Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Restructuring of the electricity industry has been approached with a top-down approach that has failed to result in benefits to consumers. Economic theory states guidance on conditions that are essential for well-functioning markets to exist in which the consumer benefits and the firms utilize innovation to control costs. There is currently a debate surrounding the importance of each 'condition' as well as the resulting harm when conditions are unmet. It has been learned that without the essential pieces in place that restructuring of the electricity industry may result in results that are highly negative in nature. These essential pieces include new transmission capacity, real-timing pricing, the absence of excessive market power in generation, fair competition between utility incumbents and other market players, effective regulatory oversight, a level playing field between private entities on the one hand and electric cooperatives and public power suppliers on the other, well0infomed small…
Ardoin, P.J. And Grady, Dennis (2006) The Politics of Electricity Restructuring across the American States: Power Failure and Policy Failure. State and Local Government Review. Vol. 38. No. 3 (2006.
Ardoin, Phillip J. And Grady, Dennis (2006) The Politics of Electricity Restructuring across the American States: Power Failure and Policy Failure. State and Local Government Review. Vol. 38, No. 3, 2006.
Brennan, Timothy J. (2003) State and Federal Roles in Facilitating Electricity Competition: Legal and Economic Perspectives. 2003 April, Discussion Paper 03-24 Resources for the Future.
Cooper, Mark, N. (2000) Reconsidering Electricity Restructuring: A Short Circuit Or A Total Blackout. Consumer Federation of America 30 Nov 2000. Online available at http://www.consumersunion.org/telecom/deregdc1100.htm
" (THE CALIFORNIA CRISIS)
Studies also refer to the very structure of the deregulation system in California as being intrinsically flawed. As one study notes; "The most important flaw of California's deregulated electricity market was that the market was more re-regulated than deregulated" and that it was "...the most complicated electricity market ever created..." (Ritschel and Smestad 1379)
This situation was exacerbated by other pertinent factors, all of which contributed to the crisis. Central to these factors was the drought during this period, which can be linked to the shortage of hydroelectric power. There was a severe drought in the northwest states in 2001 and California obtained much of its hydroelectric power from the Pacific Northwest. The drought in this region therefore placed a heavy drain on the supply of power to California. This was also worsened by the increased demands on the electricity supply at the time due to…
Bradshaw and Woodrow. The California Experience: From Deregulation Disaster to Flexible Power. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. (http://uneprisoe.org/SectorReform/CaliforniaExperience.pdf.)
Hot, Dark Summer Ahead for California. Drought Worsens Power Crunch, Senators
Told. The Washington Post, Feb. 1, 2001. Web. 3 Nov. 2011.
( http://www.heatisonline.org/contentserver/objecthandlers/index.cfm?id=3607&method=full ).
Reduction of Electricity or Cars as an Environmental Protection Intervention
Reduction of Electricity Consumption or Automobile Usage as an Effective Environmental Protection Intervention
In choosing between the two alternatives of an initiative to reduce electricity consumption or one designed to curb automobile usage, the choice is tough but there is only one viable alternative: Americans love their cars, but they need their electricity more. The rationale for this decision is outlined below.
Americans are becoming increasingly reliant on electricity to support their lifestyles and livelihoods (Schurr 1990).
Electricity provides numerous advantages over virtually all other types of available energy sources. ith wires, electricity can be provided anywhere in the world, and by using simple devices such as switches and rheostats, electric current is provided on any time schedule (Schurr 1990).
Electric power can be provided in any desired amount, from watts to megawatts. This level of precision far exceeds that…
Kaul, Chandrika and Valerie Tomaselli-Moschovitis (Eds.). Statistical Handbook on Consumption and Wealth in the United States. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Mayer, Peter C. (1995). Electricity Conservation: Consumer Rationality vs. Prospect
Theory. Contemporary Economic Policy, 13(2):109.
Schurr, Sam H. Electricity in the American Economy: Agent of Technological Progress.
I began to wonder, what are we all hurrying for?
When I finally got to my apartment, of course the elevator wasn't working, so I had to climb up a lot more stairs than I wanted to. When I opened my door, I was greeted mostly with a dim blackness. There was no hum of the refrigerator, no blinking VCR light, and no LED clock on my bedside table. Everything was black, and silent. I opened up the windows to let in some light, but that was fading fast. I realized I had no bottled water, no candles to light, no batteries for my battery-backup clock radio, and even the battery on my laptop was dead. I felt cut off from the world, and lost in my own apartment. I didn't want to open the refrigerator, because I didn't know how long the blackout would last, and I didn't want…
It causes a chain reaction where Uranium is bombarded by neutrons making it to split. There is a continual release of more neutrons every time a Uranium nucleus is split. The more the neutrons are released, the more the splits in the already split Uranium nuclei. The resultant chain reaction generates a lot of heat in the process. This heat is used to heat water whose vapor moves the turbines and produces electricity as a result.
Nuclear fission power plants use the generated heat by a nuclear fission process to move steam turbine which generates electricity. hen a nuclear fuel atom (Uranium) absorbs a neutron, the Uranium will fission into two smaller atoms (waste) releasing one to three neutrons. Kinetic energy of the waste is used to heat the water for the turbine. The process continues as the neutrons are used to fission the next lot of Uranium atoms ("How…
Beaty, William J. "What Is "Electricity"?" MISCON. MISCON, 1996. Web. 13 Mar. 2010. .
Bellis, Mary. "Electricity - Electronics." About.com. About.com. Web. 13 Mar. 2010. .
"Coal Fired Power Generation." IEGC:International Energy Coal Generation Facilities. International Electric Coal Generation. Web. 13 Mar. 2010. .
Diva, Green. "The Different Methods of Electricity Production." GOARTICLES.com:the Web's Largest Free Content Article Directory. Jayde Online, Inc., 29 June 2009. Web. 13 Mar. 2010. .
Political Reasons ehind the Electricity Dilemma in Haiti
What it will take to have electricity in Haiti
Cost is one of the significant factors that contribute significantly to the development of electricity in Haiti. Since the investment in the sector of electricity has been extremely slow, combining the aspects inclusive of the non-payment culture for electric services, low-based metered customers, and fair consumer tariffs contributes significantly to electricity accessibility. The consideration of relative cost within the electricity production, distribution, and consumption should result into the efficient electricity network with higher levels of financial gains in Haiti
In Haiti, there is a need for the investment through donor finances to enable the generation, transmission and the distribution of electricity. This with estimation will cost up to U.S.$395 million with the inclusion of the hydroelectricity medium-term projects with distribution and transmission costing up to U.S.$55 million
. The investment in the…
Clammer, Paul, Michael Grosberg, and Jens Porup. 2008. Dominican Republic & Haiti.
Footscray, Vic: Lonely Planet. P. 347
Farmer, Paul, Abbey M. Gardner, Cassia van der Hoof Holstein, and Joia Mukherjee. 2011. Haiti after the earthquake. New York: PublicAffairs p. 173
Haiti without electricity, phones as power crisis deepens. (1994, Mar 22). The Gazette.
Hydroelectric vs. Geothermal Electricity Production
In a world that is becoming ever-increasingly focused on the production of energy and fuel, the methods of hydroelectric electricity production and geothermal electricity production have become topics in which the public is significantly interested. In beginning to understand the future of each of these types of electricity production, one must first understand the basic definition of each, as well as the basis for their implementation into the world market. In understanding how each mode of electricity production works, one can begin comparing and contrasting the two in order to understand which modes of production are best utilized in certain situations, as well as to understand the future prospects of each form of production.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower, which is the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water,…
Asheville Geothermal. "The Geothermal Heat Pump" Web. Retrieved from: http://www.
ashevillegeothermal.com/Geothermal.php [Accessed 12 November 2011].
Benoit, W., Blackwell, D. And Holdman, G. "Understanding the Chena Hot Springs,
Alaska, Geothermal System Using Temperature and Pressure Data," in Geothermics, 37(6): pp. 565-585. 2008. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Coffeemaker, microwave, toaster (< 30 minutes)
Television (4 hours)
Computer (24 hours)
Washing machine (< 30 minutes)
Automobile (17 miles)
Stovetop (20 minutes)
Lights (various rooms of apartment, used singly or in combination over a 6-hour period. No light stayed on for more than 1/2-hour)
Television (3 hours)
Stereo (6 hours)
Stovetop (2 20-minute blocks)
Automobile (8 miles)
Lights (various rooms of apartment, used singly or in combination over an 18-hour period. Living room light stayed on entire period because of overcast weather and insufficient natural light.
Computer (24 hours)
National Grid is an international energy delivery company that provides electricity and natural gas to…
Cassidy, P. (2011). Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. slams Cape Cod Wind. CapeCodOnline.
Retrieved from http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article
National Grid. (2011). GreenUp. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgridus.com
Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Context Of Electricity Production
There is much controversy in the contemporary society with regard to global warming, its causes, and the effects it is going to have on the planet. Greenhouse gasses emitted throughout recent centuries are believed to have seriously accelerated the global warming process, as they accumulate in the atmosphere and destroy the ozone layer to the point where it is no longer able to properly protect the planet's surface from dangerous radiations. The U.S. Government and EPA's decision to place restrictions on the type of fuels used to create electricity comes as a response to companies expressing more interest in increasing profits than in reducing the amounts of greenhouse gasses they produce.
The masses are likely to disagree with the fact that the authorities impose laws that are probable to increase the cost of their electricity bills. However, this is because a…
"Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas." Retrieved March 5, 2016, from http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/coal-and-other-fossil-fuels/environmental-impacts-of-natural-gas.html#.VtsfeX197IU
Power of the Wind
The chosen renewable source discussed in this assignment is wind power, or energy produced from the wind. The location for this source is California and some of the cities in the Bay Area that are near some of the more substantial wind harnessing facilities in the state. A good example of one of these cities includes San Ramon. The crux of wind power in California is that it is harnessed via the means of wind mills and/or turbines, which are able to convert the motion of the wind into various forms of electricity. As such, wind power is an alternative to other means of utilizing electricity. Examples of other means of utilizing electricity from nonrenewable sources include the deployment of gasoline (which stems from oil) to provide electricity as a means of powering automobiles. One of the things that is unique about wind power is that…
Overview of Study
This study used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. Chapter one of the study was used to introduce the topics under consideration, provide a statement of the problem, the purpose and importance of the study, as well as its scope and rationale. Chapter two provides a critical review of the relevant and peer-reviewed literature, and chapter three more fully describes the study's methodology, including a description of the study approach, the data-gathering method and the database of study consulted. Chapter four is comprised of an analysis of the data developed during the research process and chapter five presents the study's conclusions, a summary of the research and recommendations for improvements to the device prototyped and envisioned herein.
Chapter 2: eview of elated Literature
It is reasonable to suggest that all battery-powered handheld device users have experienced battery failure at a critical juncture, whether it…
Adler, R., Desmares, P., & Spracklen, J. 1982 'Ultrasonic remote control for home receivers,
IEEE Trans.' Consumer Electronics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 123 -- 128.
Amirtharajah, R., & Chandrakasan, a.P. 1998. 'Self-powered signal processing using vibration-
based power generation.' IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 687-
By 2030, about 60% of China's longest river's electricity-producing potential will be harnessed. It is believed that by 2030, that more than 30% of the Yangtze's water resources would be used for agriculture or industry. hat's an increase from 17.8% today, in an area likely to see decreasing rainfall in the coming years do to the effects of climate change on precipitation patterns (McDermott, 2005)
All of this rightly raises red flags among environmentalists, especially considering the problems with hree Gorges. A recent study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that water quality persists to decline in reservoir areas of hree Gorges, which is causing the fish stocks to decline. hough it's certainly true that hydropower is a better option than profligate burning of coal for China, surely there are more eco-friendly ways to tap into China's world-leading hydropower resources than continued building of large-scale dams (McDermott, 2005)
The World Bank, having been burnt by brutal evaluations of other hydro projects that is had sponsored, chose not to fund this project. The U.S. Export-Import Bank also caved to the pressure. The bank had hoped to obtain additional environmental information from the Chinese that would permit them to make a positive decision. Its stance did not prevent U.S. groups from bidding for contracts, or from the U.S. commercial banks from financing their operations (Bristow, 2007)
According to China's leaders, the Three Gorges dam will provide groundwork for the nation's future economic affluence. This power will also help China to meet the rapidly growing energy demand. The transmission processions that are being put into place are to convey electricity from the dam to the rest of the country. This will help to generate a national grid, with the Three Gorges at the center. Transportation of people and goods will also be improved. The reservoir will allow 10,000-ton freighters to enter the nation's interior, which currently limits access to boats less than 1,500 tons. Vessels will be able to navigate from Shanghai up to Chongqing, around 2000km from the sea. It has the potential to become an even more important transport artery if adequate facilities are put in place to incorporate cargo transport on the river with major rail and road junctions. The government along with many companies that have been involved in the development of the Three Gorges dam have been eager to endorse the dam by making it into a tourist attraction. Tour boats are now offering trips on the reservoirs in order to allow tourists to view what are being advertised as haughty gorges projecting passive lakes. The dam is also proposed to provide major flood control benefits. In the past, the population in the middle and lower areas of the Yangtze River experienced tremendous losses from flooding both in human life and property. The enormous flooding of the Yangtze River in 1931 resulted in more than 3 million deaths from flooding and starvation (Cleveland, 2008).
The government also notes that the dam's power generation potential of 84.7BkWh/yr is the energy equivalent of burning 50 million tons of coal or 25 million tons of crude oil. "The switch to cleaner hydroelectric power would have the effect of cutting 100 million tons of carbon dioxide, up to two million tons of sulfur dioxide, ten thousand tons of carbon monoxide, 370,000 tons of nitrogen oxide,
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…
Electricity is probably one of the most basic privileges we know as humankind today. Almost everything we do in our professional or private lives is in some way powered by electricity. Since Edison's invention of the electric light bulb, electricity has developed to power almost every aspect of business and pleasure today. The many inventions and developments of electricity over the last century or so has made it so complex that few people who do not study it in fact know how it works or can repair wiring when something goes wrong. This is why I am interested in the field of electric engineering. Since electricity and the many things we can do with it today hold great fascination for me, it is my aim to make this my major when enrolling for undergraduate study.
I have always been interested in the field of electricity and the engineering that makes…
Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).
PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…
BrighterEnergy.org. SunPower offers solar modules boasting 19% efficiency. 3 May 2010. Web. 20 October 2011.
Chen, Hong Wen. "Exposure and Health Risk of Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry Workers." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2007): 5-9.
Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). Home. n.d. Web. 20 October 2011.
Edelman, Philip. "Environmental and Workplace Contamination in the Semiconductor Industry: Implications for Future Health of the Workforce and Community." Environmental Health Perspectives 86 (1990): 291-295.
Ethics of Sustainable Design
How much water do I use in a day? How much electricity do I use daily? hat other resources do I count on and consume each day, like gasoline, food, paper products, ink, and other materials? This paper is a fine way for me to begin to catalogue those materials. This introduction is presented because looking back on a 24-hour period of time and the amount of energy I use just to go about my daily activities, I am using too much electricity, too much gasoline; and this review of my intake of resources also includes what I eat, drink, and otherwise use to get through a typical day.
A 24-Hour Inventory of my Consumption
In terms of electrical usage, as a writer and editor, and I use my computer, my printer, my wireless digital router every day of the year to some degree. Typically when…
Jefferson, Millie. 2012. 15 Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint. Weekend America / Public
Radio. Retrieved September 7, 2012, from http://sustainability.publicradio.org .
Info.com. 2010. How much water does an average person use each day? Retrieved September
7, 2012, from http://topics.info.com.
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
Overall energy supply is also increased, keeping prices lower in areas of heavy usage and also decreasing costs associated with distribution over wide networks. Demand can increase without the need for an expansion of existing power plants or the creation of new points of generation and distribution.
Cogeneration has led to a definite loss of business for major utility companies, as some of their largest customers are bypassing their systems and causing profitability problems due to the low marginal costs of power production. This has led to perceived (and real) fiscal weaknesses in these companies as future profits and security become increasingly uncertain. In addition, cogeneration by businesses is generally not as efficient a means of electricity production as can be procured from utilities, and in many operations the amount of electricity needed cannot be created without a surplus of heat from cogeneration. Ultimately, however, cogeneration is a more…
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…
Kyler, D. (2013, February 4). An Honest Look at Sustainability. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.sustainablecoast.org/site/honestlook.html
Matthews, M. (n.d.). Which One is Better for the Environment: Coal or Nuclear? Retrieved
April 28, 2013, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/one-better-environment-coal-nuclear-20469.html
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
Council, E.R. (2004). Renewable Energy in Europe: Building Markets and Capacity. London: James & James.
DeWinter, F. (1990). Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press.
Herring, H., Hardcastle, R., Phillipson, R., & Energy, G.B. (1988). Energy use and energy efficiency in UK commercial and public buildings up to the year 2000. London: HMSO.
region suffering from resource shortages. The writer explores the region of Iraq and its current problems with water, food, power and other issues. The writer looks at the problems, the political and economic issues behind the problems and how the problem is affecting the society. The writer then defends the resource management decisions that are being proposed. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
In recent years the world has become painfully aware that it is running out of resources. Nations have begun to work together to preserve fuel, water, power, food and other needed sources for mankind's survival. Different regions struggle with different issues. The middle east is well-known for its water and food problems and recently Iraq has moved to the forefront of publicity because of the war, but before the war began the nation was struggling with its resource needs. Today, the problems have intensified…
Author not available, As thick as blood.(water supply in the Middle East). Vol. 337, The Economist, 12-23-1995, pp 53(3).
Author not available, U.S. BLOCKS ELECTRICITY CONTRACTS: IRAQ., Xinhua News Agency, 12-07-1999.
James Cox, Iraq's economic problems have deep, tangled roots., USA Today, 11-11-2002, pp 03B.
WAIEL FALEH, Associated Press Writer, Iraq: Food Rations Are Insufficient., AP Online, 12-23-1999.
Describe the industry and explain the general pattern of change of the particular market model.
Since the 1990s, the electric utility industry has been going through tremendous amounts of deregulation. This is because the monopolistic model made them ineffective in delivering different services. When this happened, consumers began to experience dramatic increases in the costs for their utility bills. In general, this was considered to be a naturalistic monopoly, as the government regulatory agencies could protect the interests of consumers. However, after it became clear that this approach was ineffective, is when there was a transformation in these strategies. This occurred with many governments around the world opening the marketplace to foreign competitors or selling their assets to private individuals / entities. (Griffin, 2005, pp. 39 -- 110)
Moreover, the increasing demand from consumers meant that this model was simply unsustainable. Evidence of the can be seen with…
Griffin, J. (2005). Electricity Deregulation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Grossman, P. (2003). The End of a Monopoly. Oxford: Ensliver
Kleit, A. (2007). Electric Choices. Lanham, MD: Rowen & Littlefield.
The stream of electrons passing through the external circuit generates a flow of electricity (Greer).
But, it's Geobacter's unique abilities that have allowed the reality of useful MFCs to come to fruition.
In the past, other microbes used for MFCs only converted a small percentage of the electrons available in their food into electricity. Geobacter processes electrons differently from other microbes though. Instead of transferring the electron byproducts into oxygen, Geobacter transfers their excess electrons to alternative electron acceptors, which makes them very efficient in transferring this power to the anode of an MFC.
Lovley had deemed this type of organism an "electricigen" and notes that Geobacter often converts 90% of the available electrons in their metabolic process (qtd. Greer).
In addition to this increased efficiency, Geobacter also eliminates the need for electron mediators needed when other microbes are utilized for MFCs. These artificial compounds are used to promote electron…
About Geobacter. 2008. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008 http://www.geobacter.org/.
Bacteria May Be Wiring Up the Soil." Nature. 26 Sept. 2007. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008 http://www.geobacter.org/press/2007-09-26-nature.pdf.
Davis, R. "Little Geobacter Still Sparks Discoveries After 20 Years." The Greenfield Reorder. 15 June 2007. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008. http://www.geobacter.org/press/2007-06-15-greenfieldrecorder.pdf.
Green Energy." Time. 30 Aug 2007. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008. http://www.geobacter.org/press/2007-08-30-time.pdf.
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…
Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]
Available at: http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/new-metrics/bt-climate-stabilization-economic-prosperity [Accessed 30 March 2014].
BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalservices.bt.com/uk/en/products/bttrace [Accessed 30 March 2014].
Art & Technology
Comparing the Social and Cultural Impact of the Introduction of Electricity in Paris to the Impact of the Internet
Paris, The City of Light, was transformed through the advent of electricity, resulting in social and cultural impacts comparable to the modern influence of the internet. Electric lighting changed perceptions of the night and social interactions. Electricity significantly increased light levels compared to gaslight, chasing away real and metaphorical darkness. Lighting increased visibility, facilitating increased social use of the night, as more people visited theatres, exhibitions, cafes, and nightclubs. Schivelbusch (1988) noted that the darkness still remained; less savory activities continued in dark alleyways were gaslight remained.
The "Electric Paris" exhibition reflects the emerging nightlife culture. Examples of the emerging culture were seen with works such as Tissot's "The Ladies of Chariots," showing a large event at the Hippodrome de l'Alma, Steinlen's lithograph "The Shop Window" shows the…
Electric Paris, (2013), accessed at http://clarkart.edu/exhibitions/electricparis/content/exhibition.cfm
Schivelbusch, Wolfgang, Davies A (trans.), (1988), Disenchanted Night, The Industrialization of Light in the Nineteenth Century, University of California Press
In the GEOMA methodology, carbon dioxide displaces methane within the water lattice which reforms into a more stable state than was present with the methane. While this new technology is still in development, it is very promising (Traufetter, 2007). ecent advances by researchers from Japan, China, India, Canada, Australia, and the United States could result in commercial exploitation of Methane gas within the decade.
Natural gas recovery techniques have come a long way since that first primitive well in Fredonia. Now, a complex and sophisticated process brings natural gas from the field to your home. Exploration for new sources of natural gas has become a highly evolved science. Geologists study the physical structure of a potential site. The scientists can use seismology and magnetometers to develop three dimensional models of the earth using computer programs designed for that purpose. These models allow the geologists to narrow down specific areas that…
New home construction in the community also alters water usage issues. Bob Wilbert is the head of maintenance of the facility and oversees all internal and subcontracted maintenance and upkeep of the grounds and facilities.
The administrative structure of the facility includes:
Successful criteria employment
General Manger oversees all staff, including temporary and permanent employees in catering and facilities management
Controller facilitates all accounting and financial needs and maintains records.
The facility does not offer a box office or ticketing, but reservations for golf and tennis are suggested. The facility has 550 golf members and over 1000 sport and social members. So use of the tennis and golf facilities are in high demand. The golf shop schedules tee times every 10 minutes and the tennis facility has 30 minute to 3 hours reservations for tennis courts. Availability for walk in is always a possibility but does not take priority over…
Red Rock Country Club Website www.redrockcountryclub.com
Sunrise Company Website at http://www.sunriseco.com/
Summerlin Community Website at http://www.summerlin.com/home.html
University of LV Libraries Website at http://www.library.unlv.edu/arch/aia/awa2003/b03016.html
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…
Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution
The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf
Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
Community's Source of Energy
An Examination of Energy Sources in the Willows Community of Gilbert, Arizona
The community of Willows is located in the city of Gilbert, Arizona. It is an HOA community of single family homes, with a number of amenities included. As with any community, it has power usage needs that have to be considered. Before the community was built, the issue of how to get power to the area and how much power might be used by the residents there was considered. Then, the community was built and the houses were sold. That raised the amount of power that was needed in Gilbert, which is a growing city with a strong population base and many things for residents to enjoy. The power needs of any community are important, because residents want to be assured that they have enough of what they need to power their homes (Aitken,…
Aitken, D.W. (2010). Transitioning to a renewable energy future. NY: International Solar Energy Society.
Lovins, A. (2011). Reinventing fire: Bold business solutions for the new energy era. NY: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Makower, J, Pernick, R., & Wilder, C. (2009). Clean Energy Trends. NY: Clean Edge.
Renewable energy. (2014). SRP. Retrieved from http://www.srpnet.com/environment/renewable.aspx
Not everyone is of a like mind when it comes to the potential benefits of magnetic levitation technologies, though. While research into maglev train technologies has been underway in the United States since the mid-1960s following the passage of the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965, but much of the interest was limited to paper studies based on the perceived constraints involved in deploying maglev technologies (Uher, 1999). Based on the successes enjoyed by other countries, most notably Germany and China, maglev technologies for the nation's train system received some new support during the late 1990s. For example, Macdonald points out that, "In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, a $218 billion blueprint for America's transit systems, highways and bridges. It included $60 million from the Highway Trust Fund for the Magnetic Levitation Transportation Technology Deployment Program, and the possibility of…
At least 15 die as maglev crashes. (2006, September 23). The Birmingham Post, 8.
Baard, M. (2006, April/May). Working on the railroad. Plenty, 26-27.
Banutu-Gomez, M. (2007). Production and trade factors between China and U.S.. Journal of Global Business Issues, 1(1), 81-82.
Cavendish, M. (2003). How it works: Science and technology. New York: Marshall Cavendish.
Both these techniques have an inverse relationship with each other. If the Government chooses to make its operations more efficient, it will be able to utilize the same level of capacity efficiently and increase the level of production. On the other hand, it can make more investments to increase the capacity so that the current and projected demand can be met effectively (Landskroner 2001).
The best way to manage the demand and capacity is to get the maximum output from the minimum amount of inputs. But if the Government increases the capacity and does not bring efficiency in its operations, a significant portion of its available capacity will go in vein. Similarly, if it wants to control the level of demand in the market, it will have to introduce new alternative products for the consumers so that they switch to those products. However, this step requires a considerable time and…
Connolly, S., & Munro a., 1999, Economics of the Public Sector. Harlow: Pearson Education
Graham, L., 2008, Internal controls: guidance for private, government, and nonprofit entities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Hull, M., 2012, Network Utility Economics: A Basic Text. U.K: John Wiley
Landskroner, R.A., 2001, the nonprofit manager's resource directory. 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Richard Manson and ina Kaarsberg in their article "Unleashing innovation in electricity generation" have made an earnest attempt to prove that the U.S. electric power industry has been experiencing an eminent boom. hey prove that the market is experiencing a boom of new managers and industrial developments while, on the other hand, technological advancements are entering a new sphere of extremely competent, small production, unitary control systems. However, it seems that no step has been taken at the local and government level to channelize these advances to benefit the whole economy.
he article highlights the condition of the fossil fuel industry. his industry is not subjected to the competitive nature of the markets. However, reviewing the last four decades from the 1960's one realizes that the electrical efficiency achieved by the use fossil fuel has dropped from its previous value. However, the article asserts that industrialists continue to use these…
The article highlights the condition of the fossil fuel industry. This industry is not subjected to the competitive nature of the markets. However, reviewing the last four decades from the 1960's one realizes that the electrical efficiency achieved by the use fossil fuel has dropped from its previous value. However, the article asserts that industrialists continue to use these fossil fuels and are unwilling to make use of the technological efficiencies of the electrically generated powers that produce 60% - 90% more energy when the wasted force is recovered. This ignorant behavior is leading to more fuel wastages and pollution.
The writers make an extremely strong case by showing data, statistics and figures that the power industry will only advance and spread if the restrictions on competition are lifted, if expenditures on Research and Development are increased and the risk-taking industries are allowed to restructure the power coordination alongside the stock-driven boundaries. Furthermore, the article makes it clear by excellent illustrations that no government policy or revolutionary modernization is going to help. In the end, the writers demonstrate that the effective reformation of this level may require changes in the structure of various official, rigid, and insightful obstacles but the advantages gained will be numerous too.
Article Title: Unleashing Innovation in Electricity Generation. Contributors: Tina Kaarsberg - author, Richard Munson - author. Magazine Title: Issues in Science and Technology. Volume: 14. Issue: 3. Publication Date: Spring 1998. Page Number: 51+. COPYRIGHT 1998 National Academy of Sciences; COPYRIGHT 2002 Gale Group
Strip Mining Project
Strip mining has long attracted the attention that "fracking" is now due to the proven or at least theoretical environmental impacts and issues that can or definitely arise when the practice is engaged in. Not unlike similar industries like timber, anything that destroys or alters wetlands/marshes, anything that leads to increase erosion and so forth is hotly contested and debated. Even basic things like irrigation of crops can raise a proverbial stink if the water is denied to people or states that happen to be downstream and they feel they need/deserve it so as to provide drinking water, their own crop irrigation or other environmental concerns. While strip mining, especially that which relates to energy like lignite and lithium, is here to stay and largely cannot be stopped, the real and tangible impacts it can and does have need to be taken seriously before the lignite-harvesting project…
EIA. (2014, June 23). Coal. EIA Energy Kids. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.eia.gov/KIDS/ENERGY.CFM?PAGE=COAL_HOME-BASICS
WSGS. (2014, June 23). Wyoming State Geological Survey. Wyoming State Geological
Survey. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/Research/Energy/Coal/Diagrams.aspx
WVC. (2014, June 23). 2013. Coal Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wvcoal.com/coal-facts-2013.html
Amish are a well-known religious group in America. "The Amish culture is known for simple living, reluctance to use modern technology, and a heavy emphasis on church and family relationships." (ogers, Horst, ogers, Lee, & eihart, 2013, p. 916). They are known for their beliefs and practices and their desire to live in a clean and virtuous environment. They are hard workers and discourage lives of excess and greed. A brief into their religion and beliefs helps shine light into a popularly researched and examined religious group.
Some of the aspects of culture to be briefly explained involve rules and dress. For instance, the Ordung or the list of oral or written rules outlines the fundamentals of Amish religion, helping to define how to live and be Amish. The Ordung can and does dictate every facet of an Amish person's life. This can include hair length, beard length for males,…
Howley, A., Howlet, C., Burgess, L., & Pusateri, D. (2008). Social Class, Amish Culture, and an Egalitarian Ethos: Case Study from a Rural School Serving Amish Children. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 23(3), 1.
Rogers, A.B., Horst, M., Rogers, F., Lee, J., & Reihart, M. (2013). From the barn to the operating room and back: The Amish way of life leads to improved throughput and outcomes following trauma. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 75(5), 916.
Thompson, W.E. (1984). OLD ORDER AMISH IN OKLAHOMA & KANSAS: RURAL TRADITION IN URBAN SOCIETY. FREE INQUIRY IN CREATIVE SOCIOLOGY, 12(1), 40.
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
The pizza sizes are 10 inches which is an individual, 12 inches which is a small, 14 inches which is a medium, 16 inches which is a large, 18 inches which is a super, and a 20-inch pizza which is a family size. The family size pizza gets about 37% of all the sales which are $400,000, the 16-inch large comes in second accounting for 20% of pizza revenues, the 10-inch accounts for 18% and the 12-inch accounts for 15% (due to a large weekday lunch crowd) the 18-inch pizza accounts for only 10% and the remaining 5% is sales of the 14-inch pizza. The 20-inch pizza price is $20.25 with just cheese and sausage and the 16-inch cheese and sausage is $16.00 a pizza. Each pizza is priced at a markup of roughly 200% as is the standard for most restaurant food. (IRS, August 2005, NP) pizza menu accounting…
Chua, Jess H., James J. Chrisman, and Pramodita Sharma. "Defining the Family Business by Behavior." Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 23.4 (1999): 19.
De Kok, Jan M.P., Lorraine M. Uhlaner, and a. Roy Thurik. "Professional HRM Practices in Family Owned-Managed Enterprises." Journal of Small Business Management 44.3 (2006): 441.
Guidry, Flora, James O. Horrigan, and Cathy Craycraft. "CVP Analysis: A New Look." Journal of Managerial Issues 10.1 (1998): 74.
Hicks, Douglas T. "Yes, ABC Is for Small Business Too." Journal of Accountancy 188.2 (1999): 41.
My energy use varied depending on the day. In general, heating oil is used, so this will increase on days that are cooler or wetter. Electrical reflects appliance usage for the most part. There is a baseline of electrical usage for things like lights, coffee maker and other daily essentials. Electricity usage spikes on laundry day in particular. There is a small solar component to the heating, providing heat for a couple of rooms. Auto gas reflects car usage, which fluctuates. There is a commuting baseline for five out of seven days, and so non-commuting days can see lower gasoline usage.
The local energy company uses primarily coal as its power source, but also makes use of a small percentage of nuclear power as well. The utility posts this information on its website. The different power sources are all outlined, so consumers can effectively understand the source of the…
EDF (2011). California's global warming solutions act. Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from http://www.edf.org/climate/AB32
Thomas states that she never forgets 'where she came from.' She serves on numerous community boards including the Charlotte Mecklenburg Housing Partnership and the Women's Intercultural Exchange. As a golden life member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, Thomas says that the need to be a member of something 'greater than herself' has always been an integral part of her character. She strives to better the community and to better herself through her many charitable efforts.
Thomas is testimony to the power of education and the ability to use one's natural talents for the good of others. Through education, Thomas has continually advanced in her vocational life, bolstering her credentials and framework of knowledge. She has a technical grasp of the power industry with 'people smarts' honed through personal experience and the academic study of management. She has made a passionate commitment to diversity part of her work life, through…
The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:
hy a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.
The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,
Barton, Paul. "Narrative Intrusion in Charlotte Temple: A Closet Feminist's Strategy in an American Novel." Women and Language 23.1 (2000): 26. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fudge, Keith. "Sisterhood Born from Seduction: Susanna Rowson's Charlotte Temple, and Stephen Crane's Maggie Johnson." Journal of American Culture 19.1 (1996): 43+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Greeson, Jennifer Rae. "'Ruse It Well": Reading, Power, and the Seduction Plot in the Curse of Caste." African-American Review 40.4 (2006): 769+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today
Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:
The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial evolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. ailroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)
Development in natural science spearheaded…
Chandrinos, K.V; Trahanias, P.E. (n. d.) "Beyond HTML: Web-based Information Systems"
Institute of Computer Science, Retrieved 15 March 2012 from http://www.ercim.eu/publication/ws-proceedings/DELOS6/chandrinos.pdf
Davenport, Thomas H; Short, James E. (1990) "The new industrial engineering information technology and business process redesign" Center for Information Systems Research. CISR WP No. 213, Sloan WP No. 3190-90.
EEA. (2010) "SOER 2010 -- Assessment of global megatrends"
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Henry Holt: New York
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,
Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
Latin America is as such seeking to decrease its interregional dependence and develop more relationships with the better developed economies of the globe. It nevertheless remains sensitive to the international economic crisis and the debt crisis in the Euro-zone (Inter-American Development Bank, 2011).
As it has been previously mentioned, the Latin American countries are characterized by specific traits, which make it difficult to conduct integrated analyses. The same can be said about Mexico, where different traits are also observed. Based on these traits, Tecnologico de Menterrey has developed four specific models for regional development. The models, created based on strong theoretical background and adapted to the Mexican realities, refer to the following:
Model 1: Technology Parks for the high value employment to employ high numbers of non-research and non-scientific staffs, but specialized staffs for high-value activities
Model 2: Technology Parks for the attraction and development of business. These entities will…
(2011). Latin American registers strong export growth in 2011. Inter-American Development Bank. http://www.iadb.org/en/news/news-releases/2011-12-19/latin-american-export-growth-reaches-26-in-2011,9787.html accessed on October 1, 2012
(2011). Models of technology parks. Tecnologico de Monterrey. http://www.itesm.edu/wps/wcm/connect/ITESM/Tecnologico+de+Monterrey/English/Entrepreneurship/Technology+Parks+Network/Models+of+Technology+Parks / accessed on October 1, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- Mexico. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html accessed on October 1, 2012
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…
Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.
332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf
Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,
Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
Analysis of the Results of the California Recall Election
Although the general issues pertaining to the current California crisis, such as the hated car tax and the fear of yet another electricity crisis, no doubt affected all voters across the state, in general, Caucasians were more apt to vote to recall Governor Davis than were Black and Latino voters. This may be attributed to the fact that these, and other hot-button issues of recent date, negatively impacted whites in such a fashion that they were likely to vote for the recall. This does not mean that all Californians were not affected, but that Whites and affluent individuals in general were more likely to experience these negative issues as recent events.
Because affluent suburban whites were more apt to see such events as negatively impacting their lifestyle quite recently, these Caucasians were more apt to blame Governor Davis as…
Lahiri's interpreter maladies essay factors give marriages difficulties?
The focal point of Jhumpa Lahiri's short story, "A Temporary Matter," is a game that a married couple plays each night during a time period when they do not have any electricity in their home. The object of the game is to tell one another something that each of them had not previously known. To the reader, the game appears to be a diversion to keep the couple -- which is experiencing significant marriage difficulties -- from having to deal with awkward silences during a time in which they must endure one another's presence. However, during the course of this game the pair uncovers many of the intricacies that can complicate, and perhaps even end, marriages. A closer look at this game and the facts revealed by each of the characters (Shoba and Shukumar) indicates that the pair had different…
Lahiri, Jhumpa. "A Temporary Matter." The New York Times. 1999. Web.
Corporate Social esponsibility
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility in the Workplace and the World
Key stakeholders within the PharmaCare scenario
Stakeholders play a significant role in influencing the performance and the realization of goals and objectives of the organization. They make corporate decisions about the ways in which the organization should carry out its operations meeting the demands of the customers and the legal requirements. The stakeholders of the PharmaCare Company are varied and have varying characteristics. Among the stakeholders, include the employees, customers, investors, and the creditors of the company. The performance of the PharmaCare Company relies largely on the hard work of the employees, the managers, and the members of its board. As such, it implies that the company should provide a variety of services to its employees such as compensation packages to retain and ensure their satisfaction with their job. In addition, the company provides regular training opportunities…
Cragg, W. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Hunnicutt, S. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Kao, R.W. (2010). Sustainable economy corporate, social, and environmental responsibility. Singapore: World Scientific.
McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. (n.d.). McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.mcspotlight.org/beyond/drugs.html
PCM Strategic Management
As per strategic management principles, many companies and organizations decide to outsource some of their services because various reasons. PCM management outsourced almost all the aspects of mine design such that they can reduce and control operational costs. When some aspects are outsourced, the company offering the services will incur the costs of all the operating machines and labor used. It is cheaper for many organizations to outsource than to acquire all the tools needed, and employ qualified personnel to work on the elements. PCM management would incur more costs as compared to outsourcing. The management would need to generate electricity supply ventilation, which is very expensive to the company. Constructing the mine, environmental safety process, and extracting coal requires expensive tools that will be used in all these operations. In addition, the company will employ qualified professionals to operate in these processes and even financial management,…
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Cambridge University Press.
Hitt, M. & Hoskisson, R. (2012). Strategic management cases: competitiveness and globalization. Cengage Learning.
Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. (2013). Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage.
Stead, J.G., & Stead, W.E. (2013). Sustainable strategic management. ME Sharpe.
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
It was used by Michael Faraday in the 1800s in his experiments on electromagnetism. Other inventors improved on the battery's original design and these improvements produced telegraphs and doorbells. Napoleon onaparte was so impressed with the invention that he recommended honors for Volta, including making him a count in 1810 (CIRL, Rubin, Scratch, Corrosion Doctors).
From this first and crude battery evolved electrochemistry, electromagnetism, and modern applications of electricity (CIRL, 2011; Rubin, 2011; Scratch, 2011; Corrosion Doctors, 2011). Even the defeated principles of Galvani on animal electricity served as the initiative to the development of electrophysiology and modern biology. From Volta's name came the unit of electromotive force, called volt, while from Galvani's name was coined the galvanometer, the instrument for detecting and measuring small electric currents (CIRL, Rubin, Scratch, Corrosion Doctors).
Significance and Influence during the Industrial Revolution
It is when power is cut off that ancient means of…
CIRL. Alexander Volta Center for Integrating Research & Learning: National High
Magnetic Field Laboratory, 2011. Retrieved on February 21, 2011 from http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/prioneers/volta.html
Corrosion Doctors. Alexander Volta. Corrosion Doctors.com, 2011. Retrieved on February 21, 2011 from http://www.corrosion.doctors.org/Biographies/VoltaBio.htm
HBCI. Nature Obeys Rules, Too. Hiawatha Broadband Communications, Inc.: Hayden
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
This is mainly done by the plants using non-renewable sources of energy. The plants also differ in the competency of the amount of watts produced. Due to the extent of sources used, some plants produce enormous amounts than others. A good example is the nuclear plant at Crystal iver; it contributes to 15% watt production compared to the solar plant at Indiantown that contributes to 3% of power production.
The data collected through this research is concrete. Statistical information has been extracted from vital databases such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, SEDS Database and the Institute of Energy research. Though the information is rightfully available, it is not possible to create Florida's electric power network due to poor infrastructure on the transmission network and the availability of many plants and substations.
Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.
Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.
Federal Energy Administration (F.E.A). (1994). Inventory of Power Plants in the United States. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Institute of Energy Research. (2009). Real GDP per Capita 2008: Bureau of Economic Analysis. News Release: GDP by State.
Kirkland, K. (2007). Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Infobase Publishing.
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…
Borenstein, Severin. 2008. "The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
Production." Web. 29 March 2011.
"Clean Energy Never Looked So Good." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
"Environmental Effects of Solar Energy." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
Wind energy itself is a completely renewable source. In fact, it actually relies on solar power as its own source; "The sun's energy in interaction with the Earth's surfaces creates the winds and as long as the sun is up there, wind is a renewable energy source," (Sustainable Table 2010). Modern implication and practice have proven that generating power through wind energy can be a reliable and clean source of providing practical uses of power. esidential and commercials cities have been provided with much power coming from the windy plains of America's greatest desserts. It is a growing strategy for alternative energy solutions, and "Today, wind energy is captured by wind turbines and used to generate electricity," (West 2010). More and more facilities of seemingly endless white wind turbines are being built across the country. Such facilities will provide great sources for energy within the future development of the nation.…
Alternate Energy Sources. (2010). Alternate Energy Sources for a Flourishing Future. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/index.html .
Organizing America. (2010). New energy for America. Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.barackobama.com/issues/newenergy/index.php
Sustainable Table. (2010). Fossil fuel and energy use. The Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/energy/
West, Larry. (2010). Top 7 renewable energy sources. Environmental Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy.htm
Government Sanctioned Monopoly: The Electric Company: for the Public's Good or Ill?
The defined concept of a monopoly causes many students of economics to assume that any company that engages in monopolistic practices is automatically illegal, according to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of the United States. A monopoly simply stated is an economic entity that completely dominates one facet of industry or one service industry. It alone sets the price of the good or service it is selling, because it has no competition, in contrast to the perfect competition of a competitive marketplace or even the limited competition of an oligopolistic marketplace. But occasionally the United States government allows certain organizations to behave as corporate monopolies for the public good, such as electrical power.
The reason electrical power companies are one a such a market situation where monopolies are allowed, in fact encouraged (as these utility monopolies are not generated…
King, William. (2005)"Government Ownership." Drexel University. Retrieved 16 Aug 2005 at http://william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/prin/txt/Monch/mon27.html
King, William. (2005)"Natural" Monopoly," Drexel University. Retrieved 16 Aug 2005 at http://william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/prin/txt/Monch/Mon25.html
King, William "Regulation," Drexel University. Retrieved 16 Aug 2005 at http://william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/prin/txt/Monch/mon29.html
Moffat, Michael. (2005) "Economic Definition of a Natural Monopoly," About.com. Retrieved 16 Aug 2005 at http://economics.about.com/cs/economicsglossary/g/naturalmonopoly.htm
These technologies are can be separated into three main categories (Alternative Energy):
Wave Energy Converters: These systems extract the power of ocean waves and convert it into electricity. Typically, these systems use either a water column or some type of surface or just-below-surface buoy to capture the wave power. In addition to oceans, some lakes may offer sufficient wave activity to support wave energy converter technology. (Alternative Energy).
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): OTEC generates electricity through the temperature differential in warmer surface water and colder deep water. Of ocean technologies, OTEC has the most limited applicability in the United States because it requires a 40-degree temperature differential that is typically available in locations like Hawaii and other more tropical climates (Alternative Energy).
Offshore Wind: Offshore wind projects take advantage of the vast wind resources available across oceans and large water bodies. Out at sea, winds blow freely, unobstructed by…
Alternative Energy. "Renewable ocean energy: Tides, currents, waves." 23 October 2006. alternative-energy-news.info. 18 November 2009 .
AWEA. "Wind Energy Basics." 2005. American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). 18 November 2009 .
Burgermeister, J. "Germany: The World's first major renewable energy economy." 3 April 2009. Renewableenergyworld.com. 18 November 2009 .
CIA. "World Factbook: Germany." 11 November 2009. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 18 November 2009 .
Infrastructure is the foundation of a healthy economy and an equitable society. The World Bank's Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure: Privatization, Regulation, and Competition evaluates infrastructure issues in several major sectors: telecommunications, electricity, transportation, and water. Within these infrastructural areas, the report addresses topics related to privatization, state ownership, competition, and regulation. Finally, the report incorporates social and economic concerns into proposed policy reforms. Both privatization and state control of infrastructures present problems that can be addressed with wise and research-based reform.
Chapter One of the World Bank Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure focuses on network utilities. Not limited to telecommunications alone, a networking infrastructure entails all that is necessary for businesses to compete in the global marketplace. Economic development depends on the creation and maintenance of an effective, reliable, and accessible network infrastructure.
Network infrastructure is a "natural target for government intervention" and yet is "difficult to…
Enron could engage in their derivative trading strategy with no fear of government intervention because derivative trading was specifically exempted from government regulation. Due in part to a ruling by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) chairwoman, Wendy Graham, derivatives remained free of regulatory oversight. Ms. Graham, wife of Texas senator Phil Graham, made this ruling 5 weeks before resigning as chairwoman of the CFTC and joining the Enron oard of Directors in 1993.
Derivative accounting is further complicated because there is no consistent way to fairly report their value and risk in a company's financial report. In 1998 Rule No. 133, "Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" was developed by the Financial Accounting Standards oard (FAS), an independent agency that sets guidelines for corporate auditors. Rule 133 contains more than 800 pages, which further complicates its adoption and consistent interpretation by various companies. SFAS No. 133 was subsequently…
Dettmer, Jamie, and John Berlau. "Requiem for Enron: There's Enough Blame to Go around for the Collapse of the Energy Giant From Executives to Auditors to Financial Analysts to Congress." Insight on the News 7 Jan. 2002: 12+. Questia. 10 Mar. 2005 .
Folbre, Nancy. "Blowing the Whistle on Poverty Policy." Review of Social Economy 61.4 (2003): 479+. Questia. 10 Mar. 2005 .
Gup, Benton E., ed. Too Big to Fail: Policies and Practices in Government Bailouts / . Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Hartgraves, Ai L., and George J. Benston. "The Evolving Accounting Standards for Special Purpose Entities and Consolidations." Accounting Horizons 16.3 (2002): 245+..
Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned
In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Birkland, T.A. (2006). Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington,
DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bitto, A. (2007, January-February). Say what? Who? Me? Right here in the trenches?
Collaborate on what? Seeking common ground in regional all-hazards preparedness training. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(6), 28-31.