Journal of College Student Development, 60(1), 85-103. Hailu, G.N. (2020). Practice of stress management behaviors and associated factors among undergraduate students of Mekelle University, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 20(162), 1-7.Pascoe, M.C., Hetrick, S.E. & Parker, A.G. (2019). The impact of stress on students in secondary school and higher education. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 104-112.
Stress in Law Enforcement
Stress and Law Enforcement
Professionals of law enforcements are responsible for some crucial and informative decision-making in their offices and fields which requires a standard operating procedures or codes to find the solutions of many issues. This procedure may look simple at first glance, but it can easily build up stress due to unpredictable situations and add up of infinite variables of the general public. Law enforcement officials have been expected to sustain discipline and remain neutral during the attempt of solving disputes safely. Physical and mental stress takes toll when professionals are observed by public and constantly stay under surveillance. Physical danger linked with work performance is the highest stress triggered (Bennett and Hess, 2007).
There are many forms of stress which vary according to the sources and the personal responses linked with it. Stress is usually categorized as acute and chronic stress and further…
Bennett, W.W., & Hess, K.M. (2007). Management and Supervision in Law Enforcement. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Jackson, E. (2006). Workplace Stress: What's Causing it and What Can Be Done? Retrieved from Australian Psychological Society: http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/stress_work/
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2013). Stress Management. Retrieved from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D
Sewell, J.D. (2000). Identifying and Mitigating Workplace Stress Among Forensic Laboratory Managers. Retrieved from The Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/index.htm/sewell.htm
Wiley, Carolyn. 2000. "A Synthesis of Research on the Causes, Effects, and Reduction Strategies of Teacher Stress." Journal of Instructional Psychology, June.
Carolyn Wiley wrote an extensive review of the research on occupational stress as it applies to one specific group -- teachers. Many of her cites are older, one going back as far as 1938, which suggests she did a very thorough job of going through the literature. To emphasize the effects of stress over time on the body, she refers to a pathologist who asserts that people don't die of "old age:" they die because one body system gave out, causing a cascade of events leading to death, and that stress over time is the likely cause of the first system's collapse.
She also makes the point that we cannot avoid stress in life, but that teachers experience significant levels of stress. She classifies stress into four…
Dunseath, Jennifer; Beehr, Terry A., and King, Daniel W.
Widmer, Lori. 2002. "A not-so-hidden workplace cost." Risk & Insurance, July.
Wiley, Carolyn. 2000. "A Synthesis of Research on the Causes, Effects, and Reduction Strategies of Teacher Stress." Journal of Instructional Psychology, June.
Stress in the Workplace
The research topic under discussion is Stress at Workplace. Stress comes with different definitions, one of which is that stress is a 'physical, chemical or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension.' Emotional stress relates to job burnout, tension and strain and many scholars have called it a psychological process and linked it with the individual and the situation that he is in (American Psychological Association, 2009). The global economy has become very competitive and demands a lot of work from the employees which puts a lot of pressure on them. These increased expansions and demands of the traditional workplace have put a lot more pressure on the workers (Lokk & Arnetz, 1997; Soylu and Campbell, 2012).
The International Labor Organization and World Health Organization have recognized many different effects of stress that are harmful to the person. These effects include physical problems, psychological problems,…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2008, April).Mental health woes remain one ofthe top reasons for doctor visits. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/apr08/0408RA33.htm
American Psychological Association Practice Organization (2009).APA Poll Find EconomicStress Taking a Toll on Men. Retrieved from: http://www.apapracticecentral.org/news/2009/stress-men.aspx
American Psychological Association Practice Organization. (2010). Psychologically Healthy Workplace Program Fact Sheet: By the Numbers. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/practice/programs/workplace/phwp-fact-sheet.pdf
American Psychological Association. (2009).Stress in America 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress-exec-summary.pdf
Stress affects children in many ways. From lacking confidence to developing eating disorders, to becoming antisocial, stress can take a toll on a child. Developing within an environment of stress and upheaval generates a sense of instability within children. When they are older, they may seek that stability or sense of stability in harmful activities or people. A good example of this is a child experiencing abuse at an early age and then marrying someone that abuses him or her.
The impact of stress on children can be great and often generates long-term side effects. Depression, personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, psychiatrists find these kinds of mental health problems frequently in children experiencing chronic stress. Some may not even appear from abuse, but rather from trying to please their parents and the people around them. Over achieving children may feel chronic stress because people expect him or her to…
Evans, G., & Kim, P. (2012). Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, Self-Regulation, and Coping. Child Dev Perspect, 7(1), 43-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12013
Koenig, J., Walker, C., Romeo, R., & Lupien, S. (2011). Effects of stress across the lifespan. Stress, 14(5), 475-480. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10253890.2011.604879
Moffitt, T. (2013). Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces. Dev Psychopathol,25(4pt2), 1619-1634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0954579413000801
Pechtel, P., & Pizzagalli, D. (2011). Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature.Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 55-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-2009-2
Stress eduction & Workplace Wellness Program
Online Mindfulness-Based Stress eduction (MBS)
This is a 100% free online MBS training course, developed by a fully licensed MBS tutor, and modelled based on the Jon Kabat-Zinn program founded at the Medical school of Massachusetts University. The people the program targets are those that cannot take live MBS courses for either logistical or financial reasons. Each of the several materials utilized during the live course, which include videos and articles on meditation, are available online for free (MBS, N.D). The Workplace Wellness and Stress eduction Program has the ability to inculcate a change in business and professional culture. When both workers and employers learn effective ways to deal with stress, the long-term benefits in terms of cost reduction and increased productivity are quite numerous. Apart from minimizing stress, awareness and mindfulness training can also cultivate mental alertness, flexibility, resiliency, initiative, creativity and intuition,…
Malatesta, I. (2015). Why your company (really) needs a stress management program. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://www.lifedojo.com/blog/why-your-company-really-needs-a-stress-management-program
Online Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://palousemindfulness.com/
Walker, T. (n.d.). Stress Reduction & Workplace Wellness Program. Retrieved May 11, 2016, fromhttp://thehealingcircle.ca/resources/articles-and-readings/stress-reduction-workplace-wellness-program/
Analyzing My Stress Diary
Maintaining a stress diary has been a most useful experience, as it has led to some valuable personal insights. Though I have been aware of experiencing somewhat high levels of anxiety off and on, accompanied by a feeling of being tied up in knots, I never really attempted to either consciously monitor the frequency of such episodes or try to resolve the problem. Until I started keeping a daily 'stress log' to record the frequency, causes, and my reactions to stressful events and situations.
The daily recording of my sources of stress has now helped me realize that my common stressors are the results of term papers that I have handed in, and the presence of a couple of people in my circle of friends. Reflecting on these causes, I have reached the conclusion that both my stressors are largely caused by anxiety over…
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Definition of stress
esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.
Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…
AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from http://www.stress.org/topic-definition-stress.htm
Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.marieclaire.com/health-fitness/news/stress-effects-body
Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D
Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx
Current training paradigms have been found to create to relationship between traditional handgun training, for example, and the necessity of using handguns in the line of duty itself. Indeed, the authors provide excellent literature support for the main focus of the work, which is to emphasize the general lack of adequate and realistic on-the-job training for police officers and military personnel. The literature review futhermore emphasize the effect of unusual stress not only on the cortisol levels, but also on the ability to learn from experience and effectively incorporate such learning experiences in the long-term. In other words, these learning experiences, when provided only during the work situation itself, create a dangerous situation for both officers of the law and those who share any physical vicinity with them.
The article therefore indicates that a vital component of military and police training, in terms of creating situations that simulate probably job…
Stress Factors in Law Enforcement
his brief paper will look at some of the issues and circumstances that create stress in the lives of law enforcement officers. In particular some chronic stressors will be examined that contribute to higher than normal rates of suicide, divorce and alcoholism in the profession.
here is little debate over the contention that law enforcement officers face inordinate amounts of stress during the course of their duties. For instance, police officers have one of the highest rates of suicide in the nation. While the national rate of divorce is approximately fifty percent, the divorce rate for police officers is between sixty and seventy percent and evidence indicates that alcohol abuse is about twice the rate of the general population (Haines, 2003).
here are many programs available to deal with situations that produce acute stress, such as post shooting trauma. What is not as obvious…
The daily grind of police work exposes officers to constant stressors that slowly accumulate making them more vulnerable to traumatic incidents and normal pressures of life. Often this process is too slow to see and neither the individual nor his or her constituents are aware of the damage being done.
While programs for acute stressors are important, few officers are involved in traumatic incidents in a year as compared to the whole department, which meets stress in call after call. One of these routine stressor are traffic stops. A police officer may pull over many cars during the course of a week for a variety of reasons. The officer is apt to hear excuses to gain sympathy or indignities to demean them, and there is always the risk that the individual or individuals in the vehicle will try to kill or injure the officer. However, officers are expected to be friendly at best or neutral at worst. If an officer approaches a car with a friendly attitude, his guard is down, on the other hand if an officer approaches a driver thinking this might be the one who attacks him, he will come across as rude, gruff and uncaring. This dilemma creates opposite mental states; a person can't hold both attitudes at the same time. This produces chronic stress with the cumulative effect of breaking down defenses, exacerbating other pressures, and weakening the immune system leaving the individual vulnerable to diseases and such conditions as ulcers ("Common Stress," 2011).
Another common source of stress for a police officer is the fact that a police department is both a professional and a military organization. It is a professional organization in the
As we have learned throughout the course of our present studies, stress and anxiety disorders can render a debilitating effect for the subject. The incapacity to control stress, to limit the physiological or emotional panic produced by stressful situations or to go about one's daily life with functional normalcy are all factors which can magnify and intensify an already imposing condition. e proceed with the understanding that chronic stress and the failure to manage this effectively is known to contribute to a host of worsening conditions both physically and emotionally. Among them, our research denotes that poor stress management can lead to chronic illness, a host of psychosomatic symptoms, an array of real bodily responses relating to the body's chemical 'fight' or 'flight' mechanism, and most importantly to our discussion, an intensifying experience of one's psychological symptoms. This is true even to the extent that poor stress management…
Lehrer, P., & Woolfolk, R. (Eds.) (2007). Principles and practice of stress management. (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Stress Among Police
Stress among the police
Stress among the police force
Police workforce remains an environment that is highly stressful being an occupation that a person has to deal with physical dangers and risking their lives any time they are working. esearch indicates that the prevalent stress warning signs that need to deal with immediately they appear are sudden behavior changes in behavior, erratic work behavior, increase of sick time because of minor problems, failure to preserve a train of thought, and extreme worrying. There are many ways, which departments in the police force can deal with stressing the police force. The first mechanism is provision of stress management initiatives to both offices and their spouses. There is a need for identification of officers under stress and offer them counseling to assist in alleviating their stress. Periodic screenings as well as training concentrating on stress management is necessary.
Territo, L., & Vetter, H.J. (2001). Stress and police personnel. Boston, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.
Toch, H., Bailey, F.Y., & Floss, M. (2002). Stress in policing. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
227), creating a house-full of stress and tension.
Another study delves into how much children "matter" to their stepparents -- because "to matter is to be noticed, to be an object of concern, and to be needed by a specific individual" (Schenck, et al., 2009, p. 71). The authors posit that when children "feel secure and accepted in their parental relationships, they feel less threatened by stressful events" (p. 71). This study, published in the journal Fathering, involved 133 adolescents in stepfather families. The child participants were in 7th grade at the outset of the research; the end result of the research concluded, "mattering to both fathers [stepfather and biological father] was significantly related to adolescents' mental health problems" (Schenck, p. 84). Further, it was found (through teacher interviews) that when a child "mattered" to the stepfather the child was more apt to "externalize" his problems, which reduces stress and…
Adler-Baeder, Francesca, and Higginbotham, Brian. (2004). Implications for Remarriage and Stepfamily Formation for Marriage Education. Family Relations, Vol. 53, 448-458).
Bryner, Charles L. (2001). Clinical Review: Children of Divorce. Journal of the American
Board of Family Practice, 14(3), 201-209.
Divorce Rate. (2009). What is the current divorce rate in America. Retrieved July 21, 2009,
The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can be caused by work related situation, the domestic stress, unsolved financial stress and such prolonged triggers.
Stress, if not checked can be harmful to the individual but also the immediate family or those living around the victim. Hence, there is absolute need to tackle stress as soon as it shows signs as discussed above. These responses may include though not restricted to; a) Talking about it, this should be encouraged. The victim should talk about it with the family members, friends, colleagues, counselor etc. b). Taking a break, which may include going to a place one rarely goes to or doing some activities they rarely do but enjoy, it may also involve indulging in picnics or long travel holidays, engaging in…
Stressfocus, (2009). Discover the Basics of Stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.stressfocus.com/stress_focus_article/stress-and-its-causes.htm
Thebreastcancersite, (2010). Ten ways to tackle stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.thebreastcaresite.com/tbcs/Renewal/EmotionalRecovery/TenWaystoTackleStress.htm
Gill T.S., (2009). Top 7 Tips to cure stress and anxiety revealed. Article snatch. Retrieved June
9, 2010 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Top-7-Tips-to-Cure-Stress-and-Anxiety-Revealed-/1163642
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
Pressure on Performance
The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students.
Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test performance and cognitive performance. Previous research has suggested that anxiety interferes with test performance by means of cognitive interference. Often, especially in individuals with high levels of test anxiety, stress leads to anxiety which leads to inattention, self-absorption, and focus on self-evaluation rather than on task-relevant behaviors. Stress is most often induced by a high pressure environment and can vary from situation to situation. The purpose the current study is to examine whether stress induced from a high pressure environment negatively affects testing performance. The current study investigated the effects of time pressure (being timed) and performance pressure (being evaluated) on the ability of college students to solve anagrams. It was hypothesized that pressure would lead to stress that would result…
Holroyd, K.A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 442-451.
Morris, L.W., & Liebert, R.M. (1969). Effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 929-938.
Arousal, Behavior, Stress and Affect:
Differences between Physiological and Psychological Needs:
While human beings share some simple requirements for sustaining life and health, these needs are always confused with wishes, desires and wants. Human needs can therefore be defined as the basic requirements for health and well-being which is both physiological and psychological in nature. In order for a person to remain healthy, his/her physiological and psychological needs should be satisfied. Actually, these needs are inter-connected since they both work together for the purposes of life and well-being. When each of these needs is fulfilled, it fosters integration and well-being while promoting fragmentation and ill-being when it's not fulfilled. Human physiological needs are defined as those needs that are required for the sustenance and growth of a healthy body while psychological needs are those that are required for the sustenance and growth of a healthy mind. Whereas examples of physiological…
Clark, D. (2009, May 4). Arousal and Performance. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/arousal.html
Beaumont, L.R. (n.d.). Need: The Minimum Requirements of Life and Health. Retrieved March
31, 2011, from http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/need.htm
McEwen, B.S. (2011, March). Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain. Retrieved March 31,
Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary work-related risk factor appears to be lack of control over how one meets the job's demands and how one uses one's skills. In many cases, elevation of risk with a demanding job appears only when these demands occur in interaction with low control on the job. Other research has shown that regular physical exertion has positive effects on cardiovascular health in many situations (although physical hazards can of course pose major health threats beyond our stress perspective). Thus, in our…
Black, S. (2001, October). CORRECTIONAL EMPLOYEE Stress & Strain. Corrections Today, 63, 83.
Black's work demonstrates a great introduction to stress in general, as it applies to the individual and community as well as specific information about stress in the field of corrections. This article is an excellent introduction to the material of this research as well as to a better understanding of how stress is playing out all over the field of corrections.
Devito, P.L. (1994, July). The Immune System vs. Stress. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 123, 27.
Devito offers a great description of the history of stress, its definitions and the fundamental and seminal research and ideology that applies to stress. The mind/body connection is traced through this work to give the reader and researcher a good idea of the holistic expression of unresolved stress in one's health and well-being.
It was found that academic exam stress caused significant increases in P and TAI scores, which were related to high levels of serum, significantly more so in males than females, who only had an increase in serum sgp130 when taking birth control drugs. Males were found to have significantly more serum sCD8. The results suggest that psychological stress induces immune-inflammatory changes with complex regulatory responses in IL-6 signaling, decreased anti-inflammatory capacity of serum and interactions with T-cell and monocytic activation. The results of this study also suggest that sex hormones may modify stress-induced immune-inflammatory responses (ong et al. p. 293).
Anxiolytic drugs of the benzodiazepine class and other drugs that affect catecholamine, GABAA, histamine and serotonin receptors, alter the stress response and regulate stress hormone secretion. It has been shown that exposure to hostile conditions induces lowered immune system and cardiovascular responses, as well as neural circuits and neurotransmitter system…
Song, C, Kenis, G., van Gastel, a., Bosmans, E., Lin, a., de Jong, R., Neels, H., Scharpe, et al. (1999). Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans. Part II. Altered serum concentrations of natural anti-inflammatory agents and soluble membrane antigens of monocytes and T. lymphocytes. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 85, 3. Retrieved at http://www.psy-journal.com/article/PIIS0165178199000128/abstract .
Tait, M. (2007). Music 'enhances ecstasy effects.' Focus. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/Omegaman_UK/drugs.html.
Van de Kar, L.D., Blair, M.L. (1999). Forebrain pathways mediating stress-induced hormone secretion. PubMed: A service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Chicago: Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine.
The stress alarm, therefore, can actually assist the employee to improve her performance and is necessary especially, if positive perceptions regarding the challenges of the work environment exist. The response to the stress under the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, provided that the exceptions held by the employee are positive, is healthy and necessary for survival and productivity. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). Under this theory, emotional and physical health within the individual is sustained through a positive expectation for the outcomes, compliance with the expectations, or through resisting the stress altogether. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). A summary chart outlining these different theories on stress and their potential effects on the organization follows.
A Comparison of Theories of Stress and How They Affect Organizational Operations
Effect on the Organization
Fight or Flight
The stress produces physiological…
Afzalur, R. (1996). Stress, strain, and their moderators: An empirical comparison of entrepreneurs and managers. The Journal of Small Business Management, 34, 1-12.
Cooper, C.L. ed. (2002). Theories of organizational stress. New York, NY: Oxford University
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
The human stress response is influenced by a host of personality characteristics and life experiences that cannot be duplicated in animal studies. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)
Because stressful stimuli often elicit cortisol secretion, some researchers have proposed the use of cortisol levels as an index of the stress response. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)
esearchers have indicated that human and animal anxiety/stress profiles differ along cognitive behavioral lines. These findings are based on the idea that anxiety is understood as an affective (emotional) state in humans (Wall & Messier, 2001). esearch was conducted regarding stress utilizing hesus monkeys. The study uses a hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which was injected into half of the pregnant hesus monkeys in the study. ACTH is secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. It is secreted in response to various types of stress. Blood samples were…
Anisman, H., & Merali, Z. (1999). Understanding Stress: Characteristics and Caveats. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(4), 241.
Carobez, a.P., & Bertoglio, L.J. (2005). Ethological and temporal analyses of anxiety-like behavior: The elevated plus-maze model 20 years on. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 29, pp.1193-1205.
Field, T., & Field, T. (1991). Stress and Coping from Pregnancy through the Postnatal Period. In Life Span Developmental Psychology: Perspectives on Stress and Coping, Cummings, E.M., Greene, a.L., & Karraker, K.H. (Eds.) (pp. 45-57). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Field, T.M., McCabe, P.M., & Schneiderman, N. (Eds.). (1985). Stress and Coping. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Prioritize. Try not to schedule too many things at once. In the words of one article by the health center at Colorado University entitled "10 Great Stress Reducers," learn to say 'no.' Also, learn to live within your budget. In other words, don't sweat the small stuff, and don't make yourself crazy by overcommitting yourself and leaving everything to the last minute. Ask yourself, do I need this? Do I have to do this?
Of course, no one can completely avoid stress in their life, and in fact, some forms of stress can be good. Lots of people like the positive, controlled stress of exercise or performing. There is a different 'perfect' balance of stress and relaxation for every person. But everyone can benefit from learning some ways to counteract the physical strains of being under stress. Stretching -- and stretching often, even simply rolling down your spine, touching your…
10 Great Stress Reducers." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTips10Great.htm
How to survive finals with less stress. (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTipsFinals.html
Stressed Out?" (Jan 2007). The National Institute of Health. NIH. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/pdf/NIHNiH%20January07.pdf
Stretch Often." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTipsStretch.html
stress conjures up different things for different people, yet stress is a universal: everyone experiences stress throughout their life. Stress can be both good and bad depending on how it impacts the person who is experiencing the stress, and what other variables are present in the person's life at the time. Stress can result from positive happy events in people's lives, such as when a new baby is born. Stress can also result from negative contexts or conditions over which people do not have control. Some types of stress and some ways of responding to stress are associated with higher levels of disease. Naturally, on the flip side, some ways of responding to stress actually serve to reduce the stress and the negative impact that the stress has on the individual person. Regardless of what people would like to believe or deny, stress impacts every aspect of people's lives: emotional,…
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…
Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.
Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin
Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.
Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
Job Stress Levels and its Effect on Production
Mitsuka Technologies Inc.
Mitsuka Technologies Inc. is involved in the manufacture of auto parts and components for one of the major automobile manufacturers in the world. As part of a quality and efficiency audit, a team has been assembled to assess the areas that need improvement to increase production, and ultimately profitability. Job stress is a concern for all levels of an organization, individual, group team, and the organization as a whole. This study will assess the level, sources of job stress and the effects that it has on Mitsuka Technologies Inc. In terms of quality, efficiency and productivity.
Studies have shown that stress effects an organization in many very real and measurable ways and that identifying the sources of stress and developing a plan to eliminate or reduce these stressors can have an impact on productivity and profitability. On an individual…
Carey, Allen D. (1997). Ways to Deal with Stress. ESU Online Management Journal. http://www.emporia.edu/ibed/jour/jour13ob/allencob.htm Accessed October 2002.
Douglas, Max E. (1996) Creating Employee Stress in the Workplace: A Supervisor's Role. Supervision. Oct 1996 p. 6-9.
Shellenbarger, Sue. (2001). Savvy Professionals Cope With Good and Bad Stress. Wall Street Journal Online. July 26, 2001. http://www.careerjournal.com/columnists/workfamily/20010726-workfamily.html Accessed October 2002.
Spiers, Carole. (2002) Stress Management. Training Journal. April 2002. www.csa-stress.co.ukOrganisationalstress:a management perspectiveSpiers / Accessed October 2002.
American today, works more that an American worker of even a generation ago. A 1999 Government report stated that workers worked 8% more hours than the previous generation. This translates to an average workweek of 47 hours. Twenty percent of workers today work more than 49 hours. The work place has been constantly changing -- the revolution from agronomies to industrialization having had its origins in the industrial revolution. Most of the industrialized regions of the world have attained better standards with significant improvements in quality of life as a result of the industrial revolution. In turn, however, the workplace became more formal and restrictive. Any personal skills of an individual worker were generally ignored. These abilities were not essential a worker's role in the "new" work environment.
Mass production was the next phase of change in the workplace. It made standardization the norm. Greater emphasis was placed on conforming…
Armour, Stephanie. "Workers Seek Compensation from Employers for Job Stress." USA TODAY May 15, 2002.
Barsade, S, and B. Wiesenfeld. Attitudes in the American Workplace Iii. New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Management., 1997.
Bond, J.T., E. Galinsky, and J.E. Swanberg. The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute, 1998.
Briggs, Susan. To Think or to Do? 2001. Available. December 8, 2002. http://www.pacpubserver.com/new/business/3-12-01/motivation.html
CISM Program Surry Nuclear Power Plant
What is CISM?
Why is a CISM program necessary for the agency?
Agency description, community, and social context
Prevention and Interventions
Chronic health and innovative approaches
Proposed Budget .17
Critical incident stress management plays an important role in assuring the psychological resilience necessary for those who are exposed to a traumatic incident. This proposal outlines a program to add mental Health Services to the existing emergency management plan for the Surry Power Plant. The current plan does not address mental health issues, and this is an important need that will need to be considered in the future. The current plan will modify the existing plan through the addition of mental health services for the community.
Proposal: CISM Program
What is CISM?
A critical incident is any event that produces stress or trauma to personnel that are directly or…
Blesdoe, B. (2002), June). CISM: Possible Liability for EMS Services? Prehospital Perspective.
2002; 1(6): September (reprint of Best Practices piece) Retrieved from http://www.bryanbledsoe.com/data/pdf/mags/CISM%20(BP).pdf
Bledsoe, B.E. & Barnes, D. (2003) "Beyond the debriefing debate: What should we be doing?"
Emergency Medical Services Magazine; 32(12), 60-68.
Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain is constantly changing, in that there is no constant self. The brain can thus be "re-wired," as a consequence of this neuroplasticity. When considering the brain and its role in our health, this is important because as the brain regenerates, we have the opportunity to change it. We do not need to be who we were, for example. Some of this is fairly common sense -- new experiences can change us -- but neuroscience has allowed this to be proven, that our brains are not set entities but can be transformed. Even more important is the finding that we can change our own brains over time with training (Draganski, et al., 2004).
Stress is one of the major influences on the…
AIS (2016). Stress effects. American Institute of Stress. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from http://www.stress.org/stress-effects/
Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Boghdan, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature. Vol. 427 (22 Jan 2004) 311-312.
Pradhan, E., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B., Gilpin, A., Magyan, T., Hochberg, M. & Berman, B. (2007). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care and Research. Vol. 57 (7) 1134-1142.
Zautra, A., Burleson, M., Matt, K., Roth, S. & Burrows, L. (1994). Interpersonal stress, depression and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Health Psychology. Vol. 13 (2) 139-148.
9. Supporting organizational teams provides employees with a medium to discuss concerns and problems as well as an opportunity to help discharge emotional pressure. Sharing in a group serves as a catharsis and stress release system.
10. Guarantying employees have the freedom to work effectively as well as ensuring they sense their work contributes to a greater purpose decreases workplace stress (Raitano and Kleiner).
hen implementing secondary prevention method, the organization moderates the stress response. Some ways the organization may apply these strategies include:
1. Aerobic exercise and weight training as well as other physical fitness techniques and/or sports opportunities help monitor the body's adverse reactions to stress.
2. Providing access to relaxation training can contribute to reducing workplace stress. hen the individual participates in exercises like deep breathing and engages in mental imagery; focusing on a relaxing environment, this helps enhance his moods and permit him to…
Noblet, Andrew and Anthony D. Lamontagne. "The role of workplace health promotion in addressing job stress." Health Promot. Int. 2006 21: 346-353. Oxford Journals. 9 Aug.
"A Positive approach to workplace stress; This world-renowned researcher explores anxiety at work and how support systems can alleviate it.(Shelley E. Taylor)(Interview)." Gallup
Management Journal. Gallup Organization. 2007. HighBeam Research. 9 Aug. 2010
demands of contemporary society and the accelerated pace that contribute to stress in the home, office, or workplace. By sheer economic necessity, organizations and individuals must be ready at all times to glean as much productivity per worker per day as possible. The complexity of the modern workplace combined with the realities of life have consequences -- stress (U.S. Department of Labor, 2010). But thinking of stress as only an inhibiting or negative factor may not always be correct -- in fact, there are numerous positive results of stress that can increase attention to detail, ideation and creativity, and increased output (Linden, 2006).
Stress is clearly an adaptive response to stimuli -- external or internal. It is the body's reaction to events that can be distributing, discomfiting, or threatening. When humans perceive such an event, chemicals are released from the brain that can cause elevated heart rate, greater sensitivity to…
Carter, R., et al. (2009). The Human Brain Book. New York: Penguin.
Cordon, S., Brown, K., Gibson, P. (2009). The Role of Mindfulness-based Stress
Reduction on Perceived Stress. Journal of Cognitive Psychology.
23 (3): 258-65.
stresses and challenges facing inmate families, especially children? Children of imprisoned parents suffer the most.
Children whose parents are imprisoned face adverse impacts. Criminal justice system focuses more on the individual guilt than the adversities that are faced by the children. It is important that the criminal justice system should keep in mind the effects that are seen in the children during their parents' imprisonment, release as well as trails and arrest systems. One of the main changes that are faced by the children includes a great change in the attitudes of the society as the children are treated in al ill manner. Being on an outside world, as compared to the world behind bars, the children are treated as inmate facing much harsher conditions created by the societies. When parents are imprisoned, children of the family, no matter how young or how old have to accept the responsibility of…
Carlson, M.P., and Garrett, S.J. (2008). Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory. Edition 2. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Sweeney, M. (2010). Reading is my window: books and the art of reading in women's prisons. Univ of North Carolina Press.
Tartaro, C., and Lester, D. (2010). Suicide and Self-Harm in Prisons and Jails, G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc.
Tewksbury, R., and Dabney, A.D. (2008). Prisons and Jails: A Reader. McGraw-Hill.
STRESS THIS ENOUGH).
The Media industry has a severe influence on the masses and people often end up being unable to differentiate between normal attitudes and attitudes that they take on because the media wants them to do so. The way that women and men are shown in television commercials has drawn significant attention from the general public and has made it possible for many to acknowledge that advertisements can generate provocative arguments. hile most people realize that it is essential for the media industry to use gender roles as a tool to encourage particular viewers to buy products, it is surely difficult to look away as some commercials tend to be discriminatory and to induce certain thoughts in individuals watching them.
In order to gain a better understanding of gender roles and their relationship with the media industry, one first needs to consider advertised products and the concept of…
Calvert, Sandra L. And Wilson, Barbara J.," The Handbook of Children, Media and Development" (John Wiley & Sons, 2010)
Gunter, Barrie, "Media Sex: What Are the Issues?"( Routledge, 2002)
Kirsh, Steven J. "Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence: A Critical Look at the Research," (SAGE, 2006)
Lindberg, Sara, L. "Gender-role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification"( ProQuest, 2008)
.....backed by other research works, is chiefly grounded in Luby and coworkers' 2013 research project titled "The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving and Stressful Life Events". It was obtained from EBSCOhost's database via a search activity, utilizing the expression "poverty and the brain".
Poverty during the early childhood stage of life has an adverse effect on the development of the individual's brain, as indicated by school-goers' MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans (Lipina & Colombo, 2009; Lende, 2012). That environmental stimuli serve to enhance the production of hippocampal cells within lab animals in comparison to animals subject to relatively rare stimuli is an established fact ("Poverty, neglect in childhood...", 2013). This research work aimed at ascertaining whether or not the early childhood income-needs ratio influences school age kids' brain development and at examining the mediating factors of the abovementioned influence.
For analyzing the impacts…
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique
Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting from activation of stress hormones including epinephrine, norpinephine and cortisol hormones among others. Surgical trauma and blood loss may contribute to this stress response. Some surgeons have suggested that cardio pulmonary bypass surgery in and of itself activates an inflammatory response that results in a stress reaction.
The role of the anesthesiologist in cardiac surgery is to as much extent as possible, to reduce the stress response that results form cardiac surgery. Stress response can be mitigated by a variety of anesthetic technique, including use of opioids and epidural anesthesia. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique
INTRODUCTION stress response may…
Cook, Richard I. "Adapting to New Technology in the Operating Room." Human Factors, Vol. 38, 1996.
Cook, R.I., Woods, D.D., Howie, M.B., Horrow, J.C. & Gaba, D.M. (1992). "Unintentional delivery of vasoactive drugs with an electromechanical infusion device." Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 6, 238-244.
Cuschieri, R.J., Morran, C.G., Howie, J.C., & McArdle, C.S. (1985). "Postoperative pain a dpulmonary complications: comparison of three analgesic regimens." British Journal of Surgery, 72, 495-499.
Glaser, J., Kiecolt-Glaser, MacCallum P., Marucha, P., & Page, G. "Psychological Influences on Surgical Recovery: Perspectives from Psychoneuroimmunology." American Psychologists, Vol. 53, 1998.
The first step in project management involves identifying the requirements. The second step is establishment of a clear and achievable objective. The third step is finding a balance for the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost. Finally, the fourth step in project management is the adaptation of the specifications, plans and approach to the various concerns and expectations of the client. It is necessary that the manager understand the cultural, social, international, political and physical environmental concerns of a project as "virtually all projects are planned and implemented..." (a Guide to the Project Management ody of Knowledge, 2004) within these contexts. Required interpersonal skills of the manager in project management include those as follows:
Influencing the organization;
Negotiations with conflict management; and Problem-solving. (a Guide to the Project Management ody of Knowledge, 2004)
The project management system is defined as the "set of tools,…
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2004) PMBOK Guide. 3rd ed. The Project Management Institute.
Business: The Economy Taxing Workplace Stress (1999) BBC News. 27 Oct 1999. Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/487977.stm
Gorkin, Mark (2003) the Four Stages of Burnout. 'The Stress Doc'. Online available at http://www.stressdoc.com/4stages.htm
Health Stress Tops Work Sickness League (1999) BBC News 3 Oct. 1999 Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/463853.stm
Listening to Music on orker Productivity:
Music can basically serve various purposes with some of these purposes being fulfilled at the individual level while others at the level of the society. For an individual, music can be a platform for expressing emotions, promoting relaxation, offering stimulation, facilitating mood change, and being a source of comfort. In some case, music can be used to entertain, in therapy, improve the effect of the other arts, and offer aesthetic enjoyment. In the past few years, there have been increased concerns and analyses regarding the impact of music on work quality and worker productivity. This is primarily because workers tend to listen to music to accomplish certain purposes while doing their work. hile some workers like to listen to music when they are seemingly losing focus, others listen to music when involved in increasingly repetitive job or when working in a noisy or too…
LESIUK, TERESA. "The Effect of Music Listening on Work Performance." Psychology of Music 33.2 (2005): 173-91. SAGE Publications. Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research, 7 Feb. 2008. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Magloff, Lisa. "The Effect of Radios on Workplace Productivity." Chron - Small Business. Hearst Communications, Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Padnani, Amisha. "The Power Of Music, Tapped In a Cubicle." The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Aug. 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Young, Gregory. "EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON TASK PERFORMANCE." Breakthrough Systems. Breakthrough Systems., 31 July 2003. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Military Children and the Effects of Long Deployments on Them
Over the last several years, the children of parents who are serving in the military are facing increasing amounts of scrutiny. This is because one or both of their parents are being sent on long deployments to Afghanistan. These shifts are directly resulting in them and their caregivers having to make dramatic adjustments. (Wells, 2012)
According to a study conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), they found that their ability to adjust will involve the family situation, age and their environment. These factors are leading to some adapting more effectively than others. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from the report which says, "Children's reactions to deployment-related parental absence vary by age, developmental stage, and other individual and family factors. While young children are likely to exhibit externalizing behavior such as anger and attention difficulties, school-age…
Report on the Impact of Deployment. (2010). Military One Source. Retrieved from:
Baker, L. (2009). Developmental Issues Impacting Military Families. Military Medicine, 174 (1),
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…
Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?
Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.
Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195
DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
he education to employment paradigm in Canada and around the world is stressful enough. However, stress really needs to be addressed and dealt with before that transition even takes place or even starts. Indeed, if students are unable to manage the stress of school, they will be ill-prepared for the work environment when they reach it. Even when comparing two different countries like the United States and Canada, the statement remains true although the manifestations and patterns will be different in those two countries or any other set of countries being compared. Given that, preparing students in advance of that transition to manage stress is the wise course of action. his report will offer the dimensions that will be analyzed, the rationale for the focus, a brief discussion of the matter from a societal/sociological perspective, a discussion of the theoretical frameworks involved and a brief annotated bibliography using…
This source is being looked at because it is a confluence of the work (teachers) and educational (students) stressors and how they can feed off of each other. The students and their ability to manage stress is an important subject to look at but how teachers and administrators react when teaching is another that can and should be looked at. Teachers need to be the regulators and examples for their students but if they are unable or unwilling to set the proper standard and show the proper example, this will create or aggravate stress and stressors with the students.
O'Hara, R.E., Armeli, S., Boynton, M.H., & Tennen, H. (2014). Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: The role of depression history. Emotion, 14(1), 193-202. doi:10.1037/a0034217
Yet another source that looks at mental health issues that are incurred outside or inside a school environment yet both affect the educational sphere (and thus any transition to the workplace) in much the same way. Obviously, the source of depression and anxiety matter and it can indeed come from within the school experience rather than just affecting it after starting elsewhere.
Post- Traumatic Stress as a Psychological Effect of the 9/11 ombings to Americans
On September 11, 2001, America and the whole world witnessed the most recent terrorist attack of a free, democratic country, wherein the World Trade Center Towers in New York City collapsed after two planes had crashed towards the two towers. The said incident was a terrorist attack by Osama bin Laden and his terrorist group Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the said terrorist attack resulted to thousands of deaths, which are mostly composed of people inside the building and within its perimeters. In addition to the numerous deaths and physical injuries that the attack had caused, great damage also resulted with the destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Indeed, the terrorist attack in America had resulted to considerable material and human damage, and these dangerous results as caused by the attack had prompted that U.S. government…
Cowley, Geoffrey. "After the Trauma." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52-52B.
Gibbs, Nancy. "The Argument for Arguing." 15 October 2001. TIME Magazine. p. 72.
Willens, Kathy. "Warning Signs and Ways to Help." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52B.
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows
The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.
Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…
Bibliography for Chapters One and Two
Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson
Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
Infants Who Witness Violence: Effects and Treatments
INFANTS WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: EFFECTS AND 1
Age Span Differences
Effects on Infants
A Sleeper Effect
Stunt Babies' Intellectual Development
Disturbance of attachment and its consequences
Assessment and Intervention
Infants who witness violence: Effects and Treatments
esearch clearly shows that the effects of domestic violence on children, result from children and infants that have been observing witnessing domestic violence in a home where one or both of their parents are abusing each other, plays a key part on the safety and developmental growth of infants and children that are observing this violence. However, in 2009 in the Philippines, it was projected that as many as 8 to 20 million children were exposed to domestic violence (JL, 2010) with about 4.5 million children wide-open to domestic violence in their homes every year. (Attala JM, 2012) Infant children who are current in the…
Alpert EJ, S.R. (2012). Interpersonal violence and the education of physicians. Acad Med., 13(4), 23-45.
Attala JM, B.K. (2012). Integrative review of effects on children of witnessing domestic violence. Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs, 23(9), 567-600.
Jaffe PG, H.D. (2006). Children's observations of violence: I. Critical issues in child development and intervention planning. Can J. Psychiatry, 34(9), 355-366.
JL, E. (2010). Children's witnessing of adult domestic violence. J Interpers Violence, 23(9), 839 -- 70.
Music on Emotions and Behavior
Music and education
The effect of music on word recall
Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.
The mechanism involved
The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…
Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006
Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997
Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997
Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002
Terrorism and the American Psyche
The attacks of September 11, 2001 not only affected those who were killed and injured, but also millions of ordinary Americans. The impact of this act of terrorism, along with a constant stream of attacks and threats of attacks have substantially altered the American psyche. Immediately after the attacks, Americans across the nation began to suffer from symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In addition to this, Americans have suffered through a number of psychological effects of terrorism including fear, anger, and vulnerability. All in all, the effect of terrorism on American society has been one of altering the way Americans feel about their safety and their place in the world. In a sense, Americans no longer viewed their world as predictable, orderly, and controllable.
ell known psychologist, illiam E. Schlenger, stated that the attacks of 9/11 "represent an unprecedented exposure to trauma" within the…
Hamblin, Jessica and Laurie Slone. "Research Findings of the Traumatic Stress Effects
Of Terrorism." U.S. Dept. Of Veteran Affairs: National Center for PTSD. Web.
11 Oct. 2012. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/research-findings-traumatic-stress-terrorism.asp
Silke, Andrew. "The Psychological Impact of the Continued Terrorist Threat."
Media on Terrorism
Acts of anti-American terrorism are becoming increasingly common, and more and more are occurring on American soil, according to Columbia political scientist rigitte L. Nacos (Nacos, 1995). According to Nacos, the rise in terrorism is not a matter of flawed national security. It has more to do with the success that terrorists have enjoyed in exploiting the relationships among the media, public opinion and political decision-making (Nacos, 1994).
Nacos believes that the media is "the crucial link in the terrorist's 'calculus of violence,' particularly terrorist spectaculars -- large actions aimed at Americans, like the Iran hostage crisis, the bombing of PanAm Flight 103, and the hanging of hostage Lt. Colonel William Higgins in Lebanon (Nacos, 1994)." In these cases, she says, the terrorists "exploited the free American media. They got an extraordinary amount of attention -- up to two-thirds of the network evening news devoted to the…
News Directors on the Defensive in Nashville." (September 16, 1985). Broadcasting, pp. 76-78.
Cohen, N. (1997). Lessons learned from providing disaster counseling after TWA flight 800. Psychiatric Services, 48, 461-462.
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2003). Terrorism and the Media. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.terrorismanswers.com/terrorism/media.html.
DeFleur, M. & Dennis, E. (2002). Understanding mass communication: A liberal arts perspective (7th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
PTSD on the U.S. Military
In order to fully understand the issues with PTSD and the military, one must consider the idea that military service can have a serious impact on soldiers, even when they do not see combat. In the past, the argument has been that PTSD was a combat-related illness, and that only soldiers who were actively engaged in combat in the recent past struggled with the issues related to PTSD. Now, many studies have shown that most soldiers live with the thought of never knowing when their turn to die is next, and that constant agitation and anxiety can cause these soldiers to experience PTSD (Delahanty, 2011; Ehlers, et al., 2010; Feldner, Monson, & Friedman, 2007; van Zuiden, et al., 2009). This is even more pronounced for soldiers who have been on multiple deployments and, by extension, have been in harm's way and under stress more often…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Cahill, S.P., & Foa, E.B. (2004). A glass half empty or half full? Where we are and directions for future research in the treatment of PTSD. In S. Taylor (ed.), Advances in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 267-313) New York: Springer.
Delahanty, D.L. (2011). Toward the predeployment detection of risk for PTSD. American Psychiatric Association.
Ehlers, A., Bisson, J., & Clark, D.M., et al. (March 2010). Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?. Clinical Psychology Review 30 (2): 269 -- 76.
Homosexual Parents on Children
Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.
Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…
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Chan, R., Brooks, R., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 402-419. doi:10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2062.
Cramer, D. (1986). Gay Parents and Their Children: A Review of Research and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 504.
Gabb, J. (2004). Sexuality education: how children of lesbian mothers 'learn' about sex/uality. Sex Education, 4(1), 19-34.
parent goes to war: Effects of parental deployment on very young children and implications for intervention" by Paris, ., Devoe, E. ., oss, A. M., & Acker, M. L. (2010). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(4), 610-618. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01066.x
uth Paris, Ellen . Devoe, Abigail M. oss, and Michelle L. Acker in When a parent goes to war: Effects of parental deployment on very young children and implications for intervention reviewed the effects military deployment cycles have on young children. The effects span intense emotions, attachment patterns as well as behavioral changes. They suggested that military families with toddlers, infants and preschoolers ought to be supported by taking an ecological approach. To explore ways to provide adequate support, Paris et al. reviewed existing literature on the effects parental combat stress had on parenting as well as parent-child relationships. Evidence-informed programs for families and infants were also examined with the goal of identifying…
Alfano, C.A., Lau, S., Balderas, J., Bunnell, B.E. & Beidel, D.C. (2016). The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context, Clinical Psychology Review 43, 17 -- 29.
Chandra, A., Martin, L.T., Hawkins, S.A. & Richardson, A. (2010).The Impact of Parental Deployment on Child Social and Emotional Functioning: Perspectives of School Staff, Journal of Adolescent Health 46, 218 -- 223.
Denscombe, M. (2014). The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects. Mcgraw-Hill Education (UK).
Saunders, M. N., Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2011). Research Methods for Business Students, 5/e. Pearson Education India.