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Mubarak instated sweeping reforms that liberalized Egyptian economic policy within a neoliberal framework, but those reforms came at the price of repression, oppression, and corruption leading to widespread income disparity and disenfranchisement especially among the male youth population. Inspired in part by a similar revolution in Tunisia, the protesters in Cairo successfully toppled the Mubarak regime and became part of what has been dubbed the Arab Spring. Critical to the 2011 revolution in Egypt were the participation of women in the political sphere and also the use of social media to facilitate, hasten, communicate, and organize the movement. One protestor famously said, "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world," (Chebib & Sohail, 2011, p. 139).
Without a doubt, "social media played an instrumental role in the success of the anti-government protests that led to the resignation of the country's dictatorial leader,"…
Aouragh, M. & Alexander, A. (2011). The Arab Spring| The Egyptian Experience: Sense and Nonsense of the Internet Revolution. International Journal of Communication 5(1):15
Chebib, N.K. & Sohail, R.M. (2011). The reasons social media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. International Journal of Business Research and Management 2(3): 139.
Eltantwany, N. & Wiest, J.B.(2011). The Arab Spring| Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory. International Journal of Communication 5(1): 18.
Hafez, S. (2012). No longer a bargain: Women, masculinity, and the Egyptian uprising. American Ethnologist 39(1): 37-42.
Egypt evolution & International elations
Egyptian evolution and International elation
The Egyptian evolution & International elations
Egypt is the oldest country in existence and the most populated amongst the Arab world. The unusual significance this country possesses is due to its historical, regional, political and geographical aspects. In January 2011, masses started protesting at Tahrir Square in Cairo against the 30-year dictatorship of President Hosni Mubarak, fueled by social injustices, deteriorating law and order system and corruption in public offices, the protests continued till 18 days and resulted in Mubarak's resignation on 11th February 2011. After the interim military control from February 2011 to May 2012, Mohammad Morsi of Islamic brotherhood became the fifth president of Egypt on 24th June 2012. The uprising of Egypt changed the Arab world as it inspired demonstrations in Lybia, Syria and other Muslim countries. Besides other economic, legal and social issues, the new…
Goldstone, J. (1980), "Theories of revolutions: the third generation, World Politics 32, 1980:425-53
Lewis-Beck, S.M. (1979), Some economic effects of revolution: models, measurement, and the Cuban evidence, American Journal of Sociology, 84(5), pp. 1127-1149.
Pearson, F.S. & Rochester, J.M. (1988), International Relations, New York: Macmillan.
Stone, L. (1966), Theories of revolution, World Politics, 18(2), pp. 159-176.
Egyptian Advertising Imagery
Marketing Considerations for Egypt
Egypt is a country prime for expansion by U.S. based companies. With a population of over 81 million people, there is great opportunity for growth. It is the second-largest county in the Middle East and Africa and citizens have a high appreciation for high quality and high-end brands, particularly American brands. Despite the global economic crisis that began in 2009, Egypt managed to sustain a 4.7% growth in GDP -- an enviable rate for most countries -- largely due to strong growth fundamentals, effective market reforms and a proactive government stimulus (Melewar et al., 2000).
Before a company ventures into the Middle East, certain considerations must be given to proper advertising and marketing. A comprehensive understanding of the culture is required. Given recent civil unrest in the region, it is important to always address respect for the individual. This concern for human rights…
Cavalluzzo, J. (2011). Egypt's Cultural Revolution. Social Policy, 41(4), 75-77.
Smith, P. (2011). Advertising in the age of revolution. Middle East, (423), 66-69.
Melewar, T.C., Turnbull, S., & Balabanis, G. (2000). International advertising strategies of multinational enterprises in the Middle East. International Journal Of Advertising, 19(4), 529-547.
evolution, Education, And Modernization
evolution, Education and Modernization
Is revolution an acceptable way to change government? Why or why not?
In 1776 the founding fathers of the United States faced a situation where this question was paramount among the interests of their fellow countrymen:
"When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation" ("The Declaration of Independence," 1776).
History shows that when the needs of a society are not being met revolution is generated from outside the existing system since it is that system that is perceived as…
"Egypt news -- Revolution and aftermath." (2011, June 2). The New York times. World. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories /egypt/index.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
evolution in Egypt_
Modern citizens hardly make decisions in a social vacuum. This underscore the role social media plays in determining decisions that people make. Social media influences what modern citizens know and how they feel about it. It therefore plays an integral role in influencing the masses. Trends in groups start after one person has taken a stand. This person's stand then influences others creating a cascade effect (Krebs, 2006). Cascades and numbers are integral in unconventional warfare like the revolution that was experienced in Egypt. In today's world users of social networks readily use information received from search network. A person will most likely be drawn into a stand that has been taken by his family members, neighbors, and casual acquaintances. Groups in social networks are easily influenced by the behavior of their members, key opinion leaders, as well as those with connections with them. These groups, opinion…
Aziz, M.A. & Hussein, Y. (2002). The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt.
Arab Studies Journal, 9(10), 73 -- 88.
Gladwell, M. (2002). Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York:
Back Bay Books.
Copernican revolution has a pivotal role in the establishment of the modern sciences. We are very much familiar with the fact that the human mind had always been fascinated greatly by the changes taking place around him almost constantly. Human observation and sense of argument and ability to be logical has made him the most intelligent and consequently most powerful species on the planet.
It is very comfortable to believe that Earth is located at the centre of the universe and other planets rotate around it because Earth itself does not seem or feel to be moving and there are only sun, moon and other planets appearing and disappearing at their exact timings. It is quite logical and unless and until something really revolutionary come forward to refute this believe, it looks quite reasonable to carry on believing the same idea (Kuhn, pp 187).
The most significant change…
Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 1991 pp 8-12.
Cesarani, David. Arthur Koestler: the homeless mind. Free Press, 1999 pp 142.
Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican revolution: planetary astronomy in the development of Western thought. USA: Harvard University Press, 1957 pp 187.
L'Abate, Luciano. Paradigms in Theory Construction. Springer, 2011 pp 5-8.
At which point, they were seen as a neutral between the two different sides. ("Egypt Revolution," 2011)
The protestors played a role in the conflict, by pushing for various changes to take place. This is despite the fact that they were: attacked, some of their key leaders were sent to jail and access the Internet was shut down. Yet, despite these different obstacles the underlying message would spread through the social networking site Facebook. This is when many of the protestors would become united and galvanized under a common cause. Where, this would push them to continue with their demonstrations; until their issues surrounding: the frustrations with the government and lack of opportunity were addressed (starting with the resignation of President Mubarak). This is important, because it shows how the Facebook page would help to: unite the protestors under one common cause and it kept the momentum of the movement…
Egypt Revolution. (2011). Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/30/egypt-revolution-2011_n_816026.html
Freed Google Executive. (2011). Jerusalem Post. Retrieved from: http://www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=207292&R=R4
Newman, D. (2008).The Architecture of Stratification. Sociology. (pp. 292 -- 316). Los Angeles, CA: Pine Forge.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.
Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.
Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.
Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
Role of Democracy in the Middle East
There has recently been a wave of democratic uprisings sweeping across the Middle East. Starting in Tunisia, the call for democratic reforms spread through Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, Iran and many other nations. Many have likened these uprisings to the social unrest of 1848, which gave rise to the Communist Revolution of 1917, but they do so wrongly. hile the popular uprisings that continue to inflame the Middle East may have some of the same causes as in 1848, rising food prices and high unemployment, the current unrest lacks the ideological component. The protestors do not want to destroy their government, they want to reform it. In this way the uprisings of 2011 are more akin toward the establishment of a Rousseau-inspired representative republic in that the people were demanding, not a complete social restructuring, but a representative form of government that…
Cullen, Daniel. "On Rousseau's democratic realism.(French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau)." Perspectives on Political Science 36.4 (2007): 207+. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.
"Egypt News - Revolution and Aftermath" New York Times. 18 Apr. 2011. Web 23 Apr. 2011. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories / egypt/index.html
Goldstone, Jack. "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011 | Foreign Affairs." Home | foreign Affairs. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.
Contributions of Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb to Egypt’s National Development and Banking System
Born on 25th November, 1867 in Cairo’s El- Gammalia, Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb is considered one among the greatest personalities who contributed to Egypt’s overall national growth and development. He studied art, science, economics, literature, and French. After acquiring a law degree, he commenced his career in the role of translator in the Royal Circuits’ Lawsuits Section, responsible for state- owned farmland. Though favoring free enterprise, he was quick to climb the rungs of the career ladder, landing the position of lawsuits section manager (53-75)3.
His subsequent posts as manager were at various organizations including Kom Ombo Company (a firm that actively reclaimed and sold land) and the Egyptian Real- Estate Company (where he ensured citizens of Egypt held most of the shares). He penned numerous books, including “The Economic Remedy of Egypt and Creating the…
Social Media Has Had on Society
Social Media has had a particularly influential power over society during recent years as more and more individuals start to guide themselves in accordance with principles put across by such devices. However, it is difficult to determine whether social media has had a positive influence or a negative influence on the social order, taking into account that many are unable to filter information they are bombarded with and end up having a distorted understanding of the world as a whole.
Internet has revolutionized the way information is being sent across the world and this means that it would be impossible for particular events happening in the past to happen in the contemporary society. By simply looking at how the radio and the television have brought significant change to particular environments, one is more likely to understand the degree to which internet can bring change…
Blossom, John, "Content Nation: Surviving and Thriving as Social Media Changes Our Work, Our Lives, and Our Future," (John Wiley & Sons, 14.09.2011)
Duhe, Sandra C., "New Media and Public Relations," (Peter Lang, 2007)
Nunns, Ales and Idle, Nadia, "Tweets from Tahrir: Egypt's Revolution as it Unfolded, in the Words of the People who Made it," (OR Books, 2011)
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/).In some cases it has happened that the entire reservoir becomes filled with silt and the investment in the dam is lost (the Aswan Dams (http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/)."
World news from the Washington Post's Foreign Service.
The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1970.
Alexandra Garcia - washingtonpost.com
The Aswan High Dam is one of the largest dams in the world and it provides a multitude of benefits to those who live in the surrounding area.
The electricity it generates is clean, and does not contribute to air or environment pollution. It maintains the river to control flooding which allows the environment to grow and prosper without fear of destruction.
The problems it created while being constructed included the destruction of artifacts that were thousands of years old. In addition it flooded a nation and the entire population had to be moved with their lifestyles and history destroyed.…
The Aswan Dams (Accessed 5-1-07)
The Aswan High Dam (Accessed 5-1-07)
International Crisis on Businesses.
In this paper, I will assume the task of a consultant at McKinsey and Co. It is my duty to analyze the effects on international and local businesses of the problems which are erupted in Middle Eastern/Northern African countries particularly Egypt, Tunisia and others. This paper will be produced for the clients of McKinsey and Co in order to assist them in their respective strategies for the region. The main four topics which would be addressed in this paper are as follows, the local impact on business, the global impact on businesses and industries, the impact on shareholder value and wealth of the most affected companies and finally the short, medium and long-term political influences which might affect businesses.
Local Impact on Businesses
During the times of severe political or social unrest which is now seen in countries like Egypt, Tunisia, Syria and others, the overall…
Stiles, Kendall. (2002). Civil Society by Design. Connecticut: Praeger.
Hironaka, Ann. (2005). Never-ending Wars. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Madison, G. (1998). Political Economy of Civil Society and Human Rights. London: Routledge.
Cardenas, Gilberto. (2004). La Causa. Houston: Arte Publico.
Western intervention helped to create Israel, but also destabilized the entire region by installing and supporting brutal dictators. The chickens have come home to roost with the rise of anti-Western terrorists. Now, it would seem, the chickens are dying. Gaddafi is a symbol of the years during which American interventionism in the Middle East reached a peak.
Zakaria focuses on Egypt but the article pertains equally as well to Libya. Fears of Muslim extremism are, as Zakaria notes, overblown. The author states, "Asking women to wear veils is different from making men wear suicide belts. If the U.S. is opposed to every expression of religiosity, it will find itself unable to understand or work with a new, more democratic Middle East," (p. 4).
This article also shows that Americans especially have deep-rooted misperceptions about the Middle East and its cultural geography. Americans are guilty of the following fallacies. First, Americans…
Currency fluctuations tend to create instability and disrupt the planning activities of tourists. In times of an economic recession, there is normally a lot of fluctuation in the currencies. In the previous year, many currencies appreciated in value while some depreciated. The appreciation of Great ritain Pound and U.S. Dollar against currencies of other countries, such as third world countries, while the depreciation of the Pakistani Rupee, Indian Rupee and the Sri Lankan Rupee against the U.S. Dollar (REPORTER, Staff, 2012) made it less likely for the travelers located in such places to plan to visit countries, as expenditure on goods and services will be incurred in the appreciated currency of the destination country and will have to be supported by the depreciated home currency. This increased expenditure, especially in the times of an economic recession, is considered to be a luxury that needs to be overlooked, at least until…
ALI, Shazad. 2010. The Rise of Terrorism: Examining Terrorism in the Middle East from a Pakistani Perspective. Duke Journal of Public Affairs. 5(2), pp.6-21.
Bangkok's new airport opens to first commercial flights. 2006. [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
BRANCATELLI, Joe. 2013. Where have all the business travelers gone? [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
CNBC. 2011. Egypt's tourism which adds 11% to GDP plunges amidst chaos. [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
Please revise/edit the submitted research paper rough draft and add 4 additional pages of content.
The paper organization is as follows:
FULL literature review and an extended discussion of the actual findings, briefly compared to those previously predicted and indicated in rough draft.
In a stunningly short period of time, Fox News went from being the potentially disastrous offshoot of merica's "fourth network" to literally the most watched news network in the country (Nielsen, 2012; Sterling, 2004, p. 654). The network bills itself as "Fair and balanced," but there are times when this tagline seems less than an actual description of the network and more of a cruel joke. Regardless of one's political leanings, even a cursory glance at Fox News' products, whether on television or the Internet, suggests that contrary to its tagline, the network is anything but balanced. Instead, Fox News demonstrates a conservative bias, and…
A separate study comparing the reporting bias of CNN and The Fox News focused on the characterization and information reported about the Muslim Brotherhood, the leading political opposition group, during the Egyptian revolution and directly following Mubarak's resignation in January 2011 in Tahir Square (Glover, 2011). The research employed a content analysis of the television broadcast transcripts in order to understand the scope of the coverage and the discrepancies in reporting during the Egyptian crisis. (Glover, 2011) The analysis illuminated bias in both news channels, however, a higher frequency of exaggerated extremism was seen in reporting by the Fox News channel (Glover, 2011).
Research that analyzes the media coverage of the 2008 presidential primaries and election produced similar results, finding that Fox News appeared more willing "to cite outside polls [concerning a politician's approval rating] if they were damaging" to Democrats (Groeling, 2008, p. 655). This study was admittedly limited, as it only focused on each network's "flagship" show (which in the case of Fox News was determined to be Special Report), but it nevertheless bolsters the evidence of Fox News conservative bias, especially when taken in the context of other studies. Furthermore, this kind of content analysis is helpful when determining bias in the future, because it helps to demonstrate how bias can be revealed in more than just words; whereas the Iraq War study did find bias revealed through word choice, this later study found it the use of particular polls, demonstrating how media bias can course through nearly every facet of an organization without necessarily appearing blatant or intentional.
The studies mentioned above all looked to particular topics or issues in order to determine bias by looking for key words; thus, the Iraq War study examined words and phrases concerning the war, while the study of the presidential race examined the use of polls and how things were framed. Because this study is examining the network's bias in general, rather than its treatment of any given topic, it is necessary to examine its coverage of a number of different issues. Only then will one be able to convincingly argue that Fox News is indeed conservative, rather than strictly pro-war or pro-Republican. This is necessary because what makes media bias such as that demonstrated by Fox News so detrimental to society is the way that it allows news organizations to function as their
One of the greatest impediments to e-commerce growth continues to be the lack of consistent security across computing platforms, Web browsers and programming languages. This is a continual threat to the loss of transaction and credit card data as well. The need for a consistent and comprehensive framework would do much to alleviate the confusion on these areas (Kesh, amanujan, Nerur, 2002).
The Internet has created an entirely different aspect of property validation and rights. The ownership of intellectual property (IP) online, from content and online systems to integration technologies is also an enabler of overall e-commerce. The role of IP is also serving to more clearly delineate how selling and services systems online manage part of the sales process and selling cycle. IP will continue to be an emerging area of law and will eventually become a catalyst of how companies build and support their e-commerce…
Someswar Kesh, Sam Ramanujan, & Sridhar Nerur. (2002). A framework for analyzing e-commerce security. Information Management & Computer Security, 10(4), 149-158.
Christopher J. Schafer. (2001). Federal legislation regarding taxation of Internet sales transactions. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 16(1), 415-433.
Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
Postman, N. (2001). Deus Machina. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Vol.
10, No. 27. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002395759 .
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
Madagascar's exposure is, the problem needs to be understood. The problem is phrased as "The rise of Islamic regimes in Egypt." This phrasing makes no sense. The military is in charge of Egypt, following the takeover from the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013. This is in the background material. A better phrasing is found in the text: "The rise of Islamic regimes in the post-evolution Arab world." For some reason the writer of the document latched onto the qualifier "particularly in Egypt" and despite the fact that Egypt no longer has an Islamic regime has concocted the misleading topic. At any rate, Madagascar has a low level of exposure to this issue. Madagascar is only 7% Muslim (CIA World Factbook, 2014), and was not subject to the revolutionary politics of North Africa during the Arab Spring. Madagascar's Muslims are not Arab, but came to the country as laborers and slaves from…
CIA World Factbook. (2014). Madagascar. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Since time immemorial, the adage "no man is an island" has always been true because of the social nature of humankind. Most human beings can never live and function without the support of others in various aspects of life. With the emergence of contemporary information and communications technologies, the "no man is an island" maxim has further been redefined because of the ubiquity and 24/7 interconnection of people with each other. For instance, communications have become readily available with few touches of buttons and have also achieved global reach. In almost every facet of life, the technologies of today have contributed immensely. Of late, people's awareness of and actions in the political milieu have undergone a paradigm shift as a result of the widespread use on two of information technologies' most important innovations -- the social networking site or media and mobile communications.
If lessons would be taken…
Drew, A.E. (2011, May 21). The politics of social networking. Politics 365. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from http://politic365.com/2011/05/21/the-politics-of-social-networking/
Quain, J.R. (2010, October 15). How social networking is changing politics and public service. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/15/how-social-networking-is-changing-politics-and-public-service
Often a writer goes about the process of adapting a story from one type of media to another certain components of the original story have to be altered. This is particularly true when adapting a book into a screenplay and then into a film, all the more so when that novel has gained a great deal of financial and critical success. The difficulty of this process is that the adaptation forces a medium where the reader has to utilize their own imagination and modifies the work into a format where the director and actors choose how the words are to be interpreted. It is a far less personal experience because the film version will have someone else's vision of the story instead of a creation of the images between reader and author. The interpretation is also dependant on the culture of the interpreter. In looking at the film…
Al-Aswany, Alaa. The Yacoubian Building. Harper Perennial. 2002. Print.
"Egypt Debates Controversial Film." BBC News. 2006. Web. May 16, 2011.
Lake, Eli. "Protest Erupts in Egypt Over a Gay Movie." The New York Sun. 2006. Print.
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…
Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.
"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.
Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.
El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
Hymn to Aten
In Ancient Egypt the king Akhenaten completely altered the lifestyles of all his subjects by demanding that they give their singular devotion to the sun god Aten. Before him, Egyptians had a different system of beliefs with many gods whereas Atenism held that Aten was the central god. Egypt had been a polytheistic society wherein each god had a specified set of abilities and limitations to their powers. Each person chose a god to whom they would dedicate themselves and to which they would give most of their devotion. The god was the choice of the individual, a choice which was no longer available when the pantheon of gods deteriorated to a single all-powerful deity. All Egyptian peoples were forced to embrace the new religion and with it forgo the traditions and customs of their ancestors. The changing religion was only one of the aspects of the…
"The Great Hymn to the Aten." The Western Humanities Vol. 1. Ed. Roy Matthews & DeWitt
Platt. McGraw Hill, 2010. Print.
..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:
(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."
(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."
(3) Article no. 133 states "The…
Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml
Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.
Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
The Louvre, an architectural masterpiece, has dominated central Paris since the late 12th century. The original structure was gradually dwarfed as the city grew. The dark fortress of the early days was transformed into the modernized dwelling of Francois I and, later, the sumptuous palace of the Sun King, Louis XIV. My online tour of the Louvre allowed me to take a virtual, self-guided, room-by-room tour of the museum. The web site allows navigation through exhibition rooms and galleries and allows one to contemplate the facades of the museum. The first thing one sees before entering the museum is the garden, a delight during any season of the year. It is the perfect place for a relaxing stroll and it offers a range of activities for visitors.
There are more than ten sections in the museum for different kinds of art from all around the world including…
Comparing the Minoan and Sea People Civilizations, we find that the Minoans were largely successful because of their Island base and ability to use their technology for trading purposes; thus enhancing their own civilization as well as those they encountered. The Sea Peoples were likely an amalgamation of Mediterranean cultures, whose shipbuilding and warfare technologies allowed them to influence much of the coastal areas, just not as proactively or positively as the Minoans. It is likely that the Minoan culture, in fact, was hindered by a large volcanic eruption and subsequent earthquake and tidal wave, disrupting their ability for commerce. However, recent evidence suggests that although these disasters weakened the culture, it was likely the Sea Peoples who landed on the island, burned selected buildings and palaces, and looted the civilization of the best it had to offer. Similarly, the Sea Peoples appear to have assimilated into a number of…
Bachhuber, C, Roberts, R (eds.) 2009, Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean, Oxbow Books, London.
Bower, B 2010, Hominids Went Out of Africa on Rafts, viewed March 2012, http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/01/ancient-seafarers / >.
Castleden, R 1990, Minoans: Life in Bronze Age Crete, Routledge, New York.
Chadwick, J 1976, the Mycenaean WOrld, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…
Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm
Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/indus_valley.htm
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC): An Examination
When the Internet debuted decades ago, all parties involved were aware of the fact that it would no doubt change the world, and change the way that we live. This has been proven to be true a thousand times over. One of the most profound impacts that it has had on society is that the internet has proven itself to be capable of bridging distance and bringing people together. People aren't just able to make friends from all over the world, but they're able to collaborate and work together with people from all over the world, seeing how others live, trading knowledge and trading understanding. Online education has been one of the pinnacle examples of this phenomenon. At this time, online education is rapidly expanding, and as anyone can see the possibilities attached to online learning are truly vast. One manifestation of this…
Friedman, T. (2014). Revolution Hits the Universities. Retrieved from NYTimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedman-revolution-hits-the-universities.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2
Head, K. (2013, September 6). Lessons Learned From a Freshman-Composition MOOC. Retrieved from Chronicle.com: http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/lessons-learned-from-a-freshman-composition-mooc/46337
Head, K. (2013, April 29). Massive Open Online Adventure. Retrieved from Chronicle.com: http://chronicle.com/article/Massive-Open-Online-Adventure/138803/
NationalEWA. (2013). A Conversation with Thomas Friedman. Retrieved from Vimeo.com: https://vimeo.com/66575133
eign of Terror
Historians have marked the French evolution with several interesting and unusual events. A specific time period during the French evolutio is called as "The eign of Terror." This began on September 5, 1793 and ended on July 27, 1794. This can be best explained in these words: Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 signaled the beginning of the French evolution. Within three years, the king was executed, and the following year a revolutionary tribunal was established to judge "enemies of the people" (Henty 02). During the French evolution, the Convention didn't establish a democracy; instead they established a war dictatorship. The government's radical takeover was to create a epublic and this was then called as "eign of Terror." The Committee of General Security, the Committee of Public Safety and several other agencies controlled it. One of those agencies was the evolutionary Tribunal. The…
Andress, David. The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. Print.
Henty, George. In the Reign of Terror: A Story of French Revolution. New York: Dover Publications, 2008. Print.
Reign of Terror. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 28 May. 2012. < >.
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…
Alam, M.S. "U.S. Imperialism and the Third World." Northeastern University. 2006. 14 Dec. 2009.
Amin, Samir. "Imperialism and Globalization." Monthly Review June 2001: 6.
Bonner, Robert E. "Slavery, Confederate Diplomacy and the Racialist Mission of Henry Hotze." Civil War History 51.3 (2005): 288+.
Yala- Young Leaders Conference
Good morning to my fellow future leaders of the Middle East. We are here together today to discuss how we are going to contribute most directly and most effectively to the long-term future of our region and of our many peoples. In the past, the younger generations had little choice but to stand by as our representatives -- some elected, some not -- executed national, regional, and geopolitical events unfolded and shaped our societies and the very future of our lives and those of our families. Today, that is no longer the case at all. Today, it is the members of our generation who have been most responsible for the achievement of incredible social and political changes in the Middle East that benefit all of the citizens of our respective nations.
After decades of oppression by government authorities in Egypt, it was members of our generation…
Leadership in an International Business
Changing oles of Managers & Teams
Leadership and Employees Behavior in International Business
With the change in the structure of enterprises from national to international, the organizations are forced to hire talent from cross-cultural background. Due to this, a complexity for an organization while handling their human capital increases. In order to combat this complexity, it is important that the individuals inducted show an acceptance to diversity and eagerness to work in a cross-cultural environment. Similarly, the individual needs of such employees should also be satisfied in order to motivate them and enhance the effectiveness of their performance.
Where the nature of human resources changes in an international business, so does the role and responsibility of managers. Manager in such environment are expected to play a role of a leader who knows how to motivate his team, celebrate difference, handle conflicts effectively and improves overall…
Griffin, Ricky & Pustay, Michael, 2004, International Business, 4th ed, Prentice Hall.
Kets De Vries, Manfred.F.R. 2005. Characteristics of effective leadership. Management Today, 20 (10), 14-16.
Kotter, John, 2003. Leading change. What leaders really do? Management Today, 19 (3), 4-7.
Northouse, Peter G. 2004, Leadership: Theory and practice. 3rd ed. California. SAGE Publications.
ve spent all day in school. Your report for tech. writing is due soon. But you think you can crank out a few more pages before you go to work at Marty's Mortuary. So you turn on your computer. You click on the word processor icon to call up your file. Suddenly a strange graphic image appears on your screen. It takes up the entire screen. Your word processor and file disappear behind the image. Your speakers begin to blare loudly. Have you seen too much scary TV lately or is this indeed an image of
Lost Boys stalk the streets with hunger markings on their chests and makeshift weapons. "It's revolting," your tech morality teacher would say. "Their complete disregard for authority is just revolting."
From beyond the safe haven walls of the great City, the dome-protected Obsidian, the rebels have invaded.
The screen blinks with a notice…
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
Akhenaten was one of the great pharaoh's of Egypt that is still the object of much introspection, question and mystery. Akhenaten's reign has been characterized as notable in relation to the many unusual changes the pharaoh instituted while leading the people of Egypt. Many authors have theorized that the pharaoh was a revolutionary, though somewhat of a self-absorbed leader. Indeed many aspects of the pharaoh's reign are still the subject of much speculation and contemplation. Supposition and theory even exists as to the physical well being and stature of the pharaoh, depicted by many historians as unusual or strange in appearance. The idea that Akhenaten may have suffered from a disorder of the psyche or from a lack of self-esteem due to his physical appearance is one that warrants further exploration.
Akhenaten is often not credited as being one of the great pharaoh's, his name is not as well-known as…
Aldred, C. Akhenaten, King of Egypt. Thames and Hudson, Ltd. London, 1988.
Dunn, Jimmy. (1996). "Amenhotep IV." Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaohs. Retrieved November 22, 2003, [ http://www.touregypt.net/18dyn10.htm ]
Dunham, Barrows. "Heroes and Heretics." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1963
Ernest, Jones. "Psycho-Myth, Psycho-History: The Role of Unconscious Mythology, History, Art and Anthropology" Vol. 1
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.
Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…
Opportunity Supporting Client's Operational Needs
Threat Factors and Trends
isk of maintained and possibly new U.S. sanctions
Structural Weaknesses in economy
Poor technology and brain drain
Opportunity and Threat Factors/Trends
Country Level Analyses
Quest Diagnostics has its headquarters positioned in Madison and its main operation encompasses the provision of diagnostic information. The company's operations encompass two arms. One, Diagnostics Solutions Group provides resolutions for insurers, and also the firm's health information technology operation that provides resolutions for healthcare providers. The other arm is Diagnostic Information Services, which nurtures and offers diagnostic testing information and services. The two countries in this essay is Iran and Egypt and the analysis encompasses a PESTEL framework of both nations. From the perspective of Iran, opportunities include political support through the reelection of Hassan and ouhani, securing the nuclear…
Egypt in Chicago. (2014). Egypt's Economic Recovery & Investment profile. Retrieved 6 June 2017 from: http://www.egyptinchicago.org/investment-opportunities-in-egypt.html
Euler Hermes. (2017). Iran. Retrieved 6 June 2017 from: http://www.eulerhermes.com/economic-research/country-reports/Pages/Iran.aspx
Focus Economics. (2017). Egypt Economic Outlook. Retrieved 5th June 2016 from: http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/egypt
Focus Economics. (2017). Iran Economic Outlook. Retrieved 5th June 2016 from: http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/iran
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
Subsequently there is a "...hunger for reforms, for more freedom and accommodation with the west." (Asghar a.)
This movement of the progressive youth as well other sectors of the population, such as women, was clearly seen in the 1999 unrest in Iran where mainly university students took to the streets of Tehran in order to express their dissatisfaction with the orthodox regime. There were more than 20,000 students who took part in this protest and the result was a slight reduction on conservatism form the regime.
The present state of affairs Iran shows that there are a number of issues that are in the forefront of the desire for progressive reforms. These include the need for freedom of thought and expression and a reduction of the strict censorship that characterizes government policy. Another issue that is central to the progressive agenda is international relationships. There is a consensus among the…
Asghar a. IRAN BETWEEN LIBERALISM and ORTHODOXY. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at http://www.dawoodi-bohras.com/perspective/iran.htm
Iran's Youth Push Islamic Limits. Retrieved March 14, 2007, at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/01/25/eveningnews/main669223.shtml
Judah T. Via TV and the net, Iran's youth plot social revolution. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at http://www.hvk.org/articles/0902/46.html
Profile: Mohammad Khatami. Retrieved March 11, 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1373476.stm
Both points-of-view may be absolutely correct, but neither really addresses the issue of whether or not Alexander was truly great.
Perhaps the best way to evaluate Alexander's greatness is to look at the lasting effects that he had on civilization.
First and foremost, Alexander conquered the known world. "Before Alexander world civilization had been dominated by eastern cultures - Persians, Egyptians, and Babylonians. Alexander shifted the spotlight once and for all. From now on the western societies of the Romans and the Greeks would take over the torch." Alexander used the gold reserves of conquered Persia to build new cities and ports, which he used to spread the Greek civilization around the world. In fact, "the economic system that began to take shape after Alexander's reign remained virtually unchanged until the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th century." hile the Greeks may have found Alexander's successes great, not all of…
Welman, Nick. 2005. General Overview [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=88&keyword_id=2&title=General%20Introduction;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Wehrstein, Karen. 2003. Alexander's True Passion: Transcendence [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=26&keyword_id=2&title=Passion;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Welman, Nick. 2005. General Overview [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=88&keyword_id=2&title=General%20Introduction;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
The continued reunification of Sudan, remains to be fully realized, even some 7 years after the official end to the civil war. Oppression and lack of representation still occur as do more subtle marginalizing tactics on the part of the favored government. Secrecy and fear still abound in the nation, as do economic and social hardships that are difficult to overcome.
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133
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El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 41. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036026.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "The Sudan -- Contested National Identities." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 111. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036042.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, and Richard Lobban. "The Sudan since 1989: National Islamic Front Rule."…
Judy Mayotte, "Civil War in Sudan: The Paradox of Human Rights and National Sovereignty," Journal of International Affairs 47.2 (1994), Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000189501 .
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Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
Financial and Economic Impact of Worker's Compensation egulations And Compliance
The program and concept of Workers' Compensation might appear to be a product of a civilized society and the modern era, but nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, Workers' Compensation has essentially been around for as long as people have been completing task for payment of some form of another, because people have always been getting hurt in some way, on the job. "The history of compensation for bodily injury begins shortly after the advent of written history itself1. The Nippur Tablet No. 3191 from ancient Sumeria in the Fertile Crescent outlines the law of Ur-Nammu, king of the city-state of Ur. It dates to approximately 2050 B.C.2. The law of Ur provided monetary compensation for specific injury to workers' body parts, including fractures. The code of Hammurabi from 1750 B.C. provided a similar set of rewards…
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Ceniceros, R. (2012, December 12). State reduces workers comp opioid prescriptions. Retrieved from Businessinsurance.com: http://www.businessinsurance.com/article/99999999/NEWS080102/399999826
Eley, L. (n.d.). FEDERAL AGENCY HELPS COAL MINERS DETECT BLACK LUNG DISEASE. Retrieved from Denversworkerscompensationattorney.com: http://www.denverworkerscompensationattorney.com/2011/03/federal-agency-helps-coal-miners-detect-black-lung-disease.shtml
It was after one of them bombed Cairo in July 1948, that the Israelis were able to establish air supremacy. Succeeding victories came in rapid succession on all three fronts. The Arab states all negotiated separate armistice agreements. Egypt was the first to sign in February 1949, followed by Lebanon, Transjordan and finally Syria. Iraq chose to withdraw its forces without signing an agreement. Israel significantly expanded its territory beyond the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine at the expense of its Arab neighbors. The cost of victory was in more than 6,000 Israeli lives which represented approximately 1% of the population. After the peace agreement wartime recruits were rapidly dismissed. This made it difficult for the basic manpower problem of a small population faced with the need to mobilize a sizable army during a wartime emergency. After a study of the Swiss reservist system, Israel introduced a three-tiered…
"1948 Arab-Israeli War." 2007. 10 November 2009 <
Frum, David. 2009. "1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War." 10 November 2009
An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"
Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…
"Belly Dancing." Eijkhout.net. 2000. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Deagan, Andrea. "In Search of the Origins of Dance." UNCW. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Jusserand, J.J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: W&J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950. Print.
Wright, Marisa. "Origins of Belly Dance." HubPages. 2009. Web. 12 Oct 2011.