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Cyberspace as the Most Dominant Domain Cyberspace

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7462170

Cyberspace as the Most Dominant Domain


Cyberspace is the indefinite place where all online communications take place. It can also be defined in computer networks as the electronic medium. The name was coined by William Gibson a science fiction author. When he coined the name, he was looking for a word to describe the global computer network he was envisioning. The U.S. government defines cyberspace as the country's control system composed of interconnected computers, routers, servers, switches and fiber optic cables Adams, 1997.

It states that cyberspace is the nervous system for the military. The use of electromagnetic spectrum and electromagnetic to modify, store, and exchange information using physical infrastructures and networked information systems can also be used to refer to the cyberspace domain.

The use of cyberspace to attack others is referred to as cyber terrorism. The attacks occur in form of viruses, which are meant to disrupt…… [Read More]


Adams, P.C. (1997). Cyberspace and Virtual Places. Geographical Review, 87(2), 155-171.

Halloran, J. (2011). Game Changer? How VoIP Is Impacting the Way We Play. [Article]. International Journal of Interactive Worlds, 1-27. doi: 10.5171/2011.144197

Molina, A. (2003). Cyberspace: The "Color Line" of the 21st Century. Social Justice, 30(2 (92)), 143-149.

Yan, H. (2010). On the Clouds: A New Way of Computing. [Article]. Information Technology & Libraries, 29(2), 87-92.
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John Locke Political Thought on

Words: 4766 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77049742

S. Constitution as offering much protection but instead view it as being the responsibility of the states to provide protection for private property owners. In the event that the courts "...continue to abdicate their role as the protector of individuals rights, then big government and powerful corporations will continue to run roughshod over the property interest of small landowners." (Liles, 2006, p.372)

Liles holds that the legislature being allowed a leeway that is so constitutionally broad in defining the protections afforded to private property effectively "...defies the necessary checks and balances implicit in our system of government." (p.372) Part of the problem appears to be that the definition applied to 'public use' has become quite lenient over the years and while it in the beginning meant that "the public must own property" it now has been construed to mean that "private parties can own the land so long as the…… [Read More]


Restoring Our Heritage of Property Rights (2006) Mackenzie Center for Public Policy. Online available at: 

Hansen, David (2007) Kelo v. New London: Economics and Ethics. 2007. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte North Carolina. Online available at: 

Liles, Brett D. (2007) Reconsidering Poletown: In the Wake of Kelo, States Should Move to Restore Private Property Rights. Arizona Law Review. Vol. 48:369. Online available at: 

Kelo, et. Al v. City of New London, Connecticut, et al. In the Supreme Court of the United States. No. 04-108. Washington DC 22 Feb 2005. Online available at:
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U S Supreme Court Kelo v New London

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11308488

U.S. Supreme Court: Kelo v. New London (2005)

Supreme Court case Kelo v. City of New London involved the issue of eminent domain which is granted to governmental bodies including federal, state and local governmental bodies by the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which means that the government is authorized to take land that is privately owned if the land is to be used by the public and the owner is paid a fair price for the land or what is referred to as 'just compensation'. Prior to Kelo v. City of New London the power of eminent domain was typically exercised by cities for acquisition of facilities that were clearly intended for public use such as schools, bridges or freeways. The case of Kelo v. City of New London however, involved what was a "new trend among cities to use eminent domain to acquire land for the redevelopment…… [Read More]


Kelo v. New London: Lawsuit Challenging Eminent Domain Abuse in New London, Connecticut. (2012) Institute for Justice. Retrieved from: 

KELO et al. v. CITY OF NEW LONDON et al. certiorari to the supreme court of Connecticut. No. 04-108.Argued February 22, 2005 -- Decided June 23, 2005 (2012) Findlaw. Retrieved from: 

Longley, R. (2012) Court Expands the Power of Eminent Domain. U.S. Government Info. Retrieved from: 

Head, T. (2012) Summary of Kelo v. New London (2005) - Supreme Court Eminent Domain Case. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from:
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Adverse Possession and Its Impact

Words: 3117 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38141104

Surprisingly, there is very little systematic discussion of this fundamental issue in the legal literature (Adverse Possession ("

The premise of adverse possession is that the land in question is being neglected or ignored by the land owner. Because of this assumed neglect or being ignored, when the squatter uses the land is no longer being neglected. If the land owner turns a blind eye to the use of the land the owner is consenting to give up that land by the very lack of objection.

This theory, which has its roots in Mill, starts with the premise that everybody owns the land in common: there is no such thing as private property because nobody is born with some sort of natural right to any particular piece of property. In other words, everybody has a right to every piece of property in the world. Suppose there's a piece of property…… [Read More]


Adverse possession in Oregon: the belief-in-ownership requirement.

Environmental Law; 6/22/1993; Olson, Per C.


St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 11/9/2000; John Roska; Land of Lincoln Legal Assistance Foundation
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Acquainted With the Law Various Law Terms-3

Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11966271

Acquainted With the Law

Various Law Terms-3

Insider Trading

This is either legal or illegal (Priebe, 2012). It is legal and legitimate when corporate officers, directors and shareholders of at least 10% of the outstanding stock of the business. They file the required information with the Securities and Exchange Commission at regular periods (Priebe).

Illegal Insider Trading

This is conducted by trusted person but violates that company's trust (Priebe, 2012). The person is usually someone who enjoys fiduciary trust in working for and keeping the best interest of the company or its shareholders. He may be an officer, a director or an outsider who has access to confidential information about the company. That outsider may be the company's banker, auditor, or lawyer. In general, he is an insider who gives or receives inside information or tips (Priebe).

Characteristics of the Inside Information

It must be important and private (Priebe, 2012).…… [Read More]


Daniels, R. (2012). First property domain laws. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from

Menamos, J. (2012). Why are hate crimes difficult to prosecute? eHow: Demand Media,

Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from

Montoya, D. (2012). How has the exclusionary rule impacted criminal cases? eHow:
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Matching Terms Writ of Mandamus

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58268701

8. State the "law of the case" of each of the following: (10) a) Gonzales v. Raisch: ffirmed Oregon statute allowing doctors to prescribe controlled substances in assisted suicide and invalidated ttorney General's statutory interpretation that assisted suicide does not constitute practicing medicine..

b) First National Bank v. Bellotti: Invalidated Massachusetts law criminalizing corporate use of corporate funds to promote political agenda as a violation of corporations right to Free Speech under the 1st mendment..

c) Kelo v. New London: State power of eminent domain properly used even though taking of property inured to benefit of one private entity over another, because its effect was beneficial to the community..

d) darand v. Pina: Overturned Metro v FCC and decided that any type of racial classification used by any government agency triggers strict scrutiny.

e) Cole v. Burns International Security Systems: Employers may require employees to waive their right to litigate…… [Read More]

A b) Cole v. Burns International Security Company: D.C. District Court applies SCOTUS ruling in Gilmer, to uphold pre-employment arbitration agreements that meet the 5 elements of fairness articulated in Gilmer.

10. Respond to a colleague who asserts that we need to get rid of these liberal activist judges and replace them with conservative judges who interpret the law and do not make the law. (5)

The 2000 SCOTUS decision terminating the by-hand vote count then underway in Florida is a perfect example that "conservative" justices with no prior history of "liberal" statutory interpretation, in fact, make law, as evidenced in the way five "conservative" Republican justices effectively awarded the presidency to George W. Bush by their whim under the color of "judicial interpretation."
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Case of Kelo v New London

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33340887

Kelo vs. New London

There are two dissenting opinions written concerning the Kelo vs. New London case; one written by Justice O'Connor and the second one written by Justice Thomas. Each of these dissenting opinions offers a unique look at why the court should have found for Kelo instead of against Kelo. This case, like many cases, hinges on the interpretation of the Constitution. Interpreting the Constitution, for the most part, involves a comprehension and understanding of what exactly the Founding Fathers meant when they wrote the Document. In this case the comprehension and understanding concerns the use of the phrase "public use."

A 2005 law review article states "the confusion in the lower courts arises from takings that do not directly achieve the government's purpose -- takings that involve a separate, unregulated private party to whom the property flows" (Christensen, 2005, p. 1669). The real issue, according to Trent…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Christensen, T.; (2005) From direct "public use" to indirect "public benefit": Kelo vs. New London's bridge from rational basis to heightened scrutiny for eminent domain takings, Brigham Young University Law Review, Vol. 2005, Issue 6, pp. 1669 -- 1712

Griswold, S.; (2007) Property rights vs. public use, Tennessee Bar Journal, Vol. 43, Issue 2, pp. 14 -- 27
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Takings Clause

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 96208391


The Taking Clause, located in the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution is a powerful and interesting section of the written law. In the formation of this country, the founders and architects of the nation arrived at certain questions regarding the relationship between the people's right to property and the collective need for the government to acquire that property for the good of the nation.

Because it was important to know and understand when and how a government can exercise the power of eminent domain to reclaim a property the takings clause was inserted into the Constitution. The clause essentially states that the government must pay owners "just compensation usually understood to be fair market value when it uses eminent domain to take property for public use. The right to just compensation from the government is an economic right of citizens. This protection is part of the due…… [Read More]


Lelo v. New London (04-108) 545 U.S. 469 (2005). Retrieved from 

Funk, B. (nd). CPR Perspective: The Takings Clause of The Fifth Amendment. Viewed 31 Jan 2014. Retrieved from 

Treanor, W. (2010). The Original Understanding of the Takings Clause. Georgetown Law, Georgetown Environmental Law & Policy Institute Papers & Reports June 2010. Retrieved from
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Government Has and Always Will

Words: 891 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90701822

They have limits within reason and they are relinquished when used to infringe upon others. Along these lines Eidelberg stresses that man to have been granted these rights must possess certain special qualities;

Surely a being thus endowed must be potentially capable of governing himself without impairing the unalienable rights of others. Presumably, such a being would have the capacity to distinguish between his immediate wants and his long-range interests. He would have to understand how the pursuit of his own interests may affect the well-being of others, and how the wants and interests of others may affect his own... If he is to show "a decent respect to the opinions of mankind," he would have to address the reason rather than the passions of mankind, which means he would have to defend his own claims by reasoning.

Eidelberg 9)

Reason is therefore a requirement for the retention of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aguirre, Adalberto, and Frances Vu. "Eminent Domain and City Redevelopment in California: An Overview and Case Study." Social Justice 33.3 (2006): 101. Questia. 29 Apr. 2008 .

Eidelberg, Paul. On the Silence of the Declaration of Independence. Amherst University of Massachusetts Press, 1976. Questia. 29 Apr. 2008 .

Hole, Robert. "The American Declaration of Independence of 4 July 1776." History Review (2001): 38. Questia. 29 Apr. 2008 .

Mace, George. Locke, Hobbes, and the Federalist Papers: An Essay on the Genesis of the American Political Heritage. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979. Questia. 29 Apr. 2008 .
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Gary Kremen the Life of

Words: 4312 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20453031

The online classifieds advertising technology outsourcing company went on to become one of the most popular communities and networking sites on the Internet. "Gary founded the firm after identifying opportunities for online personals service, now branded Match.Com. He wrote the company business plan, then raised $1.3 million from venture capitalists and private investors, and later assisted in raising $7.5 million from leading corporate partners..." Kremen was also a founder of Los Altos Technologies, Inc. (LAT), a leader in UNIX security.

He has also become a leading and sought-after speaker on Internet marketing and development. More importantly and in terms of the history of, he is considered to be a leading authority on issues pertaining to intellectual property law and the Internet. Furthermore, he has invested in more than 50 companies.

4. The saga

The legal battle surrounding began on May 19, 1994, when Kremen registered the domain…… [Read More]


About Gary Kremen. 8 February, 2007. 

Be Careful what You Wish for: The Continuing Saga of Gary Kremen and 7 February, 2007. 

Dixon R. To Fight Domain Name Theft: Gives Birth to a New Property Right. 2004. 8 February, 2007. 

Gary Kremen. 8 February, 2007.
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Low Income Housing Initiatives in

Words: 3141 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 35383551

In this regard Pindell advises, "The city is a place in which diverse groups, distinguished by income, race, or other characteristics, engage in a competition for space. For some, efforts within the competition are focused on excluding certain populations. Suburban communities incorporate to separate themselves from cities; some individuals live within the protections of gated communities, and some localities engage in zoning practices designed to limit housing opportunities for low-income individuals" (p. 436). To help overcome these constraints to low-income housing developments, the World Bank recommends that to improve public investment (which affects productivity and therefore Brazil's economic performance), the government of Brazil should reform local master planning and subdivision regulations, building codes and zoning ordinances in an effort to increase the supply of land available for low-income housing projects (Brazil: Equitable, competitive, sustainable, contributions for debate, 2003). While the debate over how best to resolve the problems related to…… [Read More]


Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Byrne, J.P. & Diamond, M. (2007). Housing, land tenure, and urban policy: The matrix revealed. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 34(2), 527-528.

CIA world factbook. (2009). [Online]. Available: .

Clarke, C. & Howard, D. (2006). Contradictory socio-economic consequences of structural adjustment in Kingston, Jamaica. The Geographical Journal, 172(2), 106-107.
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Exactions and Taking Under United

Words: 5204 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54736214

455 U.. 904 (1982), illustrates one of the scenarios of a taking. The Court did not require a physical intrusion by the government here, but the placement of items was sufficient for a Taking without just compensation. The character and manner of the governmental intrusion is just as important as the intrusion itself. Also, the principle of regulating private property for a public purpose is demonstrated in the Loretto case. An owner will not be required to use her property to host a project that is for a public purpose without requiring just compensation by the government.

In Loretto, a New York statute requires that a landlord permit cable companies to install cable television equipment on his property and cannot demand payment from the cable company in excess of the fees established fee of $1.00. The appellant owned a five story building and learned that the cable company had installed…… [Read More]

See, Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, 535 U.S. 302 (2002), where the Court held that a 32-month moratorium by the government was not a Taking.

See, Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, 483 U.S. 825 (1987).

See, Dolan v. City of Tagard, 512 U.S. 374(1994).
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Pcm Dr Yale the Supreme

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 16803077

Most of the owners agreed to sell their property to the city and Kelo was the last holdout. The city then exercised its power of eminent domain and condemned Kelo's property for use in its economic redevelopment plan. Kelo then brought suit in state court claiming that the Government condemned their property in violation of the "public use" clause of the Fifth Amendment.

2. Regarding the U.S. Supreme Court's Decision:

a. What part of the U.S. Constitution is relevant according to the Supreme Court opinion? (The First Amendment free exercise clause for example.)

The Fifth Amendment Takings Clause, which states "nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation." This case is particularly concerned with the "public use" part.

b. As the Supreme Court saw it, what was the specific constitutional question (or questions if there were more than one) before them? (Boil it down to one…… [Read More]

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PR Campaign Boone Pickens Energy

Words: 2041 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93880742

There have not been specific funding promises from the candidates for specific aspects of the Pickens Plan, either.

The final verdict on the Pickens Plan campaign will not be known for months, if not years. The new president will not take office until January, and will require time to formulate a cohesive strategy. In terms of the action plan, the strategy to mobilize the grassroots in order to put pressure on the government has not succeeded thus far. The grassroots will give the new president his mandate, and the supporters of the Pickens Plan will ultimately take a back seat to that.

In terms of action, the most effective part of this public relations campaign has been the direct contact between Pickens and the candidates. This may or may not have occurred without the grassroots, but it is reasonable to expect that it would have occurred due to Mr. Pickens'…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pickens, T. Boone. 2008. "Pickens Plan" [online] Accessed October 28, 2008 at 

Lazarus, David. 2008. "T. Boone Pickens could gain from his energy plan, but so might we" Los Angeles Times [online] Accessed October 28, 2008 at,0,7890733.column 

Rose, Charlie. 2008. "Pickens: My energy plan is the only plan" CBS News/60 Minutes. [online] Accessed October 28, 2008 at
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Hudson Yard's Rezoning Efforts

Words: 3840 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8554301

NYC Hudson Yards Rezoning Project

Introduction and Project Overview

The main reason that the NYC Hudson Yards Rezoning Project is taking place is that the location is a prime one for everything the planners want to do. The Hudson River makes up one of the boundaries of the area, with the other boundaries consisting of 8th Avenue, 43rd Street, and 30th Street.

Right now, there is restricted and antiquated zoning in that area, along with no access to mass transit. The streetscape is not a hospitable one, and there are no open spaces for the public. Basically, the entire area is not one that can be used easily, but yet it is in a great place for a number of multiuse buildings.

The amount of underdeveloped land in the area is plentiful, making it a prime location for further development that could have economic value to the city and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hudson Yards. Project Site. 2014. Web.

Hudson Yards Development Corporation. "Hudson Yards Presentation. Public-Private Development. Spring 2013." 2013. PowerPoint Presentation.

Bagli, Charles V. "Rezoning Will Allow Railyard Project to Advance." The New York Times. 2009. Web.

"MTA Finalizes Hudson Yards Deal." Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2010. Web.
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Kelo and Terrett

Words: 878 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88278055

Lbs Homework 2 (9/22)

Terrett v. Taylor, 13 U.S. 43 (1815)

Who is/are the plaintiff(s) (i.e. consumer, company, employee, government) and what type of legal relief is/are the plaintiff(s) seeking?

Taylor and other members of the Episcopal church of Alexandria in the parish of Fairfax are seeking the right to sell the lands and apply the proceeds to use by the church.

What legal question must the court decide, and what is the common law rule, constitutional provision or statute that the question will turn on?

The legal question at hand is whether the church owns the land and thus has the right to sell it or if the land was properly claimed by the advocates for the poor including Terrett. To drill down further, the question is whether the church should be granted the provision of enjoinment against the people claiming the land.

What is the court's reasoning? (Might…… [Read More]


Justia. (2014, September 22). Terrett v. Taylor13 U.S. 43. Terrett v. Taylor. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from 

Justia. (2014, September 22). Kelo v. New London545 U.S. (2005). Kelo v. New London. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from
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Suburban Cities

Words: 3200 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50779641

old, my parents and I moved from the sprawling, suburban township of Hudson, Ohio to the village at its center, and I fell in love with small, walkable cities and towns that are built on grids. I believe that such environments promote socialization due to the activation energy involved in going out. If we accept that socialization is more comfortable for the majority in the traditional context of a high-density city, why do the majority of new home permits proclaim otherwise? Why don't people just don't pick up and move to places where people have traditionally conducted their daily affairs without the use of a car, like San Francisco and New York City?

The 1960's and 1970's in America saw an urban transition still unknown in most of the major cities of Europe. The Federal Housing Administration had precipitated the explosion in suburban development by offering 4% interest loans following…… [Read More]


Stephen Sobek. "A long, hard road to desegregation: New Castle County had significant role in national movement." Delaware News-Journal, 12/21/2000.

When life is more interesting than art." Economist, 3/23/2000.

Peter Gordon and Harry W. Richardson. "Critiquing Sprawl's Critics." Policy Analysis: The Cato Institute Press, January 24, 2000

Peter Samuel and Randal O'Toole. Smart Growth at the Federal Trough
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Property of Freedom in Property

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 41583653

Interestingly, the connection between private property ownership and political freedom developed in a roundabout way. As property owners grew richer from their commercial endeavors, the state sought to reap benefits via property taxation and this in turn helped to empower the people and Parliament. Pipes draws further connections between the evolution of the commonwealth, the British Empire, and burgeoning rights and freedoms for property owners.

Chapter 4 addresses the history and evolution of property ownership in ussia. ussia's history is far different from that of England, especially with regards to property and its connection with individual rights and freedoms (or lack thereof, in the case of ussia). Pipes explains thoroughly the origin and impact of the patrimonial system in ussia, which established monarchs firmly as the property owners and precluded genuine private property ownership. Patrimony, ussian style, is clearly and simply defined as "the fusion of sovereignty and ownership," (p.…… [Read More]


Pipes, Richard. Property and Freedom. Vintage, 2000.
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Negative Effects of California's Proposition 13 on

Words: 2944 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84772029

Negative Effects of California's Proposition 13 on Infrastructure

California's Proposition 13, officially known as the People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation, was enacted in June 1978 in response to soaring property taxes (Chapman 1998). As a result of this act, real property tax in California is capped at 1% its assessed value. Furthermore, this assessed value cannot increase by anymore than 2% annually while under the same ownership. Once a property is sold to a new owner, the property value is reassessed at current market value and taxed at 1% of this value.

Three other changes became law when Proposition 13 passed ("hat is Proposition 13?" n.d.). First, the responsibility for allocating property tax revenue among local jurisdictions transferred to the state. Second, it became mandatory to receive a two-thirds majority vote in both legislative houses on any measures enacted to increase state revenue. Third, local governments were now required…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chapman, Jeffrey. "Proposition 13: Some Unintended Consequences." Public Policy Institute

of California. Sept. 1998. Public Policy Institute of California. 1 Feb. 2010.

Foldvary, Fred. "Circumventing California's Proposition 13 for the Public Collection of Rent."
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Environmental Concerns at Fll Fort

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 74416715

Port Everglades is a predominantly industrial area, with a container port and cruise ship port. Overall, however, noise levels at FLL for all airlines are below the federal standards.

The effort to manage noise pollution at FLL is ongoing. The airport authorities have submitted Noise Mitigation Principles to the FAA and are awaiting feedback on a preferred alternative for noise mitigation. The Broward County Board of County Commissioners also has a consultant to implement the noise mitigation program forthcoming.


The growth of FLL has mirrored growth in the region. The population of South Florida is expected to grow a further 25% by 2020. This will increase the strain on FLL. The lands adjacent to the airport are all developed, so there is little room for expansion. The 9R/27L runway, for example, cannot be expanded to accommodate jet traffic because of the course of I-95. Therefore, flights on the 9L/27R…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at

No author. (2008). Noise Information. Broward County. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at ; 

Andrus, Katherine (2006) ATA Comments on FAA Noise Analysis for Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. Air Transportation Association. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at  no author). (2000). Aviation and the environment: airport operations and future growth present environmental challenges United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at 

No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership.
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Lease Exhibit 7 Issue Rankings

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23848375

In truth, it would be preferable on the part of the landlord not to allow assignments or sublets of any type, but it is likely that the tenant will want this option in order to allow them greater flexibility should their need for space prove to be less than estimated and again, due to the amount of space available on the market in China it is largely a buyer's market. The tenant will likely request some subletting allowance for at least a portion of the space rented, and this concession should be made.

One of tenant's other issues of greatest importance, the Expansion Option, also relates to this desire for flexibility. Should more space be required, the tenant would want to be able to expand without undue constraints or complications, and ensuring that this could be accomplished would be a major concern of the contract agreed upon. The tenant would…… [Read More]

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Urban Studies Legend Jane Jacobs

Words: 1223 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54389709

According to Jacobs, "It was being done unofficially when what had grown big and successful was used to eat up, or wipe away, or starve what was not."

Besides just abject failures, though, Jacobs also cites a number of success stories that indicate city planners in the United States had learned some valuable lessons from their failures in the late 20th century. According to Jacobs, "There are quite a few cities that are more vigorous and more attractive than they were 10 or 20 years ago. A lot of good things are being done, but it's not universal." As an example, Jacobs points to Portland, Oregon as a city that has taken steps to reinvent itself based on the lessons learned in the past. Emphasizing that the Portland planners did not use a "lot of gimmicks," Jacobs reports that the holistic approach used has resulted in a reinvigorated city:

"It's…… [Read More]

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Wetlands Regulation in USA

Words: 8001 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63050849

Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States

Regulation of etlands in the United States

Defining etlands and their Value

A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010

Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:

Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.

Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
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Six Questions on Law

Words: 1242 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 19453334

ooderson has a strong case for arguing that the Ordinance passed by the County is unconstitutional. Article I Section 9 of the Constitution says "No Bill of Attainder ... shall be passed," and Article I Section 10 says "No State shall ... pass any Bill of Attainder." The fact that this Ordinance has been specifically designed to affect ooderson and only ooderson qualifies it as a Bill of Attainder, the term given to legislation that is designed to specifically affect a single individual. The Supreme Court ruling in Fletcher v. Peck (1810) holds "A bill of attainder may affect the life of an individual, or may confiscate his property, or may do both. In this form the power of the legislature over the lives and fortunes of individuals is expressly restrained." If ooderson can prove the religious motive of the Comissioner who designed the Ordinance, it violates the Establishment Clause;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

US Supreme Court. Fletcher v. Peck. 1810. 

Nevada Supreme Court. Scialabba v. Brandise Construction.
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Authors Communicate There Are a Number of

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45112597

Authors Communicate

There are a number of points of interest regarding "Massage therapy in post-operative rehabilitation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy - a pilot study." On the whole this is an extremely well-organized article, which is one of its primary strengths. The different sections and phases of the research are well documented. There are a variety of tables that elucidate several components related to the literature review, the results, and the particulars of the subjects considered in the research. However, there is more than one area of the study in which the researchers could have benefited from the use of more substantial effort and a more thorough methodology, which is certainly reflected in the results and the conclusion.

The central weakness of this study is the fact that all of the results were based on research performed on just six subjects. To the credit of the researchers they…… [Read More]


O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
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Nursing Philo

Words: 1623 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75384377

Nursing Philosophy

Concept Synthesis on Personal Nursing Philosophy

Nursing Autobiography

My interest in nursing peaked at an early age when I attended Clara Barton High School for health professions in Brooklyn NY and graduated in 1991. I first worked as a nurse's aide and home health aide for about two years and found this position to be quite rewarding. I subsequently moved to North Carolina where I took the CNA course in 1995 and began working as a CNA at various nursing homes and hospitals in the regional area. My experience as a CNA certainly helped me in my journey and provided the foundation for the later developments in my career.

Later I moved to Las Vegas in 1997 where I got married in 1998. After forming this union I went back to school for my BSN in 2002 while working as a CNA. I finished my BSN from Nevada…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrews, H., & Roy, C. (1991). The Adaptive Model. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.

Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2013). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from Education: 

Farlex. (2011). The Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Farlex: 

Nursing Theory. (2011). Sister Callista Roy. Retrieved from Nursing Theory:
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American History Between the Years

Words: 2433 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51687593

As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.

The Missouri Compromise

In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from .

Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.

Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.

Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
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Pragmatic Models in the Analysis of Real

Words: 1929 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29740994

pragmatic models in the analysis of real human behavior has been a major area of study. There are two main theories that are put into test for the analysis. These are the speech act theory and the implicature theory. The pragmatic model is very fundamental for the modeling of interpersonal communication and general language use.

It is important to note that the pragmatic models serve to emphasize the elements of creativity and motivational aspects of the human characteristics in the interaction domain. Language is a form of communication and communication by itself has creative aspects to it in terms of two aspects. Throughout the human history, there have been various forms of interactions that involve the aspect of communicative exchange of words or rather language. It is this history that forms the patterns of correlations that also emphasizes the individual human behavior that is often referred to as self-concept. With…… [Read More]


Bach, K. (1987a). On communicative intentions: A reply to Recanati. Mind & Language, 2, 141-154.

Bach, K. (1999a). The semantics-pragmatics distinction: What it is and why it matters. In K. Turner (Ed). The semantics-pragmatics interface from different points-of-view (pp. 65-84). Oxford: Elsevier.

Bach, K. & R.M. Harnish (1979). Linguistic communication and speech acts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Carston, R. (1988). Implicature, explicature, and truth-theoretic semantics. In Ruth Kempson (Ed). Mental Representations: The Interface between Language and Reality
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Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role

Words: 16130 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43330627


Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).

In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…… [Read More]


Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications

Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2190458

Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.


In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]

bibliography. (2010).  / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
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Kogwayay the Gebusi of Papua

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47550330

estern culture has its own form of kogwayay. Although estern culture stresses individualism more than the Gebusi does, "good company" is an important aspect of social interactions. estern culture kogwayay includes togetherness, large gatherings of people such as at parties or family dinners. Although these social gatherings are different from what they are in Papua New Guinea, they serve a similar function of creating social harmony.

Just as the Gebusi like to engage in "wa-la" or chatting, so do people in estern culture. esterners get together in small or large groups and chat or they chat on the Internet. Furthermore, estern culture has its own form of "yay" or jovial teasing and cheering. The teasing and cheering often takes place within groups of only one gender. For example, a group of only men or only women will share different jokes than those same people would in a mixed setting. Often,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Friends in the Forest."

Knauft, Bruce McNeill. Good company and anger: The culture and sociology of sorcery among the Gebusi of the Strickland Plain, Papua New Guinea. (volumes I and II). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from
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Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation

Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91891162

Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation

Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…… [Read More]


(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,

Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.

Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane

Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Principal Letter of Application Wish

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17808088

I have the managerial courage necessary to direct the actions of the others tactfully and directly at the same time. Overall, I think that my ability to develop a managerial vision that will be both effective and stimulating for the members of the educational institution. It is through my ability of inspiring and motivating an organization that I hope to achieve the core requirements and goals established by my position.

I see my managerial vision and my drive for optimal results are my principal areas of strength that will ensure my success as an educational administrator. My previous experience is also an important qualification which ensures my ability to have an accomplished performance on the job. Another major strength that I consider crucial is my understanding of the educational system and the way in which it can be made to work effectively. I have a comprehensive perspective on education and…… [Read More]

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Sigmund Freud With George Herbert

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99210676

Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Max Weber (1864-1920) were the distinguished German scholars of their time and both of them individually contributed a great deal in the understanding of society and its paraphernalia.

There is not much to compare between the two scholars apart from the fact they both were Germans and prominent sociologists. Karl Marx is regarded as the founder of 'socialism'. He was a great philosopher and intellectual. His philosophy essentially articulates that it's in the very nature of man to bring change in the world. This transformation process is called labor and this capacity to bring change is termed as labor power. Karl Marx's thought on sociology and philosophy had deep rooted impact on society. He was of the view that ideologies are the product of the social structure and by that he meant the theoretical perception of right being the driving force for setting up of mechanism…… [Read More]


Gillespie, a. 2005. G.H. Mead: Theorist of the social act. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 35, 19-39.

George Herbert Mead. March 15, 2007 "

Freud, Sigmund. General Psychology Theory (Macmillan, 1963).

Freud, S., Civilization and its Discontents (Standard Edition), 21 (1930), pp. 59-145.
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Conflict in Drc Case Study Conflict in

Words: 4232 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 70586802

Conflict in DC (Case Study)

Conflict in DC

Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo

Background of DC Conflict

The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.

DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.

DC…… [Read More]


Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration

Retrieved February 11, 2011 from 

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic

Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from
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Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater Horizon Accident One

Words: 4053 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91654562

Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident

One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.

Performance at a glance for 2010

Facts and figures

Sales and other operating revenues

eplacement cost profit

Number of employees

Proved reserves

etail sites


efineries (wholly or partly owned)

efining throughput

$297,107 million (year 2010)

($4,519) million (year 2010)

79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)

18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent


Active in 29 countries


2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)

(BP's Corporate website, 2010)

On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…… [Read More]


BP's Corporate website, 2010. Annual Report 2010. Retrieved through  on 12th August 2010

Corner, P. Kinicki, A. And Keats, B. (1994) Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice, Organizational Science, vol. 3.

Drucker, P. (1954) The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York, 1954.

Gellerman, S. (1989) Managing Ethics from the Top to Down, Sloan Management Review;
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Operations Management Transformation in the Technologies Behind

Words: 2470 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30342247

Operations Management

Transformation in the technologies behind information will effect in vital transformation in the competition of enterprises. International Business Machines -- IBM encounter a transforming market wherein reputable products lose their competitive edge and also become defunct and are replaced by new products based on latest technologies. IBM Corporation is undoubtedly, the single most major seller in the marketplace in the current era. IBM holds a leadership position in its industry to an extent that is unprecedented in majority of other industries. Users will be encountered with intricate preferences as the restrictions of usual idea regarding information systems in dealing with modern technology becomes palpable. An inescapable aspect of inevitability is present in handling latest technology.

In case of better or worse, modernization cannot be overlooked. Coping up with new technology might be problematic in case of somebody compared to others and might be impossible for everybody. IBM can…… [Read More]


Autonomic Computing: Creating Self-Managing Computing Systems. Retrieved from  / Accessed on 9 May, 2005

Deutschman, Alan. Building a Better Skunk Works. Issue: 92; March 2005; p. 68. Retrieved from  Accessed on 9 May, 2005

IBM Middle East celebrates regional success of ThinkPad notebooks with Centrino Wireless Technology. Retrieved from  Accessed on 9 May, 2005

IBM names 5 Fellows -- company's highest technical honor. Retrieved from  Accessed on 10 May, 2005
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Technology on Disruptive Behavior What

Words: 5645 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 88322181

The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.

The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…… [Read More]


Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

O'Donnell, a.M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J.K. (2011). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Spiegler, M.D., & Guevremont, D.C. (2010). Contemporary behavior therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Leaman, L. (2009). Managing very challenging behaviour. New York: Continuum
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Era Through the Great Depression_ the Economy

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63188824

era through the great depression_

The economy of the United States was faced with fair share of challenges towards the close of the 19th century that had to be mitigated lets they got out of control. Other than the economic woes, there were also widespread social injustices. There was eminent war between capital and labor. Progressive era was realized in the very last years of the 19th century up to 1917 (Sage, 2010). The progressive era was a dawn of new ideas and progressive reforms. Some of its advantages are enjoyed to date. Some of the major events that characterized the progressive era were the birth of the American oil industry in 1901 and the initiation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909.

The first American oil was prospected in Texas' Spindletop and this set precedent for evolution of the nation's oil sector. The Texan…… [Read More]

References Bridgen, K. (2012). The war on women: Women's right to vote. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from .

Commercial Laws. (2012). What is the Hepburn Act 1906? Retrieved March 14, 2013 from .

Grossman, J. (1973). The origin of the U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from .

NAACP. (2012). National Association for the Advancement of Colored

People Victories. Retrieved from .
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History and Development of Sound Technologies and Sound Design in Film

Words: 11249 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 80180588

sound technologies and sound design in Film

Sound in films

Experiments in Early Age


Crucial innovations

Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan

Sound Design

Unified sound in film production

Sound designers in Cinematography

Sound Recording Technologies

History of Sound Recording Technology

Film sound technology

Modern Digital Technology

History of sound in films


Sound Design

Sound Recording Technologies

The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…… [Read More]


Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.

Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.

Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.

Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
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Whiteness an Illusory Correlation Occurs When There

Words: 2633 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34569713


An illusory correlation occurs when there is an observance of an expected relationship between variables and in fact this relationship does not exist (Chapman, 1967). One of the most common examples of this occurs when people stereotype; when people form false associations between membership in a particular group and novel behaviors that are typically negative and tend to be the focus of one's attention (Hamilton and Gifford 1976). With the mapping of the concept of race itself.

One of the consequences of mapping the human genome has been that genetics and science has gone on to conform something many often said but perhaps few were really convinced of: qualities such as "whiteness" are cultural constructions and the concept of "race" itself may also be a cultural construction. Instead of representing an actual biological distinction perhaps it is our political ideologies, economic systems, and other social constructions that invent concept…… [Read More]


Allen, T.W. 1994. The invention of the white race (Vol. 1). London and New York: Verso.

Allport, G.W. 1954. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

Chapman, L. 1967. Illusory correlation in observational report. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6 (1), pp. 151 -- 155.

Hamilton, D and Gifford, R. 1976. Illusory correlation in interpersonal perception: A cognitive basis of stereotypic judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 12 (4), pp. 392 -- 407.
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Nursing Leaders and Job Retention

Words: 3428 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18309326

Nurse etention Capacity

Standards & Analysis on Nurse etention

The demand for nursing staff in the United States has significantly increased and according to the Center for American Nurses, employment in these positions have increased to an amazing 83% which is now at the highest it has been since 1980, and considering that this role is the biggest job in healthcare offering over 2.6 million jobs, the problem in hospitals, healthcare facilities, and in home care is the lack of nurses (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). Furthermore, there are many reasons as to why experts and the healthcare facilities are unable to hire enough people to fulfill the positions within their establishments, and most research has determined that the main reasons there is such a shortage in nursing jobs is because of the poor management and leadership within the nursing work environment, the increased amount of responsibility and work load…… [Read More]


Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. (2011). Occupational outlook handbook 2010-2011 edition, registered nurses on the internet Washington, DC: Retrieved from 

Chart Your Course International (2011). Nursing shortage. Retrieved from 

Monaghan, H.M. (2009). Effective leadership + nurse retention. Retrieved from

Runy, A. (2006, January). Nurse retention. H&HN Magazine, Retrieved from
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Cohousing a Model for Australia

Words: 2444 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11337514

Cohousing: A Model for Australia

The roots of cohousing can be traced in Denmark in the early 1960s, expanding independently and simultaneously in Holland and Sweden where it grew into an established housing model. This term is a direct translation of a Dutch word meaning living together. In the model of cohousing, residents of a community rent or own their own homes while at the same time, share the ownership of communal space and the common house that hosts community activities. The level at which members participate in activities is voluntary although the model encourages community participation. The different income resource enables household preservation and autonomy of privacy within the community (Cooper-Marcus, 2010).

In the cohousing model, common houses make the heart of the community and members share meals sometimes as a means of bringing the community together. The financial contribution of residents of at least fifteen percent of their…… [Read More]


Cooper-Marcus, C. (2010). Site Planning, Building Design and a Sense of Community: An Analysis of Six Cohousing Schemes in Denmark, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 (Summer 2000)

Durrett, C, (2005). Senior Cohousing: A Community Approach to Independent Living. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California.

McCamant, K. & Charles, D. (1994). Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves, rev. ed. Ten Speed Press:Berkeley, California.
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Loans Envisioned Research Methodology Association Loans Association

Words: 4859 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 84889499

Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology

Envisioned research Methodology and Design

Methodologies Considered

Quantitative Methods


Experimental Study

Qualitative Methods

Descriptive Research Methods


Focus Group

Mixed Method

Research Designs Considered

Convergent Design

Explanatory Sequential Design

Exploratory Sequential Design

The Embedded Design

Research Validity and Reliability

Strengths and weaknesses

Method of Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs




The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…… [Read More]


Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.

Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
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Media Framing in Relation to

Words: 3388 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62570744

The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…… [Read More]

Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.

Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
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Issues in Criminal Justice System

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 84445229

Criminal Justice System

Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement

Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).

Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…… [Read More]


Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.

Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.

Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
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IBM Supply Chain Concerns

Words: 1810 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20904601

Executive Summary

This document considers the various points of correlation between human resources, management information systems, and supply chain management in relation to critical IBM concepts of managing an organization. It identifies how these three areas intersect and their long term value for organizations as a whole. Ultimately, they are vital aspects of operations in the contemporary business world.


There are a number of eminent facets involved in the management of contemporary organizations. Encompassing a wide range of characteristics, the most notable of these pertain to information technology, resource allocation, and varying elements of procurement. Effecting competitive advantage today no longer requires simply being able to create superior products and services. Instead, there is a growing reliance on both operations and operational efficiency which influences an organization’s overall sustainability. Some of the key facets of operations include the prudent management of human resources, information systems, and supply chain. Organizations…… [Read More]

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How important is the idea of equality to each theorist

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63683326

John Stuart Mill and the idea of equality

Society typically views the triad nexus of politicians, bureaucracies and the financial elite suspiciously, believing they breach the common man’s rights, and, consequently, strives to ensure they behave as it desires. Mills argues, “the government, whether completely responsible to the people or not, will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public (pg. 376).”

The above societal attitude is understandable as this triad nexus has violated people’s will and freedom. As a result, democracies were created in which the common man is allowed to take part in national decision-making. However, in a democratic system the community will govern governmental decisions, giving rise to a self-governing nation. However, Mills warns and asserts that in democratic systems, public opinion (i.e., the majority’s opinion) quells the minority’s views…… [Read More]

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The Influence of Data Visualizations

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The Influence of Data Visualizations
Data visualizations play an increasingly important role in today’s data driven operations. They have a way of making people more aware of just some of the many relationships that are concealed within the current magnitude of data surrounding us. Oftentimes, selecting the right data visualization can aid in one’s overall confidence in the quality of data. Visualizations are not only an eminent means of illustrating various facets of data quality, but they also help to give data vibrancy which otherwise eludes it.
Moreover, there are a number of contemporary techniques in various domains such as machine learning and other cognitive capabilities that involve data visualizations. Progressive technologies such augmented reality, virtual reality, and other variations of extended reality were specifically designed to reinforce visualizations’ chief value proposition. They are able to effectively use images to illustrate relationships that can prove valuable in both academic and…… [Read More]

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U S Legislation Foreclosure Relief Economy

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23539840

But Morgenson suggests even more troublingly, that the fundamental assumption of affordability behind the new program is flawed: "in devising what it considers an affordable mortgage payment, the program doesn't account for all of a borrower's debts -- the first mortgage, second lien, credit card debt and automobile payments. Instead, it calculates affordability using only the borrower's first mortgage payment, insurance and property taxes" (Morgenson 2009).

The program may even hurt those borrowers with second liens: "These banks -- the very same companies the Treasury is urging to modify loans that they service -- have zero interest in writing down second liens they hold because it would mean further damage to their balance sheets. Say a troubled borrower has a first mortgage owned by a pension fund in a securitization trust and a second lien held by the bank that services the loans. The servicer is happy to modify the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Morgenson, Gretchen. "Why Treasury needs a Plan B. For mortgages"

The New York Times. December 5, 2009. December 6, 2009.