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Student Achievement at the Elementary Level
One of the most important assets of a nation is its children. We regard children as precious because they constitute our future. The way in which a nation will develop and be successful in the future is its children. Today, children are even more precious because the very survival of humanity as a whole depends on them. Whether we can survive environmental disasters like global warming and pollution depends not only upon the actions we take today, but also upon the action our children will take in the future towards cleaning up and maintaining a sustainable Earth. The ability of children to become useful and contributing global citizens in the future will depend upon our ability to educate them effectively. The most important years of a child's education occur at the elementary level. This is the formative phase, during which the future of a…
Arlington, R. (2014). The Six Ts of Effective Elementary Literacy Instruction. WETA. Retrieved from: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/96
Koeze, P.A. (2007) "Differentiated Instruction: The Effect on Student Achievement in an Elementary School" Master's These and Doctoral Dissertations. Paper 31. Retrieved from: http://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1030&context=theses
In other words, sports participation may actually discourage some children from being physically active.
Another current intervention is to reduce the amount of time that a child spends in front of a screen of some sort. Screens, whether computer screens, video game screens, or television screens all encourage children to be passive recipients of entertainment, rather than active players in a game of some sort. What is fascinating is that merely aiming to reduce screen time seems to be sufficient to help increase child health. The Stanford Student Media Awareness to educe Television (SMAT) classroom program aimed at reducing children's screen time, but did not promote a substitute physical activity for that reduced screen time (obinson, 1999). Simply reducing screen time was linked to reduced BMI, reduced body fat, and reduced waist circumference (obinson, 1999). Presumably, this positive impact of reduced screen time comes as the result of two factors.…
Ara, I., Vincente-Rodriguez, G., Jimenez-Ramirez, J., Dorado, C., Serrano-Sanchez, J.A., & Calbet, J.A. (2004). Regular participation in sports is associated with enhanced physical fitness and lower fat mass in prepubetral boys. Int. J. Obes Relat Metab Disord, 28, 1585-1593.
LaFontaine, T. (2008). Physical activity: The epidemic of obesity and overweight among youth:
trends, consequences, and interventions. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 2(1), 30-36. doi: 10.1177/1559827607309688.
Nettlefold, L., McKay, H.A., Warburton, D.E.R., McGuire, K.A., Bredin, S.S.D., & Naylor, P.J.
The administrators in charge are, in most instances, strict on students and demand for identification documents as an allowance for students to use the restroom. Students who forget their documents can rarely use the restroom.
ecommendations/action plan for improvement
Cafeteria improvement in Lacy Elementary School would help keep it calm, orderly, safe and well managed. Improvement initiatives also help address the various causes of management or behavioral problems. School administrators should undertake initiatives to transform students' behavior while in the cafeteria. All students should enter the cafeteria through the front door. This would create orderliness during breakfast. Expansion of the infrastructure in the cafeteria is important to accommodate many students in every session during lunch. Such expansion would reduce the time allocated for lunch break by half. Apparently, students taking their lunch on the second session find the tables unclean. Improving supervision of students during lunch is important to create…
Kowalski, T. (2002). Planning and Managing School Facilities. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Morecock, E., Clary, B., Barnes, R., Murray, N. & Schmitt, L. (2009). The College of William & Mary, School of Education: Training and Assistance Technical Center. Retrieved from: http://education.wm.edu/centers/ttac/resources/articles/challengebehav/bringcalmtocaf/index.php
Elementary Music School Programs
Music programs in elementary schools are sometimes viewed as discretionary. The scope of curricula seems to grow increasingly broader and deeper with each passing year, and the pressure to meet learning standards is tremendous. Instruction that does not have a direct influence on student and school performance is viewed as optional -- a nice program to have if the school can afford it and if the overall learning goals are being met. This is a naive view. The power of music programs is substantial and sometimes astonishingly transformational. Two perspectives of the benefits of music programs in elementary schools are offered here: One is conventional and addresses the connections to improved brain functioning, while the second perspective focuses on access to music by children in poverty as a mechanism for social change and inclusion.
A Continuum of Benefits
A considerable amount of research has…
18 benefits of playing music. Effective Music Teaching [Website] Retrieved http://www.effectivemusicteaching.com/articles/directors/18-benefits-of-playing-a-musical-instrument/
Alleyne, R. (2009, October 27). Playing a musical instrument makes you brainier. The Telegraph. Retrieved http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/6447588/Playing-a-musical-instrument-makes-you-brainier.html
Edwards, A. (2010, January). An inspiring and moving film exploring Venezuela's extraordinary musical revolution. Gramophone Editor's Choice. Retrieved http://www.naxos.com/reviews/reviewslist.asp?catalogueid=2056958&languageid=EN
El Sistema: Changing lives through music. (2009, February 11). 60 Minutes [Website]. Retrieved http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/04/11/60minutes/
Children during their elementary school years are just beginning to develop their basic life habits. Food preferences, health behaviors, safe practices, and enthusiasm for learning are all being integrated into the child's sense of self at this stage. Children are learning to play with others in an empathetic fashion, to take pride in meaningful academic accomplishments, and are beginning to take responsibility for their personal safety and well-being. The developmental psychologist Erik Erikson called this stage one of 'inferiority vs. industry:' "children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority" (Cherry 2013).
One of the delights of teaching this age group is that they can be an active part in designing the classroom to make it a positive environment. For example, at the beginning of the year, the teacher can brainstorm rules for the classroom…
Alber, R. (2011). Twenty tips for creating a safe learning environment. Edtopia. Retrieved from:
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). Erik Erikson's stages summary chart. Retrieved from:
For ESL students, services must be provided to allow them to further their education in English. There are several proven methods to accomplish this goal; the first is to create "buddy systems" within the school, where ESL students are able to find an older or same age student who speaks their native language. This has proven to be the best integration method to allow ESL students at the Elementary school level to begin developing the ability to integrate their native language with English. At the same time, special ESL teachers must be on hand to be able to deal with the inevitable miscommunication issues that will come up for ESL students. Finally, for students with behavioral problems, a much more delicate approach must be taken. At the elementary level, students will not voluntarily admit or seek assistance with behavioral problems, "The appearance of behavioral disorders is increasing dramatically in our…
Working with ESL and International Students. (2006, October). Retrieved January
22, 2007, from National University Web site: http://www.nu.edu/Academics/
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which special training addressing how to effectively identify the correct needs of the students, without the intrusion of personal bias, will improve the academic outcomes of elementary school students. Because this is a quantitative study, academic outcomes will be measured in terms of test scores on a standardized test designed for grades 2 through 4.
esearch Design and Procedure/Data Analysis
This study will use an experimental, quantitative post-test/pre-test design to measure student academic improvement. There will be an experimental group (Group A) and a control group (Group B). Group A will consist of 30 teachers of children grades 2-4 who have been practicing differentiated instruction for one year or less. Group B. will also consist of 30 teachers of children grades 2-4 who have been practicing differentiated instruction for one year or less. The demographic variables between these…
Benjamin, A. (2003) Differentiated instruction: A guide for elementary school teachers, Eye On Education, Inc.
Meijnen, G.W. And H. Guldemond (2002) Grouping in primary schools and reference processes, Educational Research & Evaluation, 3, 229-249
Rodriguez, A.J. & Kitchen, R.S. (2005) Preparing mathematics and science teachers for diverse classrooms: promising strategies for transformative pedagogy, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to Differentiate instruction for mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Nutrition and Cognitive Learning Among Elementary School Students -- a Proposal
Many elementary school children are at-risk for poor nutrition. While many children do have good nutritional habits because their families lack money to buy sufficient food, they are not the only group suffering from poor nutrition.
Many children, from all social and economic backgrounds, have enough food yet have diets that are high in fat, sugar, and sodium, resulting in poor nutrition. In addition, as more parents join the workforce, more and more children are solely responsible for their own nutritional habits.
These facts present an enormous risk for elementary school children in the Unites States. In addition to the physical heath issues involved with poor nutrition, research reveals that nutrition affects the cognitive learning abilities of children, as well.
This proposal for a complete research project will concentrate on the link between nutrition and cognitive learning during the…
American Dietetic Association (ADA). (1995). School-based nutrition programs and services -- Position of ADA, SNE, and ASFSA. ADA, 95:367-369.
American School Health Association (ASHA), Association for the Advancement of Health Education, and Society for Public Health Education, Inc. (1989). A Report on the Health of Youth's America. ASHA.
Bloom, Benjamin. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Cognitive domain. Longman.
Contento IR, Manning AD, Shannon B. (1992). Research perspective on school-based nutrition education. Journal of Nutritional Education: 24:247-260.
e will include studies concerning memory recall in elementary students.
Androes et al. (2000) asserts that memory recall is essential to reading comprehension in elementary students. The authors insists that reading comprehension is defined as the capacity to understand and recall the details, sequence, and meaning from written material (Androes et al. 2000; Klein 2000). Reading comprehension is a fundamental skill that is one of the critical elements of any primary-level education (Androes et al. (2000). Many researchers have argued that teaching techniques that include the fine arts should be abandoned. However, other research has suggested that the techniques aid in the improvement of memory recall and reading comprehension. In addition, a great deal of research has found a correlation between arts education and academic achievement on every level including reading comprehension (Androes et al. (2000). To further explore this correlation the authors conducted research to examine the impact of…
Amrhein P.C., Bond J.K., Hamilton D.A. (1999)
Locus of control and the age difference in free recall from episodic memory Journal of General Psychology, Retrieved July 16 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_2_126/ai_55084248
Anderson, J.R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Androes, K., Rose, D.S., Parks, M., & Mcmahon, S.D. (2000). Imagery-Based Learning: Improving Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension with Drama Techniques. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 55..
The Court then obliged schools to take steps to overcome language barriers in order to give all children equal access to the curriculum. This was endorsed by the Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974.
None of the implemented laws require a specific methodology for instruction in schools, but civil rights laws do require that all children receive equal opportunities. pecifically, this requirement is enforced by the further requirements of theoretically sound research-based programs, resources to implement the programs, and standards and procedures for evaluating the program as well as changes to ensure effectiveness. Current initiatives to eliminate bilingual education are thus unconstitutional by all definitions of the American ideal and civil rights.
Legislation Regarding Bilingual Education
As seen above, several legislative acts have been implemented in order to ensure the constitutional administration of bilingual education in the United tates. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 for example was the first…
Education Week. "Three Types of Effective Bilingual Education." Region VII Comprehensive Center, 2004. http://www.helpforschools.com/ELLKBase/tips/ThreeTypesofBilingualEducation.shtml
Genesee, Frend. "Bilingual Education Programs: A Cross-National Perspective." In Journal of Social Issues, Winter 1999. Database: Findarticles.com
Gillingham, Ashley H. " Second Language Learners in the Northfield Elementary Schools." St. Olaf College, 15 May 2002. http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/sociology/OtherLinks/373final_papers_2002/second_language.html
Granted, she was fortunate that Goldenberg is a noted school change advocate and author. However, if he had not been at the school, she may have been able to find someone else well versed in reform. The important element is collaboration with others who have a knowledge base.
The other important aspect of this article was the example of how the teachers were involved and the results that came from this change. Based on the increased scores of the students, it is easily recognized that there was a fundamental change in the teachers' instruction. Lastly, this article showed that not all changes end in "happy ever after" results. Unfortunately, the changes were not continued from one generation of teachers to the next.
There are a few elements that are missing in this article. The first is what happened to Sullivan and her involvement with this school change. Did she leave,…
Tinsley, R. (2006) Successful School Change. Catholic Education 10(1), 115-117
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database:
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
His intention is to use an experimental approach by using statistical tools to quantify and assess program effectiveness by comparing school effectiveness ratings before implementation of the program with schools effectiveness ratings following the implementation of the program.
5. Is there anything in the procedures for collecting the information or in the instruments themselves that could bias the results or weaken the study?
The author does not describe the source of his schools merely stating the inclusive and exclusive criteria that they satisfied. The schools, all in Milwaukee, had to satisfy three main criteria: firstly that the program under study was introduced during a period when rating were available, secondly, that the number of schools introducing the program must be sufficient for statistical results, and thirdly, that there should be sufficient and adequate comparison groups. His research seems immune to bias.
The author does, however, mention the possibility of bias…
Thompson, B. (2006). Evaluating Three Programs Using a School Effectiveness Model: Direct Instruction, Target Teach, and Class Size Reduction, Third Education Group Review, 2, 1-10.
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of…
Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.
Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
Jenkins, P.H.(1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 34 No. 3, 337-367.
May, D.C. (September 1999). Scared kids, unattached kids, or peer pressure: Why do students carry firearms to school? Youth & Society, Vol. 31 No. 1, 100-127.
eluctance of Parents to Visit the School
ole of Parents in Children's Education
Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…
Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.
Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.
Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
Such an approach may be effective in the classroom or in situations in which there are clearly defined outcomes (which are usually polarized). But true life does not function in such a neatly stratified way. There are always proverbial gray areas, as well as aspects of a choice or a decision that do not neatly align with a determined objective.
I believe that my curriculum could have better taught me to deal with life by emphasizing a more collaborative approach. I believe that people are one of the greatest resources on the planet, yet collaboration was rarely utilized in my educational experience. I believe the sort of collaboration in which everyone are equals (without the authority figure of a teacher or a manager) is the most beneficial for real life experiences -- especially with group projects (Markham, 2013) -- because that effectively prepares individuals for networking and exploring various aspects…
Lane, J. (2007). "Inquiry-based learning." Penn State. Retrieved from http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/IBL.pdf
Markham, T. (2013). "The challenges and realities of inquiry-based learning." Mind/Shift. Retrieved from http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2013/07/the-challenges-and-realities-of-inquiry-based-learning/
Security Options and High Performance
As McCrie notes, “the training of employees and the development of their skills and careers is a critical and time-consuming activity within security operations.”[footnoteRef:2] For an organization like a public elementary school, employees are more than likely already stretched to the max in terms of time and ability: their primary focus is on teaching and assessing student achievement. Other stakeholders—i.e., parents—will nonetheless be concerned about safety, as Stowell points out.[footnoteRef:3] To keep stakeholders happy, managers and employees have to find ways to satisfy concerns about security—on top of doing their full-time jobs of administering and educating. That can be daunting, but to help there are security solutions that the Digital Age has helped bring into existence—tools like SIELOX CLASS, which allow teachers to communicate with administrators, access campus cameras, alert authorities, trigger a lockdown, and keep students safe by responding quickly to a potentially…
Teaching at the university level and at the grade school level can be vastly different. Institutional differences account for the largest part of the disparities between these ostensibly similar careers, but methodological differences also exist. Teaching is considered the primary focus of the grade school teacher's career, whereas university professors are often academic scholars rather than educators and teaching for such people is far less important than academic research.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, one in four Americans are enrolled in educational institutions. Education is the largest industry in the country, accounting for nearly 12 million jobs. Most of these people teach at the grade school level. Teaching is considered a trade rather than a profession: teachers are usually unionized. Teaching positions constitute almost half of all educational services jobs and require at least a bachelor's degree. Most school districts give their employees incentives to pursue further education;…
Howard Gardner; Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 77, 1995 help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific academic subject, such as English, mathematics, or history, or a vocational area, such as automobile mechanics, business education, or computer repair. Some supervise extracurricular activities after school and help students deal with academic problems and choose courses, colleges, and careers.
Special education teachers work with students - from toddlers to those in their early 20s - who have a variety of learning and physical disabilities. Most special education teachers are found at the elementary school level. Using the general education curriculum, special education teachers modify instruction to meet a student's special needs. They also help special education students develop emotionally, be comfortable in social situations, and be aware of socially acceptable behavior.
Postsecondary teachers, or faculty as they are usually called, generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They teach and advise college students and perform a significant part of our Nation's research. They also consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. They prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments; grade exams and papers; and advise and work with students individually. Postsecondary teachers keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues and businesses, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field, often publishing their findings in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media..
Chicago's School Systems
"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…
You have these, I don't.
My favorite years in school were when I was too young to realize that I was actually in school: the early elementary years. hen my teachers treated me as if I were special, when art, music, physical education, and reading were all wrapped up in the same class in the same day: those were the days that school was most enjoyable. In early elementary schools, teachers employ the perfect combination of teaching styles. Students learn the basics: the three Rs. Art and music are also integral to the curriculum, and students socialize in innocent ways. Physical education was fun: competitive without being cutthroat. Similarly, our academic tests were competitive but not high-pressure. During this phase of learning, teachers seemed more enthusiastic about their jobs than they did when we were older.
Images of schooling vary from fun and games to the exact opposite: detention halls and uncomfortable situations. I…
Department for Education and Skills. (2005). Online at .
United States Department of Education. 2005. Online at .
The students will test you during these first few days. Without steadfast rules and well outlined disciplinary procedures, the students will not respect you.
In order to create a positive atmosphere of expectations, procedures and routines, it is also important to clearly outline to the class what is expected of them. However, in order to empower the classroom students, one beneficial strategy is to allow the students to help develop the classroom rules, procedures and expectations. y bringing the group together and making the classroom environment one in which they assisted in creating, the students will be more likely to both respect it and work with it.
Although there are numerous steps a teacher must take to create a successful learning environment in a full-inclusion classroom, taking firm and clear actions the first days of school are the most important. The purpose is to let the students know what the…
Gore, M.C. (2003): Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers: Keys to Help Struggling Learners Access the Curriculum. SAGE Publications.
Hardmand, Michael L. (2007): Human Exceptionality: School, Community and Family. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Male, Mary. (2002): Technology for Inclusion: Meeting the Special Needs of All Students. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Nowicki, Stephen and Marshall P. Duke. (1992): Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit in. Peachtree Publishers.
principal of the school has the most power at any given time. Ahead of the principal is the superintendent, but since that authority figure is not a constant presence in the school, the superintendent does not count. Because the principal was assigned the job due to experience (both formally and informally) the principal assumes the position of power legitimate power. Legitimate power imbibes the authority figure with the ability to make demands of an expect obedience from others within the workplace. Although the school gives the principal legitimate authority, the principal also has expert power.
Expert power means the person has the capabilities and knowledge to outperform others. A person must be highly qualified in order to attain the position of principal. Although the principal is not a celebrity, the principal also demonstrates referent power. This is because the majority of the staff and students in the school admire and…
Kirst-Ashman, K. (2011). Human behavior in the macro social environment. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole.
Roloff, M. (2012). Communication Yearbook 22 (p. 22). Routledge.
SCHOOL ADVISORY PROGRAMS: Annotated Bibliography
Van Ryzin, M. (2010). Secondary school advisors as mentors and secondary attachment figures. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), 131-154.
his study assessed if students in two tiny secondary schools would actually nominate their advisor as part of their attachment hierarchy. he forty percent which nominated their advisor to be a secondary figure of attachment testified even more involvement in school and showed better gains in terms of adjustment and achievement in than those that did not. In accordance to the author, this particular finding could help in the development and refining of new theories regarding the factors which contribute to the success of mentoring relationships, together with the processes that aid in the growth and development of these relationships.
Johnson, B. (2013.) Linchpins or lost time: Creating effective advisories. Horace, 25 (2-3)
his study tested the theory that secondary school advisories are somewhat insidious around…
This article investigates the effect of a universal social-emotional program of learning, the Fast Track PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) program and teacher consultation, incorporated within the Fast Track selective prevention model. Measures examined educator and peer reports of violence, hyperactive-disruptive conducts, as well as social skills. Starting in the first grade and all through three consecutive years, teachers acquired training and support, and incorporated the PATHS program in their classrooms. The study investigated the major impacts of intervention and ways in which the child's traits and the environment in the school influenced results. The study concluded that properly-implemented multiyear social-emotional programs of learning could actually have important preventive impacts on the population-level aggression rates, social competency, as well as academic involvement in the elementary school years.
10. Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D. & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev. 82(1): 405-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x.
This particular article presents results from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, worldwide social and economic learning (SEL) programs entailing 270,034 kindergartens through high school learners. In comparison to controls, social and economic learning participants illustrated considerably better social and emotional skills, outlooks, manners, as well as academic performance which reflected an eleven percent point gain in success. School teaching personnel successfully carried out SEL programs. The utilization of four suggested practices for developing skills together with the presence of execution issues moderated the outcomes of the program. The findings of this study actually add to the growing experimental evidence-based outcome on the positive impact of social and emotional learning programs. Teachers, policy makers, and the general public are capable of contributing to healthy development of kids by encouraging the integration of evidence-based social and economic learning (SEL) programming into the standard educational practice.
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.
The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…
Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760
Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10
Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press
Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293
Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.
CHANGES in EDUCATION…
Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:
Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611
Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.
Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.
Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.
This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…
Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).
Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).
Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).
Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…
California State Board of Education Policy #89-01. (2010). California State Board of Education.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ms/po/policy89-01-sep1994.asp .
Contract for excellence. (2009, December 31). New York State Education Department. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/10013.html .
Cowart, C. (2009). The Louisiana awakening: Church as portal for the emergence of a sustainable social reality. Anglican Theological Review, 91(4), 607-609.
High-Quality Elementary Education
hat ingredients go into a high quality education for elementary school children -- and what does the literature reveal? hat has been the impact of "No Child Left Behind" in terms of achieving that seemingly unachievable goal? These and other issues are covered in this paper.
Improving Elementary School Quality: Social-Emotional / Character Development
A research study in the peer-reviewed Journal of School Health reveals that a school-wide program involving a "social-emotional and character development education program" can "significantly improve" the quality of the education experience for elementary school children (Snyder, 2012, 11). The program, called "Positive Action," was conducted involving 20 elementary schools in Hawaii -- racially and ethnically diverse schools -- between the 2002-2003 school years and 2005-2006 school years.
In brief, the six-unit Positive Action (PA) program utilized in Hawaii involved 140 sessions -- lasting 15 to 20 minutes each -- per elementary grade…
Berk, L.B. (2013). Development Through the Lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Snyder, F.J., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I.J., and Flay, B.R. (2012). Improving
Elementary School Quality through the Use of a Social-Emotional and Character
Details are provided in the primary accounts from men's experiences teaching as elementary school teachers- details that help answer the challenge at hand facing public perception and gender bias in the school system. Coulter and McNay, of the University of Western Ontario, help tease out the intimate details of "various issues these men confronted as they attempted to create for themselves in a work world traditional thought more suited for women" (Coulter and McNay, 1993). Through these male's personal accounts, as supplied in a primary source in the article, the "assumptions and stereotypes" about men are brought to the surface and discussed (Coulter and McNay, 1993). The individual nuances that these teachers discuss helps shed light on the problems at hand and how to overcome these gender stereotypes and public perception of who should be an elementary or primary school teacher.
Finally, given the definition and issues surrounding masculinity and…
Coulter, Rebecca P., & McNay, Margaret. (1993). Exploring men's experiences as elementary school teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 18(4), 398-412.
Mills, Martin, Martino, Wayne, & Lingard, Bob. (2004). Attracting, recruiting, and retaining male teachers: policy issues in the male teacher debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(3), 355-369.
Montecinos, Carmen, & Nielsen, Lynn. (2004). Male elementary preservice teachers' gendering of teaching. Multicultural Perspective, 6(2), 3-9.
Skelton, Christine. (2003). Male primary teachers and perception of masculinity. Educational Review, 55(2).
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…
The initial conflict at Lakeside was due to the high suspension rate, and after six years in the principal's chair, Mr. Downey apparently was not competent to rectify the situation. Downey had been in the district 40 years and that is too long for an administrator to be up-to-date with schools, kids, and social dynamics that surround public schools. Hence, one could pin blame on the district for not replacing Mr. Downey earlier with a younger, more energetic, more contemporarily adroit individual. Bottom line: the district was responsible for the conflict.
"Deprivation" is, according to Merriam-Webster, the "state of being deprived," and a "removal from an office, dignity, or benefice." In the case of the existing faculty at Lakeside Elementary, they were certainly deprived of their dignity when Principal Early marched in with high-heeled shoes and began to criticize them. This was an outrageous violation of decorum and…
These characteristics will ensure the validity of the subjects' inclusion in the study (Johnson & Christensen 2010; Smeyers & Depaepe 2010).
Instrumentation and Materials
The materials use required for conducting this research and analyzing the raw data collected will be minimal. A standard computer with sufficient and readily available statistical software (such as the standard SPSS) will be sufficient for both data storage and analysis, and even for much of the data collection, it is assumed. Depending on the accessibility of student and teacher records once proper authorization from all relevant parties has been obtained, it might be possible to conduct the majority of the research from this single computer.
An instrument to quantify the data contained in teacher and student performance reports may or may not be necessary, depending on the specifics of the school's record keeping statistics and overall system. If quantified information that reflects the specific performance…
Kaufhold, J. (2007). Basic Statistics for Educational Research. New York: iUniverse.
Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2010). Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Smeyers, P. & Depaepe, M. (2009). Educational Research: Proofs, Arguments, and Other Reasonings. New York: Springer.
Wallen, N. & Fraenkel, J. (2001). Educational Research: A Guide to the Process. Mahwah, NJ: Psychology Press.
Internet and K-12 Schools
The history and effects of internet
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
History of the Internet in K-12 Schools
Interactive Websites and Games as Computer-Aided Instruction
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
Creating and sustaining a literate nation capable of democracy, self-government and continuous improvement of quality of life has been a dominant and critical aspect of public education throughout America's history (Ferguson & Huebner, 1996). The amount of information available to students has grown exponentially in recent years. The Internet is a broad and vast territory of information that many children are not equipped to navigate. Now more than ever students need the skills to wade through the waters of information. The current essay is aimed at exploring the history and…
Chapman, C. (2009). The history of the Internet in a nutshell. Retrieved from http://sixrevisions.com/resources/the-history-of-the-internet-in-a-nutshell/
Chapman, G. (2000). Federal support for technology in K -- 12 education. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, pp. 307 -- 343. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings_papers_on_education_policy/v2000/2000.1chapman.html
Koster, R. (2005). A theory of fun for game design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Moore, R. (2006). Cybercrime: Investigation high-technology computer crime. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Prestigious Leadership Program School
Every individual is influenced by core values that enable him or her to successfully extract meaning and significance from life. A number of my own specific achievements are directly related to attributes I have cultivated in response to the values that are important to me. These attributes are the defining points of my character and have consistently influenced my approach to and success in dealing with life itself. By nature I am analytical, disciplined and responsible, and these strengths have consistently allowed me to overcome obstacles and achieve my goals.
My ability to utilize logic and reason to analyze situations has played a significant part in my academic achievement, and allowed me to succeed in subjects in which others might necessarily not. I have always had the propensity to search for causes in relationship to determine the effects they produce. More importantly, I learned at a…
As a result, there is greater flexibility in creating individualized learning plans and isolating the contribution this specific interactive technology allows for increasing student retention and long-term learning. The bottom line is that interactive technologies such as the smart board can deliver statistically significant increases in student performance when their scores are compared before and after the introduction of scaffolding and interactive instruction (Halden, 258, 259).
At the intersection of process improvement and teaching technologies is the definition of solutions which are significantly increasing the effectiveness of teaching. The reliance on scaffolding strategies both in small groups and individually, when combined with technologies, shows significant potential to re-order the productivity of teaching elementary school students.
Butler, Kyle a., and Andrew Lumpe. "Student Use of Scaffolding Software: elationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding." Journal of Science Education and Technology 17.5 (01 Oct. 2008): 427-436. EIC. EBSCO.5 Mar. 2009
Butler, Kyle a., and Andrew Lumpe. "Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding." Journal of Science Education and Technology 17.5 (01 Oct. 2008): 427-436. ERIC. EBSCO.5 Mar. 2009
Campbell, Monica L., and Linda C. Mechling "Small Group Computer-Assisted Instruction with SMART Board Technology: An Investigation of Observational and Incidental Learning of Nontarget Information." Remedial and Special Education 30.1 (01 Jan. 2009): 47-57. ERIC. EBSCO.]. 5 Mar. 2009
Haldane, Maureen. "Interactivity and the Digital Whiteboard: Weaving the Fabric of Learning." Learning, Media and Technology 32.3 (01 Sep. 2007): 257-270. ERIC. EBSCO.5 Mar. 2009
Katherine Lawrence.. "Fostering Learning in the Networked World. " EDUCAUSE Review 43.6 (2008): 90. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest, 5 Mar. 2009
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…
I never used to like math but now it is my favorite subject since I have been going to math tutoring. Now I understand it" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1). Few words could more delightful to the ears of an elementary math school teacher. But what prompted this student's enthusiasm? The student became excited about math because of a program created by a rural school district that was seeking to raise its students' standardized test scores. The district took proactive action and created a partnership with the local university to formulate an after-school tutoring program, staffed by university volunteers from the elementary education program at the university.
Elementary children in grades 3-6 were chosen to participate who had math scores below the 30th percentile on the standardized test used by the state of Pennsylvania, the results of their Stanford 9 Achievement Tests, and classroom teachers' recommendations. The ratio of elementary students to university tutors was two students to each tutor. Sessions included individual meetings with tutors, snack time during which tutors 'previewed' upcoming math lessons, homework assistance, and games. "Each child has a folder that contains an information sheet for classroom teachers to guide tutoring with assigned homework and skill areas to be practiced. Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the resources of the local university and solicited the input of school and district administrators to create an effective program. Despite the occasional logistical and emotional problems created by the difficulties of using the same tutor for individual students from grade to grade, the program was deemed a success.
interviews with school teachers. The author interviews three teachers and presents their empirical evidence as well as researched data to outline teacher assessments, and then presents some suggestions for change based on this gathered information. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
For the purpose of this research three teachers were selected for interviews. They were selected based on the grade levels that they teach, the diversity of the students both in ability and in ethnic background and size of population.
The three teachers used for this interview included an elementary school teacher, a middle school teacher and a high school teacher. The elementary school teacher was chosen because she works with an extremely diverse group of students. Her students come from four different nations and speak many languages other than English as the first language. In addition she has several special education students in her classroom which…
Student portfolios with a purpose.
The Clearing House; November 1, 2003; Juniewicz, Kit
Examining the quality of the evidence in preservice teacher portfolios.
Journal of Teacher Education; January 1, 2003; Delandshere, Ginette Arens, Sheila A.
Some of those are as follows:
1) Affect the environment;
2) Either save or expend energy;
3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.
4) Affect student learning;
5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)
Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:
Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;
Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;
Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;
Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens…
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/
Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf
Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html
Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.
PLC'S: TEACHES, SCHOOLS, & CULTUES
PLC's Teachers, Schools, & Cultures
PLC's: Teachers, Schools, & Cultures
The PLC story that I choose for this paper is "Winning Streaks" by the principal of Washington Elementary School in Vancouver, WA. I chose this story because I appreciated the gradual change and progress that this school saw. Some of the most valuable excerpts of this story had to do with the struggles and the dedication of the teachers and staff at the school. For them, changing over to a PLC system was easy in theory and arduous in practice, yet they persisted through the change and came out, as the principal says, winning. It is also valuable that the teachers and staff saw value in the assessments, but did more than just obey and implement them blindly. They truly deconstructed the assessments from the perspective of the students as well as from…
Hunter, J. (2011) Professional Learning Communities. Available from http://johunter.pbworks.com/f/PLC.pdf . 2012 June 02.
McMillan, T.S. (2012) Winning Streaks. Available from http://www.allthingsplc.info/wordpress/?page_id=2620 . 2012 June 04.
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The study used student projects as the main vehicle for integrating active learning methods into the lecture. The study took place during a 10-week class, with four projects being assigned to groups of size four to six. Projects centered on (1) statistical tests of goodness-of-fit; (2) design of a simple experiment and analysis of variance using two factors; (3) factorial design experiment and analysis; and (4) regression analysis. In each project, there was emphasis placed on the purposefulness of the experiment, the design, and the ensuing collection of data. Each project lasted about two weeks, including around 90 minutes of in-class work used for project instruction, questions, and discussion. A primary weakness of the research was insufficient time in which to conduct classroom presentations by the students themselves concerning their projects and the learning processes that took place.
Extent to Which Findings Can Be Generalized to Student Population. While the…
Heron, Alison H. (2003). A Study of Agency: Multiple Constructions of Choice and Decision
Making in an Inquiry-Based Summer School Program for Struggling Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(7), 568.
Kvam, P.H. (2000). The Effect of Active Learning Methods on Student Retention in Engineering Statistics. The American Statistician, 54(2), 136.
Lewis, V.K. & Shaha, S.H. (Spring 2003). Maximizing learning and attitudinal gains through integrated curricula. Education, 123(3), 537.
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
Public School Funding
ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.
This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.
The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.
In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…
Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.
Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…
Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html . Accessed April 20, 2013.
Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of School Health, 78(5), 245-251.
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
Brandt (2003) offers ten ways to determine if a school indeed meets the criteria of a learning organization. The first characteristic of a learning organization is that it encourages adaptive behavior in response to differing circumstances. The second is that the learning organization has challenging, but achievable objectives and goals. The third is that members of the organization can accurately identify the organizations' stages of development (Brandt, 2003).
The learning organization can collect, process, and act upon information that fits their purposes (Brandt, 2003). Learning organizations have the knowledge base for creating new ideas. The learning organization has the ability to grow and adapt. They are dynamic and in a constant process of evolution. Learning organizations frequently exchange information with external sources (Brandt, 2003). This happens in educational workshops, in-services, and conferences.
Another feature of the learning organization is that is seeks feedback on their products and services (Brandt, 2003).…
Anderson, J. (2008). Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities. The Elementary School Journal. 109 (1): 36-60.
Beasley, E. (2008). New leadership model for business fits schools too. Statesman Journal. August 26, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008 at http://www.statesmanjournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080826/Business01/808260315/1040/Business
Berenstein, L. (2006). Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts. Department of Aviation Technologies. Southern Illinois University. 43 (2): 1- 19. Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v43n2/pdf/berentsen.pdf
Brandt, R. (2003). Is this school a learning organization? 10 ways to tell. Journal of Staff Development. Winter 2003. 24 (1). Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jsd/brandt241.cfm
Citizens identify themselves as being of the following ancestries: German -- 15%, English -- 14%, and Irish -- 13%.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2011) 85.9% of people ages 25 and over are high school graduates, and 23% of those age 25 and over are college graduates. The per capita income of residents in Kanawha County in 2009 was $24,816, and the median household income was $41,747. 14.4% of the population lives below the poverty level. 70.4 of the households are homeowners. Coal continues to be a major force in the county's economy (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011).
Kanawha County Schools (KCS) is the largest school system in West Virginia. The district serves over 28,000 students, representing the region's diverse socioeconomic mix. KCS is comprised of 44 elementary schools, 14 middle schools, eight high schools, two career and technical education centers, one adult center, and two community education centers. According…
Dilger, R.J. & Marshall, J. (2002). Kanawha County history. Retrieved from http://www.polsci.wvu.edu/wv/Kanawha/kanhistory.html
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). State & county quick facts: Kanawha County, West Virginia. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/54/54039.html
West Virginia Department of Education (2011). Counties by composition, all grades all subgroup - sorted by county school year: 2010-11. Retrieved from http://wveis.k12.wv.us/nclb/pub/enroll/e06Makeup_county.cfm?so=CNSN&grade=99&size=0&updown=1&sop=1&spcd=T&sy=11
West Virginia Department of Education (2011). West Virginia achieves: 2009-10 NCLB report card. Retrieved from http://wveis.k12.wv.us/nclb/pub/rpt0910/rptcardC/test2.cfm?sy=10&cn=039
This could hurt the ability of educators to evolve with new difficulties. At the same time, it is illustrating the benefits that this can provide inside the classroom. (Lee, 2008)
Key Elements: Select 2 key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.
Two key ideas from the article include: using technology to speak to students in a format they understand and utilizing key phrases / words during the discussion. The way these insights are connected to the research question is they provide tools and techniques for improving diversity on the middle school level. This helps these institutions to more effectively accommodate a wide variety of students from contrasting backgrounds. (Lee, 2008)
eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates Christian principles in teaching.
Lee, O. (2008). Science Curriculum and Student Diversity. The Elementary School Journal, 109 (2), 123 -- 137.
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…
Brunsma, David. "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use and Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 92 (1998) 53-63.
Clinton, William J. Text of Presidential Memo to Secretary of Education on School Uniforms Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Clinton, William J. Transcript of Presidential Radio Address to the Nation.
Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Low math scores of American elementary students has been a major issue in education for some time. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) conducted in 1995 showed the extent of the problem. The TIMMS study compared students in 42 countries, allowing American students to be compared with international students. The study rated the math ability of American students as adequate in fourth grade and poor in twelfth grade compared to other countries. This study was not the first time that concerns had been raised about American students achieving poorly in science and math. It was however, the largest and most comprehensive look at the real extent of the problem. The study made people realize the significance of the issue and resulted in the awareness of the public, the government and education and mathematics researchers. The major question that needs answering is why the low math scores occur, and…
Ma, L. Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics: Teachers' Understanding of Fundamental Mathematics in China and the United States. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
Mokros, J., Russell, S.J., and Economopoulos, K. Beyond Arithmetic: Changing Mathematics in the Elementary Classroom. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1995.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.