223 results for “Elective”.
Elective Cesarean Section
There are many paths to consider when a person becomes pregnant. The parents must decide whether to keep the child or not, then what type of care they will have while pregnant, and finally how they will bring the child into the world. There is the traditional method of birth where the infant is pushed through the vagina and there is Cesarean Section, or C-Section, wherein the baby is removed from the mother's womb surgically. The latter method is most often utilized when there is a potential health risk in a traditional birth. However, in recent years, it is becoming more and more common for women to choose C-Sections for reasons such as being able to schedule when the child will be born, less recovery time, and assorted other benefits. In the 1960s, birth by C-Section accounted for approximately 3% of the population. At present C-Sections make…
Bager, P. (2008). "Caesarian Delivery and Risk of Atopy and Allergic Disease: Meta-Analysis."
Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 38. 634-42.
Gagnon, Anita (2007). "Continuity of Nursing Care and Its Link to Cesarean Birth Rate." Birth.
34: 1. 36-31.
elective or emergency childbirth, a choice between general and local anesthesia is often called for. Cognizing the surroundings helps the birthing process. Therefore, a local anesthetic administered via an intrathecal spinal injection or through a catheter in the epidural space will prove an advantage. Ratcliffe and Evans at John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, England attempted tested this advantage on more than 90 elective Cesarean parturients. (Ratcliffe & Evans, 1993) The epidural anesthetic group enjoyed the most advantages. The determinants to support these findings were fetal and maternal health. These were judged by Apgar scores and also the pH values of the umbilical blood. The greatest acidities (pH less than 7.2) were observed in neonates in the spinal anesthesia groups. In terms of general fetal health, 70% of neonates from the general anesthesia group did not meet an Apgar score of greater than seven in the first minute after birth.
Adsumelli, R.S., Steinberg, E.S., Schabel, J.E., Saunders, T.A., & Poppers, P.J. (2003). Sequential compression device with thigh-high sleeves supports mean arterial pressure during Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 91(5), 695-698.
Atkins, A.J., Watt, J.M., Milan, P., Davies, P., & Crawford, J.S. (1981). The influence of posture upon cardiovascular dynamics throughout pregnancy. Eur J. Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 12(6), 357-372.
Ayorinde, B.T., Buczkowski, P., Brown, J., Shah, J., & Buggy, D.J. (2001). Evaluation of pre-emptive intramuscular phenylephrine and ephedrine for reduction of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean section. Br J. Anaesth, 86(3), 372-376.
Beilin, Y., Abramovitz, S.E., Zahn, J., Enis, S., & Hossain, S. (2000). Improved epidural analgesia in the parturient in the 30 degree tilt position. Can J. Anaesth, 47(12), 1176-1181.
Social Acceptance of Elective Cosmetic Surgery:
A dangerous addiction to perfection
Reconstructive surgery has its uses, such as restoring the face or body of someone disfigured in a car crash or other accident, or helping someone with genuine physical limitations (such as a harelip) which can have major negative medical and social consequences. However, the majority of reconstructive or plastic surgery is performed for purely cosmetic purposes in the United States. At best, its availability and acceptability puts people at needless physical risk; at worst, it subjects patients to needless dangers and even disfigures them. The pursuit of perfection has dangerous medical, economic, and social consequences.
There is no question that the use of cosmetic surgical procedures (and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures such as Botox) is increasing. According to Haas (et al. 2007), "approximately 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed and Americans spent $13.2 billion on these procedures,…
Blum, Virginia. "Becoming the Other Woman: The Psychic Drama of Cosmetic Surgery."
Frontiers 26.2 (2005): 104,131,237. GenderWatch. Web. 6 Dec. 2012.
Duerson, Meena Hart. "Anderson Cooper kicks 'Human Barbie' off show." The New York Daily
News [NEWSPAPER] 23 May 2012. [6 Dec 2012]
Section 79-i of the New York State Civil Rights Law, passed in 1971, allows health care workers to "refuse to perform or assist" in abortion procedures "contrary to the conscience or religious beliefs" of the workers (Callahan, 1998). To invoke this protection, a worker must "file a prior written refusal" with the hospital. Violation of the law is a misdemeanor.
This means that nurses have an obligation to provide good care to women who have abortions, respecting their decisions and providing physical and psychological care. The association advises nurses to respect the fact that patients have the right to freedom from imposition of other's beliefs or judgmental attitudes.
However, many nurses have religious or cultural value and ethical beliefs which may stand in their way when it comes to providing care without imposing personal beliefs on patients who choose to abort. The association recognizes that nurses have the right to…
American Nurses Association. (2001). "Code for nurses with interpretive statements." Washington, DC.
Callahan, Tom. (January 4, 1998). Backing the Right of Nurses Not to Assist in Abortions. New York Times
Fromer, MJ. (April 30, 1982). Abortion Ethics. Nurs Outlook: 30(4):234-40.
New York State Nurses Association. (2008). Position Statement on Abortion. Retrieved form the Internet at http://www.nysna.org/practice/positions/position2_04.htm .
The Publication and the Issue that it Presents
The article entitled Born too early: Improving Maternal and Child Health by educing Early Elective Deliveries was published on NIHCM Foundation, Transforming Health Care Through Evidence and Collaborations. The article discusses the issue of possible negative health consequences that early elective deliveries poses on infants, mothers and on health care system collectively, along with additional costs as an unnecessary burden. Infants might face an increased risk of:
Poorer brain mass.
espiratory Distress Syndrome (DS).
Low birth weight.
Longer stay at hospital.
While mothers face an increased risk of:
Longer stay at hospital due to complications.
Price to the Health Care System:
Early Elective Deliveries (EED) are linked to an increased risk of cesarean delivery, which costs about 50% more than the costs of vaginal births, on an average. Moreover, premature infants, born before 39…
Astho. (2014). Issue Brief: Early Elective Delivery. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. Retrieved from http://www.astho.org/Maternal-and-Child-Health/Early-Elective-Delivery-Issue-Brief/
BCBSSC. (2014). Birth Outcomes Initiatives: Claims Coding. Live Fearless BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://web.southcarolinablues.com/providers/providernews/2014providernews.aspx?article_id=602
March of Dimes. (n.d.). SC Hospitals and Medicaid Partner to Reduce Preterm Births. Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org/pdf/southcarolina/Healthy_Babies_Are_Worth_The_Wait (1).pdf
National Quality Forum. (2014). Playbook for the Successful Elimination of Early Elective Deliveries. NQF Maternity Action Team. Retrieved from http://www.leapfroggroup.org/sites/default/files/Files/mat_eed-playbook.pdf
Healthcare in Marketing (Lasik)
Lasik's Methods in Other Health Care Organizations
Customer profiling is a vastly unexplored marketing method in the health industry. While it has been used to target very specific markets, such as potential consumers of elective surgery, other markets have been largely neglected (arber 2001). The reasons for this are many, but mostly they include difficulties with medical data gathering, and legal issues regarding potential customer profiling.
Despite the above-mentioned difficulties, there are several organizations that can and do benefit from customer profiling. One such entity is the pharmaceutical industry (Winterhalter 2002). Here the customer being profiled is normally the health care professional, rather than the patient. y gathering geo-demographic data as well as customer loyalty information from a group of health professionals, pharmaceutical companies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of their marketing practices. This will further benefit not only the professionals, but also the healthcare consumer,…
Barber, F.A., R.K. Thomas, M. Huang. "Developing a profile of LASIK surgery customers." Marketing Health Services, Iss. 2, Vol 21. Chicago: Summer 2001.
Business Wire. "New Customer Wins Position Lawson as Dominant Enterprise E-business Solution Provider to Healthcare Industry." New Orleans, 2001.
Winterhalter, K. "Customer profiling in the healthcare industry." Weber Shandwick, 2002. http://www.browna2.fsnet.co.uk/PMLive/doctor_who_frame.htm
Benson and Newell - Critique
Which of Benson's arguments was most convincing? Why? Benson's 4th argument ("Interdisciplinary courses are shallow") has some merit albeit he cheapens it by dipping too deeply into his love of exaggeration. Probably the 2nd objection Benson presents has the most value because students who would probably receive the most benefits from interdisciplinary studies are those students who are high achievers already. Clearly Benson is on the right track when he asserts that a student needs to have a "firm hold" on one particular discipline before he or she can enjoy and profit from an interdisciplinary course. Much of the potential success for a student taking interdisciplinary classes depends of course on the academic skills and scholarly experience of the student (freshmen are often too green and undisciplined to expect them to excel in a course well outside their chosen major). But on the other hand,…
United States operates as an indirect or representative democracy meaning that a select group is elected by the whole to serve as representatives while attending to public matters. This is in contrast to a direct democracy which holds that all eligible members of a society can personally direct public affairs. This distinction is often overlooked by most Americans who believe that the term democracy has no qualifications.
In order to fully grasp American government, it is essential to understand the Framers of the Constitution referred to it as republic in form. Their intention was to have representatives direct government operations. In other words, voters select representatives who in turn carry out government business. The reasons for this procedure are manifold. Most notably, the Framers foresaw the electorate making poor decisions based on transitory emotions thereby leading the country in an unwise direction. Given such predispositions, the Framers felt that minority…
Wilson, James Q. & Dilulio, John J. (1998). American Government. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Market Model Changes
The medtech, or medical technology, industry is a large and intensely competitive industry that produces highly innovative medical devices for hospitals and other healthcare facilities in the effort to save lives and improve health for patients (Research, 2012). It is spread across different segments including, cardiology, oncology, neuro, orthopedic, and aesthetic devices. It relies largely on aging baby boomers, high unmet medical needs, and increased incidence of lifestyle diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
The industry is being challenged by pricing concerns, hospital admissions and procedural volume, uncertainty concerning healthcare reform, Medicare reimbursement issues as agencies are looking for cost reduction measures, and regulatory overhang. There is a rise in patients deferring treatment in elective procedures. "One factor aligning economic and clinical forces: in the U.S., the number of medical practices owned by hospitals grew from 25% in 2005 to 50% in 2008" (practice, 2011).…
Blog, I. (2012, Mar 12). MedTech Industry Stock Outlook. Retrieved from Financial Content: http://markets.financialcontent.com/stocks/news/read/20832505/MedTech-Industry-Stock-Outlook
practice, B.G. (2011, Feb 9). Creating a new commercial model for the changing medtech market. Retrieved from Bain & Company: http://www.bain.com/publicatgions/articles/creating-a-commercial-model-for-changing-medtech-market.aspx
Research, Z.E. (2012, June 15). MedTech Industry Stock Outlook-June 2012-Zacks Analyst Interviews. Retrieved from Nasdaq: http://community.nasdaq.com/News/2012-06/medtech-industry-stock-outlook-june-2012-zachs-analysts-interviews.aspx ?
Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment
One common question parents ask is if and when they should be concerned when a child manifests delayed speech. For an infant, delayed speech is of concern when the baby "isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye by 12 months; prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate by 18 months; has trouble imitating sounds by 18 months; [and] has difficulty understanding simple verbal requests" (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1). In an older child, a lack of developmentally-appropriate speech becomes worrisome when the child does not engage in spontaneous speech; repeats words or phrases without apparent understanding; cannot follow simply instructions; and has difficulty being understood by members outside of the family (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1).
Early intervention for children who exhibit language delays has a significantly higher success rate than later interventions. "First, there is…
Esch, B.E., Carr, J.E., & Grow, L.L. (2009). Evaluation of an enhanced stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to increase early vocalizations of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 225-41.
Delayed speech or language development. (2012). Kid's Health. Retrieved:
Kelley, M.E., Shillingsburg, M.A., Castro, M.J., Addison, L.R., & LaRue, Robert H., Jr.
Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)
The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…
Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from http://duranki.hubpages.com/hub/Beware-High-Blood-Pressure-It-will-Kill-You -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming
Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/GuidelinesDocuments/guidelines-aortic-dissection-FT.pdf
Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/morphine-injection.html
Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.
Pre-Law Curriculum for the Sixth Grade
These courses are drafted to create a strong background and knowledge base for the student to explore a career in the legal field in America to a range of degrees.
The American Federal System
This course will present to the students the powers specific to the federal government, specific to the state government and those specific to both. The goal is to have the student understand where these powers are different and where they overlap as well. Students will be forced to consider how the people are able to maintain their sovereignty within this system and the importance of doing so.
State and Local Government
Presents the constitutional background for the state and local government while putting an emphasis on the overlap of the states and their subdivisions along with the goals of both state and local politics. Students will be encouraged…
ecruitment strategy and plan
This document is about laying down a strategy of recruiting employees in sincere college. Employees move, quit or transfer thus creating a need to open job application for interested candidates. It helps to determine what the job entails, tasks and skills of the employees. It covers an outline of the recruitment plan, job description, methods of recruitment, interview procedures and hiring. The strategy aims at attracting qualified applicants ready to take the job.
The goal is to attract higher standard candidate with skills promoting the name of the Sincere College. This can be achieved where the faculty of the Davis School of Business should suggest names of people who "know people" in the field who should be called upon to nominate individuals. The other way is posting advertisement in newspapers, journals read by people in this discipline and posting advertisement…
Edenborough, R. (2007). Assessment methods in recruitment, selection & performance: A
manager's guide to psychometric testing, interviews and assessment centres. London:
Exploring Self, Culture, History, eligion
Exploring the Self, Cultures, History, or eligion through Myth
PO Box, 60453,
How are you my little friend and how is everyone at your home? I hope all doing good. Pass my greetings to them.
I received your letter and was happy to know that you have been promoted to 4 rth and the final year of your college. Wow! You'll graduate after a year. Lee! You mentioned in your letter that you have chosen Mythology (general) as your elective subject and that you are facing some difficulties in it. I went through the attached course outline; there I found out that you will be exploring self, cultures, history, or religion through myth. Also there was a list of theories that you will be presenting throughout this course.
I have collected some data regarding the first theory "Carl Jung's…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html .
Carl-jung.net. Concept of Collective Unconscious at Jung. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://www.carl-jung.net/collective_unconscious.html .
Integration Training. Inner Voices: Embracing all the Parts of Our Personality. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://integrationtraining.co.uk/blog/2011/01/inner-voices-embracing-all-parts-of-personality.html .
Jung, C.G. (1970). The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…
Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.
"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.
Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.
El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say…
Ali, K., & Lam, T. (2008). Teens under the knife: Is plastic surgery too dangerous for teens? Current Events, 108(1), 7-14.
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003). National totals for cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank.
www.surgery.org/download/2003-stats.pdf:10. Accessed 25 July, 2011.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…
(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).
Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.
Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
Colleges of Business and Technology
Within this paper, a comparison and contrast of four colleges of business and technology will be provided. Initially, information will be provided on each of the four programs. A summary will then be offered in which the programs are compared and contrasted.
At the University of Michigan, students pursuing a bachelor's degree in business must obtain 120 credit hours, with one-half of those hours comprised of non-business electives. The 60 credit hours are devoted to required and elective business courses. Core business courses are taken during the student's junior year and include: Organizational Behavior Theory in Management, Business Law, Corporate Strategy, Economics of Enterprise, Financial Management, Introductory Probability and Statistics, Computer Information Systems, Marketing Management, Operations Management, and Principles of Financial and Managerial Accounting. As is evident within the description of core courses, computer information systems is the only required course in technology. Elective courses…
Fischer School of Business, Ohio State University. Found at http://www-afa.adm.ohio-state.edu/Bulletin/ug_degree.asp?Ccode=bus.
Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley. Found at http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/ .
Business School, University of Michigan. Found at http://www.bus.umich.edu/ .
Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania. Found at http://www.wharton.upenn.edu/ .
Therefore, the most different variable in the study is the change in treatment, i.e. The doubling of class time.
The following definitions are provided to ensure uniformity and understanding throughout this study. All definitions, not otherwise noted, have been developed by the researcher:
AYP -- Adequate Yearly Progress refers to the state-stipulated percentage of students by subject (math/English) by demographic (race/socio-economic strata) that must pass the HSPA. Schools that do not meet or surpass AYP are subject to sanctions. These may differ by state.
Class time -- The prescribed time during which a single class is conducted, i.e. one period. In this case, one period prior to the doubling of class time is initially equal to 42 minutes and subsequently equal to 43 minutes.
Doubling of class time -- Increasing class time from 42 minutes to 84 minutes plus the consumed passing time of 4 minutes for a total of…
Feasibility Study of E-Groceries
ecent technological developments have seen different plans of action being actualized as it relates to e-Groceries retailing. However, challenges have limited the full realization of this aspect with the greatest hindrance has been logistics; more wasteful operation has often prompted resources being utilized on working expenditures. In this case, enhancements geared towards logistical effectiveness are seen as standouts amongst the most essential steps towards the implementation of this project. This study focuses at the feasibility of a distinctive e-grocery logistics framework and usage plan. The primary target is to study how best to actualize an e-Grocery business from the logistical perspective in order to guarantee some business success. The second target is to recognize, model, and assess diverse logistical results that could be utilized as a part of e-basic need retailing. esults for realizing more remarkable delivery proficiency are displayed and modeled.
For the realization…
Aka-li, E. (2005). Applications of Supply Chain Management and E-Commerce Research. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Davis, W.S., & Benamati, J. (2013). E-commerce basics: Technology foundations and e-business applications. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Dennis, C., Fenech, T., & Merrilees, B. (2008). E-retailing. London [u.a: Routledge.
Dholakia, R.R., Dholakia, N., Fritz, W., & Mundorf, N. (2012). Global e-commerce and online marketing: Watching the evolution. Westport, Conn [u.a.: Quorum Books.
Qualified Benefit Plans
Why company set qualify benefit plans tax benefits company employees maintaining qualify plans. Also, company comply benefit laws regulations order maintain qualify status plan.
Employers sometimes offer their employees and other beneficiaries within the organization retirement plans which they sponsor. These are often referred to as qualified plans. These qualified plans are either established as defined benefit plans or defined contribution plans. When established as defined benefit plans, the employee receives benefits on a formula that factors in personal factors such as the employee's salary history and the duration of contract or employment. In these plans, the risk of investment and management of the portfolio is run by the employer. In these schemes, the employer sometimes has to find funds from alternative sources such as the company's profits in order to fund employee's retirement when there is a shortfall in funding. The other type of qualified plans…
Brown, J.R., Mitchell, O.S., Poterba, J.M., & Warshawsky, M.J. (1999). Taxing Retirement Income: Nonqualified Annuities and Distributions from Qualified Accounts. National Tax Journal, 52(3), 563-591. doi: 10.2307/41789742
Huberman, G., & Jiang, W. (2006). Offering vs. Choice in 401(k) Plans: Equity Exposure and Number of Funds. The Journal of Finance, 61(2), 763-801. doi: 10.2307/3699357
Lipman, J.H. (1983). Valuing Defined Contribution Plans. Family Advocate, 5(4), 19-21. doi: 10.2307/25806070
Lisa Meulbroek. (2005). Company Stock in Pension Plans: How Costly Is It? Journal of Law and Economics, 48(2), 443-474. doi: 10.1086/430807
They would subsequently call them at home, leave literature and fetus dolls at their door, and even call families and distant relatives of the patients to inform them of the patients' plans to ask them to intercede. The Pro-Life advocates argued that they were lawfully exercising their right of free speech on public property (such as across the street fro doctors' offices) to verbally attack patients by name as they exercise their equally important right to personal physical autonomy under the recognized privacy penumbras.
The Value of the Legal Approach Suggested by the Article
The Yale Law Journal article (Clapman, 2003) explained various ways that the general right of free speech is limited by more important privacy rights. For example, truth is ordinarily an affirmative defense to defamation. However, existing law already recognizes that certain statements, despite being truthful, serve no valid purpose besides injuring another person, such as by…
Clapman, A. "Privacy rights and abortion outing: a proposal for using common-law torts to protect abortion patients and staff." The Yale Law Journal. Yale University,
School of Law. 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Furthermore, the Supreme Court (and the Texas district court also) relied on a judicial invention introduced in the earlier Griswold and Eisenstadt decisions: namely, the penumbra of privacy that was said to "emanate" from the Fourteenth Amendment to give rise in a fundamental right of privacy despite the fact that the notion of personal privacy is not mentioned at all in the Constitution. Certainly, the Roe decision was justified on general principles of justice, equality, fairness, and ordinary definitions of private affairs; but from a technical legal argument perspective, many commentators have suggested that it was a case of the Court fitting the Constitution to the law rather than conforming the latter to the former.
Regardless of the any technical criticism in the legal analysis of the basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Roe, it remains the right and moral decision on the issue.
Certainly, room exists for…
Abrams, Natalie, Buckner, Michael, D. A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professions. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).
Dershowitz, Alan, M. Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. (New York: Little Brown & Co, 2002).
Friedman, Laurence, M. A History of American Law. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005).
Hall, Kermit, L. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Secondly, the student must meet the requirements for a home education program, which include the same curriculum as listed in Florida Statutes, 232.246(1) (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). During the time of participation, the student must show evidence of academic progress, as determined by an evaluation which may include a review of the student's work by a certified instructor, grades obtained through correspondence courses or community colleges, or standardized test scores (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). The student must register with the school at the beginning of the term in which they wish to participate (Florida Statute 232.425, 2003).
These requirements are difficult enough to enforce, but as noted, with proper testing and evaluation by qualified instructors, the curriculum and grading of home educated students appears to be very manageable. In the State of Florida, then, the academic requirements for sport participation are equal for both public and home educated students. Although…
Colb, S. (2005). Should home-schooled have access to public school programs? Retrieved from FindLaw database through CNN.com. Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/06/30/colb.home.school/ .
Craig Dickson Act, Florida State Statute, 2003, 232.425.
Exceptional Student Support Services (ESSS). (2002). Home School Brochure. Sanford, FL: Exceptional Student Support Services.
Florida State Statute, 1993, 232.0201.
2005 study by Mohala Tucker Besser et al., conducted upon HIV-positive pregnant women who are about to undergo voluntary caesarian section to give birth. Mohala Tucker Besser et al. used a sample population to study whether or not HIV was present within the amniotic fluid of these pregnant women, and discovered that -- contrary to a previous study published in 1987 -- it was not. Additional relevant studies -- including the original 1987 Lancet publication by Mundy Schinazi Gerber et al., and further studies involving viral transmission between mothers and newborns and specific risk factors for HIV transmission in prenatal and perinatal situations -- are examined in conjunction with Mohala Tucker Besser's 2005 study. The finding has implications for preventing HIV transmission between mothers and newborn infants, and confirms the growing clinical consensus that elective caesarian section remains one of the most reliable ways to reduce viral transmission from an…
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY, Mizokami M, Hirano K, Chen DS. (1996). Least microtransfusion from mother to fetus in elective cesarean delivery. Obstetric Gynecology 87: 244-248.
Magder LS, Mofenson L, Paul ME, Zorrilla CD, Blattner WA, Tuomala RE, LaRussa P, Landesman S, Rich KC. (2005). Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficicency Syndrome 38: 87-95.
Mofenson LM 1997. Mother-child HIV-1 transmission: timing and determinants. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 24: 759-784.
Mohlala BK, Tucker TJ, Besser MJ, Williamson C, Yeats J, Smit L, Anthony J, Puren A. (2005). Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192: 488-491.
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
Revival of revoked wills. In most cases, a revoked will is not revivable unless it is reexecuted or revived by codicil; however, if a revoked will was destroyed, it cannot be revived in this fashion.
Dependent relative revocation. These are mistakes of law made by the testator concerning the disposition of property that can be disregarded in the administration of a will.
Components of a Will
Integration. This term refers to the collation of various sheets of paper into a cohesive whole which constitutes a single, entire will which is executed via a single act.
Incorporation by reference. A majority of states allow documents that were not integrated into the single, entire will to receive the same force and effect by referencing them in the will.
Facts of independent significance. This term refers to the description of intended beneficiaries or bequests in a will that…
Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired to Perform Pre-Operative Visits
To Perform Pre-Operative Visits?
Are Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired
To Perform Pre-Operative Visits?
Are Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired
To Perform Pre-Operative Visits?
Pre-operative assessment is part of the E process that many medical professionals believe can be accomplished on the part of nurses in the unit.. The objective listed for pre-operative assessment is that special requirements for the surgery as well as the peri-operative stay should include identification and coordination of all essential resources, should inform the patients and prepare them to proceed and to ensure the patient's fitness for the procedure(s) scheduled. . The nursing team clinically examines as well as assessing all emergency patients before surgery to ensure the fitness of patients to the greatest possible extent. Strategies include, "redistributing cases from emergency to elective theatre schedules, day case emergency…
Walsgrove H, Fulbrook P.(2005) Advancing the clinical perspective: a practice development project to develop the nurse practitioner role in an acute hospital trust. J Clin Nurs. 2005 Apr;14(4):444-55. PMID: 15807751
Walsgrove H. (2004) Piloting a nurse-led gynaecology preoperative-assessment clinic. Nursing Times. 2004 Jan 20-26; 100(3):38-41. PMID: 14963959
Byrne JP (2000) The South Australian Nurse Practitioner Project: a midwife's perspective on a new initiative.Collegian. 2000 Jul;7(3):37-9. PMID: 11858406
Le-Mon B. (2000) The role of the nurse practitioner. Nurs Stand. 2000 Feb 9-15;14(21):49-51. No abstract available. PMID: 11971310
Assign to Occupy
CONGESTION ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS
Prolonged or increased waiting time for patients at the Emergency Department lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality among critically ill adult patients admitted for inpatient beds. The gathering of ED records of the St. Margaret Mary Healthcare Centers of Dyer, Indiana, aimed at developing a report on overcrowding, identified the main causes as the lack of available inpatient beds and the lack of nurses to care for patients. Long-term solutions are identified and suggested.
ackground/Significance -- Overcrowding at the ED occurs primarily because of overwhelmed ED manpower and sheer physical incapability because of the massive number of patients requiring or receiving care. Overcrowding, lack of ED staff and the delay of transfer to assigned bed, the lack of physical beds and un-timely discharges lead to increased boarding times at the ED.
Problem Statement -- Patients with assigned medical/surgical…
Bramwell, J. (2012). Going with the flow: three strategies help improve throughput.
HFMA: Healthcare Financial Management Association. Retrieved on September 22,
2012 from http://www.hfma.org/Templates/Print.aspx?id=29334
DeLia, D. (2007). Hospital capacity, patient flow and emergency department use in New Jersey. Institute for Health: Rutgers Center for State Health Policy. Retrieved on September 22, 2012 from http://www.state.nj.us/health/rhc/documents/ed_reports.pdf
For years, kosher issues in food service have been known. However, the kosher food market has never been so large as to warrant more than attention to a niche market. Halal food production is different due to the sheer size of the product market and is a different story. While kosher meals can be special ordered and catered, there are many more options available for halal needs. The hospital could actually leverage more patient choice for those who have elective procedures to choose this hospital (as opposed to going somewhere else). Though the kosher market is a smaller one, when combined together with halal, the two make for a huge financial and P victory for the hospital in the long run, especially since these costs can be passed on to the consumer (the patient).
While the information about kosher/halal special food service in hospitals is not readily available,…
Bradley university - general college information. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.apply4admissions.com/Section2/00210/Information.htm .
Bradley university offers halal food service. (2010, November 22). Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2010/11/22/bradley-university-offers-halal-food-service/ .
El Gindy, G. (2011). Meeting jewish and muslim patients' dietary needs. Retrieved from http://www.minoritynurse.com/cultural-competency/meeting-jewish-and-muslim-patients '-
dietary-needssomething completely different with mashed potato and
The road to becoming a criminal attorney begins after high school, because a four-year college degree is a prerequisite for admission to law school. Contrary to popular belief, it is not necessary to study political science or criminal justice in college in order to get into law school. Post graduate institutions value intellectual diversity, so applicants with engineering degrees or other specialized academic backgrounds sometimes have an advantage over more "typical" student profiles.
Since applicants' undergraduate performance is part of the admissions equation, college students should concentrate on an area that genuinely interests them, because they are more likely to achieve high GPA's that way, as well.(1)
During the third year of college, aspiring law students take the Law School
Achievement Test (LSAT), a standardized test designed to measure a student's aptitude and chances of successfully completing the Juris Doctor program. The LSAT is more ability-oriented than the…
5. New York Law School Academic Catalog (1983-84) New York: NYLS
6. New York Law School Academic Catalog (2003-04) New York: NYLS
7. Turow, S. One L (1979) New York: Warner Books
This particular aspect is what most medical trainers miss when dealing with interns or newly appointed nurses. They found that oxygen use, if below the necessary requirement can be damaging, so can its overuse. In another study, it has been found that using oxygen below the prescribed level can instigate damage in the organs, respiratory structures and can be especially damaging for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Danchin et al., 2009). Hence, the training and instructions that are given must follow be thorough enough to let the health caretakers realize that the monitoring is not merely a game of reading and recording, but it can have serious repercussions if handled carelessly.
Some of the common mistakes, which can be avoided through proper and accurate transference of instructions and training, occur in different medical circumstances. Sometimes nurses tend to miss the monitoring deadline. For instance, if a patient is…
Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521.
In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author describes a recently observed trend of increasing live-donor kidney donations for unknown recipients. hough living donors for family members with a need for transplant have been relatively common for sometime, the idea of donating a kidney while still living for a person unknown to the donor is a very recent development in kidney translation and availability. hough the reasons for this increase are not yet clear, as no research has been undertaken to determine the causal effect of this observed trend, initial results suggest that simple awareness of the need for renal donation and the normalcy of life following the donation of a kidney is a major factor.
Nakamura, Y.; Konno, O.; Matsuno, N.; Yokoyama, ., et al. (2008). "How can…
Though various methods and schema for renal transplantation exist, this study points out the benefits of living donor donation in the combating of end-stage renal failure, in Japan specifically. Citing a decreased need for recipient medication and an increased likelihood of successful transplantation when kidneys used in transplantation come from living donors, the authors of this study examine various methods for increasing rates of living donorship. A new surgical procedure developed by the authors limits the invasiveness and the blood loss in an elective living donor surgery, and combined with higher donorship rates could greatly increase the successful treatment of renal disease.
Testa, G.; Angelos, P.; Crowley-Matoka, M. & Siegler, M. (2009). "Elective surgical patients as living donors: A clinical and ethical innovation." American journal of transplantation 9(10), pp. 2400-5.
An innovative new schema for encouraging organ donation is put forth in this article. Specifically, the authors suggest that patients slated for laporoscopic cholecystectomy be given the opportunity to undergo a more invasive surgical correction and donate a kidney as a living donor at the same time. This would eliminate (or greatly reduce) the need for living donors to become surgical candidates with no health benefit to them; the same surgery and level of invasiveness would both correct the patients' problem and allow for donorship. This is the reverse of the current living donor schema, in which donors become surgical candidates specifically for donor purposes, raising ethical and medical concerns.
Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) spoke 'initiation' and 'induction' as learning functions and held that these forms of learning effectively reached further than 'training' and 'instruction' which are instrumental learning. The initiation stage of learning is an independent learning stage where the learner grasps and understands for themselves the object of learning and in which the learner's dependence upon both the teacher and upon learning structures are lessened. A higher stage of independent learning was referred to by Stenhouse as 'induction' and is a stage of learning in which the learner has come to the place of owning, valuing and believing in the object of learning for themselves. Stenhouse affirmed the need for foundational knowledge upon which the higher learning skills can be constructed and held that the functional knowledge must be solidly in place before higher learning functions could begin.
Curriculum, according to the work of Grundy "is often written and…
Butts, Robert Freeman (1971) The College Charts Its Court: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals. Ayer Publishing, 1971.
Fenner, David E.W. (1999) Ethics in Education. Routledge, 1999.
Moles, Joanne (2005) You Say Potato Implications of a Prescribed Curriculum on Three Irish Physical Education teachers. Paper Presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conferences, University of Glamorgan, 14-17 September 2005.
Murphy, Anne (2008) The Interface between Academic Knowledge and Working Knowledge: Implications for Curriculum Design and Pedagogic Practice. Dublin Institute of Technology 2008.
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
population identified and described? Are eligibility criteria specified? Are the sample selection procedures clearly delineated? Yes. The sample consisted of 350 college students at a Midwestern University. All the students were enrolled in a personal health class as a social science elective.
Do the sample and population specifications support an inference of construct validity with regard to the population construct? Of n=350, 86% were White, 5% African-American, 4% Asian-American, 3% Latino, and 2% Other. This is not representative of the collegiate population in general, nor is it representative of the baseline population breakdown for most of America. However, because the classes are a social science elective, the sample does serve as an adequate representation of a cross-section of this particular Midwestern University.
What type of sampling plan was used? Would an alternative sampling plan have been preferable? Was the sampling plan one that could be expected to yield a representative…
As my undergraduate studies reach their finish, I am ready to embark upon the next phase of my academic career. The Bradford University's reputable MSc program in Finance, Accounting, and Management offers the depth and breadth I am currently seeking. As an international student who has lived in the UK for the past four years, I also believe I have much to offer to Bradford and its student body. I have the ability and desire to work with my fellow graduate students on projects that will expand our knowledge about the rapidly changing world of business and finance. The gamut of group projects I have participated in throughout my undergraduate career shows that an international perspective, especially an Asian one, can greatly enhance the power and potential of any given project. During my graduate studies, I hope to deepen my understanding of finance and management in particular. Currently, my…
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Assure Model of Educational design and course development.
The ASSURE method educational course design, in particular coursed which integrate technology and media into the teaching process provides the teacher with a systematic approach to writing lesson plans. The model provides a plan used to help teachers organize instructional procedures in a complex environment which utilizes technology, multi-media, and traditional teaching methods. The ASSURE model is used to help teachers do an authentic and complete assessment of student learning at the termination of the class.
In a rapidly evolving educational environment, teaching methods and teaching theory is changing almost weekly. Every school district in the nation is feeling new pressures from the President's "No Child ill Be Left Behind" act to improve their test performance, and put an immediate and lasting halt to the declining educational performance which has permeated our nation's education system for the past 20 years. The ASSURE…
Veenman, Simon; Denessen, Eddie; van den Oord, Ingrid; Naafs, Ferdy, (2003) Direct and activating instruction: Evaluation of a preservice course., Journal of Experimental Education, 04-01, pp 197.
Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J.D. (1993). Instructional media and the new technologies of instruction. (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Moore, M.G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
White, B.A. & Bridwell, C. (1998). Distance Learning Techniques. In M.W. Galbraith (Ed.), Adult learning methods (pp. 389-403) (2nd ed.). Malabar, FL: Krieger.
DEFENDING a OMEN'S RIGHT TO CHOOSE ABORTION
Abortion, or the elective termination of pregnancy likely predates recorded human history, being practiced within virtually every society throughout the world.(6)
In 1973, the United States Supreme Court very specifically decided that the United
States Constitution affords a fundamental right to individual privacy that absolutely prohibits governmental interference with a women's autonomous right to seek medical termination of unwanted pregnancy, except where deemed necessary to safeguard the woman's health paternalistically.(4) Ever since the legal issue was decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, a so-called pro-life lobby, spearheaded by religious opposition to any type of abortion has campaigned for and funded the proposition of legislation and policies designed to undermine the rights recognized and established under constitutional law in the United States.
Ultimately, the United States Constitution requires that the appropriate guidelines for defining legally permissible abortion rights and relative concern for the…
1. Abrams, Natalie and Buckner, Michael D. Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983
2. Bronowski, Jacob. Science and Human Values.
New York: Harper & Row, 1965
SUPEVISOS POLICY & POCEDUES MANUAL
Supervisors Policy and Procedures Manual
Phase I Identifying Policy Needs, Overview of Expectations for Supervisors
Facilitating the existence of adequate healthcare staff for the hospital demands the creation of an organization wide policy. For this effort to commence, a workforce summit can be held with representatives from across all departments. There are seven major action areas where policy makers must focus. While demonstrating how the action areas can be implemented, various strategies will be given for each action area. An action must target activities relevant to all stakeholders. When compared with other healthcare facilities, the organization has limited information about the product and availability of most health disciplines. Outdated and incomplete information causes efficiently targeting resources challenging for the organization. This requires the existence of the health workforce tracking policy for gathering and analyzing workforce trends. The policy will conduct organization wide assessments of need,…
Bulau, J.M. (2009). Clinical policies & procedures for home health care. Rockville, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Harris, D.M. (2008). Contemporary issues in healthcare law and ethics. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.
McConnell, C.R. (2013). The health care supervisor on effective employee relations. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Rosdahl, C.B., & Kowalski, M.T. (2008). Textbook of basic nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. London: Greenwich Medical Media.
While students are keeping their eyes on the prize in this case exam exemption they end up building their traits and character which in turn are useful in their future whether they are moving on to post secondary education or even if they are entering the workforce (Dawe, 2012).
There can also be final exam alternatives that can be used to asses the concept of comprehension; teachers may also use other measures, which exempts all those who make the choice of taking an alternative to the final exam.at the same time exam exemptions provide an opportunity for students to take their electives in advance. Instead of waiting for the next semester students who are exemption from taking final exams can begin familiarizing themselves with the course work of the next semester hence providing them with the opportunity to take their elective in advance. Exam exemptions also provide an opportunity for…
Dawe, T.(2012).Pros and Cons of Final Exam Exemptions. Retrieved May 3,2014 from http://classroom.synonym.com/pros-cons-final-exam-exemptions-4919.html
Wait Time in the Emergency Center Can Be Decreased
How Could the Wait Time in the Emergency Center be Decreased?
This paper discusses how long wait times and overcrowding can be reduced in emergency centers as a way of improving healthcare quality for all patients.
Physicians working in emergency departments are dedicated to offering high quality emergency care, as fast as possible, to all the patients brought into the emergency center. However, long wait times and crowding hamper patient safety. The ever increasing emergency patient numbers, coupled with critical shortages in the entire system of emergency medical care, play a role in limiting patients' access to emergency care on a timely manner. Patients with the need to see physicians in 1 to 15 minutes get attended to in 37 minutes, a figure twice the expected timeframe. The long wait times and crowding in emergency departments have been attributed to patients…
Brimhall, J. (2012). SQL server 2012 T-SQL recipes: A problem-solution approach. New York: Apress.
Chan, P. L.-K. (2010). Predictive Modeling of Emergency Department Wait Times for Abdominal Pain Patients.
Hernandez, M. J. (2013). Database design for mere mortals: A hands-on guide to relational database design.
Kindt, E. J. (2013). Privacy and data protection issues of biometric applications: A comparative legal analysis.
Judicial Impropriety in United States Supreme Court
A judicial impropriety occurs when a judge disregards existing legal standards expected of him /her when they are discharging their roles during judicial proceedings. For instance, a judge who does not base his or her ruling on the evidence provided and the applicable laws but disregards a defendant while giving undue advantage to the prosecutor or the litigant commits judicial impropriety (Leyland & Anthony, 2016). Judicial impropriety has been reported Judiciary of the United States on several occasions. For instance, Judge Sharon Keller of the Court of Appeal in Texas was accused of judicial impropriety when he ordered the closure of the courtroom by 5 pm. She did so with the intention of blocking an appeal by a person sentenced to execution (Equal Justice Initiative, 2015). Such cases exemplify the extent of judicial impropriety in the American judicial system.
Several factors contribute to…
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, AFSC epitomized the pacifist convictions and social-change driving forces of Philadelphia’s Quaker-led world-class fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc. (Frost, 1992). This paper will discuss the…
However, homogeneous-grouped classes of high-achieving sophomores and seniors in advanced classes exhibited greater achievement in both mathematics and English. No significant differences were found beyond these results. egarding the effects of ability grouping on within-class achievement, Sorenson and Hallinan's study (1985) found that grouping increases inequality of achievement. Briefly, considering their study at the difference in reading achievement between within-class grouped students and heterogeneous classrooms for fourth through seventh graders from North California, their primary result concerning achievement for within-class grouping was that high-ability groups attained a higher achievement than low-ability groups. These results were bases primarily on data from elementary schools and may not directly apply to secondary students, but this study has been included in this research paper to add insight to the subject of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous effects on achievement.
Testing the effects on the differences between mathematics achievements of within-class ability grouping, heterogeneous and cooperative-learning grouped…
Allan, S.D. (1991). Ability-grouping research reviews: What do they say about grouping?
and the gifted? Educational Leadership, 48(6), 60-65.
Byrne, B.M. (1988). Adolescent self-concept, ability grouping, and social comparison:
Re-examining academic track differences. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA, August 12-16, 1988.
The Nevada state constitution also emphasizes freedom of religion as one of the most important rights. The second statement of the constitution's opening Ordinance states: "That perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be secured, and no inhabitant of said state shall ever be molested, in person or property, on account of his or her mode of religious worship." That this freedom should be listed so prominently in the state constitution makes perfect sense within the context of the historical development of state history.
One of the reasons that the residents of what would become Nevada desired statehood was that they were looking for a sanctuary from the Mormons who were the majority of the population in the Utah Territory. The non-Mormons were directly aware of the costs of living in what was in some ways a theocratic state and wanted to ensure that they, as members of minority communities of…
As was true on the national level, not all groups of citizens living in Nevada received comparable rights at the same time. Women in Nevada, like most of their sisters across the nation, were denied the franchise for generations after statehood. Although attempts to grant women their rightful franchise date back at least to 1869, when the state legislature debated whether to remove the word "male" from the section of the constitution that defined suffrage rights.
Although there was no national suffrage for women in 1869 -- and would not be until 1920, when the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted to women their equal status as full citizens -- there were at the time no federal laws prohibiting female suffrage. The Nevada Legislature could have moved to amend the state constitution to allow women to vote. The legislators declined to do so, and women in Nevada would have to wait until 1914. At that point, Article Two, Section One of the state constitution was amended to read: "There shall be no denial of the elective franchise at any election on account of sex."
Six years later, the federal government would follow in the footsteps of a number of Western localities with the ratification of the 19th Amendment: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).
According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.
Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…
Batygin, G. S. 'The Transfer of Allegiances of the Intellectual Elite'. Studies in East
European Thought 53 (2001)
Boris Yeltsin quoted in Urban, M. Re-mythologizing the Russian State. Euro-Asia Studies
50/6 (1998): 969
3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).
Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.
According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…
Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True
Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from http://www.aamc.org/
Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.
National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649
We are surrounded on all sides by enemies, and we have to advance almost constantly under their fire. We have combined, by a freely adopted decision, for the purpose of fighting the enemy, and not of retreating into the neighboring marsh, the inhabitants of which, from the very outset, have reproached us with having chosen the path of struggle instead of the path of conciliationæthere can be no talk of an independent ideology formulated by the working masses themselves in the process of their movement, the only choice is -- either bourgeois or socialist ideology. There is no middle course (for mankind has not created a "third" ideology, and, moreover, in a society torn by class antagonisms there can be a non-class or an above-class ideology)."
The Revolution of 1905 developed in two phases. First, a diverse group opposing the Tsar and encompassing much of the political spectrum took form.…
8. Freeze, Gregory. (2002) Russia: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, ibid.
9. Freeze, Gregory. (1995) From Supplication to Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, ibid.
10. Carr Hallet Edward. (1981) A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution. New York: The Macmillan Company, ibid.
For those who are deeply interested an option as choice may be given as elective or additional subject. Earlier, music was the domain of the elite and aristocrats and music and art that was cherished in the western world related to the classical music styles and that has ever since undergone a lot of change. Music education in schools began in the 1960s. For the person willing to take music as a career, or art as the main goal in life, schooling and colleges in these subjects will be a blessing. For others it would become a tool whereby they can enjoy music and art better and by teaching the rudiment in schools and colleges we can create better artists and critics for the future. (Walker, 2007)
3. What is your opinion of today's music?
Western music has a rich tradition that was based on the classical composers and was…
Benardete, Seth. (1992) "Socrates' Second Sailing: On Plato's Republic" University of Chicago Press.
Landy, Leigh. (1991) "What's the matter with today's experimental music?: Organized
sound too rarely heard" Routledge.
Minsky, Marvin. (1981) "Music, Mind, and Meaning" Computer Music Journal, Fall, vol. 5, no. 3, pp: 23-27.
esearch was the first to feel the effects. The shift in the material base of the university leaves the humanities entirely out in the cold. Corporations don't earmark donations for the humanities because our research culture is both self-contained and absurd. Essentially, we give the copyrights of our scholarly articles and monographs to university presses, and then buy them back, or demand that our libraries buy them back, at exorbitant markups. And then no one reads them. The current tenure system obliges us all to be producers of those things, but there are no consumers." (Donoghue 2008)
The idea in education is one of operating as a business. The academic partners within the university setting are essentially in competition with one another for funding and other resources. If the students with stellar marks from certain departments are highly recruited by business and academia, the department is heralded and viewed upon…
Bassett J. 2008. The Future of Humanities Education, or Ahab and His Humanities.. Interdisciplinary Humanities. Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=0e20acd8-7fc3-4066-9e72-d2da6278a966%40sessionmgr113&vid=1
Bell D. 2010. Reimaging the Humanities. Proposals for a New Century. Dissent (00129846) Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=4f0282e4-a846-49e1-a8af-110652799ccc%40sessionmgr112&vid=1
Pokrovskii N.E., 2007. What Is Happening to Humanities Education? Russian Education & Society. Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=44770a98-2f1e-4057-bbef-2bd93b6e1bb0%40sessionmgr110&vid=1
Woodward K. 1980. The Humanities Crisis. Newsweek. Retrieved January from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10928153278&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10928153281&cisb=22_T10928153280&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&selRCNodeID=9&nodeStateId=411en_US,1&docsInCategory=11&csi=5774&docNo=3
Political, financial and most of all ethnic interest are going to "to further muddle the results. Perhaps most dangerous is that the results did not yield a Parliament whose ethnic proportions match those of the country, and will therefore be perceived as unfair, whether the seats were won by fraud or not." (ubin, 2010).
The other two perspectives to be taken into account in terms of the development of the Afghani society revolves around the social and the economic aspects of the country. As in every economy, there is a clear connection between the way in which the economy develops and the degree to which the society evolves.
In terms of economic prospects, Afghanistan is at the moment still the largest producer of cocaine. "In 2002, Afghanistan returned to its position as the world's foremost producer of heroin. The 2002 crop reached an estimated 3,400 mt., a 540% increase on…
Filkens, Dexter."Taliban Elite, Aided by NATO, Join Talks for Afghan Peace." The New York Times. 2010. Accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/20/world/asia/20afghan.html?hp=&pagewanted=print
Jones, Seth. "The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency: State Failure and Jihah" International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Spring 2008), pp. 7 -- 40.
RAND Corporation. "Afghanistan." America's role in nation building. From Germany to Iraq. 2004. 129-148.
Rotberg, Weak and failing states: critical new security issues. n.d.
PONV was not seen at 24 hours significantly lower rates of PONV at four and eight hours were found in the septoplasty group in which pharyngeal packing was not used
Habib, et al. (2010)
prospective, double-blind, randomized study
104 Patients undergoing craniotomy
Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant 40 mg (or matching placebo) 1 to 3 hours before induction of anesthesia or ondansetron 4 mg IV (or placebo) within 30 minutes of the end of surgery.
Data were collected at regular intervals by blinded personnel for 48 hours after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's ranked sum test and ?(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
cumulative incidence of vomiting at 48 hours was 16% in the aprepitant group and 38% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.0149). The incidence of vomiting was also decreased in the aprepitant group at 2 hours…
James II. had pursued it from a very different point-of-view when he consolidated the northern and middle colonies under Sir Edmund Andros (Appleby, 1984). The high-handed proceedings of Andros and his master rendered the Americans averse from any future plans of federation imposed from without, and the social and religious differences between the various regions long prevented the rise of any motion to union from within. All had their disagreements with the home government, but none had sufficient sympathy with their neighbors to fight their battles in common. Nevertheless, the French peril from 1689 onwards rendered co-ordination at least of military effort desirable, and plans were discussed from time to time which, whilst themselves abortive, kept alive the idea of union which bore fruit at length in the Philadelphia Congress of 1774. In all these plans the initiative came from the British government or its representatives; the royal officials in…
Akenson, Donald Harman. 1985. Being Had: Historians, Evidence and the Irish in North America. Don Mills: P.D. Meany Publishers.
Appleby, Joyce. 1984. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York UP.
Appleby, Joyce. 1992. Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.
Archibald, Peter. 1978. Social Psychology as Political Economy. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Business ethics is a division of ethics that pertains to the interaction of business and ethics and applies ethical analysis to the business area. It is both expressive and normal. The five activities within business ethics can be delineated as follows:
1. Using general ethical principles to specific practices in business.
2. The analysis of whether moral terms related to individuals' actions may be applied to combined entities such as firms.
3. Analysis of presumptions of business.
4. Analysis of other related areas of information as guided by embedded problems in business.
5. Describing morally commendable and exemplary actions of firms (Barrett, 2009).
Corporate social responsibility (CS) entails any activity that encourages the interests of any stakeholder of a business corporation. Occasionally CS refers to philanthropic programs that target communities or employees. In other instances it refers to obligations to promote the welfare of suppliers. It also refers to an…
Barrett, Douglas. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility and Quality Management Revisited.
Journal for Quality & Participation, 31(4), 24-30.
Gill, Amiram. (2008). Corporate Governance as Social Responsibility: A Research Agenda.
Berkeley Journal of International Law, 26(2), 452-478
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