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Like all true religious figures, Merrick is faced with both internal and external conflict in his religious education. He for example faces the hostility of Gomm when the latter debates the merits of science vs. religion with Bishop How. Merrick is also faced with fundamental religious negativity by his mentor, Treves. Treves for example relates to Merrick a story regarding the afterlife: a patient who died and was subsequently revived told Treves that the afterlife was not spectacular at all, but rather the contrary.
Internally, Merrick shows the fundamental traits of a suffering religious figure. Throughout the play, he never protests anything that happens to him, or his suffering. He accepts it as best he can and is often both despised and adored by society as a whole. The recurring phrase, "it is done" is also indicative of Merrick in his religious capacity.
Either because or regardless of his suffering,…
Only toward the end of Merrick's life do Merrick's rescuers come to recognize that he is of normal or even superior intelligence after overhearing him reciting the 23rd Psalm. Prior to that, Merrick had not revealed that he could understand complex thought or even speak. It is likely that his utter lack of self-esteem held him back from trying to communicate with others because he assumed that nobody cared what he had to say anyway. Merrick's rescuers eventually do come to recognize that he is intelligent and articulate and they begin to treat him in a manner that is more appropriate and conducive to the development of self-esteem. In fact, Merrick becomes something of a celebrity in London society and comes to enjoy the company and appreciation of others.
After having experienced the dignity that he (and all human beings) deserved, Merrick is once again returned to his former life…
The hideous ugliness of normalcy is perhaps best demonstrated in the mob scene where Merrick is trapped in an underground station, and cries out that he is not an animal, but a human being. In truth, the so-called normal persons have been acting like a stampede rather than compassionate creatures, unlike Merrick who still retains the individualism, that is humanity's truest birthright. This reversal or world upside down where the persons dehumanized with animal or medical names actually exhibit the values that make human beings distinct from animals validates the suggestion that the way that both popular and medical culture celebrates health, symmetry, and beauty is profoundly misguided.
In her essay, "From The Crooked Timber of Humanity, Beautiful Things Can Be Made," Anita Silvers makes a profound call that the standards of symmetry and wholeness be rewritten as a standard for human health in a way that is sounded like…
The Elephant Man." Directed by David Lynch. 1980.
Silvers, Anita. "From The Crooked Timber of Humanity, Beautiful Things Can Be Made." From Beauty Matters. Edited by Peg Brand. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2000.
Dovima ith Elephants
Richard Avedon's photograph "Dovima with Elephants" was taken in Paris, France during the month of August in 1955. It was a commercial piece for Harper's Bazaar to promote the work of Christian Dior. The picture was taken with trained circus elephants that are visibly shackled while the woman at the center is not, indicating the underlying social tension and low position of women during the period, although that might not have been realized at the time the photograph was taken. The model Dovima, who was born Dorothy Juba, is wearing a whit Dior evening gown and, as the title of the picture suggests, she is surrounded on both sides by large elephants. There are actually two photographs which have the same title and were taken on the same day. One has the model in a black dress. They are both culturally significant but for the sake of…
Edwards, Owen. "Fashion Faux Paw: Richard Avedon's Photograph of a Beauty and the Beasts
is Marred, He Believed by One Failing." Smithsonian Magazine, October 2005.
Pochna, Marie France. Christian Dior: the Man who Made the World Look New. Arcade, 1996.
Swartz, Mimi. "The Couture Cinderella." Vanity Faire, June 1991.
Blind Men and the Elephant
An Integrated Approach to learning
In contemporary psychology, learning is one of the key topics; however, defining it is a very complex thing. According to the general accepted definitions of learning, it is "understanding," "knowledge," or "comprehension" that is achieved with experience or practice. Due to the ill-defined terms such as mastery, comprehension, and knowledge that it contains, many psychologists would call this definition improper. ather, we choose a description of learning that refers apparent behavior changes. Gregory A. Kimble (1917-2006) suggested one of the popularly accepted definitions that describe learning as a comparatively lasting change in behavioral potentiality that happens due to reinforced practice (Kimble, as cited in Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013). Even though this meaning is well-liked, it is far from accepted across the world. Let's look at it more vigilantly before reviewing causes of disagreement over Kimble's description (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013).…
Argyris, C. And Schon, D. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Argyris, C., & Schon, D. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading Mass: Addison Wesley.
Deborah A. Stewart. (2004). Effective Teaching: A Guide for Community College Instructors. Community College of Vermont. Amer. Assn. Of Community Col Publications.
Eric Frangenheim. (2005). Reflections on Classroom Thinking Strategies. Practical Sage Publications.
He hates what he has become and what he does. He confesses that he secretly roots for the Burmese and roots against "their oppressors (335). He admits he is "stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible" (335). He is like those in oppression in that he is not free to do what he actually wants to do. His reputation is on the line and he acts to defend it. A man in his position "mustn't be frightened in front of 'natives'" (339), he writes even though he knows that in order to impress those natives, he must act of line with his conscious. He does the "right thing" (340) according to the law he did also killed the elephant "solely to avoid looking like a fool" (340). Asker asserts that wrapped within the…
Asker, David Barry. Aspects of Metamorphosis. Atlanta: Rodopi. 2001.
Kenneth Keskinen, "Shooting an Elephant.' An Essay to Teach." English Journal. 1996 GALE
Resource Database. Information Retrieved March 28, 2009.
However, when his assistance is needed by the townspeople, the two very different populations show similar responses to the bloody scene of shooting an elephant, "It was a bit of fun to them, as it would be to an English crowd; besides they wanted the meat," (Orwell, 649).
Orwell furthers this blend of modern and primitive as seen through the use of his language. The narrator describes the scene of the village as using the native terms, yet juxtaposes this with eloquent English adjectives, "It was a very poor quarter, a labyrinth of squalid bamboo huts, thatched with palmleaf, winding all over a steep hillside," (Orwell, 650). It is the description of a scene as witness from an outsider, (Rodden, 390). The narrator's response to the eastern village is combined with his own distain based on being familiar with more "civilized" representations of society. This is also apparent through the…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." Mixing the Methods.
Rodden, John. George Orwell. Transaction Publishers. 2002.
Stevens, J.P. "Shooting an Elephant: Rhetorical Analysis." Bookstove. 2008. Retrieved on October 26, 2008 at http://www.bookstove.com/Classics/Shooting-an-Elephant-Rhetorical-Analysis.72092
" For this reason, "Shooting an Elephant" is a bold political essay. Colonialism and imperialism were waning trends when the essay was written, but the author understood that the structures of political and economic power put in place by colonial governments were long lasting. From the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company to British Petroleum, the ravages of colonialism are felt at ever level of every society worldwide.
Poverty and political disenfranchisement cannot in all cases be traced directly to British or European colonialism. However, most cases do reveal some indirect or direct influence of colonialism on prevailing social, economic, and political oppression. Orwell's essay is also about the way colonialism damages not just the societies that are oppressed and ruled over, but the rulers too. He states, for instance, "my whole life, every white man's life in the East, was one long struggle not to…
Here you are trying to be like them and actually succeeding. Do you actually see a big difference between me and yourself? We are all basically the same: we are frightened creatures that are in search of a white light that never comes and we finally end up fighting to find this life in spite of the fact that we risk everything we have. The difference between me and you is that you quit searching for the white light because you think that there are more important things in life.
I do not have the authority to tell you what is right and what is wrong for you. But one thing I can tell you is that I hope that you are happy with yourself when you go to sleep at night. There are many elephants like me and there are many people like you. However, we must not follow…
Flannery O'Connor's short story "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" provides readers with ideas related to morality and to the fact that society has the tendency to put labels on things. The central characters in the story form a rather dysfunctional family, with the father being pressured by his mother to do a series of things that he doesn't want to while she appears to leave in an imaginary world. The idea of good is used to such a degree in the story that it eventually comes to lose significance. The grandmother seems to be obsessed with this respective concept and uses it to describe a series of things. Instead of actually making it possible for readers to gain a more complex understanding of the idea, she brings confusion to the topic as a result of generalizing it and using it in context where it does not necessarily apply.…
O'Connor, Flannery, "A Good Man Is Hard To Find."
Sara Gruen is a Canadian citizen, moved to United States in 1999 for a technical writing job. After she got laid off she decided to be a writer. She is an animal lover and has written famous novels Riding Lessons, Flying Changes, Ape House and Water for Elephants.
Main characters of Water for Elephants
Jacob Jankowski -- The novel's protagonist. He is a ninety or ninety-three-year-old nursing home resident who spent his life as a veterinarian in a circus during the great depression.
Rosie -- An elephant that Uncle Al bought from another circus. She understands commands only in Polish. She is the target of August's rage.
Marlena -- eautiful star performer of the circus, who fell in love with Jacob Jankowski.
August -- Head animal trainer and husband of Marlena. He is a charming and brutal both to the humans and animals.
Uncle Al -- The violent and abusive…
Guen, Sara. "Water for Elephants: a novel." 2007. Algonquin Books.
O'Connor, Anahad. "Always Follow the Elephants: More Surprising Facts and Misleading Myths about our health and the World We Live In." 2009. Macmillian.
Gruen, Sara. Web: http://saragruen.com/bio / Date accessed 15th June 2011.
He still has his pride, even if his pride does not trickle down to his work. He is anything but ambivalent about the reaction he will get from the people, and so, he must shoot the elephant to save face, rather than to "serve and protect." This illustrates his ambivalence to everything but his own reputation in front of the people. However, he discovers he has lost more than just is reputation.
Finally, the narrator comes to understand that he has essentially given up his freedom in his support of the tyrannical British government. Orwell states, "I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys" (Orwell). Thus, the narrator becomes even more ambivalent about his duties because he realizes just what he has lost in protecting his reputation, supporting the empire (at least in front of the people), and…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant."
Experience and Reaction: Different Views on the Physiology and Psychology of the Negative
There are many different explanations for the way in which thoughts are formed, impressions are made, and perceptions are shaped, and though the modern era has provided an abundance of objective observation and experimentation in the area this has not settled the issue. Far from it, in fact; if anything, the growth of reliable research and evidence in this area has contributed to a divergence of theories that, at least in some aspects, currently appear to be mutually exclusive. The theories of psychologists and neuroscientists at times seem especially opposed to each other, and it will require deeper investigations and the uncovering of more substantial evidence to truly bring many of these well-founded theories in line with each other.
An excellent case in point of the apparent divergence of psychology and neuroscience when it comes…
Louis Gerstner's book, ho Says Elephants Can't Dance, chronicles the dramatic turnaround of business giant IBM under his capable hand. hen Gerstner took over the company's reigns in 1993, it was on the brink of being sold off in parts. Through his capable and determined vision, he changed the company's culture to one that once again responded to the needs of the marketplace. In this book, Gerstner indeed demonstrates that a giant company like IBM can be rescued from the brink of extinction, and respond to the ever-changing market place, proving indeed that elephants can dance.
Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. has a long history of success both in the worlds of business and education. He received an MBA from Harvard in 1965, and a BA from Dartmouth College in 1963. After graduating from Harvard, he joined the management consulting firm of McKinsey and Co., Inc. Following his time at…
Gerstner, Louis V. 2002. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround. HarperBusiness.
IBM. Louis Gerstner: Biography. 10 December 2003. http://www.ibm.com/lvg/bio.phtml
In this case, the language, perpetrated by a few, is becoming pervasive in society, and so, it is taking over many aspects of society. However, for the most part, society seems to be resisting much of this doublespeak type of language. It is not prominent in the media, (perhaps in the government), and is seems that language, in general, is about the same as it always has been, full of slang and "fad" words, but in everyday use, doublespeak is not as common as some might thought it might be. This might make society stronger than a prevailing use of the language, but it may also mean that people like Lutz, in their zeal to remove doublespeak from the language, have actually made a difference and created more public awareness about something that needs to be changed. In this case, perhaps one person is not able to stand up against…
Lutz, William. "Doublespeak." 256-261.
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant."
E.M. Forster's the Life to Come, on the other hand, is a tale divided into four parts: Night, Evening, Day and Morning. Its main character is a young missionary by the name of Paul Pinmay who is sent to spread the word of Christ to the native people. All prior attempts to proselytise these people have failed. During his attempt he meets with the tribal chief, who approaches him to learn more about "this god whose name is Love." The two then sleep together and the tribe becomes Christian.
This leads to Pinmay being appointed by the Bishop to become the minister of the new district. The chief again asks Pinmay to sleep with him, and Pinmay orders the chief not to mention the night ever again. This causes the chief to question the new religion. Eventually this relationship dissolves and the story ends with the chief killing Pinmay.
The Bible is an interesting book when it comes to trying to explain the existence of beasts on the planet prior to the time of the making of all that is "very good," namely the shaping of Adam and Eve their role in shaping humanity's nature. Not surprisingly, some of that interest when it comes to the beasts that we know of as dinosaurs, real problems exist. Math problems exist, for example, as there seem to be many more numbers of types of such creatures than biblical translations account for. Science problems also exist, given the ways in which fossils are aged and time is documented. Medical problems exist, since the remains of the once living beings contain evidence of diseases and unhealthy biological designs, which weren't supposed to happen. And even logistical problems arise, such as whether dinosaurs could fit on the Ark.
Yet to at least…
Communion and Stewardship:: Human Persons Created in the Image of God. http://www.philvaz.com/apologetics/p80.htm (accessed October 21, 2011).
Dinosaurs, Free Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur (accessed October 20, 2011)
Dinosaurs and the Bible. Clarifying Christianity. http://www.clarifyingchristianity.com/dinos.shtml (accessed October 21, 2011).
Dinosaurs in the Bible. Genisis Park: Exhibit Hall 1. http://www.genesispark.com/genpark/bible/bible.htm (accessed October 21, 2011).
movie, quote directly paraphrase proof film. To paraphrase describe scene point making memory words .
Marginalization in The Elephant Man
David Lynch's 1980 motion picture The Elephant Man puts across an episode in nineteenth century England involving discrimination based on social class and appearance. The storyline revolves around Frederick Treves, a surgeon who had come across a curious case and who expresses particular interest in finding out more regarding it. John Merrick suffers from an intriguing medical condition and it stands as the reason for which he is harshly treated by most of the people that he interacts with. In spite of showing obvious discrepancy between social classes, the film demonstrates that lower and upper class people are united by their bizarre determination to observe and discriminate individuals displaying a visible disability.
From the very first scenes of the motion pictures viewers are presented with the difference between Treves and…
Dir. David Lynch. The Elephant Man. Paramount Pictures, 1980.
movie, quote directly paraphrase proof film. To paraphrase describe scene point making memory words .
Jack Merrick's suicide
Jack Merrick, the central character in David Lynch's "The Elephant Man," is meant to express a series of feelings, most of them related to marginalization and seclusion. Merrick's principal role in nineteenth century London was that of entertaining people by allowing them to see his physical disabilities. It is not difficult to understand society made him feel about himself, considering that mostly everyone perceived him as a freak of nature. John Hurt, the actor playing Merrick, managed to present viewers with an astonishing performance, particularly considering the fact that he had to wear a mask while acting. The general plot of the film introduces the audience with the concept of hopelessness, despite Treves' determination to prove otherwise. Merrick's suicide is an act of liberation and viewers are most likely to sympathize with…
Dir. David Lynch. The Invisible Man. Paramount Pictures, 1980.
The disease commonly known as "Elephantitis" is actually scientifically termed Elephantiasis. It is a disease of the skin that is caused by a number of crucial factors which, when working in conjunction with one another, cause human tissue to thicken and swell. This paper will examine Elephantiasis, provide a background of the disease, and describe current methods of treatment.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Elephantiasis cannot occur without the help of a small parasite, which may be passed into the blood stream through contact with mosquito carriers. Such parasites which assist in the onset of Elephantiasis are B. timori, uchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi ("Lymphatic Filariasis"). Yet, while these parasites help in the onset of the disease, they are not the sole cause. On the contrary, Elephantiasis requires a number of factors before it can actually develop. First, it requires the introduction of the parasite…
Hajdu, Steven. "A Note from History: Elephantiasis." Annals of Clinical & Laboratory
Science, vol. 32, no. 2 (2002): 207-209. Web.
"Lymphatic Filariasis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Web. 6
June 2013. < http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lymphaticfilariasis/index.html >
"She relaxed limply in the seat. "Oh, no. No. I don't want to go. I'm sure I don't." Her face was turned away from him. "It will be enough if we can have wine. It will be plenty." She turned up her coat collar so he could not see that she was crying weakly -- like an old woman" (Steinbeck).
There are a number of fairly eminent points to be made about this quotation -- the first of which is that Allen's husband has taken her away from her source of power -- her garden. Away from that source, she is described by imagery that is rather enervating and in opposition to the vivacity she previously personified. The imagery of her sitting "limply" and weeping "weakly" is strongly contrasted with the images of her cutting through plants and powerfully gripping handfuls of earth -- which symbolizes the source of her…
Budnichuk, Monica. "The Chrysanthemums: Exposing Sexual Tension Through Setting And Character." Universal Journal. No date. Web. http://ayjw.org/print_articles.php?id=647033
Hemingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants." Men Without Women. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1927. Online reprint. Scribd.com, 2011. Web.
Hashmi, Nilofer. "Hills Like White Elephants": The Jilting of Jig." The Hemingway Review. (2003): 72-83. Print.
Hunt, D. "Steinbeck's Allegory of the Cave: Deconstructing Elisa Allen in "The Chrysanthemums." Universal Journal. No date. Web. http://www.ayjw.org/articles.php?id=582962
Hughes and Orwell
hen looking for similarities between authors, it is not immediately brought to mind to look at Langston Hughes and George Orwell. The former was a major writer during the Harlem Renaissance. Most of his work focused on explorations of the black experience in the United States and how African-Americans were mistreated by the white majority. Orwell was an English writer and most of his writing dealt with social commentary on the dangers of fascism and totalitarian governments. However, in two works by these very different men, a parallel can be viewed. Langston Hughes' "Salvation" and George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" both deal with a first-person narrator who is forced by those around him into becoming an outsider, someone outside of the group opinion, and is forced to lie about his true self and his own beliefs in order to fulfill the desires of those who surround him.…
Hughes, Langston. "Salvation." 50 Essays. Ed. Samuel Cohen. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Bedford,
2011. 179-81. Print.
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." 50 Essays. Ed. Samuel Cohen. 3rd ed. Boston, MA:
Bedford, 2011. 284-91. Print.
Moreover, the girl changes the subject quickly to having another beer.
While the man in the story remains utterly insensitive to his girlfriend, her state of mind is less clear. On the one hand, her self-esteem seems dreadfully low. She repeats, "I don't care about me," and she asks the man if getting the operation will make him happy. When she states, "I don't care about me," she could also mean "I care about you more," but she never says that." She utters the finishing lines of the story: "I feel fine...There's nothing wrong with me. I feel fine." Her words most likely indicate her further suppression of her anger and true feelings. However, the girl might also have come to a decision about ending their relationship. It is entirely possible that her hill-gazing has inspired her to make major changes in her life. After all, the open-ended story does…
The shots in the scene reuniting Indy and Marian are impersonal, long shots and medium shots.
The scene introducing the relationship between Indy and Marian quickly cuts in to the Nazi whose expertise is one of torture. He has come for the same thing Indy has, and the close ups are Marian's facial expression of fear as she's about to lose her eye to a red hot poker. Indy comes to the rescue and the final Nepal scene is a montage of dynamic action where Indy and Marian make their escape.
The film cuts to the Middle East, where Indy and Marian have traveled, as have the Nazis, in search of the ark. The first part of this Act II, so to speak, introduces Indy's good friend and his Middle Eastern contact. The scenes in the Act II employ a series of medium and long shots as Indy and Marion…
Legba the Voodoo Spirit in estern and African Art
Voodoo is a religious practice with followers throughout the Caribbean region, particularly in Haiti and in parts of Africa where the religion spread through the introduction of the slave trade to the continent. Those who practice Haitian voodoo are called vodouists. They believe in a polytheistic system wherein each spirit, or loa sometimes spelled lwa, is responsible for one aspect of human experience (Holmes). Human beings cultivate a personal relationship with the loa and choose one particular spirit as the guiding force of their life. This is true except for the highest gods who were too busy to deign to give their attentions to mere mortals (Deren 55). Sometimes they are even granted conversation and communication with the gods if they are fortunate enough to receive permission to do so. Those who practiced Haitian voodoo did so with an unwavering devotion…
Brewster, Robert. "Papa Legba, Head of the Gods in Voodoo." Yahoo. Yahoo! Inc., 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. .
Davies, Carole Elizabeth. Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
Deren, Maya. Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti. New Paltz, NY: McPherson, 1983.
"The monkey's larynx, while quite distinct from that of the human being, is not as much so as that of parrots, which clearly can speak. As to their brains, the comparison with that of the latter banishes all doubts." As the narrator tries to teach the title ape to speak, he swears that Yzur takes on a more contemplative expression. The narrator compares the ape to "ancient men of the forest, who were forced into silence and submission" as well as the mentally deficient. But because the monkey is not fully human and does not speak like him, the man sees him as inferior and ultimately drives the monkey man.
The tendency to see 'the other' as inferior is manifest in prejudice against native people as well as animals. esnick's allegorical story shows how human violence and prejudice is an endless cycle. The relationship between humans and animals is more…
Lugones, Leopoldo. (2007). Yzur. ERBZine. 1869. Retrieved December 13, 2010 at http://www.erbzine.com/mag18/yzur.htm
Naess, Arne & George Sessions. (2010). Deep Ecology Platform. Foundation for Deep Ecology.
Retrieved December 13, 2010 at http://www.deepecology.org/platform.htm
Resnick, Mike. (2001). The Elephants on Neptune. Asimov's Science Fiction.
Here the man also implicitly suggests that perhaps he has not always just been out for himself or for a good time and that he instead has learned from life itself that it is a mistake to accept an unwanted "white elephants" into one's life. Next when they order two more drinks (Anis del Toro with water this time) the woman notices how "Everything tastes of liquorice [sic] [bittersweet]. Especially all the things you've waited so long for . . ." (Hemingway, "Hills Like hite Elephants") meaning that she herself has longed for this pregnancy, but that the pregnancy also now has a disappointing, not-quite-sweet aspect to it.
A short while later, the man next says, still trying to convince the woman of his own logic for [from his perspective] both their sakes: "That's the only thing that bothers us. it's the only thing that's made us unhappy." But…
Hemingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants." Plato. 4 December 2007.
The elephant's death is also a symbol for the slow death of Burma. Before the arrival of the empire, Burma was free but now it struggles for its last dying breaths under British rule. The meaning of this is clear because the narrator doesn't even try to hide his feelings about the monarchy at all. The British crown is abusing and killing everyone it oppresses and it wounds their officers by making them take part in activities that make all of them go totally against their inner will.
The elephant is the most powerful symbol of all and he finally dies but with alot of agony nor is it guilty of anything but being what it is. Those under British rule are also behaving like they really are and being what they were born to be but the power of the empire is forcing them to bend and behave in…
male/female perspective on the issue of abortion as it appears in Ernest Hemingway's most subtle short story, 'Hills like white elephants'. The author has made use of symbolism to highlight the problems experienced by most married couples due to lack of proper communication. Hemingway chose this topic because he believed in this interesting iceberg theory which has been explained in the concluding part of this paper.
HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS: MALE/FEMALE PESPECTIVE ON ABOTION
The theme of abortion is predominant in the story titled, "Hills like white elephants." The author, Ernest Hemingway, however has not mentioned the actual word 'abortion' throughout the entire short story but instead has used symbols and vague dialogues to convey his message to the readers. The reason why Hemingway probably refrained from using the actual term was because he firmly believed in using dialogues and language, which required deeper study. The author wanted the readers…
Jeffrey Meyers, Hemingway A Biography, Harper Row Publishers, 1985 pp196 197
Sheldon Grebstein, Hemingway's Craft Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973
Ernest Hemingway, Hills like White Elephants, 1927
Lamb, Robert Paul, Hemingway and the creation of twentieth-century dialogue. (American author Ernest Hemingway). Vol. 42, Twentieth Century Literature, 12-22-1996, pp. 453(28)
One of the humans working with her used sign language to ask her what she should do for an upset stomach. Koko signed back "stomach you there drink orange," "there" being the refrigerator, which Koko pointed at. Amazingly, ten days later Koko apparently remembered this and used sign language to find out if the woman was feeling better (p. 159). In another remarkable story, a chimpanzee learned to draw and sought the activity out although she was never rewarded for doing so (p. 203). The authors note that the animal may have started drawing to relieve the boredom of being in captivity, but point out that the animal still showed the desire to be creative artistically.
Ultimately the authors plainly state what they have been leading the readers to: "In the end, when we wonder whether to ascribe an emotion to an animal, the question to ask is not, 'Can…
Shooting an Elephant - Orwell
I clearly got the impression that Orwell was caught between a rock and a hard place, to understate the situation. He raged at the Burma residents who hated the British and took it out on British police -- and on the other hand, he knew imperialism was a bad policy and he did not have positive thoughts at all about his duty in a British uniform. I was very attentive to his narrative, and I was impressed too that the narrator knew he was "ill-educated" (which is quite an admission) and was living day-to-day with rage and hatred.
My predictions for the rest of the essay include the thought that the protagonist will not be able to handle the situation well at all. First of all, I hate it that elephants are chained up and made to do humans' work, and I can't blame that…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." 1936.
This essay is well-written and well-constructed. The writer refers to the primary source material liberally and provides in-text citations as well as a bibliography. However, the writer could use active voice more often. For example, the sentence "The use of different point-of-view for the narration of the story has great influence on how the elements of characterization and setting are presented" could be rewritten and presented in active voice: "...great influence on how the authors present elements of characterization and setting." The sentence that follows is also slightly clumsy and would be improved through using more parallel verb forms. It reads: "The first person narrative can use more direct characterization to establish the people in the story while the objective point-of-view relies on indirect interpretation." It could be changed to read: "The first person narrative uses direct characterization to establish the people in the story, while the objective point-of-view…
Silvio A. edini's book "The Pope's Elephant," Hanno, the elephant in question manifests the corrupt, cultural and oftentimes ridiculous papacy of the early 1500s under the reign of Pope Leo X (1513-1531). Through the travails of Hanno, edini provides a remarkable insight into the traditions and pageantry of the Vatican in the early 16th century. edini also manages to show the human face of God's appointed representative on earth as well as the cruelty that existed in that period. As Hanno becomes the vehicle to convey the massive accumulation and application of wealth, privilege and power thoroughly enjoyed by Pope Leo and his supporters to the reader, the pachyderm also began to symbolize this excess, becoming part of the concluding chapter of what they termed the Golden Age.
efore tackling this issue, a summary of "The Pope's Elephant" needs to be proffered. edini provides a captivating and insightful study into…
Bedini, Silvio A. (2000) The Pope's Elephant. Penguin USA, Manhattan.
Rowland, Ingrid D. (1999) "Book Reviews: Early Modern Europe" Catholic Historical Review, April 1999. http://www.britannica.com/magazine/print-content_id=237957
" As the kitchen gets darker, things move slower and people are more intoxicated. The symbolism is obvious in this story.
A reader could be forgiven if he or she shouted, "ould someone please shed some light on love, on relationships, on truth and dignity in this story and stop babbling through the gin!"
In the hite Elephant story -- as in the other two stories -- there is no resolution, no solution, readers don't know if the woman has her baby, or decides to do what the man wants, have the abortion. But light is important in this story too. The mountains looked like white elephants. There was "no shade and no trees" so the visual is focused on bright light. Shrill light, but there is not much light shed on the real difficult decision facing the couple. There is a lot of talking around the issue. "Let's try…
Carver, Raymond. What We Talk About When We Talk About Love: Stories. Ed. R.
Carver. New York: Vintage Books, 1989, c1981.
Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily." In the Best of Faulkner. London: The Reprint Society:
power to transcend time and culture, which is why many of the world's best stories are also the most enduring ones. Most powerful stories are also political in scope. In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley warns the world about the arrogance of egotism and the dangers of selfishness and irresponsibility. In "Shooting an Elephant," George Orwell sends a message about the pitfalls of colonialism. Both of these stories are powerful because their narrative serves a greater purpose.
A powerful story has strong character development, because strong characters grapple with the grey areas of ethics and morality. Rather than showing clear divisions between good and bad, stories like Frankenstein and "Shooting an Elephant" show that no person is fully good or fully evil. The biggest power in Shelley's Frankenstein is the tension between the creature's emotional needs and his creator's inability to meet those needs. The story serves as a metaphor for irresponsible…
Taken together, the foregoing factors confirm that organizational change can be difficult or even impossible to achieve unless certain steps are followed. In this regard, in her book, When Giants Learn to Dance, Kanter recommends using the following steps to motivate and sustain superior performance among workers which can reasonably be extended to change initiative efforts:
Principle 1: Emphasize success rather than failure. You tend to miss the positives if you are busily searching for the negatives.
Principle 2: Deliver recognition and reward in an open and publicized way. If not made public, recognition loses much of its impact and defeats much of the purpose for which it is provided.
Principle 3: Deliver recognition in a personal and honest manner. Avoid providing recognition that is too 'slick' or overproduced.
Principle 4: Tailor your recognition and reward to the unique needs of the people involved. Having many recognition and reward options…
Austin, D.M. (2002). Human services management: Organizational leadership in social work practice. New York: Columbia University Press.
Johnson, W.C. (2001). Evolve. Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(1), 126-127.
Kanter, R.M. (1986, December). Celebrating employee achievements. Management Review in Kermally at p. 86.
1983). Change masters: Innovation and entrepreneurship in the American corporation. New York: Simon & Schuster.
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Hemingway & Lessing
Compare and Contrast: Martial and Romantic Relationships
Ernest Hemingway and Doris Lessing each examine marital and romantic relationships their short stories Hills Like hite Elephants and To Room Nineteen respectively. Hemingway's story is set in a bar in Northern Spain near a train station and centers around a conversation between a man and a woman as they wait for a train to Madrid one afternoon ostensibly so the woman can get an abortion. Lessing's story takes place over the course of a number of years and examines the evolution of the relationship between a Matthew and Susan Rawlings, an English couple who married in their late twenties and had four children during the course of the union.
Hemmingway does not name the man in his story and refers to the "girl" as Jig. The content of their character is revealed chiefly through their dialogue. The conflict between…
Hemmingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Eds. R.V. Cassill and Richard Bausch. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 2000. 400-404. Print.
Lessing, Doris. "To Room Nineteen." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Eds. R.V. Cassill and Richard Bausch. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 2000. 525-549. Print.
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
The thread's broken. What you came to find isn't there. What was yours is gone. You have to go away for a long time... many years... before you can come back and find your people. The land where you were born. But now, no. It's not possible. Right now you're blinder than I am Life isn't like it is in the movies. Life is much harder." Then he commands Salvatore: "Get out of here. Go back to Rome. You're young. The world is yours. And I'm old. I don't want to hear you talk anymore. I want to hear others talk about you."
This dialogue couples with a shot of Salvatore actually going on his way. Here, the camera captures several images of Salvatore's hands embracing his mother and his sister. He then leans over and says "goodbye" to Alfred, who grabs him and whispers: "Don't come back. Don't think…
I now wish to move into film and express my abilities through the camera even further. I am trilingual, thus can offer not only my visual expertise but also lend my lingual skills where needed connecting my eyes and thoughts with the world I experience in the future. Now at American Inter-Continental University, I am nearing completion of the requirements for my BFA in Visual Communications, after which I intend to seek a strong, vocational training in the art that has characterized my life.
Rockport does not have to motivate me. As you can see I bring to Rockport an enduring level of commitment and passion carried on in my photographs, through my life and though the very lens through which I explore the world around me.
My determinations to realize my potential is unending. With your assistance I have every confidence I can see them through. I have learned…
This made the product "hostile' and "alien" because the worker had no real connection to it. Maybe a female worker sewed the seam of a pocket for a coat several hundred times a day. But she didn't make the coat. Maybe a man tightened a bolt on the bumper of a car hundreds of times each day, or connected two wires, but he didn't make the car. The product was "hostile" because when the worker looked at it, he or she was only reminded of the hours spent in drudgery doing a seemingly meaningless task. Receiving a paycheck didn't make up for the loss of meaning and the pride of accomplishment, and it led to consumerism, that is, people working in order to buy things that are supposed to make them happy.
I think Marx was correct in what he saw was happening. I worked in a factory once on…
Zora Neale Hurston's story "Sweat" the development of the characters is the most important element of this particular story. Delia, the main character, is a woman who is presented as a victim who has to put up with the constant domestic violence from her husband Sykes. It is those two characters that make up the entire story and it is them who define the meaning of this story. I debated whether the point-of-view would be an element of importance, but decided that without the character's introduction into the story, their point-of-views would not have made a difference. The ending of the story the irony of the characters development since Sykes death was in a sense his own fault. "Delia's work-worn knees crawled over the Earth," shows her hard dedication to whatever it was that she had to do. Regardless of her social situation, she worked hard because she knew she…
Both men's appearance are said to repel the young, yet they attempt to safeguard their 'just' reputations -- Blindy even says directly that he earned his nickname in his infamous fight: "you seen me earn it" (495). Blindy says that Willie Sawyer's castrating him, although not blinding him was 'too much' during his final fight, as if bargaining with fate.
Eventually, some compassionate individual steps in to defend the reputation of the old men. In "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" the older waiter takes the old man's side when the younger waiter casts aspersions on the old man's lack of sexual prowess -- because, it is implied that he also lives alone in similar depression and isolation. Frank the bartender tells the story of Blindy's final fight. This is essential given that even if they men believe their fates are 'just' in some fashion, they are haunted by incomplete business in…
Strauss on Moral Relativism
The Shifting Sand of Moral Relativism
Current political and social thought which is built on the foundation of moral relativism can no more chart a path for a nation to follow out of confusion into an enlightened and orderly society any more than a blind man can describe an elephant, or a child can pilot a 777 airliner. The tools, talents, skills, and abilities of moral relativism are completely inadequate for leading a nation. As can be seen by the steady social and societal decay which has been evident in our county since political and moral relativism have become the dominantly accepted social understanding since the early 1960's, the fruit of such a philosophy pits one group against another, one segment of the population against another without giving them any shared basis to build upon. 'My rights' replace a shared vision of 'our well-being;' and 'my…
Connor, Ken. Fighting for a Virtuous Nation. Immigrants for America. 2003. Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.immigrantsforamerica.com/john_adams.html.
Guerra, Marc. The Ambivalence of Classic Natural Right: Leo Strauss on Philosophy, Morality, and Statesmanship. Perspectives on Political Science, Vol. 28, 1999
Petrie, John. John Petrie's collection of Benjamine Franklin Quotes. 2003 Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~jpetrie/
Strauss, Leo. Liberalism, ancient and modern. Cornell University Press. 1989.
While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men. This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues. Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…
In conclusion, it has been sufficiently demonstrated that elty's recurring motif in "Death of a Traveling Salesman" and in "A orn Path" is the treating of human relationships, which are inherently founded in human nature and which can be evinced from such human principles of love, devotion, and spirituality. The author has purposefully repeated this theme in many of her works to accurately portray real life, since it was the living, breathing world (through the author's interpretation) which engendered these tales. Readers would benefit from the review of these texts, therefore, in order to gain a degree of sapience into the inner workings of people and of the world around them.
Johnston, Carol Ann. "Eudora elty." The Mississippi riter's Page. 2005. eb. http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/welty_eudora/#T2
Sederberg, Nancy. "elty's Death of a Traveling Salesman." The Explicator. Vol.42 1983. eb. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=96539565
Seltzer, Catherine. "Pondering Hearts: Studies of Eudora elty and Josephine Pinckney."…
Johnston, Carol Ann. "Eudora Welty." The Mississippi Writer's Page. 2005. Web. http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/welty_eudora/#T2
Sederberg, Nancy. "Welty's Death of a Traveling Salesman." The Explicator. Vol.42 1983. Web. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=96539565
Seltzer, Catherine. "Pondering Hearts: Studies of Eudora Welty and Josephine Pinckney."
The Southern Literary Journal - Volume 41, Number 1, Fall 2008, pp. 145-150 .Print.
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
Paine is broken and reveals the entire scheme.
Similarly, Dumbo suggests that a belief in one's self can accomplish anything, even in the face of the most seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Dumbo is the story of an elephant with enormous ears. Dumbo is a freak and the mockery of the circus. His mother is taken away after she tries to protect him. The circus is a cruel and judgmental environment that put animals on display for the public's entertainment. However, Dumbo proves that with gumption, unrecognized talents can be honored. This is was typical of the Disney style -- much like during the Great Depression, the third little pig was celebrated as someone who "exhibits old-fashioned virtues, hard work, self-reliance, self-denial" (Sklar 204). The social prejudice that hurts Dumbo does not have to be cured; he merely needs to try harder to use his disability in service of society.
Dumbo. Directed by Walt Disney. 1941.
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. Directed by Frank Capra. 1939.
Skylar, Robert. Movie-Made America. Vintage, 1994.
The plan would be the result of the scientific method, through which the impacts and causes of the current environmental problems would be addressed. Additionally, the scientific method would sit at the basis of the future actions to be taken. These would traditionally include:
The search for alternative sources of energy
The search for renewable sources of energy
The creation of an infrastructure which allowed the propagation and populous use of alternative energies
The education of the population to reduce their levels of consumerism to life necessities
The implementation of stricter regulations which punish economic agents who pollute waters or cut the forests in an unsustainable manner
eplant forests, clean waters and support the sustainable life of the endangered species.
At a smaller size and specific level, the alternative and immediate action to be taken is that of reducing the harvesting of krill by commercial fishermen. This would be achieved…
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
Naik, A., 2010, Ozone layer and global warming, Buzzle, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ozone-layer-and-global-warming.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
Antarctic krill conservation project statement of principles and core goals, Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, http://www.krillcount.org/solutions.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
An American Alex would be against classical music, with anarchists normally being associated with hard rock music. Moreover, he would find it perfectly normal to use drugs instead of drinking milk in a club that has dummies for tables. The reason for which a Hollywood producer would not have his psychotic character drinking milk is that he or she would unquestionably find such a scene to be sick, and, thus, not to be presented to a general public.
Most American movies presenting young people fighting for anarchy want to teach a lesson. They want people to understand that society is good and that it is not worth fighting it, since you only harm yourself in the process. In contrast, Kubrick shows that the system is bad and obsessed with maintaining control over people. After Alex is freed from prison, he can no longer be free, as his mind continues to…
1. A Clockwork Orange. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. Warner Bros, 1972.
Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer whales to adjust their call duration levels to compensate for the background noise. This clearly indicates that anthropogenic noise levels directly interfere with the routine life of the killer whales, which are dependent on vocal communication for successful hunting and survival. [Andrew et.al. 2004]
It is well-known that anthropogenic sounds can even have fatal consequences as evidenced by the recent mass strandings of beaked whales that coincided with the mid frequency sonar exercises by the navy. A recent research by (Holt et.al, 2009) focused on the effects of anthropogenic sounds on the vocal behavior of killer whales. The resident killer whales of the waters of the Puget Sound, Seattle, were the subjects of this study. The southern resident killer whales in three…
Whale Songs, 'Killer Whale', Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.whalesongs.org/cetacean/killer_whale/home.html
SeaWorld, ' Killer Whales: Communication and Echo Location," Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/killer-whale/communication.htm
Wilfredo Santiago Benitez, 'Echolocation and strategy used by Southern resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) during foraging', 2005, Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://beamreach.org/051/papers/wilfredo.pdf
Volcker B. Deecke, John KB Ford & Peter JB Slater, 'The Vocal Behavior of Mammal eating killer Whales: Communicating with Costly Calls ' Animal Behavior, 2005, 69, 395-405, http://www.behaecol.amu.edu.pl/files/the_vocal_behav_of_mammal-eating_killer_whales.pdf
Also, it does not really fit very well with the rest of the syllabus. The other stories on the syllabus have three-dimensional characters that show a mix of good and bad characteristics, and face moral dilemmas. But the 'good man' of the title is suddenly confronted with a vision of hypocrisy, of the good people of the town showing their evil side. He does not come to this encounter with any soul-searching, or because he has done something particularly extraordinary, in terms of the story's plot. The story is heavy-handed and does not make much of a 'case' for the effective use of symbolism or the use of stories with clearly moral tales. Most people in the class have already encountered fables and morality tales in their other reading, even as children, and the more complex modernist works are a better spur towards better writing and…
The lowermost portion of the composition is more cluttered than the uppermost portion, serving a symbolic function. The artist contrasts the mundane world of the human mind and society with the transcendent world of enlightenment. The blue halo surrounding Shantarakshita leads the eye upward, via a lotus blossom, towards the two figures above him: Shakyamuni Buddha to the right and Shantarakshita's own teacher to the left ("Historical Narrative: Shantarakshita").
Although it is permanently on display in a Tibetan temple, the Drowa Sangmo Mural depicts more of a mundane scene than does the portrait of Shantarakshita. Nothing, however, is entirely mundane in Tibetan society. The Drowa Sangmo proves that fact by depicting a Tibetan opera scene. The drama unfolds, representing historical events.
The color palette used in the Drowa Sangmo Mural is earthier than the one used in the portrait of the guru Shantarakshita. The more realistic color palette corresponds with…
"Historical Narrative: Shantarakshita." Retrieved online: www.rmanyc.org/uploads/documents/oumt_explore_historical.pdf
Rubin Museum of Art. Once Upon Many Times (brochure). Available online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=scenes%20illustrating%20the%20drama%20drowa%20sangmo&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCYQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonceuponmanytimes.rma2.org%2F&ei=RBDUTr1Jwe_SAfOJzOgP&usg=AFQjCNHYohHj-C_JGr02NBESvGie7ZPlmw&sig2=EaEwgiJOcpaFEBs7E72PzQ&cad=rja
"Take a Closer Look: Drowa Sangmo Mural." Retrieved online: www.rmanyc.org/uploads/documents/oumt_drowa_sangmo_mural.pdf
Free and Forced Actions Analyzing an Argument
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will? Walter Stace argues that every action or event is caused; however, whereas free actions are caused by the doer's internal psychological state, forced ones are caused by forces external to the user. This text evaluates the validity of the author's argument in the short story, 'Shooting an Elephant' based on Stace's definition of free and forced actions.
Free and Forced Actions
Stace's Definition of Free and Forced Actions
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will?', Walter Terrence Stace puts forth an argument for determinism, arguing that it is consistent/compatible with free will. He is of the view that free will exists and every event in the world is caused (Colorado University, n.d.). He illustrates the compatibility of these two views by giving his own definition of what exactly constitutes free will. Stace…
Baxter, T. (2004). Frederick Douglass' Curious Audiences: Ethos in the Age of the Consumable Subject. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bulman, C. (2007). Creative Writing: A Guide and Glossary to Fiction Writing. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Colorado University. (n.d.). Precis: W. T. Stace's Compatibilism. Colorado University. Retrieved September 17, 2015 from http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/robertsm/student_precis3.htm
Lockhart, J. (2010). How to Market your School: A Guide to Marketing, Communication and Public Relations. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
aiting is a critical aspect in this story and there are several images that point to this notion. alls, doors and clocks are powerful images. Arthur aldhorn believes that the walls are significant symbols in "The Killers." They represent an "irresistible obstacle" (aldhorn 37) which "adds to the total image of terror without becoming an effect for its own sake" (37). They are symbols of the prison in which Ole lives. He has no choice in this world and, as a result, nowhere to go. On the other hand, the door proves to be a symbol of hope and the future for Nick. Hal Blythe believes the doors are a "passages through what appear to be barriers" (Blythe). Blythe states that Hemingway "laced his narrative with the door motif to suggest that Nick is free to make choices" (Blythe). The images in this story are powerful because they seem to…
Adams, Michael. "A Clean Well-Lighted Place." Masterplots II: Short Story Series, Revised
Blythe, Hal. Hemingway's The Killers. The Explicator. 2003. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 22, 2009.
Brooks, Van Wyck. Earnest Hemingway. Modern American Literature. Vol. II. Curley, Dorothy, at al, eds. New York: Frederick Unger Publishing Co. 1969.
Shooting an Elephant," deconstructs many different notions about the concept of free will. Actually, free will concept is at the crux of this essay, which is about a young police officer (Orwell) in British occupied India who is called to stop an elephant which has gotten loose. The author expressly states in a number of different places that he does not want to have to shoot the elephant; moreover, when he comes upon the elephant the animal is acting peacefully. However, a large crowd of people has gathered about him, which largely compels him to murder the elephant. A thorough analysis of this essay indicates that the primary conflict is between that of the will of the officer and that of the will of the crowd. A prolonged examination into the factors that lead the officer to shoot the elephant unequivocally indicate that he did not have free will in…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." www.online-literature.org . 1939. Web. http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/887/
Stale, Walter T. "Is Determinism Inconsistent with Free Will?" Current Issues and Enduring Questions. Ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau. New York: St. Martin's. 1999. Print.
When the driver looked in the hole, he found a dog sleeping inside -- and only when the dog was chased away would the elephant place the log into the hole (Holdrege, 2001).
Octopi -- Suprisingly, octopi have been shown to use tools. The will retrieve discarded coconut shells, manipulate them, and then reassemble them to use as a makeshift shelter (Coghlan, 2009). Other octopi will use Jellyfish and Portugese Man o War tenticles that they shear as their own weapon. They are the only invertebrates known to use tools and show surprising cognitive ability in mazes, food training, and even handler recognition (Jones, 1963).
Implications - esearch into this new discovery is important because it redefines what it means to be "human," as well as implications about the evolution of violence and hominid predation. Finally, an understanding of non-human "culture" may help in answers questions about other intelligent species…
Coghlan, A. (2009, December 14). Octopuses Use Coconut Shells as Portable Shelters. Retrieved October 2010, from The New Scientist: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18281-octopuses-use-coconut-shells-as-portable-shelters.html
Cohen, J. (2010). Almost Chimpanzee: Searching for What Makes Us Human. Chicago: Times Books.
De Waal, F. (2007). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
"Emerging Explorers," (2010). The National Geographic Society. Cited in:
Previous to Darwin, it has been considered that animals had nothing in connection with humans, since their brutish behavior had been very different from the sociable and civilized one displayed by people. French philosopher Rene Descartes apparently thought of animals to be nothing but machines that acted in conformity to the same laws to which inanimate matter had functioned. Quite the reverse happened when concerning humans, as, in spite of the fact that their bodies reacted similar to those of animals, they possessed a soul given to them by a divine being.
Darwin believed that there had been several similarities between the thinking of an ape and that of man. However, even he accentuated the fact that there had been great differences in cerebral power between the most primitive man and the most intelligent ape. It seems that Bambification firstly appeared as a result of people being inclined to anthropomorphize,…
1. Berger, John (1980), 'Why Look at Animals?' In About Looking, London: Writers & Readers. (book)
2. De Waal, Frans. (2001). "The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist." Basic Books. (book)
3. Marks, Johnatan. (2002). "What It Means to Be 98% Chimpanzee: Apes, People, and Their Genes." University of California Press. (book)
4. Mezo, Richard Eugene. (1993). "A study of B. Traven's fiction: the journey to Solipaz." Edwin Mellen Press. (book)
Either way, what they shared is gone. The interesting thing about this story is the boyfriend's inability to see things from Jig's point-of-view. He does not have to deal with the emotional aspect of abortion, so he can say things like, "It's not really an operation at all" (Hills Like hite Elephants 1391). The nameless man is selfish and a liar because he tries to convince Jig "It's really not anything. It's just to let the air in" (1391) and "it's all perfectly natural" (1391). Hemingway purposefully leaves him nameless in an attempt to reveal how very little there is to his character. hat is worse, he probably is not concerned with what Jig is experiencing. He fails her and he fails to see her struggle, alienating her with just a few words. In addition, while he is alienating her, he is separating himself from her by demonstrating how selfish…
Aldrige, John. "The Sun Also Rises: Sixty Years Later." Readings on Earnest Hemingway. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1997. Print.
Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean Well-Lighted Place." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction,
Poetry, and Drama X.J. Kennedy, ed. New York: Longman. 1998. Print.
-. "Hills Like White Elephants." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II.