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Constructivism on the contrary, though it does not agree with empiricism, as it sees all social scientific observation as a non-objective encounter based on the fact that science itself is a socially constructed aspect of the human condition, in much the same way that faith, philosophy or any number of other explanations are socially constructed and driven by social situations and encounters.
A social constructionists deny that science is an objective encounter with the world, as suggested by the "realists." The values of science do not arise out of any privileged access to nature, but are simply contingent social constructions. In this view science is just one story of many about the world and the privileged knowledge that scientists claim is just a manifestation of their ideological success in convincing us of this. This controversy is important to social scientists, for if a version of social constructionism is right then…
Bhaskar, Roy. The Possibility of Naturalism. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Bevir, Mark. New Labour: A Critique. London: Routledge, 2005.
Brown, Andrew, Steve Fleetwood, and John Michael Roberts, eds. Critical Realism and Marxism. London: Routledge, 2002.
Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: And Selections from a Treatise of Human Nature. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1921.
As experiments became more complex, however, especially noting embryonic development, scientists found that the process that occurs in vitro parallels the evolutionary process of nerve system complexity, and then becomes more qualitative in that not every aspect of thought can be explained by a simple combination of neurotransmitters (neuron coded molecules) or electrical events. While it is true that the electrical even between two cells allows for communication, the subtle and complex nature of neural chemistry cannot completely define the process of memory and thought.
Thus, we see that not only was there an evolution in experimentation, but of the very definition of the neural system from a more purist rationalistic position, to one that combines the material with the immeasurable to form the next generation of conundrum.
Honderich, T., ed. (1995). Problems in the Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press.
Lacey, a.. (1996). A Dictionary of Philosophy. 1st…
Honderich, T., ed. (1995). Problems in the Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press.
Lacey, a.R. (1996). A Dictionary of Philosophy. 1st ed., Routledge.
Lynch, Robert. (2008). "Nerve Physiology." University of Colorado. Cited in:
henever a person chooses a side in the traditional debate between rationalism and empiricism, that person is necessarily making a statement about how much people should trust the evidence of their own senses. However, there are a number of instances in which I think that sensory evidence can be deceptive. hile I think the allure of empiricism is undoubtedly seductive, for the precise reason that sensory experience can be so vivid, I think this is a limited worldview. I would like to advance my own preference for rationalism by looking at two basic objections to empiricism -- the presence of innate knowledge in the mind, and the potentially deceptive nature of the senses. The former, I hope, will show that rational processes and structures to a certain degree exist without need of sensory evidence -- that reason and logic are, to some extent, a thing apart from perception. The…
Hamilton, James, Feldman, Marc, et al. "The A, B, C's of Factitious Disorder." The Medscape Journal of Medicine 11(1): 2009. 27. Web. Accessed 29 March 2014 at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654694/
McCarthy, John J. "Prosodic Structure and Expletive Infixation." Language 58(3): 1982. 574-590. Web. Accessed 29 March 2014 at: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/413849?uid=3739864&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21103767976427
Plato. Meno. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Project Gutenberg, 2008. Web. Accessed 29 March 2014 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1643/1643-h/1643-h.htm
Sacks, Dr. Oliver. Hallucinations. New York: Knopf, 2012. Print.
Empiricism: Does it Collapse into Idealism?
What is Empiricism?
It is important at first to identify the fact that "empiricism" may refer to a method -- for example, the "empirical method" of observing child behavior, or an "empirical study of cancer in rats" -- and it also may refer to the philosophy (or the theory) that embraces empiricism. That philosophy of empiricism, by one definition, "has its roots in dualist theories of perception and communication" (Vesey, 1976). The "perception" part of the theory, Vesey explains (vii), is when a person's mind, "as well as his body, is acted on when he perceives something." That is to say, that "something" that his body is acted upon -- let's say it is a large tree swaying in the wind -- stimulates his sense organs and his nervous system; but beyond that stimulation, there is also a "sensation" or a "sense-impression"…
Berkeley, George. Principles of Human Knowledge/Three Dialogues. London: Penguin
Davies, Stephen. Empiricism and History. London: Palgrave, 2003.
Encyclopedia Britannica Online. "Subjective Idealism." Encyclopedia Britannica Article
Zeno's Paradoxes And Empiricism
This research paper attempts to provide some insights into the life of Zeno of Elea and his paradoxes or arguments against plurality, motion, place, and hearing. The paper also provides information regarding Empiricism and its relation to plurality, motion, place, and hearing. By comparing and contrasting these notions the paper aims to better understand the empirical argument and Zeno's paradoxes.
Historians have noted that Zeno did not actually contribute to the School of Eleatic philosophy but only because his main objective was to devote all of philosophical efforts to refute his mentor's opponents' views. That mentor was said to have been Parmenides who was a teacher on the subjects of the illusions we now know as motion and multiplicity. His teachings revolved around a basic concept that there is a 'True Being' which equates to an absolute one which entails a complete lack of plurality or…
Anderson, John B. Studies in Empirical Philosophy. New York: Angus and Robertson, 1962.
Feibleman, James K. Foundations of Empiricism. Oxford: Nijhoff, 1962.
James, William The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy. New York: Dover Publications. 1956. clas.ufl.edu. Retrieved on Nov.21, 2004, from
O'Connor, J.J. & E.F. Robertson. Zeno of Elea. Ed. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved on Nov.21, 2004, from
Rationalism/empiricism; deduction/induction; intuition/scientific method; yin/yang. First of all, one should ask oneself if experience be complete without polar opposites. This writer would answer "probably not."
Rationalism purports the basic notion that at least some concepts or ideas are independent of our experience and that some truth is known by reason alone. In other words, truth can be a priori in that knowledge can be true by definition. This strength of this argument manifests itself when we explore issues about the relations between our own subjective concepts. I do not need to impose a research study to know who my parents are, what kind of food I like, what type of person I am attracted to, etc. If I have a concept of God, then by intuition I know that there is right and wrong, meaning to life, and an eternal existence etc. If I am an atheist then by intuition…
ationalism is based on logic, or -- rather -- the proper ordering of things. That order, according to Plato, is necessarily hierarchical and his Allegory of the Cave explicitly shows it: the philosopher is one who has striven to leave behind the shadows and worked to climb the hill, until he has reached a revelation of sorts. It is then his duty to go back and instruct the ignorant who still live in the darkness of the cave by appealing to their intellect. While empiricism explains all knowledge as deriving from experience, ationalism explains all knowledge as logical. In other words, experience is not necessary to gain philosophical wisdom, for the life of the mind allows one to logically grasp one conclusion from the next. Platonic ationalism emphasizes the intellect over sheets of data.
In conclusion, I prefer the Platonic theory of knowledge because I find many of the modern…
Hume, D. (1748). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Retrieved from http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/david_hume/human_understanding.html
Weaver, R. (1984). Ideas Have Consequences. IL: University of Chicago Press.
One need only refer to the preceding example to prove this fact. In this example, glass on the floor with spilled water and the author's testimonial to what happened all add up to the fact that there a glass was broken. In this case, there is no difference between what appears as truth (that a glass has broken), and what in fact is truth (that a glass is broken). Although reasons may exist as to why such an event happened (whether or not the author was distracted or perhaps is just innately clumsy), the fact that it took place is indisputable, and demonstrates that the author is wrong about the fact that there is "always" a distinction between appearances and reality.
In all actuality, the most suitable alternative to the philosophical position propagated by the author of this particular positing is a synthesis of global skepticism with empiricism and rationalism.…
Klein, Peter, "Skepticism," the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu /archives/sum2011/entries/skepticism/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
priori justification, differentiate it from a posteriori justification and see where each fits in the context.
As such, following an excellent essay on the item, a priori knowledge refers to a proposition that is "knowable independently of experience"
, as such, to nonempirical knowledge. A priori justification then refers to a justification that is not dependent on experience, that is either known to be so (as in the case of an axiom) or that has a reason not related to direct personal experience.
In order to properly suggest the difference between the a priori and a posteriori justification, it is best to give out some examples. As such, "examples of a posteriori justification include many ordinary perceptual, memorial, and introspective beliefs, as well as belief in many of the claims of the natural sciences" and may include things like the neuronal cells are not regenerating, cloud may lead to rain…
1. Graham, J. Peter. Theorizing Justification. University of California, June 2004
2. Philosophical Perspectives, vol. 13, 1999, pp. 29-55.
Reprinted in Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 81, Special Issue on A Priori Knowledge, 2000.
3. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003.08.08. On the Internet at http://ndpr.icaap.org/content/archives/2003/8/butchvarov-casullo.html
anti-Realism (or constructive realism) of van Fraasen. He divides his essay into three sections:
An explanation of van Fraasen's attempt to demolish scientific realism
His insistence that van Fraasen succeeds no better than his predecessors in answering a major objection to antirealism
The link between realism and explanation and van Fraasen's attempt to sever that link.
An explanation of van Fraasen's attempt to demolish scientific realism
According to Van Frassen, realism can be defined in the following way: "Science aims to give us, in its theories, a literally true story of what the world is like, and acceptance of the scientific theory involves the belief that it is true." (1088).
Van Fraasen does not go to the extreme, as some do, of rejecting science absolutely. He accepts that scientific statements have a truth value of being true or false. At the same time, however, he rejects the positivist stance where…
Different people analyze different situations differently and reach to different conclusions. In supporting his idea he further argued that the senses should not be trusted because people get fooled by their sense. This is due to the reason that many variables affect a person's way of looking and perceiving an event. That's why different people experience same event in different ways.
I do agree with Descartes on this point but at the same time it is also true that majority of the people look at a particular situation in a similar way and reach to similar accurate conclusions. For instance, considering the example of road accident again, if 20 persons watch an accident then majority of them can point out who was responsible for the accident. All of these people view same situation from their own perspective but reach to almost similar conclusion. Therefore it cannot be said that the…
Pereboom, Derk. The Rationalists. Critical Essays on Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz. USA: Roman and Littlefield Publishers, 1999.
Skepticism is defined as a school of philosophical thought where a person doubts the beliefs of another person or group. hile one person might believe wholeheartedly a certain political perspective or believe completely the dogma of a religion, a skeptic would have doubts about these beliefs or about the stories related to religion. Not only do they doubt organized religion, they also doubt the validity of socially constructed morals and laws. Sometimes they doubt the world as they witness it because they are unsure of the truth of reality as they perceive it through the senses (Butchvarov 1998). Like many philosophies, skepticism has origins in Ancient Greece. Pyrrho of Elis is credited with founding the philosophy, a branch of which was later named Pyrrhonism in his honor. The philosophy was expanded into countries throughout the known world, up to and including the early modern world. During the Enlightenment, skepticism branched…
Baird, F.E. & Kaufmann, W. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Butchvarov, P. (1998). Skepticism about the External World. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Cuneo, & Woudenberg. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid.
Hume and Experience
In morals, politics, religion and science, Hume was a conservative empiricist who emphatically rejected all theories he thought of as metaphysical or not based on actual experience and sense perceptions. He did not regard religious and metaphysical theories as scientific, but more like idle speculation, superstition and prejudice. No ultimate original principles existed outside of the mind and perceptions, and this certainly included the concept of cause and effect, which he insisted was derived from the senses and later processed through the mind in the form of simple and complex ideas. Nothing could be known about human nature or any other subject outside of an exact, empirical science, while innate and a priori ideas did not exist. Even his theories of mathematics, logic and the color spectrum were all based on empiricism, and the ability of the mind to reflect, compile and make connections based on repeated…
philosopher Rene Descartes can be regarded as the supreme rationalist. Descartes believed that only through our rational minds could we fully know God and find evidence of God. Empirical knowledge was not sufficient justification to prove the existence of God because our senses could delude us or be faulty (such as through madness or blindness). In contrast, through rational inquiry we could first demonstrate our own existence on a mental plane: even if all is a delusion regarding the body there must be some 'mind' doing the thinking, rationalized Descartes. And, as the human mind can conceive of a greater intelligence known as God, a level of perfection human beings cannot approach, then within the very structure of our mind lies the evidence of God.
David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, however, takes the opposite, empiricist point-of-view. In the dialogue, three figures known as Demea, Cleanthes, and Philo engage in…
5. Kant's "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the "Critique of Pure Reason"?
The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs -- and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them…
Berkeley, G. (1994). Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. Arete Press, Claremont, CA.
Hume, D. (1738). A Treatise on the Human Nature. Escuela de Filosofia Universidad ARCIS.
Kidd, S.D. (1988). The Intersubjective Heart. Sorbonne.
Kline, A. (2009). Kierkegaard, Abraham, and the Nature of Faith. Soren Kierkegaard Biography. Online at http://atheism.about.com/od/existentialistphilosophers/a/kierkegaard_2.htm
ules & Ways of Knowing
The author of this report is asked to answer several questions as they relate to the current nursing classes that the author is taking. The first question is the role of scholarly during an APN/DNP program. The second question asks the author to discuss the interest the author has in the selected role and degree in question. A sub-section of that question is whether the role in question meets the APN consensus statement, what professional organizations offer certification in the applicable certification role and what the criteria are for any applicable industry exams. Next up will be a selection and explanation of an APN conceptual framework for practice. After that will be an explanation of the ways of knowing and how they influence the author's current practice. What will follow that is an identification and explanation of the author's preferred paradigm. Last will be a…
BCEN. (2014, June 3). Get Certified CEN ®. CEN BCEN. Retrieved June 3,
2014, from http://www.bcencertifications.org/Get-Certified/CEN.aspx
Duke. (2014, June 3). FAQ's. Duke School of Nursing. Retrieved June 3, 2014, from https://nursing.duke.edu/academics/programs/dnp/faqs
MUN. (2014, June 3). Conceptual Model. School of Nursing. Retrieved June 3, 2014,
How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?
Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."
In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.
4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?
Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…
Allison, Henry E. Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense. Yale University Press; Rev Exp edition, 2004.
Descartes, Rene., Cottingham, John., Ameriks, Karl. & Clarke, Desmond M. Descartes:
Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections from the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press; Revised edition, 1996.
Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and Trembling (Penguin Classics). Penguin Classics, 1986.
Locke v. Berkeley
The philosophers John Locke and George Berkeley offer stark contrasts on the issue of various matters. Locke's whose viewpoint can best be classified as based in relativism. He believed that all knowledge come from the senses. As every man's senses are unique, no two individuals will sense the same experience the same and, therefore, all knowledge is different in each individual. By extension, there is no such thing as better beliefs or true beliefs. Everyone's beliefs are their own and based on their individual experience. George Berkeley's viewpoints offer a sharp contrast to those of Locke. In fact, their individual careers ran concurrently and they spent most of that time being contrasted and possessing viewpoints that were diametrically opposed. Berkeley's was an empiricist but one who also possessed a certain idealist twist. Berkeley viewed experience as the source of most knowledge. According to Berkeley's form of empiricism,…
Human infants are perceptually competent hence; infants use senses mostly in everything. Moreover, learning has a lot of effect on children's decision-making.
esearchers divide children's development into three: cognitive, language, and physical. All these relate to contribute to the kids general development. Cognitive development entails the need for a better means of speech that will help in expressing knowledge. Language helps a child to capture new words and ideas. Physical development allows a kid to do tasks that seem tough hence helping them encounter other people socially. It results from both heredity factors and forces from the environment. Perceptual abilities develop more during childhood than in adulthood. They learn actively to explore the environment so that they can fully develop their perceptual abilities.
Piaget uses four stages in describing the development of perception. This starts with sensorimotor stage whereby behavior lacks to consider logic. Therefore, a child starts to move…
Brown, T., Mapleston, J., Nairn, A., & Molloy, A. (2013). Relationship of Cognitive and Perceptual Abilities to Functional Independence in Adults Who Have Had a Stroke. Occupational Therapy International, 20(1), 11-22. doi:10.1002/oti.1334
Budnik, U., Bompas, A., & Sumner, P. (2013). Perceptual strength is different from sensorimotor strength: Evidence from the centre -- periphery asymmetry in masked priming. Quarterly Journal Of Experimental Psychology, 66(1), 15-22. doi:10.1080/17470218.2012.741605
Dommes, A., & Cavallo, V. (2011). The role of perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities in street-crossing decisions of young and older pedestrians. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 31(3), 292-301. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00835.x
Tucker-Drob, E.M., & Harden, K. (2012). Early childhood cognitive development and parental cognitive stimulation: evidence for reciprocal gene-environment transactions. Developmental Science, 15(2), 250-259. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01121.x
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).
The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…
Call, L. Nietzsche as Critic and Captive of Enlightenment. 1995.
Descartes, R. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, 4th Ed. Translated by D. Cress. Hackett Publishing Company, 1999.
Berkeley, G. Principles of Human Knowledge / Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous.
USA: Penguin Classics, 1988.
For Descartes, the individual is capable of thinking beyond the physical and real, and this can be done by arguing based on pure reason. is version of "truths" about human existence and other universal truths about life can be generated from human reason alone, in the same manner in which he proved his existence as a result of his belief that he is "persuaded" that he exists. That is, even though experience and reality does not provide proof of his existence, the fact that Descartes believed that he existed is proof enough that he, indeed, exists in the world he lives in.
Descartes' questioning of reality and experience profoundly helped the manner by which human knowledge is created and developed. Rationalism as a philosophy puts premium on the human ability to think and reason, and through these attributes, be able to create ideas that make sense of one's existence and…
He began to have a dim feeling that, to attain his place in the world, he must be himself, and not another. For the first time he sought to analyze the burden he bore upon his back, that dead-weight of social degradation partially masked behind a half-named Negro problem. He felt his poverty; without a cent, without a home, without land, tools, or savings, he had entered into competition with rich, landed, skilled neighbors. To be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships. He felt the weight of his ignorance, -- not simply of letters, but of life, of business, of the humanities...The red stain of bastardy, which two centuries of systematic legal defilement of Negro women had stamped upon his race
Descartes, R. "Meditations." Available at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/descartesmeditations.html .
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Souls of the Black Folk." Available at http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html .
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
They are simply mental constructs of philosophy that have no objective existence in and of themselves.
The idealism of Kant was a direct reaction against the empiricism of philosophers such as Locke or Hume whose skepticism (if unchecked) could unmake the validity of all scientific inquiry in the minds of people (ibid.).
To understand the other side of the coin with Locke and empiricism, we must understand that his investigation into knowledge began with his asking how humans acquire the basic substances out of which that knowledge is composed that that makes up our ideas. To explain this, he formulated the concept of empiricism. According to Locke, empiricism is a theory of human knowledge that claims that knowledge comes about primarily via the phenomenon of sensory experience. Empiricism emphasizes the role of human experience and evidence. This is especially done via sensory perception, in the way of the formation of…
A priori/a posteriori. (2012, January 21). Retrieved from http://humancond.org / analysis/philosophy/a_priori.
Kemerling, G. (2011). Locke: The origin of ideas. Retrieved from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/4l.htm .
Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz are often accurately portrayed as the key figures representing the Continental rationalism. Continental rationalism is characterized by a belief that truth can be deduced from human reason, and that certain innate, or self-evident ideas form the basis for such knowledge. In contrast, British empiricism saw the source of knowledge could be found in experience and through the senses. hile the works of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz contain significant differences, they share the common beliefs in: 1) reason as the ultimate source of knowledge, 2) Leibniz' principle of sufficient reason, and 3) the idea that knowledge must come from self-evident, a priori truths. The belief in innate principles or ideas characterized the work of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and is probably best characterized through their shared belief in the idea of a deity.
Overview of Rationalism and Empiricism
Continental rationalism argues essentially that the ultimate source of…
Descartes, Rene. Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy. Prentice Hall, 1960.
Hauptli, Bruce W. Continental Rationalism Characterized. Florida International University,
2003. 08 November 2004.
This object, though, sets in human consciousness in many divergent ways -- perception, memory, retention, etc. Depending on the manner in which the idea is intentional, the object may be identical but interpreted different and thus a divergent sense of reality for individuals. Opposite of Descartes and Kant, there is no one finite way of describing this object and it is entirely dependent upon the method of reduction and interpretation in which we find meaning. hen we reference a thing, this object, then, we are closer to representing a Platonian version of forms or ideas in that thing -- the thing's essence or idea. Some say that when we describe an identical thing as what we really "see" or measure, it does not mean that this is the entirety of the thing. The ultimate goal of phenomenology, then, is to understand how these different aspects are merged into the actual…
Phenomenology. (2008). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/phenomenology/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
He believed that these functions and their personal elements can be separated only artificially. The personal element in the selective function is an aesthetic response, and in heuristic function it is a goal-directed striving as the following Polyani quote clarifies:
Scientific passion serves also as a guide in the assessment of what is of higher and what of lesser interest; what is great in science, and what relatively slight. I want to show that this appreciation depends ultimately on a sense of intellectual beauty; that it is an emotional response which can never be dispassionately defined, any more than we can dispassionately define the beauty of a work of art or the excellence of a noble action."
In summary, logical empiricism provides a strict definition of science centered on facts. In comparison, integrative philosophy melds logical empiricism with tacit knowledge, blurring traditional empiricist distinctions between art and science. Today, the…
Jha, S.R. Michael Polanyi's integrative philosophy. Retrieved October 7, 2004 from Harvard University Web Site: http://www.kfki.hu/chemonet/polanyi/9602/mp1.html
Jones, R.S. (1982). Physics as Metaphor, Univ Minn Press, p.207.
Phelan, S.E., What is complexity science, really? Retrieved October 7, 2004 from University of Texas at Dalles Web site: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:_d6gNqd5l_EJ:www.utdallas.edu/~sphelan/Papers/whatis.pdf+%22logical+empiricism%22+and+%22what+is+science%22&hl=en
Jones, R.S. (1982). Physics as Metaphor, Univ Minn Press, p.207.
The mechanism of scientific classification, or traditional science in general, is an "encryption" process wherein access is only available to individuals who knows the language of science. Access to information and knowledge is oftentimes dependent on external factors such as socio-economic capability, age, educational attainment, and race, among others. In this mechanism, not all extant and observable information is understood, thus providing little or no venue for understanding and critical thinking on the part of the individual who does not know the language of traditional science.
A6. Financially benefiting or profiting from healthcare and the medical profession is a latent example of how scientific classification has made healthcare a very expensive and exclusive sector wherein specific groups of people are given access to it. Medical practitioners who are able to educate themselves in the field of biological science have gained access to information and knowledge about the field, which also…
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940.
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity, 3rd edn. NY: Doubleday,
Albright, William F. "How Well Can We Know the Ancient Near East?" Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 56, no. 2 (June, 1936), 121-144.
' ut I am not simply rejecting this: I am demanding an explanation of how it could be so. How could this intuitive process justify something unless the process is empirical? The a priori is mysterious because we do not have even a hint of a satisfactory answer. It seems like magic that a process in someone-s [SIC] mind can justify her belief in an external worldly fact without that justification arising from some sort of experiential link to that fact."
Although onJour unarguably demonstrates admirably the inadequacies of empiricism as a means of explaining a priori knowledge, it is not clear, at least not within onJour's paradigm, that rationalism is more successful. In fact, many would argue that onjour's account of rationalism is precisely the one that has led so many to be wary of the a priori in the first place.
Laurence onJour's Epistemic Justification: Internal-ism vs. Externalism,…
BonJour, Laurence. "The Dialectic of Foundationalism and Coherentism." A Companion to Epistemology. Eds. E. Sosa and J. Dancy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
BonJour, Laurence. Epistemic Justification: Internalism vs. Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.
BonJour, Laurence. Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
BonJour, Laurence. In Defense of Pure Reason. London: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
and, through the scientific study of modern, cognitive science, the idea that 'I' am doing the thinking in a way that is separate from my body and that this can be rationally deducted, simply by thinking and without scientific experimentation would be confounded.
However, those using empiricism as their main philosophical view of the world have also been able to twist the empiricism to use science's supposed rationalism and objectivity to justify tyranny of 'the best,' as in the case of eugenics, and the notion of 'survival of the fittest,' which suggests that the 'best' (morally, racially, and ethically) thrive and should be allowed to triumph over the 'weak.' In reality, Darwin's actual theory merely supports the idea that those best suited to an environment survive, not that survivors are innately better or superior creatures (a mutated moth that can blend in with a coal-blackened environment is not 'better' than…
Mind/ody Dualism: Compare/contrast Cartesian Rationalism and at least one version of Empiricism.
Descartes, who was fascinated with mathematical qualities of indubiability, certainty and clarity, considered philosophy as an antithesis of the said qualities since he perceived philosophy as a subject, which was based on shaky grounds. He then sought to provide philosophy with steady foundation through using math principles in his search for something that is clear and indubitable. He thought that such a foundation would offer a steady philosophical system on which all other philosophical truths would be anchored. So, he set on this difficult exercise, through systematically questioning/doubting all the "truths" that he thought he knew. Descartes thought that he needed to forget all the things that he held as his opinions, so as to later bring on other facts or opinions that would be better than his previous ones through rationally confirming everything…
Allais, L. (2007, July). Kant's Idealism and the Secondary Quality Analogy. Journal of the History of Philosophy, 459-484. Retrieved from Project Muse: https://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_the_history_of_philosophy/v045/45.3allais.html
Clay, B. (n.d.). The Difference Between Rationalism and Empiricism; Rene Descartes is a Rationalist. Retrieved from: http://www.beckyclay.com/philosophy/essays/rationalism-empiricism/RationalismEmpiricism.pdf
Crowell, S., Embree, L., & Julian, S. (2001). The Reach of Reflection: Issues for Phenomenology's Second Century. Electron Press.
Krishnananda, S. (2014). Studies In Comparative Philosophy. Retrieved from Swami Krishnananda: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/com/com_lock.html
As such, a nurse is primarily to recognize herself as an individual in the world, with certain responses to this world. When a patient enters the hospital, such a patient is also to be seen as a unique individual who responds to the world and his or her environment in a certain way.
Humanistic nursing is then primarily experiential rather than experimental. This means that new knowledge is gained with every new patient that arrives for treatment. In giving treatment, responses are observed and noted for future reference in similar situations. It is not however assumed that a treatment will work because it did in the past and in similar conditions. Instead, hypotheses are based upon experiences of the past. The recognition that hypotheses may prove incorrect helps the nurse to be open to new experiences. Each human being is then seen as a "world," as it were, with the…
Cody, William K. & Kenney, Janet W. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett.
Collaboration for Academic Education in Nursing. (2009). Foundational Perspectives. http://www.caen.ca/content/view/46/133/
Current Nursing (2009, March 16). Nursing Theories. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/development_of_nursing_theories.htm
Kleinman, Susan (2009). Humanistic Nursing Theory. http://www.humanistic-nursing.com/faq.htm
Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.
The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
The differences between the empirical inductivist approach to science and the Popperian one are immense. Based on induction, the former approach is thesis to Popper's antithesis. The Popperian approach is a response to and a rejection of the value of induction in the scientific process. This rejection pits these two approaches against one another. In the end, while the empirical inductivist approach does have some value and has a long tradition of function to back it up, this is not the same as saying that it is a rigidly scientific approach to scientific inquiry. In this case, the Popperian approach provides us with a clearer division between theories that are and are not scientific.
Dolhenty, J. (2005). A basic introduction to the methods of science -- part 1. The Radical Academy. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://radicalacademy.com/essayscience1.htm
McKinlay, S. (1998). The problem of induction: an analysis and critique…
Dolhenty, J. (2005). A basic introduction to the methods of science -- part 1. The Radical Academy. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://radicalacademy.com/essayscience1.htm
McKinlay, S. (1998). The problem of induction: an analysis and critique of Sir Karl Popper's view of induction. Ontic. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://ontic.co.nz/Science/Sci2.htm
Popper, K.R. (1963). Science as falsification. The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/popper_falsification.html
Siegel, D.M. (2001, October 19). Demonstration experiments: beyond the talking head. History of Science Society. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://www.hssonline.org/teach_res/CoE/activities/demos.html
Spirituality in Health Care
Spirituality plays a very large part of my personal worldview. As such, it is prudent to define the various connotations and denotations that this term has in my worldview. Firstly, spirituality is a belief in a higher power -- a deity -- that has a creating and a controlling influence in the world today. What is essential about this particular definition of spirituality is that it is largely contrasted with religion. eligion is man's rules about the deity or even about spirituality. Spirituality, however, is an increasing awareness and state of communing with that spirit directly, which encompasses a large part of this definition of spirituality. Additionally, in my worldview the term spirituality is a reference to the term spirit, which is largely contrasted with the soul. I believe that all humans are imbued with a soul -- which is an aspect of the deity that…
Bronte, C. (1850). Biographical notice of Ellis and Acton Bell. In Wuthering Heights. International Collectors Library: Garden City, New York.
Markie, P. (2015). Rationalism vs. empiricism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu /
Empiricism is fundamentally the belief that all knowledge is eventually resultant from the senses and experience, and that all conceptions can be linked back to data from the senses. John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume are considered to be three of the most persuasive empiricists in philosophy. The key aspects that the philosophies of these three empiricists have are that knowledge develops from sensory experience. However, it is imperative to note that each of these three empiricists have their own views (Meyers, 2014).
To begin with, Locke repudiated the prospect of intrinsic ideas and that when an individual is born, his or her mind is blank. Therefore, Locke makes the argument that all notions come from experience and that devoid of such experience, reason does not have a benchmark for differentiating the truth from fallacy. In turn, Locke asserted that the foundation of all ideas stem from sensation and…
In that sense, he was a victim of his time period. He may have felt very differently if he were alive today, because science, technology, and even the study of metaphysics have advanced a great deal. Hempel was a scientist, but he was a bit of a philosopher, as well (Sarkar & Pfeifer, 2006).
That is a large part of the reason why his opinions on the issue seem odd. Philosophers are often willing to consider the possibilities and implications of something more being 'out there' and available to them and the rest of the world, but Hempel appeared to have no interest in that. y insisting that the parts made up the whole, and that the whole could be simply broken back down into those parts, Hempel cheated himself out of a lot of other ideas and issues that he could have considered and studied. He was a man…
Sarkar, Sahotra & Pfeifer, Jessica. (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge.
This concept is implausible if there is a just and loving God, but if some evil genius had created the world instead -- along with human understanding of God -- then every single belief could be brought into doubt. Essentially, Descartes takes the null hypothesis regarding mental interpretations of the external world. Still, this construction of absolute doubt is merely a portion of Descartes' argument, because he intends to find some undeniable truth -- a principle beyond doubt -- which can destroy the premise that nothing can be known. In his Meditations he words this as "I am, I exist." This statement -- at other times worded as 'I think, therefore I am' -- is accepted by Descartes because even a maniacal construction of the world could not disprove his own existence, since he believes himself to exist. Obviously, this argument depends upon some distinction between the subjective and the…
Cahn, Steven M. And Maureen Eckert. 2006. Philosophical Horizons: Introductory Readings. California: Thomson and Wadsworth.
This Nicolosi article quotes a senior member of the APA, who asserted, "hen we speak in the name of psychology we are to speak only from facts and clinical expertise,' he explained. If psychology speaks out on every social issue, 'very soon the public will see us as a discredited organization -- just another opinionated voice shouting and shouting.'" (Nicolosi, p. 1)
Quite indeed, the biggest challenge facing psychology's credibility is the invasion of political motive. The Nicolosi article indicates that, for instance, the highly charged debate over gay marriage has penetrated the field of psychology and that both sides of the debate are guilty of experimental subversion in the interest of political objective. Regardless of the social importance of such political objectives as advancing civil rights, we can see that the aims of psychology are undermined by the deprivation of properly controlled research.
On my own career path, I…
Keller, P.A. (1994). Academic Paths: Career Decisions and Experiences of Psychologists. Psychology Press.
Nicolosi, L.A. (2005). Psychology Losing Scientific Credibility, Say APA Insiders. NARTH.com.
III. Instructional Format
The instruction in this instance to teenagers concerning substance abuse would likely be presented first in an informative way such as a slide show or short talk about the facts associated with substance abuse. It would be highly effective to have someone the same age as the teens who has had a problem with substance abuse to come into the classroom and talk with the teens about the 'real-life' experience of substance abuse. According to the work reviewed a small informal group would be the optimal learning environment for teens being instructed concerning substance abuse. Furthermore, the 'Interpersonal Realm' will be fertile learning ground in this instance in that it is a "therapeutic, supportive" environment that is "conducive to providing quality educational interaction" with the learners contributing through their interest and responsiveness to the subject in the group interactions.
Stanhope, Marcia & Lancaster, Jeanette (nd) "Community…
Stanhope, Marcia & Lancaster, Jeanette (nd) "Community and Public Health Nursing" 6th edition.
Target: Teens (Teaching Theories & Instructional Methods)
erlin Society for Empirical Philosophy
erlin Add-on Pages
I added some to extend certain parts. I looked to be more specific with quotes but didn't find anything that fit well. Please note that much of the substance comes from the websites of Stanford. When referencing a resource like this, page numbers and such cannot be used. One sometimes lists paragraph numbers but only if the paragraphs are numbered in the original. So not sure what else to do. I added about a page and smoothed out other language. The way this is pieced together makes it seem comprehensive.
The erlin Society of Empirical Philosophy was one of several distinct collaborations of recognized scientific experts of the early 20th century. They came together to determine how to eliminate or reduce the elements of what might be considered the softer sciences of philosophy, sociology, psychology from the processes of scientific exploration in…
Background of the Berlin Society for Empirical Philosophy
The Berlin Society grew out of a desire to find new ways to address the thinking and results of science, perhaps in hopes of developing a unified theory under which all science, and hopefully some philosophical propositions, could be confirmed or disproved. There were major changes and advancements happening on many levels of objective inquiry, and the world seemed to be coming together to share understandings and expectations about what knowledge meant and how it could be harnessed. In theory, by providing a unifying acceptance of what knowledge was, less accurate (and possibly even meaningless) knowledge could be differentiated. This was accepted as being true to the point where many could comfortably accept that the formulas of mathematics and logic could be considered unrelated to the social context in which they were found. This was why many of the supporters, particularly within the Vienna Circle, used the understanding of language and linguistics as a guide for their beliefs (Uebel, 2011).
This then leads us to the operational definition of either Logical Empiricism or Logical Positivism; both terms are considered interchangeable today. The Berlin Society, under the leadership of Hans Reichenbach, opted to use the phrase Logical Empiricism to ensure that the difference between the groups was affirmed. The importance of this can be seen in translations of the writings of Reichenbach where he bemoans how people forget
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…
Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners
Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.
Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
lan Gewirth and Human Rights
The philosophical concepts of human rights are many and varied. Yet, one of the theories that stands out the most in both approach and application is that of lan Gewirth.
His work demonstrates and ideal that has often been set as a stage for the application of many public issues, from law to psychology. Within the body of his works Gewirth argues that, "...human rights are best defended as necessary prerequisites for individual human beings' exercise of free and rational will." Giving license to the concepts of the right of all humans to act on their own behalf to meet their own needs of happiness through their own free will.
Hence, the value or requiredness of autonomy is not disproved by pointing to conditions whose efficacy stems from a violation of autonomy. The solution to this problem is to maintain or restore autonomy, not acquiesce…
Alan Gewirth, "The Immoral Sense," Criminal Justice Ethics 13.2 (1994), Questia, 22 Apr. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Alan Norrie, ed., Closure or Critique: New Directions in Legal Theory (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993) 22.
For Marx, of course, economics and class conflicts were the base of society, and social change proceeded through revolutions, such as the French, American and English evolutions against feudalism in the 17th and 18th Centuries. In the future, capitalism would be overthrown by a socialist revolution, starting with the most advanced industrial economies in the West (Greene, p. 200). Comte argued that sociology should be concerned with the "laws of social evolution," though, and that science and technology had undermined traditional religion and the feudal social order. Society evolved in three distinct stages, theological, metaphysical and positive, with positivism representing urban, industrial society (Greene, p. 204).
Plato, Augustine and Descartes were the most important dualist philosophers in history, and all of them valued the mind and immortal soul far more than the physical body or the material universe. This view was dominant until the era of the Scientific evolution…
Augustine (2006). Confessions. Penguin Classics.
Gil, C. (1999). Plato: The Symposium. Penguin Classics.
Greene, John C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000: 203-26.
Descartes, R. (1996). Meditations on First Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
Conceptions of an Enduring Issue
elationship between Body and Mind/Soul - Aristotle and Descartes
Aristotle modeled hylomorphism as a fusion of form and matter or soul and body as two elements of one solid being. Aristotle viewed the body's form to be the soul and the soul's matter to be the body. Descartes' dualism separates matter and mind (also soul) and recognizes that the two constitute a person. The two philosophies both subscribed to the view that the mind or soul was located centrally in a person. Aristotle believed that the soul resided in the heart while Descartes believed that the mind was located in the brain. The mind and soul were seen to be interacting with the rest of the body, albeit not clearly in Descartes' case. Aristotle's theory advanced a deep connection between the two and it is probable that he considered the faculty of the soul called…
Chaffee (2011).The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas. Retrieved from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/showcase/chaffee3e/assets/chaffee_ch3.pdf
Cohen, S.M. (2008). Aristotle on the Soul. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/433/PsycheDisplay.pdf
Eltagouri, M. (2009). Immanuel Kant: Last Influential Philosopher of the Theory of Knowledge of the Enlightenment Era. Retrieved from http://condino-gruppsaplitcompclass.wikispaces.com/Immanuel+Kant
Fleming, J.S. (2008). The Nature of Human Nature: Philosophical Perspectives on Human Development. Retrieved from http://swppr.org/Textbook/Ch%203%20Philosophy.pdf
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…
Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.
Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.
Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.
Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
And the freedom in question is the most harmless of all-namely, to make public use of one's reason in all matters" (Clarke 1997, 53). This added to classical liberalism's support of the freedom of speech and of the press. This all played a part in Kant's desire to apply reason to practical life. In The Conflict of the Faculties, he wrote in defense of the openness of the university as "an institution that exists to serve governments…and [bring about] enlightening ends" (Clarke 1997, 53-54). Thus once knowledge was separated from values, it could be harnessed to serve the human project. One area where Kant had an impact beyond philosophy has been in international relations theory. "According to the classical view of international politics, the international sphere is composed of sovereign states and characterized by anarchy" (Bartelson 1995, 257). People have order in their native land but see the rest of…
Ames, Edward Scribner. "The Religion of Immanuel Kant." The Journal of Religion 5:2
Bartelson, Kens. "The Trial of Judgment: A note on Kant and the Paradoxes of Internationalism." International Studies Quarterly 39:2 (1995): 255-279.
Clark, Michael. "Kant's Rhetoric of Enlightenment." The Review of Politics 59:1 (1997):
Descartes systematic approach to establishing an understanding of that which is rationally true inherently called on him to reject all assumed notions of what was true. This 'atheist' thought which he rejected would be characterized by its unfounded but universally accepted nature. By casting doubt and applying testing methods to assumed facts, Descartes sought to provide a living framework entirely governed by empiricism. Such a doctrine inclined Descartes to conclude that man could not accept himself to be capable of distinguishing between his experiences as he dreams and those which he has while awake. Descartes' assessment is derived from his own framework for the resolution of knowledge and, within the parameters that he had designed, is a functionally acceptable one. Indeed, he establishes meaningful similarities between our experiences in both realms.
Indeed, Descartes' view on dreams stems from his umbrella system of epistemology, which is instructed by the pursuit of…
Hume, D. (1910). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Harvard Classics, 37: P.F. Collier & Son.
Newman, L. (1999). Descartes' Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Concepts in the mind such as 'society' can thus have an impact on the real, sensory world but they do not have an independent, tangible or ideal existence. The one exception to Abelard's nominalism is the category of "human beings, whose forms are their immaterial (and immortal) souls. Strictly speaking, since human souls are capable of existence in separation form the body, they are not forms after all, though they act as substantial forms as long as they are joined to the body" (King 2004). Through this idea, Abelard strove to reconcile Christianity with nominalism and to elevate the human being.
The other great medieval nominalist of note is illiam Ockham. Ockham also subscribed to the Aristotelian ontology of realist empiricism, believing that universal essences "are nothing more than concepts in the mind" and no innate ideas exist apart from the mind (Kaye 2007). "The defense of nominalism undertaken by…
De Wulf, M. "Nominalism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. May 11, 2010.
Ess, D. "Notes on nominalism, realism, conceptualism." History of Modern Nominalism.
May 11, 2010.
As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.
Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming
Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…
Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).
Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
Therefore, these strategies identify the problems of contemporary science resulting from male bias. Longino acknowledges that such approach is descriptively adequate to a certain extent, but she demonstrates that it falls short of normative adequacy.
The third section of the article takes into account another strategy used by feminist epistemology, termed multiplying subjects. The strategy is based on the ideal of unconditioned subject. Traditionally it has been acknowledged that individual subjectivities are conditioned, and the unconditioned subjectivity is an achievement; the methods of natural sciences and the scientific methodology in general are the means to that achievement.
The nature of the relationship between observation, data, and theory, which represent scientific discourse have been considered arguments against unconditioned subjectivity and empiricism. The arguments rely on the fact that if the scientific knower is considered an individual who should be freed from external influences in order to produce acceptable knowledge the puzzles…
Third, lack of attention to evidence-based practice can lead to inconsistent delivery of care services.
Evidence-based practice relates to almost every aspect of health care at every stage of a client's relationship with the institution. For example, evidence-based practice informs the types of questions asked during the diagnostic procedures and might even impact the diagnosis itself (Bennett & Bennett, 2000). Evidence-based practice impacts the methods by which infections are prevented (Cantrell, 2009). Evidence-based practices impact the extent to which nurses are empowered to make sound, safe, and effective decisions (Scott & Pollock 2008). Evidence-based practice has the potential to transform the structure of a health care organization like MMH. This is because evidence-based practice changes the hierarchical structure in the organization due to the increased responsibility of nurses for conducting their own research. Alternatively, evidence-based practice can be an extension of organizational change. Health care organizations reducing the hierarchical nature…
Artinian, B.M., West, K.S., & Conger, M.M. (2011). The Artinian Intersystem Model. New York: Springer.
Bennett, S. & Bennett, J. (2000). The process of evidence-based practice in occupational therapy: Informing clinical decisions. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (2000), 47, 171-180.
Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2009). The Practice of Nursing Research. St. Louis, MO: Saunders.
Cantrell, S. (2009). Performing under pressure: Caring for decubitus ulcers. Healthcare Purchasing News. Aug 2009.
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
Francis Bacon's Advancement Of Learning
An Analysis of Bacon's Rationale for riting the Advancement of Learning
hen one analyzes Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning, he does so by first entering into an era that was primarily dedicated to overthrowing the Learning of the past -- that is to say, it was breaking with the old world and advancing the new. That old world was one of scholasticism, with men like Thomas Aquinas incorporating Aristotelian philosophy into the medieval world and using the pagan to prove the Christian. It was a world where religious truths were accepted on the authority of the Church, and a world where that authority was still in place and still in power. In the 14th century that authority would begin to corrupt (with the papacy's abduction and removal to Avignon) and the natural catastrophe that was the Black Plague. These events (though soon over) left their…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Trans. Fathers of the English Dominican
Province. Thomas Aquinas. Christian Classics Ethereal Library,1998. Web. 22
Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. (Stephen Jay Gould, ed.). NY: Modern
Take as an example McDonald's venture to extend its business operations in countries within the Asian region. Through globalization, the company has learned to adapt to the culture of the country it invests in. Examples of such adjustments are the introduction of rice in most of the meal offerings of McDonald's in the Philippines, inclusion of spicy foods in McDonald's menus in India, and the establishment of large McDonald's buildings in China in order to accommodate the large number of consumers that patronize the fast food chain. These are examples of companies' conscious effort to recognize globalization and its principles.
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Feminist Utopia." Available at http://www.amazoncastle.com/feminism/ecocult.shtml .
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180). Effectively, social constructivism is helping "reconstruct" the field of psychology (Bohan, 1990, p. 86). In that, it seems the future of social constructionism can only grow and alter, just as the field of psychology has grown and altered since its inception. The role of the social constructionist is to always question, and because of this, when it is applied to psychology, it can only bring change, new understanding, and continued growth and comprehension to the entire field.
In conclusion, social constructionism and psychology go hand-in-hand, especially in the modern world. Psychology is certainly a science, and science may explain many outcomes in the psychological profile. However, social constructionism is much more viable in the modern, socially complicated world society exits in today. Social interactions, constraints, and expectations all help mold the modern individual, and social constructionism makes the science of psychology more relevant and helpful in the modern world.…
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