Electric Car Essays (Examples)

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Hybrid Car

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59003639

Bias Critique

Thackery, John. "ybrid autos REV up: but will SUV-addicted buyers opt for an environmentally friendly car that saves on gas but commands a premium price?" Electronic Business: Automotive Electronics. Oct 2002 v28 i10 pp. 64(5)

Even before reading the article, "ybrid autos REV up" an informed consumer of the media should know that quite often automobile and electronics magazines are highly favorable of the industries they chronicle. The industry is essentially their 'bread and butter' of such magazines -- i.e. without cars, fancy car gadgets, and car aficiandos, there would be no audiences for such segmented magazines. The credentials of John Thackery, the article's author, are not immediately obvious, but the article's title "ybrid autos REV up: but will SUV-addicted buyers opt for an environmentally friendly car that saves on gas but commands a premium price?" suggests a highly positive slant is being given to the vehicles, for…… [Read More]

However, the article does provide credible statistical evidence to suggest the car's popularity, noting "Toyota has sold a total of 100,000 of all types of HEVs worldwide in the last five years and boasts that it will crank out 300,000 HEVs annually by 2005, as more car buyers show a preference for lower emissions and better mileage." As further testimony to the likely future popularity of the cars it also notes as well that in addition to Toyota, Honda and Nissan have also begun to offer hybrid cars. Other automotive manufacturers plan to introduce electric cars in the next few years, including Ford, General Motors and Daimler Chrysler. All of these manufactures, incidentally, have linked advertisements to this article on the World Wide Web.

The intended audience of this article, however, is clearly more interested in the car's purported power than environmental impact. Although the article does quote a director of alternative power technologies at J.D. Power & Associates, Westlake Village, who notes "the total HEV industry could be as large as one-half-million units by 2007," instead the author is more keen to emphasizes that forward-thinking car makers are "building a new breed of HEVs with smaller sticker premiums and more modest emission-reduction and mileage-enhancement targets." Thackery gently mocks the Toyota Prius, for example, stating that the car "sells on its appeal as a statement of the driver's environmental piety," but the more revved up HEVs, of the future, which are incidentally are more likely to be made by American car manufacturers, "are more attuned to market realities in a country where gas guzzling is an accepted addiction. 'If you do the math, you can see that we can actually save significantly more fuel converting a 20-mpg vehicle into a hybrid than a 30-mpg vehicle, especially if it's a vehicle that sells in high volumes, not a niche vehicle,'" one GM executive is quoted as saying, in defense of GM's future, more modest emissions standards for its electronic vehicles, in contrast to the Toyota Prius.

Thus, the article overall presents solid and credible information about how hybrid cars work, and their burgeoning popularity. But this American car and electronic niche magazine, aimed at car and gadget aficionados rather than the average cost-conscious middle class American car consumer may be too quick to sneer at the petite and cost-conscious hybrids such as the Prius, and too quick to endorse the more mildly conservationist and conserving 'mild-HEVs' that American manufactures plan to make in the future. Although its information its solid, its tone must be regarded with a pinch of proverbial (electrically charged) salt.
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Ferrari Create Premium Eco-Car Ferrari

Words: 1517 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31391747

emotional positioning stategies. Maketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(1), 9-29.

Philip Kotle, & David Getne. (2002). County as band, poduct, and beyond: A place maketing and band management pespective. Jounal of Band Management, 9(4/5), 249-261.

Matin, Bidget, & Simintias, Antonis C. (1995). The impact of geen poduct lines on the envionment: Does what they know affect how they feel? Maketing Intelligence & Planning, 13(4), 16.

Keith Naughton. (2007, Octobe). An Electic Deam: THE $98,000 Tesla Roadste aims to be the ultimate geen ca. Will it succeed?. Newsweek, 150(18), E6.

Jason D. Olive, & Seung-Hee Lee. (2010). Hybid ca puchase intentions: a coss-cultual analysis. The Jounal of Consume Maketing, 27(2), 96-103.

Potheo, A., McDonagh, P., & Dobscha, S.. (2010). Is Geen the New Black? Reflections on a Geen Commodity Discouse. Jounal of Macomaketing, 30(2), 147.

Sangkapichai, M., & Saphoes, J.. (2009). Why ae Califonians inteested in hybid cas? Jounal of Envionmental Planning…… [Read More]

references. Public Finance Review, 38(1), 120.

Jack Ewing. (2008, October). Greener Luxury Cars, and Not Just Hybrids. Business Week (Online)

Furlow, N.. (2010). Greenwashing in the New Millennium. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics: Special Issue, 10(6), 22-25.

Patrick Hartmann, Vanessa Apoalaza Ibanez, & F. Javier Forcada Sainz. (2005). Green branding effects on attitude: functional vs. emotional positioning strategies. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(1), 9-29.

Philip Kotler, & David Gertner. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4/5), 249-261.
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Auto Repair Car Repair Is the Process

Words: 1364 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26923093

Auto epair

Car repair is the process of diagnosing the car problem to identify the fault within the car. While the cars manufactured before 2000 requires special tools to be repaired, however, the computer technology has been increasingly used to diagnose and repair many newly manufactured cars. Before mechanics start the repairing of cars, they often quote the prices for customers before starting the repairing work. To repair the car, mechanic uses both electronic methods to gather data in order to replace the faulty materials in the vehicle. A mechanic diagnoses the car and identifies the problem within the car before starting the repairing work. There are two approaches used to diagnose a faulty car:

Use of a repair manual

elying on one's analysis

Use of computer technology

A repair manual is a book that assists an auto mechanic to identify the problems within a car. The repair manual consists…… [Read More]


Alberta Canada (2012). General Practitioners and Family Physicians. Government of Alberta. Canada.

Armenia Development Agency (2010). Jewelry and Gemstone Overview. Armenia.

Hoover's (2012). Jewelry Stores Industry Description. Hoover's Inc.

MedicineNet (2012).Optometrist vs. Ophthalmologist, Do You Know The Difference. USA.
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Comparison of Efficiency and Cost Hybrid vs Gas-Powered Cars

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8330445

Hybrid vs. Gas Powered Cars

Currently, global warming and a shrinking natural resource base are two of the greatest headaches for governments and regulators alike the world over. The price of gas in the U.S., for instance, almost doubled over the last decade, from $1.86 in 2004 to $3.62 on average in the first half of 2014; and given that more than half of the country's oil consumption is taken up by motor vehicles, one question looms -- what will the situation on our roads be like when our oil reserves can no longer sustain our consumption needs? Then there is the even greater problem of greenhouse emissions and global warming. The transport sector accounts for approximately 17%-18% of total CO2 emission globally, and automakers have been under intense pressure to roll out emission-free automobiles, and thereby reduce the damage resulting from the Greenhouse effect. More and more regulators are…… [Read More]


IIHS. (2014). Hybrid Models have Lower Injury Odds than their Conventional Counterparts. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Retrieved 5 November 2014 from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/news/desktopnews/hybrid-models-have-lower-injury-odds-than-their-conventional-counterparts

Markel, T. & Simpson, A. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. WEVA Journal, 1(1), 1-8.

Pavan, R.S. (2013). A Review on Hybrid Vehicles. International Journal of Research and Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 59-64.

Reddy, S.S. & Tharun, K.S. (2013). Eco-Friendly Vehicle: Hybrid Electric Vehicle. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4), 957-960.
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Revitalization of the American Car Industry

Words: 2115 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93165690

General Motors was founded in 1908 and has been the largest manufacturer, designer, building and marketer of cars and trucks throughout the world since 1921. It sells vehicles in more than 200 countries worldwide and maintains assembly, manufacturing, distribution or warehousing operations in 53 of these countries. In 2000, it sold 8.6 million cars and trucks - constituting 15.1% of the entire world vehicle market (the world's biggest share) at $4.5 billion net sales and $184.6 billion in revenues. (General Motors). It envisions itself as the enduring world leader in transportation products and related services, whose goal is "to maintain this position through enlightened customer enthusiasm and continuous improvement, driven by the integrity, team work and innovation" of its employees. (General Motors)

The organization operates in four regions. The first, which has the largest market at 27%, is the GM North America. This region designs, manufactures and markets vehicles for…… [Read More]


Business Wire. Raytheon Chosen by General Motors to Provide Dealership

Technical Training, 1999

2. Insider. XV8 Power: Another Intriguing Concept Engine from the General.

McMullen Argus Publishing, Inc., 2002
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Marketing and Promotion of Electric Vehices

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14617624

Tesla Marketing Plan

For over a decade, Tesla Motors has emerged as one of market leaders in designing, manufacturing, and selling luxurious electric cars, battery components, and powertrain components. ith its establishment in 2003, the company has established an innovative niche in the electric car business. Tesla has developed a market strategy that embodies the company's core values in the luxury electronic vehicle business. ith this strategy, the company establishes a competitive niche that surpasses other players in the market.

ith this strategy, Tesla can benefit from gaining a significant market share, brand loyalty and awareness, and realization of profits through the adoption of new strategies. In this paper, we look into the market success plan for Tesla Motors (Damodaran 40).

In this case, we develop a fully electric, brand new, and entry-level car named Tesla Z. The car will possess core components of a Tesla vehicle. However, the creation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayre, James (2015, March 28). "Electric Car Demand Growing, Global Market Hits 740,000 Units." Clean Technica, 28 March 2015.

Damodaran, Aswath. Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining the Value of any Asset, University Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Print.

Kalla, Susan. "Demand For Tesla Is Not The Problem, Switching The World To Electric Cars Is" Forbes. 30 November 2014. Web.
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Promoting Fuel Efficient Cars Establishing Green Spaces

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4937518

promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.

Fuel efficient cars

Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.

Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.

Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)

The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…… [Read More]


Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution

The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf

Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
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Lotus Rental Car's CFO Feasibility Adding Alternative

Words: 2748 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40061060

Lotus ental Car's CFO feasibility adding alternative fuel vehicles fleet

The problem of switching to a more fuel efficient car, especially ones that are considered non-polluting will arise for all tourist and individual car owners. The reason is the rising cost of fossil fuels and the actions of environmentalists and other powers that try and curb the use of fossil fuels and cars in many places. While the operators have some more breathing time, it can be predicted that in the near future there will be a forced shift to hybrid cars, electric vehicles and non-fuel-based vehicles in all sectors of the world. The automotive industry is itself gearing up for the change. One factor that has made the automobile producers take to producing hybrid vehicles and electric and other fuel vehicles is primarily the costs of fuel as is obtained now. The rising cost in fuel has made automobile…… [Read More]


Baker, Linda. (2006) "The Service Economy: Car Sharing Is the New Consumer Model." E

Magazine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp: 16-18.

Becker, Helmut. (2006) "High noon in the automotive industry"

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Future Car Trends Is Demonstrating

Words: 1255 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21732870

Use of electricity a d heat production is to systemize this process (.Nurettin Demirdoven, 13 Aug. 2004)

In contract Hybrid and fuel vehicles are efficient plus its engine is conventional with internal combustion. Fuel vehicles which consume hydrogen from fossil fuels dose not offer efficient energy with an advantage to operate an urban drive cycle used by hybrid vehicles. However, priority is mostly given to hybrid vehicles by government and various industries. In Addition, One of a famous company, Honda has released its Honda hybrid car in 2007 namely Honda Civic Compact Sedan. This car is made on the basis of new technology for saving gas. This car generally operates with three features including battery pack, gas powered engine and an electric motor to save its energy. There is also a full hybrid car which consists of the same major features mentioned above. Honda's hybrid car can easily be powered…… [Read More]

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Lincoln Electric Case Lincoln Electric

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2366229

Further this gives them a feeling that politics are not involved in the organization and people get what they deserve. Further the president stresses on the absence of any executive dining room. Management and workers sit together and eat. This promotes a sense of equality where everyone feels as if they are part of the same team.

Moreover for any organization to keep the workers motivated is highly important. High motivation would increase the level of productivity. Lincoln Electric's Advisory Board meetings include the workers who can then share any problems they might be facing or other issues of concern. They have a right to question company policies and also take part in suggesting ideas and opinions on how to solve the problem. This type of democratic leadership exhibited by the management of Lincoln Electric causes high motivation levels in the employees who feel that their opinion matters and they…… [Read More]

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Alternative Fuel Cars the Best Way That

Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7018977

Alternative Fuel cars

The best way that we can approach this complex subject is by differentiating the different types of fuels that the cars use since each fuel requires a different type of car and each fuel, accordingly, has its particular advantages and disadvantage.

Biodiesel cars-

Biodiesal vehicles combine petroleum gasoline with vegetable oils. Their benefits lie in the fact that these fuels produce fewer carbon emissions and reduced harmful particulates than does regular fuel. Biodiesel is more cost-effective for drivers than is standard fuel and is also more energy-efficient in its production.

On the other hand, biodiesel fuel is more expensive than standard gasoline aside from the fact that its production would take up vast tracts of land, and farmers may be encouraged to replace food crop planting with biodiesel plants.

Ethanol cars

Ethanol-fueled cars are driven by a combination f gasoline and a grain-based propellant. There are various…… [Read More]

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Hour Car Ride Regarding Whom I Would

Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39381590

hour car ride; regarding whom I would choose and why.

I have been extremely interested in the functionalities and technicalities inherent to the world of business ever since the time that I came to realize the essentiality that businesses have in regard to the world that we live in. One of the things that has become most apparent to me regarding my idea of an ideally effectual degree of business know-how has been the concept that only in so much as absolutely understanding the characteristics of the marketing within it is operating can a particular business ensure any degree of market success.

This is the primary reason due to which I would prefer to select Jack Welch and Bill Gates as two of my companions to accompany me upon a hypothetical car ride lasting for 72 hours. Both of the men are monumental names in the business sector; in fact…… [Read More]

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Transportation Hybrid Car Engines How

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26416128

That means the car does not have to be recharged after going only short distances. The electric motor can also help recharge the batteries if necessary. The gasoline engine recharges the bank of batteries, and the car just keeps going. Most hybrids can get between 55 and 60 mpg on the highway, although some owners do report less.

Most of the cars also use a generator that actually produces the electric power that drives the electric motor, and most use conventional transmissions, although the Toyota Prius uses a new, radically different transmission. The cars also combine a gasoline gas tank with a bank of batteries to power both engines. This is called a "parallel hybrid." Another type of hybrid engine, the "series hybrid" uses the gasoline engine to power a generator that creates the power for the electric engine or can recharge the batteries (Nice).

There's another advantage to hybrid…… [Read More]


Bamber, Taylor. "All about the Hybrid Car." Searchwarp.com. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://searchwarp.com/swa14037.htm

Brotman, Steve. "Hybrid Cars." University of Florida. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005.  http://plaza.ufl.edu/triplest/ 

Nice, Karim. "How Hybrid Cars Work." HowStuffWorks.com. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car.htm
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Influence of 2007 Economic Crisis on American Car Market

Words: 24230 Length: 88 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81822842

2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market

Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries

Crisis in the United States

Crisis in Canada

Crisis in ussia

Crisis in European markets

Crisis in Asian markets

Effects by other related crisis events

In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.


The automobile industry is a very important part…… [Read More]


Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.

Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.

Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.

Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Selling American Used Cars in

Words: 9639 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32128668

Customer oles

At least three customer roles are needed for a marketplace transaction: (Ibid)

1. Buying, choosing a particular product or service;

2. Closing sale by paying for product or service;

3. Consuming or using product or service.

Subsequently, one customer may be a buyer, a payer, or a user; or each of these roles may be filled by an organization; various individuals; or different departments. During the process of transforming a showroom visitor to a used car buyer, it is vital to note that if a seller does not cater to each of these three roles, he may loose the customer.

Insuring a used car's features are the ones the potential customer has in mind and that the vehicle will best satisfy the user's want or need has to be a primary goal of a seller.

The payer role is equally important as without a payer a sale will…… [Read More]


Allen & Unwin. Dividends of Fear: America's $94 Billion Arab Market Export Loss. (2003, July/August). Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 22, IM1+.

Ambah, Faiza Saleh. "Saudi women recall a day of driving; Women who protested in 1990 reunite as debate over women drivers returns.(WORLD)," The Christian Science Monitor, December 7, 2005.

AUTO PARTS AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT (APS)." (2006). U.S. Commercial Service. Retrieved 22 August 2006. from: https://www.buyusa.gov/saudiarabia/en/120.html.

Boorstinm, Daniel J. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press. Retrieved 23 August 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/81/7781.html.
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Hydrogen Fuel Car Option 2

Words: 3497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38560131

People seeking to make a fundamental change in the way they transport themselves will likely need a great deal of information, some of which may provide greater clarity while others may provide confusion and resort in them seeking out another alternative product. The consumer may then look for information that will support their inquiry into a commitment to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle as opposed to one of many alternatives.

a. Choosing a lower cost option, or in this case an option that best fits into their personal budget;

b. Choosing an alternative with greater support and/or greater available review data, i.e. something that has already been tried and embraced by consumers;

c. Choosing a product that offers the least resistance in the way of lifestyle change, where to fuel, how to fuel, easier to drive, and/or service.

2. Consulting an expert, such as the lease agent, dealer manufacturer or…… [Read More]


Al-Muslim, a. (2011, March 29). Hempstead adds three hydrogen-powered cars. Newsday, (Melville, NY). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Katzanek, J. (2005). Hybrid car buyers willing to wait in line -- and pay more. Press-Enterprise, the (Riverside, CA), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Lenderman, a. (2007). Hybrids, concept cars generate buzz. Santa Fe New Mexican, the (NM), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Strahan, D. (Nov 29-Dec 5, 2008) Hydrogen's long road to nowhere. New Scientist (200) 2684, 40-44.
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How Do People Choose Cars

Words: 4071 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70007492

Behavioral Economics

There is a lot of predictability and patterns when it comes to economics. There are many examples that one can point to. First, there is a bit of a cycle to things. Even when there are economic "booms" in the United States or other capitalistic countries, there are eventually "busts" of varying size and degree called recessions. Most of the time, the recessions are fairly brief and not a lot of damage is done. Other times, one sees recessions like the Great Depression in the 1930's and the Great Recession in the 2000's. There was also the fairly dark period that occurred during the latter part of Jimmy Carter's Presidency and into the early 1980's when Reagan took over (24/7 all Street). Of course, there are behaviors that are expected and realized when economic travails come. People tend to tighten their spending, stick to their current job if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

24/7 Wall Street. "The 13 Worst Recessions, Depressions, And Panics In AmericanA History." 247wallst.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

Car Scoops. "Want A Car 'Made In The U.S.A.'? Then Check The First Digit Of The VIN Code." Carscoops. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

Crawford, Steve. "How Does Consumer Spending Change During Boom, Recession, And Recovery?: Beyond The Numbers: U.S. Bureau Of Labor Statistics." Bls.gov. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

Fiat. "Fiat.Com - Homepage." fiat.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
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World Energy Prospects 2050

Words: 3640 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77272743

Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy

Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.

Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…… [Read More]


European Renewable Energy Council EREC. (2010). Re-thinking 2050 - A 100% renewable energy vision of EU. Retrieved from http://www.erec.org/media/publications/re-thinking-2050.html

Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world's pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy, 38(8), 4663 -- 4678. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510003009

Khatib, H. (2011). IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2507 -- 2511. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511000930

Khatib, H. (2012). IEA World Energy Outlook 2011 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 48, 737 -- 743. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421512005149
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Ashford Writing Center Must Include a Title

Words: 2559 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33339805

Ashford Writing Center. Must include a title page: Title paper Student's Course number Instructor's Date submitted Must begin introductory paragraph a succinct thesis statement.

Efficiency of Cars

The following pages focus on debating whether cars should be more efficient or not. The Introduction presents certain points-of-view that will be used in the sections of the paper. The Efficiency section intends to provide a definition and explanation of efficiency. The Efficiency of Cars section presents a discussion that compares different types of cars and their efficiency. The Conclusions section presents some of the most important issues discussed in the paper.

The business environment in which companies develop their activity determines them to focus on strategies that help them improve their efficiency. It seems that efficiency is considered an important factor that influences companies' success. The need for efficiency is determined by the resources of customers. In other words, customers want to…… [Read More]

3. Whitman, J. (2011). High Hopes, and Hurdles, for Hydrogen Cars. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2011-06-19-cnbc-hydrogen-cars_n.htm.

4. Electric Vehicles (2012). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtml.

5. What Is an Electric Car (2012). HybridCars. Retrieved march 18, 2012 from http://www.hybridcars.com/electric-car.
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Merger Acquisition and International Strategies Mergers Acquisitions

Words: 2103 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1303004

Merger, Acquisition and International Strategies

Mergers, Acquisitions and International Strategies

A merger is a combination of two or more business entities with the aim of consolidating the resources that they have and creating a single entity with that. The process of merging is done through acquisition or direct pooling together of the resources available. Acquisition occurs when a firm buys a stake in another firm and assumes control of it. Acquisitions are part of growth strategies paid for in cash, payment through stock of the acquiring company or both. Mergers and Acquisitions commonly denoted by M & A work hand in hand and are in recent times seen as one. M & A is a strategy of finance and management dealing with the selling, buying, combination of, firms and entities to help grow a firm rapidly. M & A occur to help a firm create a new strategy, joint venture…… [Read More]


GM:New York Stock Quote - General Motors Co - Bloomberg. (n.d.). Bloomberg - Business, Financial & Economic News, Stock Quotes. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from http://www.bloomberg.com/quote/GM:U.S.

General Motors | GM.com. (n.d.). General Motors | GM.com. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from http://www.gm.com/

Tesla Motors | Premium Electric Vehicles. (n.d.). Tesla Motors | Premium Electric Vehicles. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from http://www.teslamotors.com/
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Solar Is the Solution Author Steve Heckeroth

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97986033

Solar is the Solution, author Steve Heckeroth argues that solar energy is the key to alleviating climate change. Heckeroth builds his argument on the statement that "Solar is a promising source of future energy supplies because not only is it clean, it's remarkably abundant." Another one of Heckeroth's claims is that "relying on coal, oil and natural gas threatens our future with toxic pollution, global climate change and social unrest caused by diminishing fuel supplies." These statements are internally valid; although Heckeroth does not provide quantitative data to back up these statements, they are easy to reference. Moreover, Heckeroth establishes his own credibility as an author qualified to write about environmental science by stating "I have been studying our energy options for more than 30 years." Of course, "studying" something for thirty years does not automatically make a person an expert. Heckeroth is admitting that he is a layperson who…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Heckeroth, Steve. "Solar is the Solution." Dec-Jan 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.motherearthnews.com/Renewable-Energy/2007-12-01/Solar-is-the-Solution.aspx?page=6
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Top Page This Reference Citation Complete Successful

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47346550

top page. This reference citation complete successful locating article.

Shell Oil

Karlgaard, R.R. (2012). Energy in 2050 Shell's Peter Voser. Forbes Asia, 8(6), 97.

Shell Oil's present CEO Peter Voser came to the helm of the company in 2009, at the height of the world's credit crisis. Voser immediately began 'cleaning house' and completely restructured the company. He began with the management. Twenty percent of the management staff was completely eliminated. Another 14,000 people at Shell were asked to reapply for their jobs and justify their worth to the company. Voser took seven months to completely change the organizational structure of the company to make it leaner and more competitive. Despite the far-reaching nature of his actions, Voser stated that he was primarily changing the nature of the management, not the fundamental company philosophy and orientation of Shell. Shell will remain an oil company, founded on the belief that oil…… [Read More]

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General Electrics

Words: 2714 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71372712

Growth of GE

General Electric was founded in 1878 and became a firm in1890 when Thomas Edison combined his different business ventures ("Thomas Edison & GE"). During this time the Thomson-Houston Company was a competitor with GE. hen each of the businesses began to grow neither company was having much success in creating electrical installations with their individual patents and technologies. By1892, the Thomson-Houston Company and GE were merged together ("Thomas Edison & GE"). The new company became the General Electric Company ("Thomas Edison & GE").

The company has been responsible for the development of the first iridescent light bulb. In addition the company was responsible for the creation of the first x-ray machine. Throughout the years the company has played a role in much historical advancement including the electric toaster (1905), commercial finance (1905), first radio broadcast (1906), electric locomotives (1908), the vacuum tube (1912) and Resins (1912). In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"GE CEO keen on oil, gas deals." 12 Oct. 2010. 16 Oct. 2010

"GE's Growth Strategy: The Immet Initiative"

"GE's Immelt gets no respect" 15 Oct. 2010. 16 Oct. 2010

"General Electric screen matrix." n.d. 16 Oct. 2010 http://www.palgrave.com/keyconcepts/pdfs/Strategic%20Management%2014039_21350_10_G.pdf
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High Gas Prices on the

Words: 12212 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48294539

The former might be, 'What specific...' [while] Less structure might be exemplified by: "Please respond to the following in your own words: I....'" (Dereshiwsky, 1999) in addition:

adding some open-ended items such as these to a more traditionally scaled quantifiable survey, such as one with Likert-scaled attitudinal items, and/or "check/off" questions on demographic background variables, is a good way to make the survey "multimethod" in nature. This is because you'd be using that "single" data collection vehicle (survey instrument) to collect your data (responses) in more than one form: quantitative and qualitative! You could ask the same general questions in both forms and then compare the two alternative forms of responses to see if they 'converged,' or agreed, regarding the phenomenon that you are trying to measure via the survey (e.g., attitudes towards school climate). If they do, you can have greater assurance that "there's something real being captured/measured" regarding…… [Read More]



Area Sales of Luxury SUVs in High Gear; Gas Prices Don't Slow Down Affluent Buyers. (2007, April 28). The Washington Times, p. C10. Retrieved April 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020524989

Bailey, Ronald. "Foolish fuel follies; Why anti-gouging laws and windfall profits taxes won't lower gas prices, and how 'today's gasoline is not your father's gasoline'," Chicago Sun Times, May 31, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P27448611.html http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021427859

Carr-Ruffino, N., & Acheson, J. (2007, July/August). The Hybrid Phenomenon: High Gas Prices and Shifting Consumer Sentiment Point to Bright Prospects for Hybrid Cars. The Futurist, 41, 16+. Retrieved April 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021427859
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Electronic Hybrid and Patrol Engines Electronic Hybrid

Words: 1699 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27834532

Electronic Hybrid and Patrol Engines


The first auto engine was invented in 1886 by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler. Tracing the history of the origin and development of engines, we see that the crucial role in the creation of the car engine played a gasoline internal combustion engine, which remains to this day, a source of power to the vast majority of engines. Analysis of the ways of development of automobile engines is not only interesting from a historical point-of-view but it is a striking illustration of a very productive and relatively rapid improvement of internal combustion engines with respect to those requirements of road transport. Very often, it takes years, even decades, before a more perfect principle or the most rational design application in production. The design of automobile engines, their creation, improvement and mass production for a wide variety of operating conditions, carried…… [Read More]


Choi, H & O. Inha, (2010)."Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies, "Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pp 2262-2271.

Michi, N, (2009)."Hybrid or Electric Vehicles? A Real Options Perspective," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business, pp 09-31,Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP)

Moyer, M (2009), 'Internal-Combustion Engine. (Cover Story), Scientific American, 301, 3, p. 97.

Wolf-Peter, S. (2010)."Electric Vehicles: Charging into the Future," Weekly Report, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 6(27), pp 207-214.
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Alternate Energy in Daily Life Imagine That

Words: 5656 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20298659

Alternate Energy in Daily Life

Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…… [Read More]

Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at  http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/ 

IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo

Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at  http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/ 

Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from  http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf 

Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
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New Vehicles the Trend to

Words: 3742 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51351052

Hybrid cars generally run quieter that the traditional IC engine cars. (Keelan, 2004) the very design of operation of the hybrid cars ensures that the engine turn off when stationary and start up on electric power and then switch to gas. This design could be risky to people who do not pay attention to the road and blind pedestrians. It is presumptuous to state that this is a negative for the hybrid cars. Any change in technology is always viewed with skepticism.

For instance, when cars with glass on all four sides were introduced, people were afraid to ride in them. This was due to the concern that they had regarding the safety of the vehicle if it met with an accident and the glass broke. (PBS, 2007) it took some time and observation of the benefits such as protection from the elements that convinced people that it was safe…… [Read More]

Valdes-Dapena, Peter. (2006). Hybrids: Seven worries, seven answers. CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2007, from the World Wide Web:  http://money.cnn.com/2006/03/14/Autos/tipsandadvice/hybrid_worries/index.htm 

Verhoeven, Peter. (2007). Silence of hybrid vehicles concerns blind pedestrians. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.magnifiers.org/news.php?action=fullnews&id=232

Wood, Douglas S. (2001). The relationship between the automobile and the suburbs. CNN. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/democracy/sprawl/stories/auto.history/index.html
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Toyota's Prius With the Increased Level of

Words: 3131 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81530266


With the increased level of awareness of the environment, automotive car manufacturers vie on the viability of selling environmentally hybrid cars. Leading this group are Honda and Toyota. The following is a market analysis of the position of Toyota's Prius. It analyzes the following factors:

Situation of the firm in the market

The industry of hybrid cars

The strategy adopted by Prius and how it is faring in the market

The barriers of the market

Some alternative strategies to rectify the weakness of Prius and The implementation of one of its alternatives.



Toyota Motor Corporation with its subsidiaries all around the world reports $5,447 billion for the fiscal year 2001. With more than 5.5 million cars, trucks, and buses worldwide sold annually, the company boast of high profits and symbolizes the ideal in automotive industry. Spread to 24 nations and regions worldwide, Toyota with its…… [Read More]


 http://www.corolland.com/prius-review.html  http://global.toyota.com/ir.html

Shenandoah Weiss, Environmentally friendly car may become wave of the future., University Wire, 04-26-2000.

REITMAN, VALERIE Toyota Touts Dual Benefits Of Hybrid Power System. Wall Street Journal March 26, 1997-Page A-12

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Ford GM Study Ford and

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68486261

However sales have dropped due in part to the financial crisis. Ford and GM therefore must be aware that consumers may be demand electric cars but may be unwilling to pay large sums of money for them. Below is an explanation why.

Brief overview of the Financial Crisis and its implications on Ford and GM

To begin, in order to understand many of the initiatives both Ford and GM took in regards to their restructuring, I believe it prudent to understand the underlying causes of such action. s many individuals realize, a massive wave of mortgage defaults was partially responsible for the collapse of Ford and GM as a whole. However the implications of these actions on Ford and GM are often overlooked. The financial crisis resulted from a mixture of both bad judgment and unethical decision making. Frank Vogel, cofounder of Transparency International, a nonprofit organization charged with ranking…… [Read More]

As the chart depicts, there is indeed large demand. However sales have dropped due in part to the financial crisis. Ford and GM therefore must be aware that consumers may be demand electric cars but may be unwilling to pay large sums of money for them. Below is an explanation why.

Brief overview of the Financial Crisis and its implications on Ford and GM

To begin, in order to understand many of the initiatives both Ford and GM took in regards to their restructuring, I believe it prudent to understand the underlying causes of such action. As many individuals realize, a massive wave of mortgage defaults was partially responsible for the collapse of Ford and GM as a whole. However the implications of these actions on Ford and GM are often overlooked. The financial crisis resulted from a mixture of both bad judgment and unethical decision making. Frank Vogel, cofounder of Transparency International, a nonprofit organization charged with ranking nations by degree of corruption remarked, "so many people engaged in so many aspects of finance have lost their ethical compass and put short-term personal gains above other considerations" (Francis, 2008). Logically, the more we value something the more risk we are willing to take to attain them, and unfortunately ethical decision making falls to the wayside. Continuing, although the crisis itself is rather complex, the ethical factors surrounding the crisis are far easier to understand. David DeRosa, a Finance Professor at Yale University eloquently stated the
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Eco-Fuels in the Face of

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37047395


Whether it is solar power, used vegetable oil, turds, wood, or hydrogen research and experimentation is the way forward. These cheap resources have already been proven effective in various ways and manners. The need of the day is to develop new energy technologies and apply them in the most useful and practical way possible. If we want global economic stability then eco energy sector requires due attention. We have witnessed crises situations in the past. The rising demand for oil, its increasing prices and possible depletion of oil resources demand a way out. Alternative energy sources in this scenario give us a flicker of hope. U.S. government is also pushing the agenda and so should other individuals and organizations also look in this direction for the economic betterment of their counties and the world with the use eco-fuels. The change cannot be brought about by government alone, will and…… [Read More]


Kay, Tonya Making Biodiesel. Hawai'i Indymedia, Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.

Youngquist, W. (1998, December). Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities. Electronic Green Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, at http://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/egj09/youngqu1.html

Bond, M. (2000, November). SOLAR ENERGY Seeing the Light.. Geographical, 72(11), 28.

Eco-Lifestyle Ideas for Surfers'. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at
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Fuel Cell Technology There Are Over 600

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70476693

Fuel Cell Technology

There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")

As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.

I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. hat was once a dream is now a reality.

I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004. http://globalwarming.enviroweb.org/ishappening/sources/sources_co2_facts3.html.

Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell4.htm.

Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell5.htm.

Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell2.htm.
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Portable Nuclear Power Is a Portable Nuclear

Words: 3012 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15564492

Portable Nuclear Power

Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?

As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.

What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…… [Read More]


Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.

Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.

Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
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Cost Effectiveness of Renewable Sources of Energy

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23673700

enewable Energy

Global energy and climate objectives have contributed to the increased development and use of renewable sources of energy that focus on lessening the environment impact of generating energy. The conventional sources of energy have contributed to significant environmental impacts, especially climate change. The environmental impacts that are brought by emission of greenhouse gases from conventional energy sources are endangering the world's ecosystems and human life. As a result, renewable energy sources are considered as suitable alternatives to help lessen environmental impacts while meeting energy needs. There are various renewable energy sources that are regarded as suitable alternatives to conventional sources including solar, wind, and electric energy. Even though these sources have minimal environmental impacts compared to conventional sources of energy, they are not cost-effective yet.

Solar, Electric and Wind Energy

Wind energy has been considered as one of the cheaper energy generation methods unlike conventional sources of energy…… [Read More]


Barbaric, M. & Loncar, D. (2016). Energy Management Strategies for Combined Heat and Electric Power Micro-grid. Thermal Science, 20(4), 1091-1103.

Berman, B. (2014, October 14). What Is an Electric Car? Retrieved October 11, 2016, from  http://www.plugincars.com/electric-cars 

Bounce Energy. (n.d.). Residential Solar and Wind Systems: What are the Costs? Retrieved October 11, 2016, from  https://www.bounceenergy.com/articles/green-energy/residential-solar-and-wind-systems 

Hirth, L., Ueckerdt, F. & Edenhofer, O. (2016). Why Wind Is Not Coal: On the Economics of Electricity Generation. The Energy Journal, 37(3), 1-27.
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External Environment Ford Motor Company Is -

Words: 3537 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58395527

External Environment

Ford Motor Company is - according to its financial statements for the last year - in relatively good financial shape, especially if one considers the current weak state of the economy, the past recessionary months and the still extremely shaky state of the recovery. This paper analyzes the current strengths and weaknesses of the company as it moves toward increasing globalization.

A useful tool in analyzing the external environment in which Ford is presently situated can incorporate Michael Porter's Five Forces model, which is graphically summarized below: (http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_fivefoces.htm)

Ford is vulnerable to the threat of both new entrants (in terms generally of new car models as well as specifically of new environmentally friendly cars) as well as the threat of substitute products from other car companies eager to attract the same consumers that Ford wishes to attract. Honda, for example, is likely to become one of Ford's primary…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hamel, Gary and C.K. Prahalad. Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 1997. http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_19/b3680166.htm



 http://www.ford.com /en/innovation/engineFuelTechnology/modularHybridTransmission.htm
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Corporatocracy The Effects Corporatocracy Has in Government

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79777591


The Effects Corporatocracy Has in Government

Corporatocracy occurs when a government is found to be run not by its own people, but by corporations or conglomerates within the country. The mixture of business and government allows corporations to control a country by deciding its governmental direction or economic plans (Mooney, Knox, and Schacht 256). Whether a corporation involves itself in a country's government for the good of its people or its profits, corporatocracy effects all involved, from employees and citizens to government and business. It is not uncommon for there to be a blurred line between government and business, but it is unfortunately a line that is all too often crossed.

Perhaps one of the strongest and most notable displays of corporatocracy in America was that of General Motors. In 1987, GM produced a solar powered car named Sun aycer which won the first World Solar Challenge, hosted by…… [Read More]


Mooney, L.A., David Knox, and Caronline Schacht. Understanding Social Problems. 6th.

Belmont, California: Cengage, 2009. 256. Print.

Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, California: Berrett-Koehler

Publishers, Inc., 2004. Print.
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Hybrid Vehicles Although Pricier Than

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 776018

Fuel consumption advantage is an important consideration in an age where fuel prices are skyrocketing, as well as in the current political climate. The hybrid car therefore provides the driver not only with the advantage of power when needed, but also with the vitally important fuel consumption advantage that is so prominent in electric cars.

Another advantage of hybrid cars is maintenance. The fact that two different power sources are used on an as-needed basis reduces the wear and tear on both the motors. This results in lower maintenance time and costs. Another element of lower maintenance is the brakes. Regenerative braking is the result of both the electric motor and the regular brakes combining to slow down the car. The ultimate result is less wear on the brakes. The brakes are also connected to the batteries, which mean that they charge while slowing down the car. The tires are…… [Read More]


Dunn, Philip. Hybrid Cars - Pros and Cons. PhysOrg.com, 2006. http://www.physorg.com/news10031.html

Eggert, Mike. Hybrid Cars: An Introduction. 2007. http://www.nicedeals.co.uk/blog/hybrid-cars/hybrid-cars-an-introduction/

Koster, James. What are the advantages of hybrid cars? Solar Energy News, 2006. http://www.solarenergynews.info/hybridcars/hybrid-advantages.htm
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The Five Forces That Shape Competitive Strategy

Words: 1941 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39741145

Five Forces

The concept of the five forces is rooted in the idea that these are the five forces that influence whether an industry or company can be profitable. A company, when formulating its strategy, will seek to find ways to shift these forces and manipulate them in ways that allow the company to be profitable, preferably sustainably profitable. As Porter (2008) elaborates, the five forces that shape competitive strategy are the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of new entrants, the threat of substitutes and the intensity of rivalry within the industry.

About the Company

The company to which the five forces will be applied is Tesla Motors, the electric car maker. Tesla is a relatively new player in the industry, has a tremendous reputation with respect to product quality, but has yet to turn a profit, has a tremendous bleed rate, but it…… [Read More]


Bershidsky, L. (2016). Millennials are buying cars after all. Bloomberg. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2016-01-04/millennials-are-buying-cars-after-all

Hard, A. (2016). Apple car rumor roundup: Here's everything you need to know about Project Titan. Digital Trends. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.digitaltrends.com/cars/apple-car-news/

MSN Moneycentral: Tesla Motors. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails/financials/fi-126.1.TSLA.NAS?ocid=qbeb

Porter, M. (2008). The five forces that shape competitive strategy. Harvard Business Review. January 2008, 79-93.
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Foreign Market Entry Strategies GM

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88031174

GM's Chevy Volt and its all-electric design, as well as diesel-electric and conventional gas-electric hybrids could and must replace the image of the 'old' GM in the public's imagination. The company has shed the Hummer stigma, now it must create a new image for itself in the future, not just domestically, but internationally.

orks Cited

Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009


General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.

Retrieved August 6, 2009.


Hu, Lei. (2008). GM's joint venture is China's top-selling brand in 2007. Edmunds.

Retrieved August 6, 2009.


Jason. (2004). The global hybrid race: Is Europe catching the fever. GreenHybrid. Retrieved August 6, 2009 at http://www.greenhybrid.com/wiki/index.php/The_Global_Hybrid_Race:_Is_Europe_Catching_The_Fever%3F

ald, Matthew. (200, August 5) $2 million in grants to speed up electric car manufacturing.

The New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2009.


Ying, Tina &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009


General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.

Retrieved August 6, 2009.
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Strategy and Policies of the

Words: 4060 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82424777

This is important, because physics has allowed the combustible engine to provide the world with a cost effective solution for traveling long distance. Sadly, the electric car can only be used for short to medium distances. Then, there is another potential problem that could be developing with the lithium batteries that are used, where China control 95% to 100% the resources for these batteries (lithium). This is problematic because they could restrict how much they are exporting (which they already have) to ensure that there is enough supply for the country to meet its own internal demand. (ryce 2010)

Despite this dire news, there are increased effort within the industry to support the use and development of such new technologies, to work in conjunction with the combustible engine. An example of this support for such technologies can be seen by the fact several oil companies hold the patents on several…… [Read More]


2011 Volt, 2010, Chevrolet. Available from: [25 April 2010].

Exxon Mobil, 2010, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [25 April 2010].

Exxon Valdez Facts, 1999, Oceana. Available from [25 April 2010].

Fuel Efficiency Standard, 2009, MSNBC. Available from: [25 April 2010].
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CO2 Emissions the Willingness of

Words: 3440 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75656363

People have been unmotivated to offset the cabon dioxide emissions of automobiles due to a pesonal attachment to thei cas. Howeve, they have also been moe willing to implement pocedues and poducts in thei home that ae moe enegy efficient. One notable example of this concens electicity and light fixtues. In ecent yeas, lighting that is moe enegy efficient has become incedibly popula, and it has been shown that people ae even willing to pay geate sums of money to puchase lighting systems that ae moe enegy efficient (Stall-Meadows, Hebet, 2001). Such behavio stands in stak contast with consume habits with egad to automobiles, and this is pehaps attibutable to the fact that electicity is viewed as being moe utilitaian and less of a status symbol. It may also be a esult of the fact that cas ae moe public while electicity is featued in the pivacy of one's own…… [Read More]

references: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45-72.

Longo, a., Hoyos, D., & Markandya, a. (2012). Willingness to pay for ancillary benefits of climate change mitigation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 51(1), 119-140.

Nolan, J.M. (2010). "An Inconvenient Truth" increases knowledge, concern, and willingness to reduce greenhouse gases. Environment and Behavior, 42(5), 643-658.

Peters, G.P., et al. China's growing CO2 emissions -- a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(17), 5939-5944.

Reiner, D.M., et al. (2006). American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming. Environmental Science Technology, 40(7), 2093-2098.
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Behavioral Changes Reducing the Effects

Words: 1835 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10604564

hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.

Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming

And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange.

Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm.
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Technological Innovations

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10948694

Technological innovations around the world have had a significant impact on the way of living of people across the world. The effects of technology to the society vary from one technology to another. This paper seeks to elaborate the influence three different technological innovations had on society. These innovations cut across different industries.

The automated teller machine

The ATM came at a time when banking halls were only for the elite. This is a networked device that offers financial services to clients. The transactions that can be accomplished through the machine include but not limited to cash withdraws, cash deposits, and mini bank statements. The supporting data networks allow users to access their bank accounts from multiple locations. This technological development dates back almost five decades ago. However, enhancement of the initial idea of self-service in financial institutions has made the innovation thrive over the years. The innovation made it…… [Read More]


Fischer, J. (2011). Banking basics. Broomall, Pa.: Mason Crest Publishers.

Guerin, L. (2009). Smart policies for workplace technologies: email, blogs, cell phones & more. Berkeley, CA: Nolo

Kettlewell, C. (2004). Electric dreams: one unlikely team of kids and the race to build the car of the future. New York: Carroll & Graf
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Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7813898

LA Pollution

Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles

Increase utilization of green technology for vehicles


Tax incentives

Employment issues

The horrific traffic situation in Los Angeles is not only detrimental to society in the sense that its immense levels of congestion cost commuters millions of dollars in lost time daily, but also because it can cause physical harm. One study has identified several risk factors that are significantly increased by freeway pollution levels such as cardiovascular problems, respiratory disease, cancer, heart attacks and flat-out premature death (Cronan). It further finds that some brain cells in mice showed inflammation consistent with Alzheimer's disease when exposed to these pollutants.

It would be one thing if the levels of pollutants in the city were consistent with the levels found in other cities; however the levels of air pollution found in Los Angeles are among the highest in the country. In fact, Forbes…… [Read More]

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Ford Motor Company SWOT and Strategy

Words: 1362 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25649399

Ford Motor Company is facing the challenge of a changing external environment in the long-run. In the short-run, business will continue more or less as usual, but in the medium to long run the company faces technological changes that will make electric cars mainstream, and will introduce driverless cars to the roadways, which will be a transformative development for society, one that might only be a couple of years away (Hars, 2016). Further, the costs associated with burning fossil fuels are likely to escalate, in particular the potential for carbon taxes, consumer rejection of burning carbon and a gradual shift in the first half of the 21st century towards different models of transportation. Ford will need to examine the long-run impacts of these trends to its business, and seek to find the right long-run strategy to build around for the future.


Ford Motor Company is a leading producer of…… [Read More]


Enderle, R. (2016). How Ford's approach to innovation could help Apple. CIO Magazine. Retrieved May 20, 2016 from http://www.cio.com/article/3020263/innovation/how-ford-s-approach-to-innovation-could-help-apple.html

Ford.com (2016). Model: Focus Electric. Ford Motor Company. Retrieved May 20,2016 from  http://www.ford.com /cars/focus/trim/electric/

Hars, A. (2016). Driverless car market watch. Driverless Future.com. Retrieved May 20, 2016 from http://www.driverless-future.com/

Interbrand (2015). Top Global brands: rankings. Interbrand. Retrieved May 20, 2016 from http://interbrand.com/best-brands/best-global-brands/2015/ranking/
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Strategic Management Report Toyota Motor

Words: 2443 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22765940

Therefore, they use strict evaluation criteria to make choice among different alternatives. Keeping in view the strength of customers' bargaining power, Toyota and other automakers are expending huge amounts on advertisements and promotional campaigns to create awareness about their brands and convince these customers to prefer them over all other brands (Jenny & Scammon, 2010).

5. Internal Environmental Analysis for Toyota Motor Corporation

5.1. The esources Types:

Like other types of business corporations, Toyota also relies on four different organizational resources. These are: financial resources, human resources, informational resources, and physical resources. Financial resources are the money invested by the company's shareholders and the profits left after paying off liabilities. These resources enable the company to run its day-to-day operations, run marketing campaigns, and make strategic investments to keep it innovative and competitive in all aspects. Secondly, the human resources are the intellectual capital that plays a major role in…… [Read More]


Bearden, W.O., Ingram, T.N. & LaForge, R.W. (2007). Marketing: Principles and Perspectives, 5th Edition. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill

Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall

Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Frederic, M., Agnes, V. & John, M. (2011). Pest Analysis, 2nd Edition. U.K: Gardners Books
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Lost Book The Idea Is to Have

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20692708

lost book. The idea is to have a sticker that contains a code, by which an item can be located. If you are looking for an item, it will be equipped with a signal that, when you ask for it, will respond.

A variation on this technology already exists in the logistics field, where the FID concept was adapted to use Bluetooth and smartphone apps. Bluetooth Low Energy technology that sits dormant is utilized. Apple has its iBeacon, and commercial uses for this are in development stages already (Swedberg, 2013). If a model can be developed that will support some sort of signal that can ping back to the phone when the app calls it, this will allow people to locate any strip. They can then put the strip on anything they don't want to lose, be in a book or a laptop, or a wallet or car keys. The…… [Read More]


"America in the 1920's" (2014). HistoryLearningSite.co.uk Retrieved December 8, 2014 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/America_economy_1920s.htm

EPA. (2014). Drinking and wastewater infrastructure protection. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December from http://www2.epa.gov/homeland-security-research/water-system-security-and-resilience-homeland-security-research

GSL. (2014). GSL Rainwater harvesting. CCRWH.com. Retrieved December 8, 2014 from  http://www.ccrwh.com/earthship-biotecture.html 

Orenstein, D. (2000). Application programming interface. Computer World. Retrieved December 8, 2014 from  http://www.computerworld.com/article/2593623/app-development/application-programming-interface.html
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Global warming is one of the most contentious political issues of our times. It was famously dramatized in Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth, and remains a hot-button topic of debate. The majority of unbiased, legitimate scientific research supports the existence of human-generated global warming, although the question of what to do to slow the rate of escalating temperatures remains far from settled in the arena of politics. According to one recent review of major scientific publications, 97-98% of "the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field & #8230; supported the basic tenets of ACC (manmade global warming) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (Blakemore 2012).

The earth's climate and temperature has always been unstable, and there have been periods when overall temperatures have increased or decreased in the earth's history, before modern industrialization. But climate changes after the Industrial Revolution, particularly those since the 1980s, have been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"2012 Chevy Volt." Official website. [23 Apr 2012] http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/

Blakemore, Bill. "Global warming denialism just foolishness." ABC News. [23 Apr 2012]


"Causes." NASA. [23 Apr 2012]  http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
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General Motors Organizational Change Changes

Words: 2545 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28488246

Still, the future stated goal of GM is to develop an electric or hybrid version in all of its existing brands lines -- Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick and GMC.

Outcome of changes

GM's most notable success has been overseas, where it is currently ahead of all of its competitors in the rapidly expanding Chinese market. "While GM is outpacing Ford in overseas competition, GM cannot solely depend on China for growth. While the emerging market contributed to GM's global recovery last year with 2.3 million in sales, it may not experience the same momentum this year [2011] because the Chinese government has ended incentives on small cars and rural purchases" (Benedicto 2011). Still, evidence of GM's health is seen in the fact that it recently announced that it will issue profit-sharing checks this month for hourly workers, the largest in a decade (Vlasic & Bunkley 2011:1). Talks with the UAW will…… [Read More]


Benedicto, Tanya. (2011, February 26). Should the new GM thank Waggoner? The Wall Street

Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2011 at http://blogs.forbes.com/tanyabenedicto/2011/02/26/should-the-new-gm-thank-wagoner/

Bunkley, Nick. (2011, January 11). GM plans 2 plug-in hybrids. The New York Times.

Retrieved March 1, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/12/business/12volt.html?ref=generalmotorscorporation
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Toyota Marketing Toyota Improving Brand

Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55207091

Such a program would not only boost consumer confidence: if drivers did not have any problems after the repairs, this would also repair the public's trust in the Toyota brand.

Concern 2: Mistrust of flagship electric car model the Prius

Perhaps even more damaging have been the problems with Toyota's flagship electric car model, the Prius. The Prius has also been accused of unstoppable, unintended acceleration. Toyota had become synonymous with eco-friendly cars. Damaging the reputation for the safety of electric cars not only hurts Toyota's short-term profits; it also impacts the likelihood of consumers to buy electric cars in general. This shift would be particularly damaging to Toyota, given it has invested so much of its brand image and research and development capital in the success of the Prius.

esolution 2

As well as improving the safety features on new models and repairing old models, Toyota must undertake a…… [Read More]


Bunkley, Nick. (2010, April 9). Regulators may pursue more fines against Toyota. The New

York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2010

At http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/10/business/10toyota.html

Healey, James. (2010, January 28). Toyota expands floor mat recall; supplier redesigns pedal.
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10 K Report Summary and Analysis

Words: 2458 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94252546

Ford is a car company that has endured many challenges and travails over the years. Indeed, they are not unlike General Motors and Chrysler in this regard. While they have generally been unscathed as compared to the other two "American" car companies and they are only one of two of the original Big 3 that is still entirely American-controlled, Ford is not dominating the market by any means. Their overall sales figures are going up in terms of volume but their market share and a lot of their important financial metrics reflect flatness or falling rather than rising. Ford has certainly learned some lessons since the Ford Pinto scandal in the 1970's and some other companies are suffering recall problems in more modern days while Ford is doing quite well. Even so, Ford is not keeping up with the market and they need to address that right away (Ford Motor…… [Read More]


Edelstein, S. (2015). Tesla Buys Supplier, New Car Fuel Economy, Hybrid & Electric Car Sales: Today's Car News. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1098200_tesla-buys-supplier-new-car-fuel-economy-hybrid-electric-car-sales-todays-car-news

FCA. (2015). FCAGroup - Home. Fcagroup.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.fcagroup.com/en-U.S./Pages/home.aspx

Ford Motor Company. (2015). Ford Motor Company 2014 Annual Report. Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://corporate.ford.com/content/dam/corporate/en/investors/reports-and-filings/Annual%20Reports/2014-ford-annual-report.pdf

Kimbrough, B. (2015). Editorial: Did Ford Take Bailout Money Too? Yes They Did. - Chevy Hardcore. Chevy Hardcore. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.chevyhardcore.com/news/editorial-did-ford-take-bailout-money-too-yes-they-did/
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History of the Michigan International Auto Show

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80991210

Michigan Auto Show: History

Early History

The history of the Michigan Auto Show (now re-named as the North American International Auto Show) dates back to 1899 when it was held for the first time as the Detroit Auto Show in Detroit. The credit for organizing the earliest Detroit Auto Shows goes to illiam E. Metzeger who dealt in bicycles before becoming associated with the auto industry. ("Zacharias"). Metzeger had traveled to England in 1895 to attend the world's first auto exhibition and returned to Detroit to become its first auto dealer. (Ibid.)

In 1899 Metzeger and an associate formed the Tri State Sportsman's and Automobile Association and leased the Light Guard Armory in Detroit to organize a hybrid exhibition of sporting equipment and automobiles. At the first show, the major attractions were big-game trophies from Africa, fishing tackle and assorted sporting equipment, rather than automobiles. Metzeger was the only auto…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Auto Show Historical Overview: A colorful past, an exciting future." January 2002. NAIAS 2002 -- Official Web site. March 10, 2002. http://www.naias.com/main.asp?sectionID=51&visitorType=1

Economic Impact: North American International Auto Show." January 2002. NAIAS 2002 -- Official Web site. March 10, 2002. http://www.naias.com/main.asp?sectionID=87&visitorType=1

Interesting Facts." January 2002. NAIAS 2002 -- Official Web site. March 10, 2002. http://www.naias.com/main.asp?sectionID=5&visitorType=1

2002 NAIAS: History." Woman Motorist. (n.d.) March 10, 2002. http://www.womanmotorist.com/autoshows-2002/naias-2002/naias-2002-history.shtml
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Global Warming Prospectus This Document

Words: 2298 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37860101

Below is a chart depicting various amounts of energy consumption by the average individual in Society? Notice that "space cooling," "water heating" and "lighting" segments contribute nearly 30% of all energy consumption in the household (Australian Energy Outlook 2006).

This energy consumption however, is variable in nature. Lighting costs or space cooling costs are dependent primarily on individual preference and discipline. By simply turning off lights, or reducing the amount of time in the shower, individuals can significantly reduce excessive energy use. Through this practice, society can achieve a significant and sustainable reduction in energy use (Tester, 2005).

In addition to excessive use with automobiles, lighting, cooling, and CO2 emissions mentioned above, I think Society must commit to energy savings in a profound manner. This is my biggest opportunity in regards to excessive energy use. Many individuals simply are not committed to such behavior. Their activities regarding energy reflect this…… [Read More]


1) Francis, D.R. (2008, September). Economic Slump: Ethics Loom Large. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Christian Science Monitor:  http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/2008/0915/p16s03-wmgn.html 

2) James L (2008). Understanding Employee Motivation. N/a June 20088, Vol. 36

3) Australian Energy Outlook 2006. International Energy Agency. 2006. ISBN 92-64-10989-7.

4) MacKay, David JC (2008). Sustainable Energy -- without the hot air. Cambridge: UIT. ISBN 978-0-9544529-3-3.  http://www.withouthotair.com .
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Policy Extension

Words: 1679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21719184

Policy Extension

General Context

The company was established in 1886 and since its inception the technology developed by Daimler has revolutionized the automotive industry (Daimler AG, 2014). Daimler's initial product line started with a motor carriage and a three wheeled vehicle. The quality, safety and comfort of Daimler's vehicles have impressed their customers, establishing the standards of the industry.

With automotives being a physical product, it is very easy to measure them. Standards of the industry are established and brought to public notice, allowing all customers to understand them and rapport to them. In this industry products are physical received by customers and they enter customers' possession once all contractual and financial aspects have been attained. Product reception takes place under the terms established by the seller and agreed by the buyer.

There are several ways customers can address in order to find out information about the price and characteristics…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Tradition (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.daimler.com/company/tradition.

2. Product Responsibility (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.daimler.com/sustainability/product-responsibility.

3. Lis, B. et al. (2012). Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies. International Journal of Economic and Financial Issues. Retrieved November 20, 2014.

4. The Automotive Industry (2014). Business and Economics Research Advisor. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/BERA/issue2/industry.html .
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Sustainable Engineering Practice a Review

Words: 894 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86528165

There is, however, a more practical side to this paradigm shift:

These four were not surprising, given the economic and regulatory conditions of 2007 to 2009 and their impacts on building owners. Faced with energy spikes in 2007 and 2008 and the recession beginning in 2008, owners found it difficult to set reliable utility budgets and obtain financing for capital projects. (Rozgus)

Furthermore, as regards to the write-in answers on the surveys, the top four were all ralted energy efficiency or sustainability, they were: LED lighting and lighting controls, Alternative energy, LEED and green technology or regulations, and Energy efficiency.

The authors conclude that if sustainability and lifecycle issues such as environmental performance, reliability, maintainability, and lifecycle cost, are important to the owner, then these issues will have to be more clearly defined in the engineering contracts. Consequently the associated extra costs and fees that would be required to support…… [Read More]

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Transportation Improvement Plan

Words: 6868 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70415153

Toyota Transportation

Toyota Beginning and Emergence

The Market for the Company

The Major Partners and Suppliers

Toyota Supply Chain

Dedicated Transport Service

The Green Supply Chain

Transportation Planning

Freight Flow of Toyota



The Transport Improvement Plan

Dedicated Transport Service

oute Mapping

Environmental Concerns

Integration of services


Division of Duties at the Plant Level for Better Accountability

Mapping logistics flows

The Future of the Transport Improvement Plan

Production by region

Sales by region

Toyota is the biggest single producer and the second biggest producer of cars in the world, after General Motors.

The Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda. It is headquartered in Toyota city in Japan with regional offices and factories all around the globe. The company primarily manufactures automobiles but also has business interests in robotics, financial services and biotechnology. It employs a huge number of people and is among the top…… [Read More]


Antony, J., Caine, P., & Escamilla, J. (2003). Lean Sigma [production and supply chain management]. Manufacturing Engineer, 82(2), 40-42. doi:10.1049/me:20030203

Automotivelogisticsmagazine.com,. (2015). Automotive Logistics - Toyota's total supply chain vision. Retrieved 25 February 2015, from http://www.automotivelogisticsmagazine.com/interview/total-supply-chain-vision

Chambers, K. (2008). Toyota. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

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