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Modern national monuments hold an important significance for the nations that erect them. However, there are a few monuments that seem to hold more sway over the collective imagination of the world. The iffel Tower is one of those monuments.
The iffel Tower, begun in 1885 and finished in 1889. It is named for its creator, Gustave iffel, and consists of 7,742 tons of iron, over two and a half million rivets, and fifteen thousand individual pieces of metal. It is supported by cross braced lattice girders running from vertical support to vertical support, and rests on a foundation of twenty five square feet masonry piers set in seven feet of concrete below ground. The structure consists of three floors or stages, supported by four legs braced by arches. It tapers from its base to its top point, the final terrace and radio antenna.
Eiffel Tower," Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 10.
Eiffel Tower," World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 6.
Gustave Eiffel," the Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Helicon. 1998. http://www.helicon.co.uk.
The results, published in the Statistical Journal of the United Nations, showed that of the 6,970 women interviewed, 11% had been the victim of at least one form of sexual abuse since childhood. The report also showed that some 50,000 rapes occurred in the year of the survey, 2000; one woman in ten suffers physical violence in her relationship; 37.5% of women between 20 and 24 years of age are under "repeated psychological pressure" at work to have sex; 24.6% of women in that age group suffer regular "verbal abuse"; and 4.3% have been sexually assaulted in public places. So does any of that sexually inappropriate information (about legal sex clubs and violence against women) taint the international image of the Eiffel Tower? Yes and no; yes, it does for those who seek and obtain the information available about Paris today; and no, for those who have no idea at…
Fougeyrollas-Schwebel, Dominique. "Violence against women in France: the context, findings
And impact of the Enveff survey?" Statistical Journal of the United Nations Vol. 22 (2005):
Fraser-Cavassoni, Natasha. "The Talk: Exchangiste Student." The New York Times 26 Feb. 2006: Retrieved April 6, 2007, at http://select.nytimes.com .
Kingwell, Mark. "Ten Steps to the Creation of a Modern Media Icon." Marginalia: A Cultural
How does the building address the issue of light?
The building, despite its weight and size, is lacy and light. It is reduced to a minimum in order to achieve height, much like a giraffe has a thin but strong neck, or a butterfly has a delicate lacework structure to support its wings.
Does color play a role in the building's design?
The building is best seen at night in silhouette, so color makes little difference. Its profile allows the lights and atmosphere of Paris shine through its latticeworks.
Is your attention drawn to the texture of the building's material?
Completely. The steel of the building is the reason for its construction. It announces "Look at me! Before me it was impossible to make such a tall, massive and yet light and lacy structure." It is an obvious advertisement for the then-new virtues of strength and lightness offered by iron…
Existentialism is a philosophical perspective that emphasizes the larger reality of the external world beyond the specific human needs or goals of the individual. Its two most influential contributors are Nietzsche and Kierkegaard.
12. Information on the origins of Jazz
Generally, Jazz is believed to have originated in New Orleans, Louisiana after the Creoles who were originally from the West Indies and lived under panish and then French rule became American through the 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France. A series of racial segregation measures forced the well educated and classically trained black Creoles to live with uneducated, newly freed American slaves. Jazz evolved from the combination of the musical influences of the two different cultures.
13. Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz was a Twentieth Century Mexican writer and poet and was also a publisher and a diplomat. His writings were heavily influenced by his political beliefs and his intense…
The peson-as-symbol element in fiction can be a vey poweful one, and few uses of this device ae moe pominent o moe poweful than Toni Moison's in Beloved. This also comes with cetain elements of fantasy -- misconceptions and/o misundestandings based on a simplified view of the chaacte Beloved. Sethe comes to teat Beloved as the sole pupose in he life, a being who deseves eveything and is essentially above judgment due to the suffeing caused he. This is just as incoect a view of Beloved, it tuns out, as the view of the naato in Baldwin's shot stoy by the Ameicans is. Whateve Beloved is, she is not simple, and not being ganted the full life of esponsibility ad feedom, she stagnates, and causes Sethe to stagnate along with he. The fantasies held in these woks ae not poductive, but instead hold chaactes back fom fulfilling thei tue potential.…
references to the metaphor of the Veil, which is used to symbolize the altered perception that racial prejudice places over society. At one point, DuBois speaks of the "Black World beyond the Veil" as an almost unattainable dream, revealing the juxtaposition of the Veil's symbolism (Ch. V, par. 10). It is both a fantasy placed upon the world that distorts, and yet a more positive fantasy exists in the possibility to thrust it off.
The Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton. Paxton's design was largely influenced by the greenhouses he remembered from his previous work as a gardener at the Chatsworth House. During his tenure there he initially worked with the technology that he would use on the Crystal Palace, cast place glass that supported the structure of greenhouses in combination with supports made of iron. Paxton was selected as the designer for the Crystal Palace after the committee selecting designers had rejected all of the entries of an international competition to design the structure. Paxton's design was selected in part due to the affordability and the expedience that the materials he proposed to use, iron and glass, could be assembled. Interestingly enough, Paxton was one of a few designers to submit a proposal based on the construction materials of iron and glass (Hitchcock 184). The engineer was Sir William Cubitt. Sir Charles…
Roth, Leland. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning. Boulder: Westview Press. 1993. Print.
Meyer, Harry & Harmeza, Jason. "Louis Sullivan's Guaranty Building." Hodgson Russ. No date. Web. http://www.hodgsonruss.com/Home/Offices/GuarantyBuilding
Woodward, Craig & Meyer, Harry. "The Original Guaranty Building Elevators." www.buffaloah.com. 2011. Web. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/church/28/elev.html
Sax, George. "Louis Sullivan: The Struggle for American Architecture." ArtVoice. 2010. Web. http://artvoice.com/issues/v9n43/louis%20sullivan
56). The French government liked the Portrait of Miss H. so well that they bought it from Dannat and placed it in the Luxembourg Museum.
hile Dannat's work got a lot of attention in Paris that year, Thompson claims that the "crowning achievement" in that American section of the exhibit was the work of John Singer Sargent. His six portraits in bravura style included the Daughters of Edward D. Boit, Mrs. Henry hite, and Mrs. Benjamin Kissam. And while Sargent's work displayed feminine portraits at the Paris show, George P.A. Healy "was the most widely recognized formal portraitist of men" (p. 57). The oldest of all the American artists, two of Healy's male portraits were featured "prominently" right next to the main gallery's front door.
Healy's work included King of Roumania, Sir. Henry M. Stanley and Lord Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton.
Even though the portraitures drew a lot of interest, about…
Boime, Albert. (1989). The Chocolate Venus, "Tainted" Pork, the Wine Blight, and the Tariff:
Franco-American Stew at the Fair. In Annette Blaugrund (Ed.), Paris 1889: American
Artists at the Universal Exposition (67-89). New York: Harry N. Abrams.
New York Times (1888). Next Year's Big Show: Frenchmen Beginning to Have Faith in Its
The pofessional manage held ultimate esponsibility fo constuction, while the designe's authoity with espect to the client eceded. on-site wok done by subcontactos was managed by lage geneal contactos who povided the supevising enginees, and did not necessaily have to adhee to the designes places (Cuff 33). This change was a diect consequence of the aangement of wok in the Industial Revolution, whee specialisation was given new dimensions and management sped up to keep pace with the quickening of mateial manufactuing, steam-poweed machine labou, and tanspotation systems. It also was necessitated by the incease in the mathematical and mechanical knowledge of stuctues. It became difficult if not impossible fo one peson to undestand the complicated mathematics of design and mateials, and to apply this within the field of caftsmanship and building. With inceasing infomation though new media, it was also difficult to keep abeast of cuent technological advances.
references are needed
The emphasis on natural laws and moral standards during this time might have influenced management practises. More significant, however, was the logical and mathematical approach to knowledge and problems. This signified an analytical viewpoint trained to distinguish between things rather than to see them holistically. As a result, architecture and technology were separated. Technology continued to become associated with the role and expertise of engineers rather than designers (Cohen).
The new scientific methods had an impact on the master builder's role. This is clearly evident in the case of Sir Christopher Wren at St. Paul's in London. While he was considered an architect in the sense of design, he also encompassed the role of building supervisor, although this was primarily through the delegation of tasks. His principal role was design (Downes 15). He operated with a large staff of employees out of an office. That was where contracts were drawn up for a panoply of skilled labour, including masons, carpenters, bricklayers, plumbers, painters, carvers, and organ builders, and building materials like stone, lime, and sand (Beard 28). This was a substantial move towards the modern notion of architect, continuing the trend started in the Renaissance and forming a transition to the later industrial period.
The design process itself also mattered. Wren built numerous models of various plans over the years. These were subject to rejection or ratification by the vote of different parties, who debated factors like style and expense. Some have seen here an almost arbitrary process (Soo 462). What is important is that design was continually altered through the building process, affecting the unity of the building. Yet each new design was limited in possibility by its construction. With Wren, one sees a master builder primarily focused on design with a team of engineers in an office. He also provided pedagogical assistance and mentorship for some of his employees (Chambers). On the jobsite were the skilled master craftsmen responsible for implementing the design under the leadership of the engineers. This moves substantially towards the modern notion of architect, continuing the trend started in the Renaissance and forming a transition to the later industrial period.
Other projects erected during this time demonstrate the propensity of master builders to collaborate with others to help accomplish their vision and the overall design scheme for a piece of architecture. Louis Le Vau worked with a garden and landscape architect, an interior designer and visual artist, as well as other architects in the work he achieved with the Palace of Versailles. Although the sharing of responsibilities and collaborative process that ensued was in some measure attributed to the expansive nature of the Palace and its surrounding grounds (Palace of Versailles), the conception of a team led by a master builder was integral to completion of this work. The tendency to redesign and actually alter certain architectural elements that Wren was noted for occurred within the Palace of Versailles to a lesser degree; one of the reasons that the construction period was so elongated was due to the redesign efforts of Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Other works within this period indicated master builders being called upon to refurbish or refine elements of previously completed structures; Wren's work on St. Paul's was simply the latest in a long line of modifications and rebuilding efforts on this building (St. Paul's Cathedral).
In the book, Project management: strategic design and implementation, David I. Cleland and Lewis R. Ireland report "a review of the results of projects in antiquity reveals evidence about how several historical projects originated and developed" (p. 4).
1. The first of this type of evidence, known as artifacts, typically came from human workmanship. These could have been structures, tools, weapons, or items of substance of archeological or historical interest. The Great Pyramids and the printing press reflect momentous examples of artifacts.
2. The second type of evidence, cultural strategies, could be found in the arts, beliefs, institutions, or other work from different products, from a certain time period typical of a particular society. The English Magna Carta, the U.S. Emancipation Proclamation, and the U.S. Social Security Program portray examples of this type of evidence.
3. The third types of evidence of ancient projects include literature and documents, publications or…
"Ancient Project Management." PM Karma. 2008. Web. 10 May 2009.
"Ancient Project Management." Project Management Source. 2005. Web. 10 May 2009.
Azzopardi, Sandro. "The Evolution of Project Management." Project Smart. 2007. Web.
10 May 2009.
Art Generating Identity
Analysis of Civil art 'humanizes' places, expresses identity, lecturer at NDMOA says by Haley (2014).
A key component in persuading individuals to go along a certain path is establishment of a vision. Speeches are viewed as a means to persuade an audience; likewise, images can also be just as convincing as verbal rhetoric. Art plays a rhetorical role, as well, making viewers believe the authenticity of that which is represented. Cultural and social values and famous historical occurrences are reflected often in art works. Seeing art which reflects ideals, values and life experiences may prompt spectators to think through a reality which may otherwise have been neglected by them. This kind of art, at the very least, drives individuals to challenge large societal problems, thereby, increasing the likelihood of reactive action by the community (Howard & Hoffman, 2013).
The nature of public art isn't merely aesthetic; cultural,…
Efroymson, D., Thanh Ha, T.K. & Thu Ha, P. (2009). Public Spaces: How They Humanize Cities. HealthBridge - WBB Trust.
Haley, C. (2014, Mar 14). Civil art 'humanizes' places, expresses identity, lecturer at NDMOA says. McClatchy - Tribune Business News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1507232112?accountid=45844
Howard, A.D., & Hoffman, D.R. (2013). A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Building American National Identity Through Art. Perspectives on Political Science, 42(3), 142-151. doi:10.1080/10457097.2013.793517
Proshansky, H.M., Fabian, A.K., and Kaminoff, R. (1983), Place-Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3.
Desire to Attend MIT
Why I Desire To Attend MIT
"Life's challenges are not supposed to paralyze you, they're supposed to help you discover who you are" (eagon, 2010, ¶ 1).
Challenges in life have helped me not only discover who I am, as the introductory quote by eagon (2010), an American historian and musician, asserts. They also strengthen and help me realize who I can become; a person who actively approaches life with a positive, optimistic attitude: an individual who discovers opportunities in life's challenges. During this essay, I recount a number of my life's challenges and the ensuing lessons that have helped shaped me and my life. I also relate reasons as well as the rationale for my desire to attend MIT. Growing up as a Palestinian in Jerusalem, challenging opportunities regularly presented experiences which helped me to change for the better as I learned more about myself.…
Fallon, S. & Williams, N. (2008). Paris: City guide . Oakland CA: Lonely Planet.
Gates, B. (2011). Why MIT matters. Retrieved July 16, 2011, from http://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/specials/mit150/Gates/
Mission and Origins. (2011). MIT Facts. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://web.mit.edu/facts/mission.html
Reagon, B.J. (2010). ThinkExist. Retrieved July 15, 2011, from http://thinkexist.com/quotations/challenge/
City of Lights -- Paris, France
Paris, the capital of France, is one of the most visited places in the world when it comes to travel and tourism. The historic and marvelous places of the city make Paris one of the nicest places to visit in Europe. The wonders of Paris includes the Eiffel Tower, Musee du Louvre, Arc de Triomphe, Avenue des Champs Elysees, Notre Dame Cathedral, and many other historic breathtaking grandeurs of Paris.
Known as the City of Lights, Paris is located in France, at the heart of Europe's tourist destinations. Exploring Paris is almost similar to taking your self back in time in an inspiring, exquisite, magical, and romantic city one could ever imagine. The city boasts of its many tourist attractions. The most famous of which is the Eiffel Tower -- the landmark of Paris. uilt in 1889, and considered as the city's symbol of…
Rando, Michael. Paris Overview.
Paris. 29 Sept 2003.
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…
I am a Francophile. Ever since I started studying French culture, I have not been able to get Paris out of my mind. Having had friends and family who have visited the city has only made me feel more strongly that I simply must go as well. When I began planning my trip to Paris, I thought I could see it all in one day, or at least the most important things. I made lists and read books and travel guides, and I thought I had finally planned my perfect day in Paris. I would start with the Eiffel Tower, then continue with The Louvre and Centre Pompidou, take a lunch break at a cafe, catch some tours around the city, especially through Le Marais, and finish it all off with a fancy dinner at an expensive restaurant at night. I never thought, however, that the perfect day in…
America's sprawling territories makes it easy for people to leave their families and connections, making it easier to kill or be killed. On one hand, the inventions of the Fair and the belief in commercialism and industry makes spectacle possible in a way that is not easily replicated anywhere else, Eiffel Tower aside. More so than anywhere else, the belief in newness and self-creation seems to be a kind of religion in America. Chicago would recreate itself, and so would Holmes. Science would set America free, leaving older primitive cultures to curiosity cabinets and freak shows, and science would give Holmes the tools to create the perfect murders, and then to profit by selling the remains, letting nothing go to waste in this little 'business' he was running. For both Holmes and Chicago, eradication of the 'dark city' beneath the image of a white facade was the essence of the…
Larson, Erik. The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and Madness New York: Crown,
Erik Larson, the Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and Madness, (New York: Crown, 2003), p.4.
To put this in better perspective, the average driveway requires between six and seven meters of concrete, meaning there is well over twelve-thousand driveways' worth of concrete stretching out for two-and-a-half kilometers over the valley of the iver Tarn, at times higher than the Eiffel Tower and most of the buildings in New York City (BridgePros 2010). All of this material went to good use, creating not only the tallest vehicle bridge in the world, but also one of the safest and most assuredly long-lasting (BridgePros 2010).
Yet despite the football-stadium's worth of concrete and steel somehow suspended in the skyline of southern France, there is a tremendous and awe-inspiring beauty to the Milau viaduct bridge that defies the massive scale of the project. From this plan's initial design phases, the bridge was meant to be an epic and lasting work of art, and it was incredibly successful in attaining…
ArchInform. (2010). "Dr. Michel Virlogeux." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://eng.archinform.net/arch/55763.htm
BridgePros. (2010). "Milau Viaduct Project." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://bridgepros.com/projects/Millau_Viaduct/
Discovery. (2010). "Milau Viaduct." Discivery. Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.yourdiscovery.com/machines_and_engineering/water_engineering/millau_viaduct/index.shtml
Foster + Partners. (2010). "Chief executive." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Team/SeniorPartners/11/Default.aspx
Mass production gave the people more goods and raised their standards of living in industrialized nations, but the unequal distribution of wealth created dissatisfaction and unrest among the poor.
Wealthy entrepreneurs and corporations were able to create great structures in the major cities. In 1856 Henry Bessemer (British) perfected the process for producing inexpensive steel; and the next year E.G. Otis (American) installed the first safety elevator. From 1773, cast iron provided strength without bulk and provided architects to span broader widths and raise structures to greater heights than traditional stone buildings. John Nash used cast iron in 1815 for the Brighton Pavilion. The first cast-iron suspension bridge began to be constructed in 1836, but not until mid-century was iron used as skeletal support for mills, warehouses and railroad stations. Joseph Paxton built Paxton's Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of London in 1851 of glass and steel in only…
The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…
references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.
Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.
Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.
Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
Waiting for Godot Character Comparison
Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot depicts two vagabonds, Vladimir and Estragon, as its central characters: to the extent that the play's structure accommodates a traditional protagonist, one of them -- or both considered as a unit -- must be that protagonist. Yet I think Beckett is careful to give us reason both to understand Vladimir and Estragon (within their own interactions) as being more distinct characters, while at the same time we can see them as the same character with the same name. I'd like to look at the evidence of a few crucial moments in Beckett's text, in which the distinctions between Vladimir and Estragon are either heightened or elided, in order ultimately to argue as to why I think we must understand the two characters as a unit, and to some degree as the same character with the same name.
At the play's…
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…
Jennifer was a 9-year-old "Army brat" living Mannheim, Germany with her parents. Her father was an Army master sergeant and her mother was a "stay-at-home mom" that enjoyed seeing the sights with her children, Jennifer, and her two brothers, Bill (7 years old) and James (13 years old). One week her mom told Jennifer, "We're going to Paris this weekend so pack your bags!" "Oh boy!," Jennifer though to herself, "I finally get to see the Eiffel Tower and Notre Dame." Her mom had signed them up for an Army-sponsored tour of Paris and they arrived 30 minutes early to make sure they didn't miss the bus which was leaving at 7:30 P.M. Jennifer was so excited she could barely sit still and sleep was almost impossible, but the bus trip was a long one and she finally dozed off. In the morning, she woke up to find herself in…
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).
(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.
(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400
(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…
Antarctica, Enjoy Chile, http://www.enjoy-chile.org/antarctica-attractions-chile.php last accessed on December 10, 2009
Australia Tourist Guides, Sino, 2009, http://www.sino.net/australia-tourist-guides/attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
India Tourist Attractions, Info India, http://www.info2india.com/rajasthan/india-attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
Italy Tourist Attractions, Vacation Idea, 2009, http://www.vacationidea.com/articles/italy_tourist_attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
Giddens believes "the 'rules' of social order may only be 'in our heads' - they are not usually written down, and often have no formal force to back them up - but nevertheless, people can be shocked when seemingly minor social expectations are not adhered to" (Gauntlett 2001, p.2). For Giddens, while language and symbols may be manipulated, human beings are still empowered to change them -- there is no utter subsuming of the real by symbols because of our ability to be conscious of 'the rules' of the social order.
Baudrillard offers an explanation of why things seem 'less real' in the postmodern present, but Giddens denies that 'we' are in a state of postmodern reality at all. Tradition may be dead, Giddens states, but we have merely replaced it with a new, post-traditional culture. We have not gone 'beyond' culture as Baudrillard suggests, and the postmodern love of…
Felluga, Dino. (2002). Definition: Simulacra. Introductory guide to critical theory. Purdue University. Retrieved April 29, 2010
Felluga, Dino. (2002). Modules on Baudrillard: On postmodernity. Introductory guide to critical theory. Purdue University. Retrieved April 29, 2010
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…
In June, 1966he first appeared in Covent Garden in another Donizetti role, Tonio in la Fille du egiment and was so skilled at the difficult range of the role the press dubbed him the "King of the High C's" (Woodstra, Brennan and Schrott, iv; (Ah Mes Amis - Live at Covet Garden 1966).
He began recording and adding to his repetoire; 1969 opposite enata Scotto in I Lombardi, the rarely performed I Caputelti e I Montecchi, and a complete L'Elisir d'Amore with his now famous friend, Sutherland. On Feburary 17, 1972, Pavarotti made a stunning breakthrough at the Metropolitan Opera in La Fille, receiving 17 curtain calls and wild raves from both the crowd and critics; as well as doting praise from Mirella Freini (emembering Pavarotti; a Mes Amis - Live at the Met 1972).
From then on, Pavarotti was in demand as a world-class tenor. He was brought into…
"Ah Mes Amis - Live at the Met 1972." 1972. You Tube. November 2010 .
"Ah Mes Amis - Live at Covet Garden 1966." June 1966. YouTube. November 2010 .
Arendt, P. "It Was All About the Voice." 7 September 2007. The Guardian. November 2010 .
Block, M. "60 Minutes Story About Singer." 15 October 2004. Television Newswriting Workship. November 2010 .
In addition to pieces for piano solo or violin and piano, the Belle Epoque was famed for its large inventory of songs. The Italians were the greatest advocates of this type of song, its greatest supporter being Francesco Paolo Tosti. Though Tosti's songs were never completely off the list, salon music in general fell into a period of darkness. During this period singers were afraid to sing them at serious performances. During this period, waltzes also prospered. Operettas were also at the peak of their fame, with composers such as Johann Strauss III, Emmerich Kalman, and Franz Lehar. It was during this period that motion pictures were developed, although they did not become widespread until after orld ar I (Belle Epoque, 2010).
hen looking at the Belle Epoque there is no doubt that it concerns a period somewhere between 1871 and 1914 (Introduction to the Belle Epoque, n.d.). After French-Prussian,…
"Belle Epoque." 2010. Web. 15 August 2010,
"Introduction to the Belle Epoque." n.d. Web. 15 August 2010,
"Italian art exhibitions: La Belle Epoque & its Artists on display in Rovigo." 2008. Web.
The Big Dig continues to be a source of safety concern, particularly regarding the structural integrity of the concrete ceiling panels. Undoubtedly, this issue has some Bostonians looking up as they drive through the tunnels. However, the ceiling collapse also brought attention to the problem. Although not much was reported about future actions, this would have reasonably triggered an inspection of other parts of the tunnel. Officials are confident about the integrity of the rest of the tunnel and one can rest assured that they do not wish to have any further "incidents" regarding the tunnel.
The construction industry is filled with unknown factors that cannot possibly be foreseen, even with the best planning. The Big Dig was relatively low incident, compared to other construction projects. No one will argue that even one incident is one incident too many, but things happen on other construction projects too. Cost overruns are…
Cohen, S. Editorial: Worst Practices from Boston's Big Dig Officials. August 1, 2006. Compliance Week. https://www.complianceweek.com/article/2714/editorial-worst-practices-from-boston-s-big-dig-officials.
Economic Development Research Group. Economic Impacts of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority and the Central Artery/Third Harbor Tunnel project. February 2006. http://www.masspike.com/pdf/reports/MTA-Economic-ExcSmry.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2008.
Gelinas, N. Lessons of Bostons' Big Dig. City Journal. Autumn 2007. http://www.city-journal.org/html/17_4_big_dig.html Accessed November 28, 2008.
Massachusetts Turnpike Authority. Project Background. Big Dig. http://www.masspike.com/bigdig/background/index.html. Accessed November 28, 2008.
This double-edged sword of new technology is being increasingly being relied on for capturing knowledge in the organization, serving as a vital catalyst for higher levels of collaboration Condon, 55):
According to Jorge Lopez, industry research chief at Gartner, the focus of it has been to cut costs by automating tasks that can be broken down into discrete processes. But it has achieved all it can in that respect and any further improvements would be marginal. The next frontier for it is the non-routine work that lends itself less readily to automation - and here the talk is of 'augmentation': helping people come to decisions more quickly, and helping support any consequent action.
With knowledge workers, such as managers, who deal with non-routine kinds of work, the idea of productivity is different. As (management guru Peter) Drucker pointed out, you don't pay them by the hour but by results,' says…
1)" Yuen 10. However, in order to consistently be successful in this profession and in the completion of projects, there is a significant more amount of consideration and work to be done within this field. These additional considerations form an indelible component of the present research, which has stratified these concerns in ways that are germane to the proper implementation of project management, and which should not merely focus on the abilities of an individual (such as a project manager), but include a gestalt of "knowledge and skills from the areas of expertise of "project environments," "general management skills," and "Knowledge of the application area" (Yuen 386), that are "a deliberate orchestration of all these areas of expertise to complete a project."
By analyzing what these different environment areas were in previous centuries for the completion of successful projects in Europe and the Near East, the research contained within this…
However, in spite of the fact that the film was promoted as a motion picture displaying real-life events, it appears that the director did not hesitate to modify a series of aspects about the environment that he shot in and the story itself. The protagonist's wife and children were not actually his and Flaherty correctly believed that audiences would be more deeply impressed if he presented the story from a more spectacular point-of-view. Even with this, one can still claim that the film is a documentary because it presents viewers with its own creation.
Many individuals took advantage of the fact that documentary films were very influential and devised propaganda strategies using motion pictures. Many individuals involved in this affair considered that fiction films no longer had a strong appeal and that society was more concerned about seeing 'cinema verite'. Many filmmakers got actively engaged in creating films discussing political…
Aufderheide, Patricia, "Documentary Film: A Very Short Introduction," (Oxford University Press, 2007)
Ellis, Jack C. And McLane, Betsy a. "A new history of documentary film," (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005)
Although in this particular case it seemed that Scott Peterson was guilty, even if the evidence was just circumstantial, this type of evidence has sent many people to death, only to find out later that they were not guilty. This is actually a flaw of the jury system. The European continental system lets a judge appreciate whether a person is guilty or not of some crime. Since judges have to pass an exam in order to be appointed and since they are not elected for some period of time, their complete independence is assured. This way, an impartial judge would be indifferent to the media pressure and would weigh the evidence better than any jury, since a judge certainly has more experience than any juror. However, the American legal system chose to put ordinary people to judge other ordinary people, with the "guilty beyond reasonable doubt" principle as the only…
1. Hilden, Julie, "The Scott Peterson trial: Can prosecutors win the case?," FindLaw Columnist Special to CNN.com, CNN.com, July 21, 2004 Wednesday
2. Sahagun, Louis, "Peterson Case Puts the Jury on Defensive," the Los Angeles Times, November 12, 2004 Friday
3. Dearen Jason, "Crunch time at Peterson trial" the Oakland Tribune (Oakland, CA), November 1, 2004 Monday
Dearen Jason, "Crunch time at Peterson trial" the Oakland Tribune (Oakland, CA), November 1, 2004 Monday
Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.
Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…
2000. Catalan Masters. Available at http://www.artcult.com/na125.html" http://www.artcult.com/na125.html. Accessed on 9 January 2005.
2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/archives/2002/opparch02-281.html . Accessed January 2005.
Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at http://www.gaudialigaudi.com/A0003.htm;. Accessed 9 January 2005.
Catalan Painting. Available at http://www.mnac.es/eng/dinou/s6.htm . Accessed January 2005.
Superior Customer Value
eginning in 1998, Harrah's decided that it wanted to change its business culture from an operations-driven company that viewed every casino as a stand-alone property to a marketing-driven company with a holistic view of its properties and customers (light and Turk, 2004). The organization structure was revamped to become a national distribution network with a single, unifying brand. The company was then able to execute its corporate growth strategy, one that sought loyalty to increase same-store-sales growth. This required convincing gamblers to spend less at competitors and more at Harrah's. As discussed in this paper, enterprise collaboration, competitive positioning focused on customer service and gaming in the middle market, supply chain optimization, and regulatory considerations are all significant factors affecting Harrah's ability to deliver superior customer value.
Instead of building glitzy casinos with attractions such as volcanoes, sinking ships and replicas of the Eiffel Tower, Harrah's…
Bligh, P. And Turk, D. (2004, June). CRM Magazine. Cashing in on customer loyalty. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.destinationcrm.com/articles/default.asp?ArticleID=4115
Case in point: Harrah's. (2002, June 24). The Source. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:sx5dXg5XDuIJ:eu.icgcommerce.com/corporate/doc/html/downloads/thesourceissue3.pdf+Harrah%27s+sourcing& hl=en
Gambling on customers. (2003, July 14). The McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.forbes.com/2003/07/14/0714mckinsey.html
Levinson, M. (2001, May). Harrah's knows what you did last night. Darwin Magazine. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050101/harrahs.html
European countries have absorbed a great deal in the way of material and culture from the United States, they have not become "Americanized," and that each country has incorporated what it takes from the United States into its own nationalism. In addition, the author argues that American culture has been influenced by European countries, although our culture has remained distinctly American. Finally, he makes the point that "Europe" is not one culture -- and that the United States is made up of many cultures as well. While European countries are "not like us," Europe and the United States have the presence of multiple cultures in common.
The book is organized into two sections. In the first three chapters, the author gives an overview from prior to World War II and continuing through the end of the Cold War. Then the author looks at specific cultural components affected by American influences…
Nevertheless, the American influence on other countries should not be diminished. In the 1990's, over 50% of McDonald's income came from foreign countries (303). Some American concepts did not translate well to Europe. Euro-Disney struggled at first, partly because Paris has a winter not present in either southern California or central Florida. But in addition, European vacation practices differed: Europeans tended to take long vacations, sometimes as long as a month, rather than the shorter 4 -- 5 day trips often preferred by Americans. Europeans tended to be more rigid about their schedules, causing bottlenecks for park admission and meals. In addition, Disney followed its policy of no alcohol on the premises to the dismay of Europeans accustomed to having a beer or glass of wine with a meal (311). So while it may have at first looked as if Euro-Disney was attempting to force Americanism on the French, in reality, such tactics simply didn't work. Disney had to adjust in major ways in order to make a success of Euro-Disney.
Pell's book takes a long and careful look at the interchange of cultures between the United States and Western Europe, and presents a picture that is far more complex than whether, for instance, the French might have been affronted to see a McDonald's in the heart of Paris. Instead, the author shows an inexorable process of influence flowing at least to some degree, both ways. In retrospect the reader should not be surprised by this. Greece and Rome both influenced each others' culture. The Phoenicians sailed around their known world and had profound influences on the cultures they met with, but that cultural exposure did not cause the loss of the other cultures. Perhaps it is the nature of human beings to meet, compare notes, notice how practices differ, and absorb and modify what is useful from the other culture.
Pells, Richard. Not Like Us: How Europeans have Loved, Hated and Transformed American Culture since World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
hereas the natural coastline of Dubai is constantly re-supplied with sand from the ocean currents, the artificially formed coastlines are continuously having their sands stripped away by the currents and deposited further downstream. This means that in order to preserve the Palm Island's beautiful shape, perpetual maintenance must be put into action. Ultimately, this means that the Dubai economy will fundamentally depend upon the flow of tourism because the initial gains from real-estate development will grind to a halt when real-estate ceases to be created. Perhaps this explains the ever-increasing scale upon which the artificial islands of Dubai are being created: real-estate sales have already made-up for much of the cost of creating the vulnerable islands. Nevertheless, once construction stops and oil reserves dry up, it will be upon the shoulders of international tourism that Dubai sustains the economic progress that has typified its past two decades of its development.…
Barlow, Maud and Tony Clarke. Blue Gold: the Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water. New York: The New Press, 2002. Page, xii.
Butler, Tina. "Dubai's Coastlines have High Environmental Cost." Mongabay, 2005. Available: http://news.mongabay.com/2005/0823-tina_butler_dubai.html .
Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy. "Powering America." Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy, 2004. Available: http://www.careenergy.com/powering_life/coal-energy.asp.
Dubai City Guide. "Palm Island." Waltopia, 2005. Available: http://www.waltopia.com/palm.html .
The Southern Dvina flowed from the heart of Russia into the Baltic near Riga, but through hostile Livonia. The headwaters of the Dvina and the Volga were not far apart and could have been connected by canals, thus providing a water route that might atone for the disproportion of Russia's enormous landmass to her coasts and ports. The Baltic would unite with the Caspian and the Black Sea, and East and est would meet.
In 1557, Ivan sent an army to Livonia, which ravaged the country brutally, burning houses and crops, enslaving men and raping women until they died. hen Livonia appealed for help, Stephen Bathory roused the Poles and led them to victory over the Russians at Polotsk, and Ivan yielded Livonia to Poland. However, long before this set back, his campaign had led to revolts on the home front. Merchants whom Ivan had thought to benefit decided that…
Cavendish, Richard. 2002. Kazan falls to Ivan the Terrible: October 2nd, 1552. History
Today. 01 October. Available Online from HighBeam Research Library, accessed 12 October 2006.
Dolmatov, Vladimir. 2003. Britain and Russia. History Today. 01 July.
Available Online from HighBeam Research Library, accessed 12 October 2006.
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…
In the economy today change is inevitable in any organization in the world. This is because each and every organization strives to remain strong in the market as well as being relevant. The only way the organizations can achieve this is through evolving so as to ensure that they are at the same level with the rest of the world. Changes occur even in big organizations like Samsung electronics. Samsung electronics is among the largest phone makers in the world and change is inevitable for them. This is because there is a lot of evolution in the world of electronics and Samsung has to undergo changes within the organization that will ensure what they produce is exactly what the world wants. It is very difficult for Samsung to avoid change as it is the new ideas that promote its growth as an organization.
There are many reasons that…
Anderson A., (2013). The Five Top Qualities Needed for an Effective Leader to Facilitate Change in an Organization. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/five-top-qualities-needed-effective-leader-facilitate-change-organization-5.html
Miranda B., (2013). What Causes Resistance to Change Within an Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/causes-resistance-change-organization-347.html
Nadler & Tushman, (1995).What Changes in Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073404993/579428/Sample_Chapter.pdf
Memory: The Statue of Liberty
The 7-volume French Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past and its condensed 3-volume English translation examine French History through "collective memories" of powerful French symbols. Editor Pierre Nora sums up France's History as "neither a resurrection nor a reconstitution nor a reconstruction nor even a representation but, in the strongest possible sense, a 'rememoration" (Nora and Kritzman xxiv). In Nora's theory, History involves memory as "the overall structure of the past within the present" (Nora and Kritzman xxiv) and co-editor Kritzman asserts, "Our knowledge of the past is less a question of our empirical grip on the past than on our apprehension of the past as we represent it through the lens of the present" (Nora and Kritzman xii).
Examining famous French symbols such as the Eiffel Tower and Joan of Arc (Nora and Kritzman xii), Nora's and Kritzman's work illustrates that the "realm…
Ken Burns America Collection: The Statue of Liberty. Dir. Ken Burns. PBS Documentary. 2004. DVD.
Nora, Pierre and Lawrence D. Kritzman. Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Book.
The Nationalism Project: Nationalism Studies Information Clearinghouse. Benedict Anderson: The Nation as Imagined Community. 2007. Web. 4 December 2011.
Living Memory Disappears
Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?
The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.
Belle Epoque and World War I
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Their training, clothes and accessories are of the best quality.
After orld ar II, this way of life became obsolete because the Japanese society came more and more under the influence of foreign currents and especially the young were ready to accept new values that were not harmonising with the whole concept of geisha. They still exist and perform in Japan today, but are not a way of life anymore. They are preservers of traditions and of an ancient culture that valued time, simplicity, the supremacy of powerful wealthy men, art in its most refined forms and viewed sex as another art form and not the goal but the means.
On can debate over the ethics of the practice and take into consideration the aspect of free will that was let apart when it came to a young girl's decision to take one way or another in her life and…
Downer, Lesley. Madame Sadayakko. Gotham Books. New York. 2003.
Iwasaki, Mineko. Geisha: A Life. Atria Books. New York. 2002
Stages of Geisha's Working Life. Retrieved: Mar. 8, 2008. Available at http://www.whatever.net.au/~amaya/geisha/stages.htm
Given the strong and increasing competition in the gaming and entertainment industry, Mandalay should apply a more aggressive strategy. The group should continue to expand the business. This will attract more clients, and it will expand Mandalay's number of target segments, which will eventually lead to increased incomes.
As mentioned above, Mandalay's strategy should focus on social responsibility also. By involving in the lives of its customers, Mandalay will be a more present figure in the customers' minds, which should lead to an increased degree of loyalty. Customer loyalty can also be reached by increasing customer satisfaction.
As a consequence, Mandalay's marketing department should seriously focus on discovering and analyzing customers' needs that have not yet been fulfilled. Implementing something new could help Mandalay gain serious competitive advantage over other gaming and entertainment industry players.
Mandalay should continue to exploit the advantage gained by addressing the entertainment oriented customers and…
Plato, Descartes, And the Matrix
The Matrix can be compared with Plato and Descartes. While that might seem like a very odd comparison, there are many similarities. In each scenario, there is the concept of reality and how to determine what is real and what is not. While it may seem as though it is easy to tell if something is real or not real, the truth is more complicated. People can have experiences in their lives that feel completely unreal to them, and they can have dreams that feel so real that they have trouble understanding why they have ended once they wake up. Naturally, that is a serious concern for people who are attempting to really understand the truth. There are some differences in the three works, though, because Plato was fixated more on people seeing something while they were awake and not being exposed to anything else.…