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Endangered Species Act
Most people are familiar with the Endangered Species List which is a document that shows various fish, birds, mammals, and other creatures that are in danger of extermination from the face of the Earth. The lists served the purpose of ensuring that the government would do whatever was necessary to stop this from happening. When the Endangered Species Act was first envisioned, the idea was that creating a piece of federal legislation to prevent the killing of animals that had a severely decreased population would help to revitalize that species and prevent the animal's extinction. What started out as a grassroots campaign from concerned environmentalists and nature conservationists became a subject for political discourse and debate. In the Act of 1973, the policy outlined was that provisions would be made for listing species, as well as for recovery plans and designation of critical habitats would be founded…
Burgess, Kelly. (2009). "Gray Wolves Removed from Endangered Species Act Protection." Los
Angeles Times. Jan 14.
Currens, Kenneth P. And Sharon K. Krueger. "Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Oregon Coho
Salmon Populations." Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit. Retrieved from http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm17/papers/currens.htm
S. Fish and Wildlife, 2004). Since the Shortnose Sturgeon is protected on Federal property, this agreement does not pertain. There is no Candidate Conservation Agreement for the Shortnose Sturgeon because there is no development of proposed listing regulation precluded by other higher priority listing activities, which is a mandatory element of its initiation.
Economically, the Shortnose Sturgeon is a very marketable and saleable food product. The fish is very popular and its demand is very high. The fish is regarded as a high economic producer and its decline in population and rise in protective regulations have affected the fishing industries within and around its habitat. In terms of economic cost, the preservation, protection and procurement of habitat has been estimated to have cost well into the millions of dollars. Controversy has arisen regarding the Shortnose Sturgeon as arguments have been made that it is not in complete danger of extinction…
Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge Home Page. Federally Endangered or Threatened Species. 2007. http://www.fws.gov /r5soc/EndThrSp.htm
Dadswell, Michael J., Bruce D. Taubert, Thomas S. Squiers, Donald Marchette, and Jack Buckley. 1984. Synopsis of Biological Data on Shortnose Sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur 1818. NOAA Technical Report NMFS-14, FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 140, 45p.
Blankenship, Karl. Atlantic Sturgeon considered for endangered status. Bay Journal; Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay. (2007).
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Final Recovery Plan for the Shortnose Sturgeon. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1998.
Sea grass is a type of vegetation that grows on the sea floor and is only consumed by sea turtles (Green Turtles especially) and manatees. It must permanently be "cut" short in order to remain healthy, and beds of sea grass are vital breeding and development stretches for numerous species of fish and other marine life. If Green Sea Turtles grow extinct, it is only easy to understand that these creatures, who are hopelessly dependant on the sea grass beds, will also face extinction. Over the past decades, there has been a decline in the number of sea grass beds, and this is thought to be closely linked to the decline in Green Sea Turtles' population.
Another ecosystem that is and will be seriously affected by Green Sea Turtles is portrayed by dune systems and beaches. Very little vegetation can be found in these areas, and that is because sand…
Sea Turtle. Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_turtle.information Retrieved November 3, 2006
Schweitzer, Veronica S. The Struggle of the Ancients. August 1997. On the Internet at http://www.coffeetimes.com/aug97.htm . information Retrieved November 3, 2006 http://www.earthtrust.org/wlcurric/turtles.html . information Retrieved November 3, 2006
Species Fact Sheet: Green Sea Turtle. http://www.cccturtle.org/sea-turtle-information.php?page=green.information Retrieved November 3, 2006
The polar bears' most frequent spot is the area where ice meets the water as it makes it easier for them to hunt seals from the water in Arctic ice. Hence, Polar bears are particularly specialized for the life at the Arctic and he spends most of his time on ice till he dies.
The ice sheets at Arctic contain certain areas of water that disappear when the weather changes and summers arrive. Due to these changes, seals migrate to the different areas so polar bears have to follow them in order to survive. In many areas, ice melts completely in summers hence forcing polar bears to move to the land and wait for the summers to end until the next freeze-up occurs. The Arctic ice-recession is harmful to the polar bears as the life of polar bears depends on the sea ice. Due to the global warming, ice has…
Aars, J., Andrew E. Derocher and Nicholas J. Lunn eds. Proceedings of the Fourtheen Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. Rep. IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2006. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.
Norris, Stefan, Lynn Rosentrater, and Pal Martin. Polar Bear at Risk. Rep. WWF, May 2002. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.
Seigel, Kassie, Brendan Cummings, Anna Moritz, and Brian Nowicki. Not Too Late to Save the Polar Bear: A Rapid Action Plan to Address the Arctic Meltdown. Rep. Climate, Air, and Energy Program, Center for Biological Diversity, 17 Oct. 2007. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. .
Tynan, C.T, and D.P DeMaster. "Observations and Predictions of Arctic Climatic Change: Potential Effects on Marine Mammals." Arctic 50.4 (1997): 308-22. JSTOR. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.
It highlights administrative roadblocks to program effectiveness. This research is an unbiased report made to the House of Representatives. It clearly demonstrates that much work in needed to from a policy and funding perspective to make the program better in line with its intended purpose.
Neil, M. (2008). New Regulations Threaten Parts of ndangered Species Act. ABA Journal. 12 August 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008 at http://abajournal.com/news/new_regulations_threaten_parts_of_endangered_species_act/
This article highlights a new plan that many limit independent scientific review by the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service when a listed plant or animal species is threatened by a proposed project. This new proposal is drawing criticism, as it is feared that opinions will not be objective. It is feared that decisions regarding potential violations will be addressed by personnel that are not knowledgeable enough to make correct decisions. This article informs the reader about these new…
Emotions run hot on both sides of the argument. The central argument of the issue pits landowners, and businesses against environmentalist groups. Both have valid points and concerns. However, we are all a part of the ecosystem and the only species that can make a conscious effort that will have an impact on the future development of species on planet earth.
There is sufficient evidence to support the opinion that the ESA has made an impact on the preservation of many species. Yet, legislators continue to bend to the wishes of big business lobbyists. Even as this research is being written, an issue stands in the balance that will have a dramatic impact on interpretation and enforcement of the ESA. If President Bush succeeds in getting the new amendments to the Act passed, corporations will have many loopholes to exploit, and they will do so to the endangerment of listed species, or those that will be listed in the future.
The most valuable resource found during this investigation was Taylor, Suckling, & Rachlinski (2005), regarding the effectiveness of the ESA. This article demonstrates the need to continue to uphold the ESA so that it can continue to be an effective tool in the preservation of species diversity. The next several months will undoubtedly be exciting, as the success or failure of the Bush proposal becomes known. Whether these new proposals pass or fail, the impact will be far-reaching and will affect the future of the ESA and the species that it is intended to protect..
endangered species' means any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range other than a species of the Class Insect a determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest whose protection under the provisions of this Act would present an overwhelming and overriding risk to man." A threatened species "means any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range." (The Endangered Species Act of 1973)
People can go into the moral and ethical concerns about ending any evolutionary line that goes back 3.5 billion years (as does our own), some confuse the endangered species with the operative phrase 'no practical use to humans.' hat it really means is something more like 'no known practical use given our current state of knowledge.' (Lovejoy)
The Pacific Yew is an example…
Clark, Kerry Bruce, Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida.
Garreau, Joel, Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, March 12, 2000; Page A15 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/2000-03/12/215l-031200-idx.html
Hall, Alan, http://www.sciam.com/explorations/1999/021599animals/index.html
Lovejoy, Thomas E., Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. (1995)
This has led to the early successes of the ESA related to control of DDT and other harmful chemicals, which directly contributed to endangering wildlife (obbins, 2010).
Additional steps that are needed include reporting the results of recovery efforts on a public website that shows the contributions or roadblocks individual politicians and political organizations are making. This will force much greater accountability and transparency around the goals of the ESA. Second, there needs to be a more effective strategy for coordinating recovery efforts across all government agencies so that ongoing strategies by species are put into place. This will save the chaotic nature of recovery efforts using a more consistent framework. Third, there needs to be much greater focus on fines and prosecution if necessary when companies willingly dump toxic materials into the environment, knowing it will affect an endangered species. These fines need to go for advanced monitoring and…
Robbins, S.. (2010). Play Nice or Pick a Fight? Cooperation as an Interest Group Strategy at Implementation. Policy Studies Journal, 38(3), 515-535.
When it seems absolutely impossible to avoid harming a being because the activity one has to perform is done with the purpose of saving a human life, it only seems natural for most people to perform that specific act. ven those who are indifferent to whether or not animals die need to think about the bigger picture and try to preserve biodiversity in general in order to prevent the contemporary ecosystem from being seriously affected.
According to the evolutionary theory, one can come to the conclusion that animals too are capable of moral thinking, even if it is done at a less advanced level in comparison to how humans do it. When considering elephants, it is particularly difficult for a normal human being to determine if they are moral agents or not, given that most people tend to judge matters from a biased perspective -- one that associates virtually everything…
Elephants are but a small part of the animal reign that can be deemed as being morally considerable. There are a variety of species that comply with more of the requirements needed for them to be considered moral agents. However, present day society is focused on profit-making and tends to ignore the well-being of animals.
Chadwick, Ruth ed., Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, vol. 4 (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998)
Gruen, Lori, "The Moral Status of Animals," the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
Management Plan a Threatened Endangered Species. (My topic ocky Mountain Wolf) You demonstrate a knowledge species question, habitat requirements, natural history, . Then learned, develop a management plan bring population species choice back brink "threatened" "endangered" status.
Management plan for the ocky Mountain Wolf
Setting the context
The threat of environmental instability is becoming clearer. If until 2011, skeptics could have argued that global warming is a make belief phenomenon, recent studies have attested that 2010 was the warmest year in history, validating as such the theory of global warming (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011). In this context, the animal species become more prone to disappearance and the label of endangered species becomes more severe.
One such species is represented by the ocky Mountain Wolf, which faces risks of extinction. The scope of this current endeavor is that of creating a management plan by which the ocky Mountain Wolf…
Constible, J.M., Sandro, L.H., Lee Jr., R.H., 2008, Carrion-it's what's for dinner: wolves reduce the impact of climate change, The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 70, No. 2
Li, J., 2000, The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: how the West was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan, Environmental Law, Vol. 30, No. 3
2008, Northern Rocky Mountain Wolves no longer endangered, Parks and Recreation, Vol. 43, No. 4
2009, Rocky Mountain Wolf, International Wolf Center, http://www.wolf.org/wolves/learn/basic/wolf_types/inter_gray/rocky.asp last accessed on January 31, 2011
Acipenser naccarii (Adriatic Sturgeon)
The Adriatic sturgeon is on the “critically endangered” list, and is indicated as being “possibly extinct,” as of a 2009 assessment (IUCN, 2017a). This is a species of sturgeon found exclusively in the Adriatic, both in fresh and sea waters. At its most robust, the species once had a range that extended as far south as Corfu, and as far inland along the Po River at its delta. It may even have been found in Spain, although evidence for this is inconclusive. The species was also located seasonally in the Venetian lagoon. There have been attempts to reintroduce the species to some areas, like Greece and also along the Po and other Italian rivers, but those efforts at population restoration have been unsuccessful. Since 1988, fish farming have successfully enabled the Adriatic sturgeon to spawn, but there is no evidence of wild spawning. The Adriatic sturgeon should…
IUCN (2017a). Acipenser naccarii. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/224/0
IUCN (2017b). Amazilia boucardi. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22687562/0
IUCN (2017c). Amazona imperialis. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22686411/0
The environment is precious and needs protection. God created earth for people to live in and enjoy. However, there must be laws implemented to preserve and conserve the environment. Businesses and citizens often pollute the environment and waste its precious resources. The S. 826: WILD Act- is a bill that aims to reauthorize the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and certain wildlife conservation funds (Congress, 2017). These funds can help protect endangered species and control invasive species that can have a detrimental effect on the environment. The bill has a 41% prognosis or chance of being passed.
May: Biblical guidelines and principles
The two main principles to discuss here are inalienable rights and natural law. Government interventions like the bill proposed are meant to protect what is God’s creation. Natural law means God’s law and part of what God wants from humanity is to protect and use wisely, the…
References Comment by Fischer, Kahlib: List your sources in APA format below.
Conant, J. K., & Balint, P. J. (2016). The life cycles of the Council on Environmental Quality and the Environmental Protection Agency: 1970-2035. Oxford University Press,.
Congress. (2017). WILD Act (S. 826). Retrieved from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/115/s826
Kraft, M. E., & Furlong, S. R. (2017). Public policy: Politics, analysis, and alternatives.
Monsma, S. (2008). Healing for a Broken World: Christian\\\\'s Perspectives on Public Policy. Wheaton: Good News Publishers/Crossway Books.
Potter, B. A. (2010). The patriots handbook. Berkeley, CA: Ronin Pub.
ResearchFunding. (2018). The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program | Research Funding. Retrieved from https://researchfunding.duke.edu/partners-fish-and-wildlife-program
Aguirre, Alonso et al. “Infectious Disease Monitoring of the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 40.2 (2007): 229-241.
This article seeks to monitor infectious diseases afflicting endangered Hawaiian monk seals. It should be noted that a study of this nature is not only relevant from a conservation point of view, but also a valid tool for assessing some of the prominent threats to the long-term survival of endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Two of the most prominent causes of mortality in this case have been identified as mitotoxin and ciguatoxin. The authors are of the opinion that the relevance of continued surveillance cannot be overstated as an approach to the early detection of various infectious diseases. Coupled with other conservation strategies, this is an approach that could immensely help in future conservation efforts. The fact that the authors in this case make use of an appropriate sample size further…
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same species if they are capable of interbreeding.
So, as Stamos further exemplifies, the chimpanzees form a single species, because they are capable of interbreeding, they are producing offspring. Human beings and chimpanzees are not capable of producing offspring together, so they belong to two different species. Furthermore, two races of dogs belong to the same species: they are capable of interbreeding and the resulting dog is also fertile. However, a horse and a donkey belong to different species: while they are able to interbreed, their resulting offspring is not itself fertile.
To sum up, my understand is that humans belong to the same species because of reproductive compatibility. At the same time, the human species is formed of different races, whereby…
1. Stamos, David, (2011). Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters. John Wiley & Sons
2. Barnosky, A. et al. (2011). Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? 3 MARCH 2011 | VOL 471 | NATURE | 51-55
3. Hill, Kevin, (1993). The Endangered Species Act: What Do We Mean
by Species? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, Article 3
Some biologists suggest the decline may be due to a "decreasing availability of suitable carrion and increasing competition for carcasses by other species (Prospero)." In order for the beetle to reproduce, it must have the carcass of a vertebrate animal approximately the size of a dove.
There have been a number of proposed plans for recovery management of the beetle, as well as implementations. In 2001, there was a largest "American burying beetle reintroduction effort in the 12-year history of the species' recovery program on Nantucket Island off the Massachusetts (Clough)." Over 300 beetles were raised for this release in Providence, Rhode Island at the Roger illiams Park Zoo. In June 2001, "320 American burying beetles (160 pairs) were given dead quail for food and released at the Massachusetts Audubon Society's Sesachacha ildlife Sanctuary. ith each pair of beetles capable of raising 10-20 larvae, there is hope the…
American Burying Beetle. (Accessed 29 November, 2004). http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species ).
Chenot, Amy. "UW Researchers Hunt Endangered Beetle." Wisconsin State Journal. (1996):
Clough, Mark. "Region 5. (Regional News & Recovery Updates)." Endangered Species
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
Wild species, which includes that of animals, plants, and of other organisms, constitute the most part of the seafood of the world and of the timber. The Wild species provide a means of earning to the communities apart from providing them with food, medicines, fibers, skins, furs and forage, without which many communities could not have had their living.
Apart from this they also help in the intellectual growth, provide a sense of beauty and also promotes the religious and cultural beliefs of the people. ecause of the importance given to the wild species and of the use made of them by people, many natural and semi-natural ecosystems owe their present existence and even their future would owe to these uses.
Firstly, the use of wild species is that it has direct commercial value in terms of fishing, hunting, harvesting which enables the U.S. economy to earn $200 billion and…
Albuquerque, NM. (1990) Conserving Endangered Species: A Commitment to the Future. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region.
Costanza, R. et al. (1997, May 15). The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature 387: 253-260.
Hill, H.R. (1994, August 8) Ohio State University Study Finds Genetic Altering of Bacterium Upsets Natural Order, The Oregonian,
Food and Drug Administration 57 Federal Register 22987(1995, December) EPA Approves Bt Corn and Cotton With Conditions, The Gene Exchange,
GOVENMENT'S USE OF SPECIAL NETS
Opinion Supporting the Government's Use of Special Nets
There is a great concern for the endangered species in the environment thus there is a need for their protection. The activities such as poaching, unregulated fishing, and deforestation contribute to the extinction of some species (McDonald et al. 2016). Notably, there is a need to check on the human behaviors in the environment to protect the animal species that are in the danger of the extinctions.
As seen from the case, the U.S.' government considered it appropriate to protect the environment including the animals facing the dangers of the extinctions. It is clear that there is a rise in the case of trade on the elephant ivory and the other animals such as the shrimps and the turtles (Wojakowski et al. 2015). Therefore, the government is attempting to explore the different problems facing the endangered species…
Bennett, N., Dearden, P., Murray, G., and Kadfak, A., 2014. The Capacity to Adapt? Communities In A Changing Climate, Environment, and Economy On The Northern Andaman Coast Of Thailand. Ecology and Society 19(2): 5.
Jensen, K. and Rozenberg, G. Eds., 2012. High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. Springer Science & Business Media
McDonald, S.L., Lewison, R. L. and Read, A.J., 2016. Evaluating the Efficacy of Environmental Legislation: A Case Study from the U.S. Marine Mammal Take Reduction Planning Process. Global Ecology and Conservation, 5, Pp.1-11
Peckham, S.H., Lucero-Romero, J., Maldonado-Diaz, D., Rodriguez-Sanchez, A., Senko, J., Wojakowski, M. and Gaos, A., 2015. Buoyless Nets Reduce Sea Turtle Bycatch In Coastal Net Fisheries. Conservation Letters Volume 9, Issue 2, pages 114-121,
Welfae in Captive Wild Animals
The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…
Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.
Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available: http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/ .
Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
The Malayan tiger is a tiger subspecies that is smaller in size and is found in Malaysia as well as some areas in Thailand. It is one of the many tiger species but it is endangered. It can be found in central and southern areas of the Malaysia peninsula as well as to the south of Thailand. Its habitat is the forests that are less dense which have higher food supply.
Because of the loss of habitat occasioned by deforestation, the existence of Malayan tiger is endangered. Recent estimates place their population at between 600-800 individuals, thereby making it one of the tiger species that have a large population (Malayan Tiger n.p).
ild tigers in all their species are facing extinction threats. For hundreds of years they have been important in Asia's nature and culture (Global recovery program p.10). They are at the top of the…
"Global Tiger Initiative." Tiger Summit. St. Petersburg: Global Tiger Initiative Secretariat, 2010. 70.
Malayan Tiger. 1 January 2008. 26 January 2015 .
"Securing a future for tigers in the wild." Wednesday November 2010. WWF. Accessed by 26 January 2015 available at:.
Tara Harris, Minnesota zoo, Allison Amavisa, Phoenix zoo. "Tiger conservation campaign." The AZA tiger species survival plan (2012): 12.
Nevertheless, it is a conceptual change from government-sponsored conservation efforts of the past, which might have focused specifically in the same region on the manatee population, and thus played a pure game of numbers. To regard the Florida manatee instead as part of a larger ecosystem that must be monitored in numerous different ways requires a change in approach which is not always easy for a government agency to implement.
2. The chief conservation implication of introduced invasive species is that the invasive species is often very difficult to eradicate without serious disruption to the host ecosystem. An excellent example of an invasive species is presented by the zebra mussel, a small freshwater species of shellfish originally native to the freshwater lakes of southern ussia. The introduction of zebra mussels into the freshwater habitats of North America has allowed them to spread at astonishingly fast rates: the zebra mussel reproduces…
Barnes, C. et al. (2006). "The Ecosystem Goal Team of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Exploring an Ecosystem Approach to Management." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved online at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/improvement/pdfs/eam_lit_review.pdf
CBC News. "Manitoba to Blast Zebra Mussels in Unique Experiment." May 11, 2014. Retrieved online at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/manitoba-to-blast-zebra-mussels-in-unique-experiment-1.2639258
Without the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, is doubtful that human beings would ever have evolved in the first place. By comparison to the effects of the that meteorite, all of the human activity in the world that has ever occurred since the first human being who hunted for prey or started a fire is infinitesimally small and utterly insignificant.
More importantly, human concern for animal species extinctions seems to be largely predicated on our anthropomorphic impulses: that is, we have the greatest empathy for animals that remind us of ourselves or that seem appealing or "cute" to us. Consider the different way that we regard tuna and dolphin for just one example. We hunt the former so aggressively that we are on the verge of having to maintain wild tuna populations artificially if we hope to continue eating as much sushi and tuna fish sandwiches as we wish. Other…
Climate change, or global warming, is threating the ecosystems of millions of different species. There are at least 8 million unique species of life on the planet and many of the animals are under a threat that is not due to direct human involvement (alsh). The habitat destruction that is being caused is not something that animal protection acts can address. The problem is with the changing conditions of the environment, these species are losing their habitats altogether or being forced to either migrate or adapt. There have been five extinction waves in the planet's history -- including the Permian extinction 250 million years ago, when an estimated 70% of all terrestrial animals and 96% of all marine creatures vanished, and, most recently, the Cretaceous event 65 million years ago, which ended the reign of the dinosaurs (alsh). Therefore, it could be said that the environmental protection acts or not…
Benzie, R. "Tim Hudak warns endangered species regulations hurting business." 26 February 2013. The Star. Online. 12 April 2004.
Castelnuovo, R. "Case Studies in History and Society." Which Home Do We Protect? The Challenge of Protecting Endangered Species and Property. A Review Essay on Private Property and the Endangered Species Act. Ed. Jason F. Shogren. Austin: Texas Press, 1999. 153.
Debate.org. Should we protect endangered species? N.d. .
Platt, J. "How Much Did the U.S. Spend on the Endangered Species Act in 2012?" 1 November 2013. Scientific American. Online. 13 April 2014.
TVA v. Hill Questions
Do you agree with the Court's decision, based upon the language of the Endangered Species Act quoted above? That is, did the Endangered Species Act preclude construction of the dam? Should the ESA have precluded construction of the dam? as Congress right to amend the ESA to permit the dam to be built?
The Supreme Court acted correctly in its decidedly rigid invocation of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to its decision, Section 7 asserts that "all Federal agencies must take such action as is necessary to ensure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not result in the destruction or modification of this critical habitat area." (U.S. Supreme Court, p. 1)
Given that $100 million of federal funds had already been funneled into the Tellico Dam project, it is clear that Congress was explicitly responsible for…
Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).
Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/
Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.
Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.
This is certainly one of the main points of contention, not just with this project, but with all endangered species decisions in which property rights are diminished.
Meantime, Twenty-nine percent of the potential impact of designating "critical habitat" to this area of Nebraska relates to non-governmental conservation activities -- purchasing land, giving easements as compensation, managing and restoring habitat -- and the dollar figure for these activities is estimated at "between $3.8 and $6.6 million" (www.fws.gov). Other impacts include: the cost of the Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) ($1.8 million, 8% of impact); transportation and public works (4% of impact; about $922,000); agriculture-related land use value issues (1% of impact; up to $258,000); and "section 7 consultations" (less than 1% of impact; cost of government staff engaging in the project) (www.fws.gov).
Issues Pertaining to Endangered Status: Threats & factors contributing to the beetle's potential demise: The Salt Creek Tiger Beetle (hereafter…
Northwest Economic Associates. (2007). Economic Analysis of Critical Habitat Designation
For Salt Creek Tiger Beetle. Report Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington
Virginia. Retrieved Oct. 27, 2009, from http://www.fws.gov .
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. (2006). Commonly Asked Questions and Answers About
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
farmed' and naturally bred salmon of the same species vis-a-vis the Endangered Species Act. It will also evaluate and explain my opinion regarding the issue of applying the Endangered Species Act to when a native species is declining in its natural environment but successfully bred in captivity. It would seem at first glance that farmed and wild salmon are the same species, and so, they should be treated exactly the same when it comes to laws, regulations, and the Endangered Species Act. However, after looking into the situation, it is much more difficult to make a concrete decision, and it is also highly charged emotionally on both sides, so decisions are also emotional and scientific. Ultimately, it seems true that the Endangered Species Act was created to save and protect species in the wild that are disappearing, and that salmon bred in captivity simply do not fit this description, and…
Pollack, Andrew. "Study Faults U.S. In Assessing Altered Fish." New York Times 15 Jan. 2003.
Verhovek, Sam Howe. "Saving' Wild Salmon's Bucket-Born Cousins." New York Times 4 Feb. 2002, A17.
The Evolution of Zoos and Conservation Centers
Zoos were once the means of simply bringing rarely seen animals to the forefront of the public. However, during the end of the 20th center they evolved into much needed conservation centers for the preservation of endangered species. In this respect, the purpose of these facilities has become largely didactic. They educate the public about which species are endangered, and some of the factors leading to such predicaments.
Nonetheless, there are a considerable number of economic pressures which zoos face in varying degrees of severity. In terms of resources, they have continual challenges with economic resources necessary for providing habitats which are endemic for some of the rarer species they quarter (Keulartz, 2015, p. 336). However, they are also plagued by constraints on the space required to quarter such animals—which affects the overall vivacity of these creatures. Also, zoos have a…
Otherwise more data and creative solutions would be required in order to get some sense of how to maintain eel populations. The notion of doing a population survey in the Sargasso Sea is tempting, although it is difficult to see how this would be accomplished. Perhaps serious monitoring efforts on the return of the juveniles -- taking the place of harvesting of these juveniles -- could give some sense of the abundance of the species on a yearly basis. Otherwise a fishing ban or limit on the adult eel could be enacted if the numbers are as seriously depleted as is feared. But obviously the unusual life cycle makes the commercial farming of eels extremely difficult, as they do not mate in captivity. If this could somehow be accomplished, it would be a useful way to raise the numbers of the species.
2. The Ecosystems Approach to Management notes that…
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission. "American Eel." 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.asmfc.org/species/american-eel
The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.
Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to…
Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.
Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.
Lopez, B. (2004). Of wolves and men. Scribner Mech, D. (2007). Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation. University Of Chicago Press.
V, A. (2009). Recovery of gray wolves in the great lakes region of the United States: An endangered species success story.
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Biodiversity is a term which refers to the amount and degree of diversity found within living biology. Biodiversity is likely best measured as the sum total of the number of existent creatures, systems, and variety of creatures found within the world at large (National Geographic, 2016). In order to best understand the significance of this statement, it is necessary to codify biodiversity into three different varieties. There are ecosystems, species, and genes which comprise all of the variety found within the notion of biodiversity (National Wildlife Federation, 2016). Therefore, all that is needed to determine biodiversity is to simply add the number of each ecosystem, species, and gene variation found.
The importance and benefits of biodiversity
Biodiversity is important because of the way that different living systems found within it interact with one another. Oftentimes there is a degree of dependence between those systems. It is worth noting…
Forestry is obviously a good, if not complicated, investment at Kapowsin. The spotted owl and similar environmental issues do make forestry a trickier proposition. However, Champion can react with creativity instead of with ingrained but outmoded reactionary tactics.
3. Restricting access to certain forested lands due to the presence of endangered species encourages Champion to be more selective in how it uses its timber products. Secondly, Champion can use the spotted owl incident as an opportunity to prove the organization as a progressive, cutting-edge company dedicated to environmentalism as well as prosperity. Quality of life should be the new marketing focus for the Champion International brand. With increased dedication to quality over quantity, Champion can set itself apart from its competitors, while playing both sides of the field. On the one side, Champion is continuing to invest in lucrative Western forests and provide jobs for local loggers. Returns on investments…
Why should this be so?
If the educational experience of boys is slipping, then this is an issue that should concern everyone.
Education should be a good experience for all children - male or female. Feminists have recognized previously that young girls were being shortchanged, a fact that should have concerned everyone in society (including Goldberg). To say that the education of boys slipped simply because feminists improved the education of girls is a post hoc fallacy.
Second, Goldberg ignores that there are many other issues that affect girls once they are out of college. Even if they do better academically, this does not translate to gender parity in the working world. There is still a significant wage gap between the genders, and women remain underrepresented in many leadership positions in the corporate world. These statistics challenge Goldberg's suggestion that boys suffer into manhood due to their lack of a…
preservation of the cougar in eastern U.S. As well as for its survival and regeneration in areas of that district and to argue, simultaneously, that care be taken to promote its survival in other parts of the U.S.
The so-called North American cougar is only called so because, whilst, at one time, rampant in the Eastern states, it has virtually been eliminated from there due to hunting and other factors overtly and unintentionally directed to destroying its species. Whilst once commonly found in eastern N. America, it is, nowadays, more prevalent in the western states that seem to care more for its survival.
In the eastern states, the cat was almost universally known as the 'panther', but even in the western states, descendents of that ill-fated species are slowly dying out to man's neglect of the beast. The Puma concolor couguar, for instance, remains one of the few remaining population…
Baron, David (July 28, 2011). "The Cougar Behind Your Trash Can." Boulder, Colorado: New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/29/opinion/the-cougar-behind-your-trash-can.html . Retrieved 9/8/2011.
Barringer, Felicity (March 2, 2011). "U.S. Declares Eastern Cougar Extinct, With an Asterisk." The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/01/us/03cougar.html?hpw . Retrieved 9/8/2011.
Boswell, Randy (March 2, 2011). "Montreal Gazette: U.S. officials declare eastern cougar extinct, despite sightings in Canada." Montreal Gazette, Postmedia News.
Cardoza, J.E., & Langlois, SA. (2002). The eastern cougar: A management failure? Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1):265-273.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
St. Croix Ground Lizard
As happens with some anoles and other reptiles in the Caribbean, the St. Croix ground lizard is seriously endangered because of human encroachment and exotic predators. For all their speed and quick reflexes, a number of ameivas are easy prey to mongooses. On June 03, 1977, the St. Croix ground lizard was designated as endangered in the St. Croix area. There are currently only two islands where the St. Croix ground lizard, now extinct on St. Croix and listed as an endangered species, still exists -- Green Cay and Protestant Cay.
About the St. Croix Ground Lizard
Croix Ground Lizard is a small species of Ameiva that measures approximately 35 to 77 millimeters in snout-vent length (UFWA, 1992). The lizard is easily distinguished by its parallel longitudinal black, white, and light-brown stripes. Its belly is light gray with lateral blue margins, and pinkish undersides of legs,…
Dodd, C., Jr. (1980). Ameiva polops Cope. St. Croix ground lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Association (UFWA). (February, 1992). Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book) FWS Region.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Association Service. (2003). Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge General Information. Retrieved from the Internet at http://caribbean-ecoteam.fws.gov/green_cay_index.htm.
Urban, Val. (1977). Green Cay, National Wildlife Refuge. Refuge Facts.
he study illustrates through the use of many other situations as examples that the government is not upholding and enforcing the ESA the way it should be when it comes to fresh water mussels and their current threat of extinction.
his study was extremely thorough and dedicated to providing the most information possible in its completion.
It incorporated an educational component in which it explored the law as well as the fresh mussel species.
Because of the method it used in examining the problem through a case study that held fresh mussels and their plight against hundreds of similar situations, and pointed out the differences and outcomes in those situations this case study should be considered thorough and well done research.
he public and private sector can use this study in decision making when it comes to current and future development questions in their areas.
One example would be…
This study was an excellent example of how a well done piece of research can provide answers for everyone that has an interest in a topic, regardless of the "side" one is on.
Biber, Eric (2002) the application of the Endangered Species Act to the protection of freshwater mussels: a case study. Environmental Law
These calls are done in a rapid series of low-pitched throaty notes (Great1 pp).
A study titled, "A Comparative Analysis of Plasticity in Larval Development in Three Species of Spadefoot Toads," reported by David Reznick in the June 01, 2000 issue of Ecology, evaluated four salient features of the ilbur and Collins (1973) model for amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp) H.M. ilbur and J.P. Collins offered an evolutionary explanation for the labile nature of amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp). Their model has provided the most important framework for interpreting phenotypic plasticity in age and size at metamorphosis (Reznick pp). This model is attractive due to its simplicity, and the fact that it focuses on selection at the larval life stage, is time invariant, and ignores complex relationships between larvae and their predators (Reznick pp).
Reznick study performed an experiment on three species of spadefoot toads derived from environments that differ in their…
Aidem, Patricia Farrell. "Wildlife Shields Proposed Protected Areas May Expand." Daily
News. February 04, 2001. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Biota Information System of New Mexico. Retireved October 08, 2005 at http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/states/nmex_main/species/020076.htm
Bransfield, Ray. "Lands of contrast, diversity, and beauty."
Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly
This is a paper about the Monarch Butterfly. What animal kingdom is it from? Listed is the life cycle of the butterfly. What are the adaptations of the Monarch Butterfly?
THE BEAUTY OF THE MONACH BUTTEFLY
Many people think butterflies live in a carefree environment, but they are wrong. They seem so peaceful visiting flowers, but they are bound by social conventions and instincts of their own. Although their lives appear to be so simple, yet their lives are quite demanding (Farrand 1990). The beauty of the Monarch is found delighting in most butterfly lovers. The life of a Monarch Butterfly is quite complicated as it meets the instincts that it is bound with. A butterfly's life depends on finding enough food, where to lay its eggs safely, the intricate demands of courtships, and on finding the right spot of transformation from a…
Butterflies and Moths" Encarta Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761578331&cid=2
Butterflies The World of Nature" 1990. New York: Gallery Books
Carson, Shawn. "Unraveling the Secrets of Monarchs" Scientific American Sep. 1997 Vol. 277 Issue 3 p. 90
Darrach, Brad. "Millions of Monarchs" Life. Aug 93. Vol. 16. Issue 9. p. 50
Explain what conservation biology is and highlight its goals.
Conservation biology is a branch of biological sciences which is primarily concerned with the preservation of life on earth including organisms which are classified as plants and animals. It examines biodiversity and ways and means in which the biodiversity of life on Earth can best be sustained (Sahney 2008,-page 759). This branch of biological study began as a reaction to the growing concern over extinction of species and disruption of habitats because of natural disasters and/or the actions and behaviors of human beings and industrialization. Interactions between species, particularly the interaction between humans and native populations is of particular interest to conservation biologists, particularly in terms of negative effects of human interaction.
The goals of conversation biologists are to protect various species as well as their habitats and ecosystems. They also want to prevent the extinction of species and…
Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.
David Suzuki Foundation.
Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.
Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.
Saudi Arabian Community: Problems and Solutions
The Saudi Arabian Community: Current Issues and Proposed Solutions
There are many problems affecting the Saudi Arabian community today. The said problems could be political, cultural, economic, or even environmental. This text concerns itself with a problem of an environmental nature. Two of the animals currently under threat of extinction in Saudi Arabia are the Arabian Oryx and the Saudi gazelle. ecently, pictures posted on the internet depicting slayed gazelles caused an outrage with most commentators branding the act irresponsible and intolerable (Toumi, 2013). If nothing is done to save the Arabian Oryx and the Saudi gazelle, the ecosystem could suffer great (and perhaps irreversible) damage.
I personally believe that we all have a role to play as we seek to save these two endangered species. It is for this reason that I have in the past shown great interest in this particular subject.…
Toumi, H. (2013). Saudis Lash Out at Gazelle Poachers. Gulfnews. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/saudis-lash-out-at-gazelle-poachers-1.1226358
Vincent, P. (2008). Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Overview. AK Leiden: Taylor and Francis.
There are abundant pressures on open land, from urban and suburban sprawl to the increase of factory farming. At the same time, it is being recognized that more and more species are being lost as land becomes less diversified and habitats are destroyed. In addition, life is becoming more stressful and people seek ways to engage in recreation for relief. There may be a way to combine more balanced land use with the need for human populations to engage in recreation, and to save significant portions of the natural world at the same time. These methods involved dual uses for open land, both agricultural and forest, and would benefit from additional support by governmental agencies.
Statement of the problem
In an era when it is more profitable to sell rural or close-in suburban land for development than to retain the land for farming or other uses, means must…
Chapman, Art. (2003) Texas ranch to host weekend with Willie, Ronald, longhorns. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, August 6. Retrieved May 21, 2004 from HighBeam Research database.
Eisele, Tim. (2003) Managing woodlands a big benefit to wildlife. Wisconsin State Journals, June 11. Retrieved May 21, 2004 from HighBeam Research database.
Landowners to receive grants for conservation actions. (2001) M2 Presswire, May 2.
M2 Presswire; 5/2/2001 Retrieved May 21, 2004 from HighBeam Research database.
The plan would be the result of the scientific method, through which the impacts and causes of the current environmental problems would be addressed. Additionally, the scientific method would sit at the basis of the future actions to be taken. These would traditionally include:
The search for alternative sources of energy
The search for renewable sources of energy
The creation of an infrastructure which allowed the propagation and populous use of alternative energies
The education of the population to reduce their levels of consumerism to life necessities
The implementation of stricter regulations which punish economic agents who pollute waters or cut the forests in an unsustainable manner
eplant forests, clean waters and support the sustainable life of the endangered species.
At a smaller size and specific level, the alternative and immediate action to be taken is that of reducing the harvesting of krill by commercial fishermen. This would be achieved…
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
Naik, A., 2010, Ozone layer and global warming, Buzzle, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ozone-layer-and-global-warming.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
Antarctic krill conservation project statement of principles and core goals, Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, http://www.krillcount.org/solutions.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
Even if giant salamanders may feed more individuals, they too are not sustainable sources of food because of their scarcity. However, turtles may not pose such sustainability or scarcity issues, and turtle soup has been popular throughout the ages. The popularity of turtle meat in Cajun cuisine, combined with the hardiness of turtles might make turtle meat a likely candidate for more widespread consumption: "Turtle soup is a great delicacy in Louisiana. The flavor of the turtle meat is both delicate and intense; there are supposedly seven distinct flavors of meat within the turtle (Turtle Soup, 2010, Gumbo). The fact that turtles are larger and have a wider variety of culinary applications than frogs makes them potentially superior as a food source. However, turtles raised in captivity have also been implicated in environmental problems: "turtles regularly escape or are purposely set free into the wild. They establish populations and damage…
About typical French food. (2008). French Food and Cook. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://www.ffcook.com/pages/frenchfrogs.htm
Alligator: The last truly local meat? (2009, October). The Atlantic. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://www.theatlantic.com/food/archive/2009/10/alligator-the-last-truly-local-food/28185/
Black, Richard. (2005, September 19). Hunting threat to big amphibians. BBC News. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4259596.stm
California upholds ban on importation of nonnative frogs and turtles for food. (2010, June 10).
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
Dolphins commonly bear one calf at a time. Reproduction occurs every 2 to 3 years and as many as 8 times within their life span (each-Net Online).
Fishes are the typical foods of dolphins. Calves (young dolphins) start to eat fish at 3 to 4 months. Adult dolphins can eat up to 14 pounds of fish in a day (each-Net Online).
Dolphins' predators are the sharks. Sometimes, killer whales also feed on dolphins.
Are dolphins endangered?
Dolphins are endangered. Their population is not yet known however because different types of dolphins can be found in different parts of water around the globe. Following is a list of the endangered species of dolphins.
American Cetacean Society. http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/common.htm
Dolphins: The Facts of Life. http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins/biology.html
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…
Beisner, E. Calvin. (1990) Prospects for Growth: a Biblical View of Population, Resources, and the Future. Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books,.
DeWitt, Calvin B., Ed. (1991) The Environment and the Christian: What Can We Learn from the New Testament? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House,.
Target Earth http://christianteens.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=christianteens&cdn=religion&tm=294&f=20&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.targetearth.org/
Yahoo Voices, Simple Steps to Help the Environment
Lost Mountain' and look at what the writer say about coal mining and its overall effects to the overall environment and the entire human race. It will first analyze the problem at hand both from the political side and other actors involved in the coal mining on mountain tops. In addition to that the study will go ahead to see the varying criticism and proponents views on the issue and particularly on what the author of the book takes on the issue. According to Reece, the author of the book, the problem of coal miming on mountaintops has a political twist which makes it difficult to solve or work on its solution.
Lost mountain is a book by Reece Erik that has been eloquently been written and quite moving with the main agenda concentrating on the issue of cold mining at the mountain tops. Reece is mainly against the practice…
Reece E. (2006) Lost Mountain: A year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia, Riverhead Books Publishers
Lasswell H. (2007) American Political Scientist
Great all of America? A Bad Idea.
It is widely known that the United States is a country of immigrants. The country's indigenous population constitutes a tiny miniscule of its population, while the rest came mostly from Europe, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, immigration to the United States has always been a divisive and controversial issue. In the nineteenth century, nativist feelings among the ASP (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants) made the East Coast a very inhospitable place for Catholic Irish immigrants, while the legislators in the est Coast targeted immigrants and migrants from the Far East, singling out the Chinese in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Chinese Exclusion Act"). Today, cross-border movement of people through the southern border of the United States has become a hotly debated issue for ordinary folks, legislators, anti-terrorist law enforcement agencies, Congressmen and Congresswomen as well as Presidential candidates. Criticizing the…
"Chinese Exclusion Act." Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. Web. 14 March 2012
"Environmental Rules Waived for Border Fence." Associated Press. 15 January 2007. Web. 14 March 2012
Drehle, David Von. "The Great Wall of America." Time. 19 June 2008. Web. 14 March 2012
Kenner, Robert, et al. Food, Inc. Los Angeles, CA: Magnolia Home Entertainment, 2009.
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
Hill People Page
In 1997, when Kirk Watson was running for mayor, Austin was in the drunken throes of enjoying a decade-long spell of unprecedented, economic growth. Unemployment was on the downswing. Corporate relocations and expansions were on the upswing. Venture capitol and new business creation was rising to an all-time high. Office buildings, apartment complexes, new home subdivisions, retail centers, along with all the roads to support them, were sprouting up all over the city. As a consequence, the city populace had become polarized in their feelings about growth and had split into two political camps. There were the developers who welcomed Austin's transition to a large, thriving metropolis much like the mega-cities of Dallas or Houston, and there were the environmentalists who didn't want Austin to be a city at all, but wanted to go back to the hip college town that was the Austin they knew in…
Fisher, R. & Ury, W. 1991, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, Penguin, New York.
Susskind, L. 1989, Breaking the Impasse: Consensual Approaches to Resolving Public Disputes, Basic Books, New York.
The Hill People Page
Dredging the Port of Miami
Dredging refers to the activity needed to be conducted for removal of unwanted deposits present in water pathways. However, even though this activity facilitates marine traffic regularity, it isn't without its drawbacks[footnoteef:2]. Dredging poses a great threat to the aquatic environment, and should be carried out very carefully, facilitated only using the assistance of the appropriate dredges and dredgers. As a port for international cargo, the Port of Miami is a significant section of the Miami economy. A project, to expand the port area by means of dredging, has been planned for. This is intended to provide ingress and egress for the new larger PanaMax ships that will be coming through the improved Panama Canal, and thus is expected to draw more business in cargo shipping to the locality[footnoteef:3]. The proposed expansion zone is, however, also the site of a key ecosystem. Thus, arguments and…
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf…
ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.
Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." www.idahostatesman.com. March 8, 2012. http://www.idahostatesman.com/2012/03/08/2026038/otter-to-feds-pony-up-more-cash.html (accessed April 7, 2012).
Duffield, J. "An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values." Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.
Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. "Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor
Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.
Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm .
Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm .
Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm .
Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm .
Animal attractions such as zoological parks have long been a favorite amongst tourist. However there is a great deal of debate concerning the ethical responsibilities of placing animals on display. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ethic and pros and cons wildlife attractions. More specifically the research will address four main arguments as it pertains to wildlife attraction ethics. The arguments include scientific research, conservation, educating the public and entertainment. We will also discuss the deaths of animals at wildlife attractions. Let us begin by discussing the history of wildlife attractions.
History of Wildlife Attractions
According to Flippen (2004) the collection of animals has long been a form of colonial commerce. The ability of merchants to sell large animals was dependent upon factors such as the popularity of circus animals and the abilities of professional collectors who supplied them. The article explains that initially zoos…
Animal Ethics Clarifier.n.d. http://www.wolftrust.org.uk/aec-x-entries.html#zoos
Benbow, S. Mary P. 2004. Death and Dying at the Zoo. Journal of Popular Culture 37, no. 3: 379+.
Bostock, Stephen C. 1993. Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping Animals. New York: Routledge.
Flippen, Brooks. 2004. Animal Attractions: Nature on Display in American Zoos. Journal of Popular Culture 37, no. 3: 546+.
However, not all biologists agree that building or preserving corridors is the best way to proceed, because it still allows much of the animal's habitat to be diverted for human use (Thwaites, PAGE). They suggest that corridors are an expensive solution, but often those biologists prefer to see less land diversion.
Another solution is voluntary conservation efforts, called "Habitat Conservation Plans" (HCPs). Since these are voluntary, however, they vary greatly in quality and effectiveness. In addition, they allow considerable habitat destruction, and they do not always fully address the long-term survival needs of the endangered animals (Kostyack, PAGE). aturalists have noted that the number of HCPs established in areas of development often do not reflect the level of threat faced by endangered species in the area (Kostyack, PAGE). Critics of how HCPs are currently used believe the government should work harder to require landowners to protect endangered species living on…
Nickens, Eddie. "Woodpecker wars (red-cockaded woodpecker as an endangered specie)." American Forests. January 1, 1998.
Pyper, Wendy. "Changing habitat: the revival of the Richmond birdwing butterfly offers hope that through research, education, dedication and teamwork, local communities can secure a future for threatened species." Ecos. January 1, 2001.
Thwaites, Tim. " Safe passage.(wildlife conservation aided by strips of conserved habitat)(Wildlife Corridors)." International Wildlife. July 17, 1998.
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the…
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
The way that endangered species and their environments are handled is in need of reevaluation, and I believe that this statement by the authors of this article is proof of this. Obviously, breeding a species in captivity only to have them become endangered again when reintroduced to the wild is a waste of effort and money. I am not suggesting that instead nothing should be done to save these species, but what gets done needs to happen in a wiser fashion. The first -- and also most difficult -- step would be increasing environmental protection laws, especially in areas with endangered species. This would enable for quicker identification of problems leading to endangerment and more effective solutions. In addition, captive populations should be maintained until sufficient evidence as to the area's suitability for repopulation…
This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.
A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.
The California Ground Squirrel is a…
Burde, John H. And George a. Feldhamer. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Environmental Impact Analysis." San Benito County 2005 RTP EIR (2005).
Castillo, Edward D. A Short Overview of California Indian History (1998). http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html .
Cato, Paisley. "Spermophilus beecheyi." San Diego Natural History Museum (2007), http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/mammals/sper-bee.html .
Still, it is not unimaginable, within a lake as large as Victoria that they might also divide into separate populations along very subtle lines of variation -- like mating behaviors or feeding preferences.
This sort of interpretation of the situation in Lake Victoria, however, rests upon the notion that the species of cichlid found there evolved from a single ancestral species. Yet, even Meyer acknowledges that this might not be the case: "Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic." Put differently, it is possible that the species of cichlid that have evolved in Lake Victoria came from a group of distinct, but closely related, fish that colonized the region several thousand years ago. If this is the case, then the scientific importance of the Victorian cichlids would be somewhat diminished, because a less explosive series of adaptive radiations could explain…
Goldschmidt, Tijs. 1998. Land-Use Changes and NIS in Lake Victoria. Bright and Lodge, 1998.
Kolar, Cynthia S. And David M. Lodge. 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Meyer, Axel et al. 1990. Monophyletic Origin of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes Suggested by Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Nature, 347.
Office of Protected Resources. 2005. Endangered Species Act of 1973. NOAA Fisheries. Available: