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Two possible sources of hydrogen fuel are the reforming of methane and the electrolysis of water."4 Both of these foregoing techniques, though, require additional energy to complete their respective processes. For example, reforming methane to create hydrogen requires the combustion of additional methane to provide the heat require for the reformation of the methane into hydrogen.4 As Hiserodt also notes, "Ironically, after using large amounts of energy to free the hydrogen, the resultant hydrogen has a much lower energy content than the natural gas it was freed from."3 Likewise, the electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen cannot be accomplished by heating alone based on the significant increase in free energy involved.4 According to Fay and Golomb, "Producing electrolytic hydrogen is very energy inefficient when the electricity is generated by burning a fossil fuel, because the heat value of the hydrogen will be less than one-third of the heating value of…
Elhefnawy, N. (2006). Toward a long-range energy security policy. Parameters, 36(1),
EU Energy Crisis
The European Union Energy Policy
Energy dependence appears to be the looming concern for the European Union. Last year alone the import figures required to meet their energy needs were at 54% and this number is expected to rise marked to perhaps as much as70% by 2030. The unfortunate cause of this dilemma is that as a whole the EU possesses a minuscule amount of worldwide oil reserves - only 0.5%; while their natural gas reserves are equally inconsequential at a mere 2.4%
Limited access to natural energy resources automatically results in increased dependence on global markets. Various other data support this premise.
esearch from the European Commission Energy
confirms that 42% of natural gas and 29.55% of oil hail from ussia; which means it is the lone largest supplier of energy resources to the European Union; which makes EU policy makers uneasy at the prospect of…
Barton et al., 2005. Energy Security: Managing Risk in a Dynamic Legal and regulatory Environment. Oxford: OUP.
British Petroleum, 2011. BP statistical review of world energy 2010. London: British Petroleum.
Yergin, D. 2009. The Prize: the Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney: Free Press.
S. And Foreign relations relative to energy. he crisis did however have a slightly larger and more lasting impact on the U.S. auto industry, which began producing some models that had gas mileage capabilities that were better than previously thought practical or possible. U.S. consumers, in the wake of the 1979 Energy Crisis, began to demand more and more of these vehicles, and the sub-compact automobile became a staple within the U.S. auto industry and the U.S. auto consumer's world.
Environmentally, the Energy Crisis caused many people both within and outside the U.S. o re-examine their own environmental footprint relative to their oil and gasoline consumption. his re-examination didn't last very long, as the U.S. soon forgot abut the crisis to a large extent, and many of the automobiles introduced in the wake of the oil shortage, ones with higher gas mileage and other technological innovations created to increase fuel…
The major cause of the 1979 energy crisis was the Iranian Revolution which after the Shah of Iran left the country, and protests and oil production slowed, gave rise to a newly created Iranian government and foreign policy measures. This disrupted and later decreased oil production created a landscape of gas rationing and general panic over the lowered supply of petroleum products. Really for the first time, the U.S. began to realize that its dependency on foreign oil for its transportation and security needs was a potential security issue. Then President Jimmy Carter referred to the crisis in one of his most famous speeches as, "The moral equivalent of war." Eventually, Saudi Arabia and other OPEC nations were able to increase their oil production to make up for the decrease in Iranian output, effectively ending the crisis.
In the U.S., Plans were made to begin to move away from foreign oil as a main provider of fuels, but the Reagan Administration effectively slowed the progress of this switch from foreign to domestic energy products and the 1979 Energy Crisis became a small speed bump in the history of U.S. And Foreign relations relative to energy. The crisis did however have a slightly larger and more lasting impact on the U.S. auto industry, which began producing some models that had gas mileage capabilities that were better than previously thought practical or possible. U.S. consumers, in the wake of the 1979 Energy Crisis, began to demand more and more of these vehicles, and the sub-compact automobile became a staple within the U.S. auto industry and the U.S. auto consumer's world.
Environmentally, the Energy Crisis caused many people both within and outside the U.S. To re-examine their own environmental footprint relative to their oil and gasoline consumption. This re-examination didn't last very long, as the U.S. soon forgot abut the crisis to a large extent, and many of the automobiles introduced in the wake of the oil shortage, ones with higher gas mileage and other technological innovations created to increase fuel economy, were not well received by the U.S. consumer base only a few years after the crisis ended. However, some technologies that became widely publicized during the crisis, like wind and solar power did catch on, at least in the back of the U.S. consumer's mind. The crisis was an excellent time to introduce the general public to these technologies, and much of the fervor and excitement that is now centered on them came from their initial introduction during and shortly after the 1979 energy crisis.
Technology and Project Management
The Energy Crisis
As the global demand for energy increases at an exponentially growing rate, the price for these resources also climbs. In many Western Countries the price of gasoline and other fuels is often subsidized which artificially suppresses the market price. This in turn also suppresses the development of alternative fuels by making them less price competitive in the market. Therefore, one step that could be undertaken is to begin to alleviate the fuel subsidies on items such as coal and gasoline. This would increase efficiency while also making investments into newer technologies more appealing for investors and end users alike. On an individual level, people could focus on shrinking their fuel consumption by using public transportation when possible, weatherizing their houses, buying local products, and biking to commute as much as possible.
Globalization and the Environment
One problem that seems to be evident locally…
Establishment Energy Cooperation
Establishment of Energy Cooperation System East Asia
The economic growth and its sustainability of any developing and developed country are dependent on the basis of its energy requirements (Lincoln, 2004). The countries in East Asian region are also no exception. The energy requirements of the region are swelling with the increased focus on its development. The regional focus has also established grounds for the political and industry leaders to focus on the requirements and prepare their countries for future energy needs. The region is also dependent on the energy imports especially the fuel for energy including oil and gas. The increasing energy production requirements are also creating an issue for the local governments to manage the energy prices within the affordable range of its consumers.
The local cooperation among various countries in the region is affected by the political and territorial issues. However the regional cooperation organizations…
Dent, C.M. (2008). East Asian Regionalism. USA: Routledge.
Dincer, I., & Rosen, M.A. (2012). Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development. USA: Elsevier.
Economides, M.J., & Wood, D.A. (2009). The state of natural gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 1(1), 1-13.
Fujita, M., Kuroiwa, I., & Kumagai, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Economics of East Asian Integration: A Comprehensive Introduction to Regional Issues. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Argenti raises many sound points regarding the proper protocol during crisis management. The bulk of chapter ten demonstrates a sound understanding of how crises unfold, and how every crisis is different. While this is true, there are still strong areas of overlap among crises. "Few circumstances test a company's reputation or competency as severely as a crisis. Whether the impact is immediate or sustained over months and years, a crisis affects stakeholders within and outside of a company" (Weiner, 2006). In such a case, clients cancel orders and cancel subscriptions. Employees start asking questions or worse, quitting. Competitors start circling like sharks and government agencies and other regulators often start knocking, with attorneys at their heel (Weiner, 2006). Given all the aggravated circumstances connected to a crisis and the variety of ways that any potential crisis could be handled, Argenti makes a continually strong and pervasive argument about…
Argenti. (2007). Strategic Corporate Communication. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Friedman, K. (2013). Dealing with the Media During a Crisis. Retrieved from bernsteincrisismanagement.com:
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…
Eccleston, C.H., March, F. & Cohen, T. (2011). Inside Energy: Developing and Managing an ISO 50001 Energy Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ginley, D.S. & Cahen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2012). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2007). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
International Energy Law
International Energy Arbitration
This paper will examine the role of arbitration in the international energy sector over the past 50 years. Discussion is organized around the five decades leading up to the current state of affairs in the international energy sector. In each section, major arbitrations are identified and tied to the categorical intention of arbitrations of that period. For instance, arbitration awards that occurred during a period of substantive concession agreements -- termed the first generation of concession agreements by Kosheri (n.d.) -- include the Abu Dhabi award of 1951, the Qatar award of 1953, and the Aramco award of 1958.
The next period, which occurred roughly in the 1960s and 1970s, was characterized by arbitration awards that evidenced a climate of confrontation, during which host nations took the position of abstaining from participation in arbitration proceedings. These nations were unilaterally interested in bringing the earlier…
Bishop, R.D. (2000). International arbitration of petroleum disputes: The development of a "Lex Petrolea. The Journal, [Website] The Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP).
Brower, C.N. And Sharpe, J.K. (2003, July). International arbitration and the Islamic World: The third phase. The American Journal of International Law, 97 (3).
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York, (1958, 10 June). 330 United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), 38.
Dundas, H. (2004, July). Dispute resolution in the oil and gas industry: An oilman's perspective. Oil, Gas, & Energy Law Intelligence, 2 (3).
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
Private schools are just as vulnerable to the issues that public schools are facing today.
Each one of us carries a responsibility for trying to improve the situation. Parents and familial groups have a huge responsibility to augment educational strategies. In the environment where most school systems employ strategies to make students part of the masses, without individual attention or nurturing, it is important for the family to step up and educate children about independence and autonomy. According to the research, "schools train children to be employees and consumers; teach your own to be leaders and adventurers. Schools train children to obey reflexively; teach your own to think critically and independently" (Gatto 155). Encouraging them to engage in learning material that goes beyond the simple curriculum offered at most public schools. Education should not be purely the responsibility of the institutions overwhelmed with responsibility, but should be extended to include…
Gatto, John Taylor. "Against School." Learning Power.
Moore, Michael. "Idiot Nation." Learning Power.
Lopez, Steve. "Looking Out of State for What California Once Offered." Los Angeles Times.
Crisis and Disaster
The running of any Government, Community, Society or even an Organization for that matter is, no doubt, a very complicated matter. The main reason for this complication is the many arrays of problems and situations that can arise and each one of them demands special attention to cater to. This makes the smooth running of any setup, then, a big challenge for the concerned authorities. However, this smooth running turn into more of a challenge in the face of a disaster or a crisis, which can completely turn the entire setup upside down.
Before an analysis of the Frontline Documentary "The Spill" can be presented, it is important that we understand the background of the event presented and the difference between crisis and disaster and how it ties up to the incident in question.
Merriam ebster defines Crisis as "A situation that has reached a critical phase"…
BBC News. (2006, November 1st). BP 'knew of Texas safety worries'. Retrieved December 17th, 2011, from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6100938.stm
Boin, A. (2009). The New World of Crises and Crisis Management: Implications for Policymaking and Research. Review of Policy Research, 26, 367-377.
Bolton, C.A. (2006, October). The Difference between Crisis and Disaster is a Plan. Retrieved December 16th, 2011, from Public Relations Society of America: http://media.prsa.org/article_download.cfm?article_id=929
Broder, J.M. (2010, March 31st). Obama to Open Offshore Areas to Oil Drilling for First Time. Retrieved December 17th, 2011, from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/31/science/earth/31energy.html
Efforts are made to make healthier choices in terms of energy and transport in both developed and developing countries. All legislators now acknowledge the need for alternative energy and transport choices to promote the health and well-being not only of current generations, but also those of the future. Indeed, on a wider scale, healthier choices can eventually mean the difference between the longevity of the human race or its ultimate destruction. It can therefore be said with certainty that the impact of the 1952 event can still be felt today. It forms the basis of the fundamental realization that air pollution is very detrimental to human health, and that alternative fuel sources are essential if the situation is to improve.
II the Fire at andoz Ltd.
II.1 the Crisis
The 1986 fire at andoz Ltd. occurred near Basel, witzerland on 1 November. Like the London smog, was more or less…
BBC News. 1986: Chemical spill turns Rhine red. On this day: 1 November. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/1/newsid_4679000/4679789.stm
BBC News UK. (2002, Dec. 5). The Great Smog of London. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2545759.stm
Bitzer, Dirk. 1986 Environment: So many dead fish! Geschichte
The Crimean crisis of 2014 is an ongoing international crisis, related to the larger issues surrounding Ukraine and ussia. Crimea is a strategically-important peninsula at the southern end of Ukraine. Politically, prior to its annexation by ussia, Crimea was an Autonomous epublic within Ukraine. Its population is a mix of Ukrainian, ussian and Crimean Tatar, and ussian is the predominant language. The city of Sevastopol is an administratively separate municipality, its naval yards on long-term lease to ussia, which has used the city as home to its Black Sea fleet for a couple of centuries. Crimea became part of Ukraine as part of a transfer during the Soviet era. In 2014, armed and masked men, believed to be ussian and operating with military-level effectiveness, seized control of public installations in Crimea (Sengupta, 2014). ussia then oversaw an internationally-invalidated referendum and voted in the Duma to annex Crimea. ussia then…
Conant, E. (2014). How history, geography help explain Ukraine's political crisis. National Geographic. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140129-protests-ukraine-russia-geography-history/
Eckel, D. (2014). In Crimea, Tatars fear a repeat of a brutal history. Al Jazeera America. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/4/14/in-crimea-the-tatarsfeararepeatofabrutalhistory.html
Evans, R. (2014). Moscow signals concern for Russians in Estonia. Reuters. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/19/us-russia-estonia-idUSBREA2I1J620140319
Felton, A. & Gumuchian, M. (2014). UN General Assembly resolution calls Crimean referendum invalid. CNN. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from www.cnn.com/2014/03/27/world/europe/ukraine-crisis/
Using a timeline from the peak of new housing construction to the present day, the following occurred. GDP growth slowed, followed by a three-quarter recession and slow growth has resumed on the other side of that recession. The unemployment rate skyrocketed, more than doubling in a short period of time, and has lingered at high levels for over a year. The rate of inflation fell well below the Fed's target rate, this despite aggressive expansionary monetary policy. The federal government, whose budget had previously oscillated between monthly surpluses and deficits, has been in deficit every single month -- and deeper deficits than every before -- as it has taken several fiscal policy measures to contain the economic damage. This evidence makes the clear case that steps should be taken to avoid a repeat of this housing crisis in the future, since the economic impacts are uniformly negative and in many…
US Census Bureau: New housing starts. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://www.census.gov/const/startssa.pdf
Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross Domestic Product. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/index.htm#gdp
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Unemployment. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet-data_tool=latest_numbers&series_id=LNS14
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Consumer Price Index -- all Urban Consumers (all items less food and energy). Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost
a) Madhu's business is not highly globalized. He produces and sells in the UK. However, one of his major inputs is chefs, and the ones with the skills he needs are not typically found in the UK. Indian chefs almost always come from India or from expat Indian communities elsewhere. This element of his business is globalized, because Indian cooking is a specialized skill that originates from a specific geography, and is not readily found either in the UK or in other parts of the world.
b) The four drivers of globalization are cost, market, government and competition. In the case of Madhu, the most important are market and competition. Cost is not a major factor. Madhu does not appear to have an issue with the cost of Indian chefs in Britain. There is no indication in the case that he is unwilling to pay a higher price…
Cuban Women Times Cisis" posted "Couse Mateials." This summay exceed pages include: 1. What special peiod Cuba? When special peiod stat? Why happen? 2.
What is the special peiod in Cuba? When did the special peiod stat? Why did it happen?
The "Special Peiod in Peacetime" is the ea between 1989 and 1993 in which the Cuban economy suffeed a collapse (Bengelsdof 229). It was spawned by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing lack of suppot given to Cuba by the Soviet Bloc. It was aggavated by the continued economic sanctions against Cuba pepetated by the United States. It's chaacteized by "exteme scacity…insufficient ations…enegy shotages…tanspotation cuts…and the shutdown of whole industies" (229).
How did the special peiod affect women?
Women wee advesely affected by the hash downtown of the peiod, given that the peiod called fo moe eliance on the individual and the family, as the govenment…
references the fact that female family members, often grandmothers, shouldered the bulk of the childcare responsibilities within a family network (231). Families also relied on one another to consolidate money with which to purchase food in a time of shortage (232).
Natural Resources and nergy: Florida verglades
ffects of Agriculture
The verglades' freshwater ecosystem supplies vital services to the local population, such as the maintenance of South Florida's agriculture and drinking water (National Wildlife Preservation, 2012). However, these services are rarely accounted for in decision making in regards to land use and planning. As a result of the natural services being taken for granted, Agricultural scientists agree that modern agriculture faces an environmental calamity. Specifically, " the very nature of the agricultural structure and prevailing policies have led to this environmental crisis by favoring large farm size, specialized production, crop monocultures and mechanization" (Altieri, 2001).
The absence of diversifications and rotations of crops, necessary for the self-regulating process, induces the agroecosystems to rely on vast amounts of chemicals, such as fertilizer nutrients. Moreover, crops ineffectively absorb the chemical fertilizers, thus contaminating the surface and ground water. According to Altieri (2001), "In…
Effects of Human Population
In July 2010 the World Heritage Committee placed the Everglades on the "List of World Heritage in Danger" as a result of the reduction in natural water flows and the introduction of various pollutants from urban growth that reduce the nutrients necessary for ecological balances to occur naturally. Excess water flows at given times is also a problem for nesting animals that build in areas that would normally be elevated during dryer seasons. The Everglades is an aquatic ecosystem and the loss of the habitat for all the species that inhabit or migrate to the area is critical. Furthermore, the Everglades represents a dynamic region where saltwater meets freshwater. This acts to provide a replenishment area for the Biscayne Aquifer which in turn accounts for most of the freshwater supply for Southern Florida.
The increase of construction and related activities after hurricanes Katrina and Andrew have increased the amount of pollution emitted into the local system which in turn further increases the environmental threats for 14 endangered species, over 400 birds, and many mammals,
It deals with inbuilt societal problems that cannot simply be dealt with due to the fact that they are so internalized. They therefore require a restructuring of societal systems -- that is, a transition and this can be done -- according to Rotman and Loorbach (2008) - by looking into the social structure of the problem
Transition management has already come a long way. As Rotman and Loorbach D (2008) observe:
The progress made in practice as well as the theoretical developments shows that modern times require experimental, innovative, multidisciplinary and participative forms of governance like transition management. In line with the underlying philosophy we cannot be certain about this, but transition management seems to be in tune with present societal demands, research and policy.
At the same time: "We are, however, also a long way from realizing a sustainable society, which means that there are ample challenges for the…
Australian Govt (2007)Tackling Wicked Problems. pdf.
BBC How many people can live on planet earth?
Castro (2004) Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives Organization Environment; 17; 195
Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).
Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).
Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…
Climate Change -- Science. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 21st, 2006. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/pastcc.html .
Correspondents in London "Asia in spotlight over global warming" the Australian. April 25, 2007.
National Research Council (NRC), Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 2006. http://www.newton.nap.edu/html/climatechange/.
Talhelm, Jennifer. "McCain warns of twin threats of energy dependence, global warming." Associated Press. 11:12 A.M. April 23, 2007.
Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.
A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:
ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).
A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…
Budowsky, B., January 22, 2008, the Economic Crisis, the Hill
Kilmister, a., December 2008, the Economic Crisis and Its Effects, World Economy, No. 407
Miller, J., Jackson, B., Who Cause the Economic Crisis? The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania
http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/who_caused_the_economic_crisis.html , last accessed on January 7, 2009
Future of Energy: Guiding Decisions ith Evidence
In order to reduce the negative environmental impacts of an ever growing human population and increasing demands for energy as technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities and even households have the opportunity to shift their energy sources to those that are renewable. However, not all locations are equally amenable to any particular form of energy. This analysis will look at personal consumption of energy of the course of a normal routine and attempt to determine the major sources of energy use that are present in my life. It was found that heating and cooling and transportation were among the leading items that contributed to my total energy consumption. There are various ways in which these energy consumption sources could be minimized to create a better conservation of energy strategy in my normal routine.
The world is facing environmental crises from…
EIA. (2013, March 7). Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use. Retrieved from U.S. Energy Information Administration: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=10271&src=%E2%80%B9%20Consumption%20%20%20%20%20%20Residential%20Energy%20Consumption%20Survey%20 (RECS)-f1
Eichholtz, P., Kok, N., & Quigley, J. (2009). Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings. American Economic Review.
Gordon, R., Kinsey, G., Nayaak, A., & Garboushian, V. (2010). 30% CPV Module Milestone. AIP Conference Proceedings, 171-174.
Kunzig, R. (2014, September 19). A World With 11 Billion People? New Population Projections Shatter Earlier Estimates. Retrieved from National Geographic: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140918-population-global-united-nations-2100-boom-africa/
Effect of the recession on upon financial market, the real economy and over everyday lives
ecession is defined as the economic slowdown or decline characterized by slowing down of trade, a magnitude decline in the GDP, and a decrease in employment usually lasting between 6 months to a year. This was the situation in the U.S.A. The hardest times being from 2008 through 2009 and the early months of 2010. America is still recovering from the effects of the recession that the country experienced from 2007 to 2009.
The slow down in economy triggered a massive job loss and unemployment rates that shot through the roof, the prices went up and a great deal of uncertainty rippled through the country. This situation has now seen a reverse trend albeit at a slower rate than was expected by many. The unemployment rate in November 2011 fell by 0.4% to 8.6%…
Amitabh Shukia, (2009). Top 5 major Economic Effects of Recession on Economy.
Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.paggu.com/business/world-economy/top-5-major-economic-effects-of-recession-on-economy/
Browder, Laura, (1998). Rousing the Nation: Radical Culture in Depression America.
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
They become mired in the emergency phase of crisis management.
The authors contend that because of this, leaders may fall into the trap of "hunkering down" and try to solve problems with short-term fixes such as tightening controls, across-the-board cuts, and restructuring plans. Leadership will turn to what they know how to do in order to reduce frustration and quell their own and others' fears. Their primary mode will be drawing on familiar expertise to help their organizations weather the storm.
The article suggests that in order to avoid this trap that leaders practice adoptive leadership. Adoptive leadership calls for seizing the opportunity of moments like the current one to promote organizational change. The turbulence of the present can be used to build on and bring closure to the past. In the process, key rules of the game are changed and parts of the organization are reshaped as the work…
Heifetz, R., Grashow, a. & Linsky, M. (2009, July). Leadership in a (permanent) crisis. Havard business review. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://hbr.org/2009/07/leadership-in-a-permanent-crisis/ar/1
Conflict & Negotiation
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994 entailed a devastating political crisis which started when the Bophuthatswana president, Lucas Mangope, made an attempt at crushing the widespread demonstrations and labor unrest from the people of South Africa as they demanded incorporation of the Bophuthatswana territory into the South African region pending the first multiracial election in 1994 (Holomisa, 2011; Lawrence & Manson1, 1994). Lucas Mangope was a Bantustan (Lentz, 2014). The crisis provoked violent protests after President Mangope made an announcement in 7th March 1994 to the effect that Bophuthatswana was intending to boycott the general elections in South Africa (Appiah & Gates, 2010). The violence quickly escalated into mutiny from local based armed forces and striking of civil servants. The crisis was further complicated when the right-wing extremists arrived with an intention to push for the preservation of Manope’s Bophuthatswana government (Cawthra, 1997).…
This does not build trust" (Dupre, 2007).
Tehran's main revenue still comes from oil, and a realist would suggest hitting Iran where it could 'hurt' it, economically. This would mean threatening to isolate Iran from the international community by seeking other sources of oil on the part of the United States, unless Iran abides by the non-proliferation treaty, and that the U.S. should pressure Iran's major oil 'clients' to find other sources, with incentive packages offered to those states, such as India. Ultimately, "Iranian authorities know that there is no other alternative than Iran's integration in the international society and becoming a key constructive player in the region," and that it cannot become a rogue state like North Korea because it is dependant upon the commerce of oil with other nations (Dupre, 2007). Other nations that might be damaged by its nuclear capacity with economic and political leverage must capitalize…
Dupre, Bruno. "Iran Nuclear Crisis: The Right Approach." Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Feb 2007. [11 Feb 2007] http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=print&id=19002
Idealism." IR Theory. [11 Feb 2007]
Conclusions -- Was TAP Necessary -- A five member Congressional committee echoed a number of criticisms regarding TAP that many consumers, academics, and fiscal analysts were considering. What exactly was the Treasury's strategy with the $700 billion dollars for the supposed bail out? How can Treasury explain the significant gaps in their ability to find hundreds of billions of taxpayer money? In a nutshell, it appears that the departments that control the money given by the Congress (from the American people) have no ability to ensure that the bailed out banks will do what was needed and lend money; have no real standards of measuring success of failure of the program; and for ignoring pointed and specific questions from Congress about their performance (M. Crittenden).
The fact that many of the institutions bailed out with TAP funds, funds from the American taxpayer, did not distribute these funds back into the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
"2007 Public Company Bankruptcies Surpassed, According to BankruptcyData.com." 17 September 2008. AllBusiness.Com. 11 April 2010 http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/financial-performance/11564300-1.html
Andrews, E., et.al. "Fed's $85 Billion Loan Rescues Insurer." The New York Times 16 September 2008: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/17/business/17insure.html?_r=1&hp .
Bardeesy, Karim. "Bailout Baloney." 2 October 2008. The Big Money from Slate. 11 April 2010 http://www.thebigmoney.com/articles/juicy-bits/2008/10/02/bailout-baloney
Bucznski, Richard. "Economic Crisis: When Will It End?" 2010. IBIS World. 9 April 2010 http://www.ibisworld.com/recession2009/
The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations
I would like to see the city where health systems are integrated and sharing one regional headquarter.
The leaders must facilitate development programs that generate high-income jobs.
I must address my quest for an economically vital and people-friendly future city. The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city. There are various ways in which trash could be transformed into treasure. Based on my understanding of the Clearwater's challenges and opportunities, coupled with the current economic conditions, I believe the below strategies will translate Clearwater into a new city of my desire.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations: the future city will be a…
As the worldwide economic crisis of 2008 demonstrated, the economies of governments the world over are highly interdependent. Within this context, the World Trade Organization is coming under closer scrutiny. Negotiations are repeatedly failing and governments continue to violate commitments under WTO agreements with a dispute resolution process many countries find unsatisfactory. This paper reviews both the theoretical and practical economic and political implications of the faltering -yet ongoing -DOHA Round trade liberalization negotiations.
Recent WTO Negotiations: Seattle, Cancun, and Doha
Difficulties during WTO negotiations over the last decade can be attributed to three primary factors: the sheer numbers of member countries who all want to actively participate, the divergent interests between developed and developing nations, and finally the bureaucratic and management complications which arise from the increasing scope of WTO regulations. The most recent round of trade negotiations in the WTO began in the winter of 2001 in…
Clapp, J., 2006. WTO Agriculture Negotiations: Implications for the Global South. Third World Quarterly, 27(4), pp. 563-577.
Couglin, C.C., 2010. Measuring international trade policy: A primer on trade restrictiveness indices. Review, 92(5), pp. 381-394.
Cuyvers, L., Dumont, M., Rayp, G., and Stevens, Katrien, 2003. Wage and Employment Effects in the EU of International Trade with the emerging economies. Review of World Economics, 139(2), pp. 248-275.
Devadoss, S., Sridharan, P., aAnd Wahl, T., 2009. Effects of trade barriers on U.S. And would apple markets. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics. 57(1), pp. 55-73.
Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
The article deals with the important issue of how the scale of a cultures dictates how that culture will adapt to its environment, and the role that this adaptation plays in damaging the environment and depleting resources.
This interesting article begins with the following telling quote. "Nor are those cultures that we might consider higher in general evolutionary standing necessarily more perfectly adapted to their environments than lower. Many great civilizations have fallen in the last 2,000 years, even in the midst of material plenty, while the Eskimos tenaciously maintained themselves in an incomparably more difficult habitat. The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong."
This quote raises some of the most salient points that are brought out further in the article. First, it notes that the scale of the culture and the concentration of social power have…
Sahlins, M. & Service, E.R. Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
What are the major leadership issues facing Superintendent Wallace -- were productive relationships with the community built? In the first place, it was not enough for Superintendent Wallace to make a big showing in her new job by going out to all the schools and mingling with parents and school officials. Town hall meetings are good public relations, but when the real problems arrive the leadership needs to dig in and solve those problems. Leadership is truly shown during crises, and Wallace did not show leadership; productive relationships depend on leaders following through, and clearly Wallace did not follow through with the development of productive working relationships.. Why wouldn't she invite participation of the principals? That is a big error on her part.
What was flawed in the statement the superintendent made to the board and community? What statement would you have made? Holding "several meetings" with parents…
Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens
Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.
Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…
Beyea, C.S., & Slattery, J.M. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide to Successful Implementation. Marblehead: HcPro, Inc.
Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. In Third (Ed.), Handbooks in Health Care (Third Edition ed.). Newtown, Pennsylvania.
Donatelle, R. (2002). Health: the Basics (6th ed.). (6th, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Pearson Education.
Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Orden, C., & Johnson, C. (2000). Prevalence and Trends among U.S. Adults. JAMA, 288(1723-7).
Matthew Desmond addresses the intersection between race, class, and gender in Evicted. The case studies Desmond uses take place in Wisconsin, which serves effectively as a microcosm for the United States. While the overarching issues Desmond discusses can be one of the book’s main draws, it is the details in each of the stories that compels readers to take action or learn more about issues like institutionalized poverty, institutionalized racism, the perpetuation of the housing crisis, and systematic economic exploitation. The people Desmond profiles lack the power to stimulate change, and yet through collective action and self-empowerment it becomes possible to foresee policy change or at least normative changes in addressing the needs of the poor.
As the title suggests, Evicted focuses on the causes and ramifications of both legal and quasi-legal evictions that take place with alarming frequency. By conducting field research separately in predominantly white and predominantly black…
Sustainable Energy Storage
One of the most dire and challenging crises faced by the human race today is the complete reliance on the generation of artificial power and energy in order to fuel the world and its daily functioning. The main problem is that the fossil fuels commonly used for these efforts are beginning to run out and prove themselves quite unsustainable. In response, of course, natural, renewable, and sustainable sources of energy have been identified for the purpose of alternative power generation. While these have met with some success, the new challenge now is to find ways of storing energy from sources like the wind and sun, which are intermittent. The main reason for such storage would be the fact that the greatest need for energy is not necessarily in tandem with when the wind or sun is at its highest.
The main problem associated with this is that…
Smedley, T. (2014, Jul. 4). Power-to-gas energy storage could help displace use of fossil fuels. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/renewable-energy-power-gas-storage-fossil-fuels
I think that people think what they do does not make a difference. However, if enough people do it, then it could make a difference, and make people more aware of alternatives at the same time.
I feel the current political policies, for the most part, are critically flawed and need to be radically reformed. In fact, I think many politicians have their heads in the sand over this issue, and need their attitudes totally readjusted. I just read an article online that the Nevada Legislature wants to rescind a law giving "green" builders tax breaks, because it could cost the state too much money (Bellisle). This seems extremely short sighted and backward to me. It is a time when we should be encouraging the use of alternative power and building methods, rather than rescinding tax incentives. That is just one reason I feel the current political policies are fatally…
Bellisle, Martha. "Gibbons Threatens to Veto 'green tax break' Suspension." RenoGazetteJournal.com. 4 May 2007. 4 May 2007.
Heinberg, Richard. The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2003.
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…
Roberts, P., Bad Sports, Harper's Magazine. April 2001
Snead, M.C. And Martinez, R.D., Energy Prices and the Oklahoma Economy, Center for Applied Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, September 2004
Yetiv, S.A., America benefits from high oil prices, retrieved from Internet on 21st May 2006, http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060206/news_mz1e6yetiv.html , February 6, 2006
This growth has attracted the attention of major industry leaders such as General Electric and Cascade Investment LLC, which has invested $84 million into Pacific Ethanol.
Despite the favorable outlook and the generally accepted need for renewable energy sources, there are those who are opposed to the source for several reasons. According to Lewis, for example, even while the growing ethanol market may be providing an increase in job opportunities, income is taken away from working families within the oil industry. Obviously therefore, the oil industry and its affiliates will be in opposition to the growing use and mandates for ethanol. Furthermore, the claim is that the ethanol market is dominated by a few giant producers such as Archer Daniels Midland. This is neither a fair distribution of the income from the new market, nor a fair distribution of jobs. The argument related to this is that the existing fuel…
Eckhart, Michael. "Renewables: Looking tward inexhuastible energy." E-journal, USA, 2006. http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/ites/0706/ijee/eckhart.htm
Groschen, Ralph. "The Minnesota Ethanol Program." In The Minnesota Star, July 22, 2006. Minnesota Dept. Of Agriculture. http://www.mda.state.mn.us/ethanol/about.htm
Lewis, Marlo Jr. "Ethanol mandate sparks Democrats' opposition." In Environment News, July 1, 2002. http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=906
As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.
IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints
As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…
(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.
Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.
Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.
Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.
That energy is stored in solar batteries so that it can be utilized later as well as at night and when sunlight is obscured by clouds. Unfortunately, the current state of solar energy technology is not efficient enough to compete with the amounts of energy put out by traditional energy production methods. However, with continued research and development, solar panels are becoming smaller and more energy efficient in exactly the same way that traditional forms of energy production gradually evolved into more efficient forms throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Just as government subsidization was necessary to promote the growth of oil companies, gasoline engines, and (especially) the gasoline stations necessary to provide a nationwide infrastructure to support the use of private automobiles, that approach is now necessary to ensure that renewable energy forms can be developed sufficiently to provide a realistic and comprehensive alternative to fossil fuel systems.
Attfield, R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Crittenden, J.C. And White, H.S. "Harnessing Energy for a Sustainable World"
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, No. 13; (2010): 4503 -- 4505.
Green building, a term also known as green construction or sustainable building refers to a structure and the use of processes that are environmentally responsible and also efficient when it comes to resources throughout the life cycle of the building process; from siting to the design, construction, the operation, its maintenance, renovations that are made and demolition. Therefore a green building design involves the finding of a balance between building a home and the sustainable environment. It requires a lot of cooperation of the design team, engineers, architects and the client throughout the stages of the project. The practice of green building has expanded and complements the classical building concerns of utility, economy, comfort and durability. Sustainable development refers to the ability of achieving a continuing economy prosperity while at the same time protecting the natural systems within the planet and providing a high quality of life for people (Katz,…
Patsalides, L. (2011). How Building Green Got Its start. Retrieved October 16, 2014 from http://www.brighthub.com/environment/green-living/articles/51601.aspx
Katz, A. (2012). Green building facts. Retrieved October 16, 2014 from http://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-building-facts
Loveland, J. (2013). The Evolving Impact of Green Building. Retrieved October 16, 2014 from http://www.iso.com/Research-and-Analyses/ISO-Review/The-Evolving-Impact-of-Green-Building.html
GSA. (20009). Benefits of Green Buildings on Costs, the Environment and Jobs.
The only hope rests in being sensible and alert to the danger we have incurred upon ourselves. Going green and seriously focusing on renewable forms of energy is the only way that we could save this planet from the impending disaster.
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census ureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester rown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
5) lue Planet, 'The Facts about the Global Drinking Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://blueplanetnetwork.org/water/facts
6) Pew Center, 'Coal and Climate Change Facts', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/coalfacts.cfm
7) Science Daily 'Environmental Scientists Estimate That China Could Meet Its Entire Future Energy Needs y Wind Alone', retrieved Oct…
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census Bureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester Brown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
Increased oil prices and environmental concerns have increased the interest in nuclear power. However, building nuclear plants is not such an easy thing to achieve. For example, in order to build nuclear plants the United States government must reach a certain level of progress regarding nuclear waste management, creating a suitable regulatory framework for licensing nuclear plants that present a low or acceptable safety risk (Council on Foreign elations, 2006).
Given the above mentioned information, it is expected that the United States dependence on foreign oil to continue to manifest for the following decades. Even more, the country's oil consumption will slowly increase each year. It is not possible for any nation to completely reduce its dependence on oil. However, this foreign oil dependence can be reduced by implementing a series of government policies directed towards developing alternative energy sources, and by influencing individual consumption towards such sources.
United States (2008). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html .
Bowman, Michael (2003). U.S. Foreign Oil Dependency on Increase, say Experts. VOA, Washington. Retrieved November 1, 2008 at http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/2003/10-16-3.htm .
Dye, Lee (2004). U.S.: Foreign Oil Dependency: Stuck Between a Rock and Hard Place. Energy Bulletin. Retrieved November 1, 2008 at http://www.energybulletin.net/node/1253.
Feldstein, Martin (2001). Oil Dependence and National Security: A Market-based System for Reducing U.S. Vulnerability. Retrieved November 1, 2008 at http://www.nber.org/feldstein/oil.html .
In addition to energy crisis, an effect of U.S. dependence of foreign oil that many believe has already been exploited is the political affect. According to Feldstein, "the political leaders in the Middle East know that our dependence on their oil gives them leverage over our policies." Some believe that many of the United States' interventions in the Middle East have been in the name of oil. Many of these also believe that oil has been the cause of American deaths, domestic, and foreign policy concerning both oil and the Middle East. Further dependence on foreign oil, which is projected, can only further increase the effects of said dependence on United States politics, both foreign and domestic.
Finally, a third effect of the United States' dependence on foreign oil is economic volatility. Although gas prices have begun to go down, high prices during the summer of 2008, and in other…
Feldstein, Martin. "Oil Dependence and National Security: A Market-based System for Reducing U.S. Vulnerability." National Bureau of Economic Research. October 2001. 02 December 2008. http://www.nber.org/feldstein/oil.html
Reducing U.S. Oil Dependence." National Resources Defense Counsel. 3 October 2001.
02 December 2008. http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/fensec.asp
Rising Cost of Fuel
The price of light, sweet crude oil on NYMEX has been above $40/barrel since late July 2004. y October the price of crude oil had temporarily surpassed $55/barrel. In the United States (U.S.), the Consumer Price Index rose by 0.6% compared to 0.2% for September. This was driven by a 4.2% increase in energy costs. In this paper, we will examine two arguments: the primary cause, or causes of the rise in the price of fuel and the impact on the U.S. economy.
The cause of the rise in fuel prices is the current demand for petroleum in relation to the supply. High demand is coming from increased industry in emerging third world nations including India and especially China which is developing a large car culture and whose manufacturing bases have grown very rapidly in recent years. Consumption in 2004 compared to 2003 according to DOE…
Attarian, John. (2004, 3 October). Gas Prices Soar as Oil Reserves Near Peak. The DetroitNews.com. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://www.detnews.com/2004/editorial/0410/04/a17-291458.htm .
Coile, Zachary. (2005, 27 May). Offshore Drilling Bill Makes Way to Senate Floor. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/05/27/MNGNECVGJE1.DTL .
Dolbeck, Andrew. (2005, 31 January). Valuation of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry. Weekly Corporate Growth Report. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3755/is_200501/ai_n9521625 .
Greenspan, Alan. (2005, 5 April). Energy. Before the National Petrochemical and Refiners Association Conference, San Antonio, Texas (via satellite). Retrieved July 17, 2005 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2005/20050405/default.htm .
In the meantime, we have not sufficiently developed alternate energy technologies. In the last few decades, nations that were too poor to benefit from the Industrial evolution have begun dramatically increasing their consumption of fossil fuels as larger proportions of their populations become able to afford modern conveniences. As a result, societies in China (in particular) are now experiencing the exact same problems once experienced by European industrial cities immediately after the Industrial evolution (Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Meanwhile, in the First-World nations, production and consumption habits in relation to other byproducts of fossil fuels have been exploited to produce a wide variety of goods made from plastics and other petroleum-based products (Poiman & Poiman, 2007). A consumption-oriented mentality has generated incredible volumes of trash that, because if its petroleum-based composition, is not biodegradable. Modern consumer goods, and even the packaging materials used to ship them, contain large amounts of…
Attfield, R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Poiman, L.P. And Poiman, P. (2007). Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application. Florence, KY: Wadsworth-Cengage.
The simple fact is this that the initiation of offshore oil drilling can be used effectively as a threat to lower the overall importing prices of oil from the Middle East States. The actual drilling, if looking at its impact internally, might or might not result in the actual decrease in gas prices or increase of alternative fuel and energy production. But in the recent times, the real reason for such a high debate on the offshore drilling aspect has been to use it merely as a strategy and a negotiation tool.
This approach and application of this strategy is something that neither I, nor people like who think that offshore drilling has more negative effects then positive, have a problem with. I do have a problem however with how offshore drilling is portrayed as the savior for the American dependency on foreign oil. Its like love is cast off…
Daniels, B. Offshore Drilling: Pros and Cons. 2008.Taken from: http://www.411mania.com/politics/columns/81832
Gertz, E. Can Offshore Drilling Really Make the U.S. Oil Independent? Even if U.S. energy policy goes "drill baby drill," there will be no escape from the vicissitudes of the global oil market. Scientific American. 2008.
Gross, D. Drilling for Answers: Will we find the oil we need offshore? Newsweek, 18-06-2008.
Parsley, J. Wellington chamber weighs pros, cons of offshore drilling. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. 2008.
ater conservation can only provide so much of the resource. Other resources need to be developed to keep up with demand. The Clavey-ards Ferry project will create a reservoir that will provide an extra 12,000 acre of water for supply to the growing population needs of the San Francisco Bay area (Ibid, 3)
2) Due to the energy crisis, all sources of clean energy must be exploited. Hydroelectric power emits no air pollution. The increased energy needs of the state are graphically indicated in Exhibit 1 (Ibid, 11). The energy supplies have to come from somewhere, the Clavey-ards Ferry project is the most energy for the least cost in terms of finances and environmental impact, in particular air pollution which is a major problem in California. By 1983, the 150-megawatt power station at the new Don Pedro Dam met only half of the electricity demand in the two irrigation districts.…
Kincaid, Linda. "Saving the Tuolumne." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management. Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. .
Synthetic Fuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are used as an excellent alternative to gasoline and natural gas. They are derived from a variety of sources like coal, tar, biomass etc. As the demand for fuel is increasing there is more extraction from the natural sources and consequently faster depletion of the same. Synthetic fuels offer to be an excellent solution for this problem of depleting energy resources. Some of the important synthetic fuels that are industrially produced are Methanol, ethanol, hydrazine, synthetic Hydrogen, etc. Let us look into two main methods of producing synthetic fuels before discussing their advantages and disadvantages.
Fischer- Tropsh Method
One of the important laboratory methods of producing synthetic fuel is the Fischer- Tropsh method. This method is actually a reduction of carbon monoxide. Two German scientists named Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch developed this method. This process essentially involves a mixture of hydrogen…
James E. Kloeppel, "Synthetic Enzyme shows Promise as Way to Make Hydrogen Cheaply," "Inside
Illinois" Vol 19, Pg. 8, November 18, 1999. Also available online at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991008075716.htm
2) B.S.Bahl, Arun Bahl "A text-Book of Organic Chemistry," 'Synthetic Petrol', Chand
Company 1991, pg 191.
rift between environmentalism and libertarianism is clear when major issues facing public policy makers are considered. The global energy crisis, which is now taking center stage due to current world events, is one arena in which legislation stalls due to irreconcilable differences. On the one hand, auto manufacturers, dealerships, and consumers of light trucks demand that the government not interfere with the proliferation of vehicles. Reducing emissions standards would be akin to cutting jobs and severely restricting personal freedoms, say the opponents of environmental legislation. Global warming is another issue that garners more dissent than agreement; politicians and scientists can't even agree on the existence of global warming to begin with. It is impossible to establish new laws when there is no agreement on this fundamental issue. In general, enacting legislation that would help improve the environment always irks those who feel that such legislation infringes on personal "freedoms" or…
The lasting legacy of the Iran hostage crisis is that the American public and government developed an attitude that the Iran people and government were a group of evil and crazy individuals who lacked the capacity to negotiate. This attitude caused a breakdown in negotiations at the time of the hostage crisis and has continued to the present day. Americans, as a rule, still fail to recognize that the Iranian people have legitimate concerns and that these legitimate concerns have value. Over the decades since the hostage crisis there has been little movement forward in regard to how Americans view Iran and the level of animosity between the two nations remains high. Farber suggests that this level of animosity helped to ensure that America's relations with the Muslim world would remain contentious and that such contentiousness led to the attacks of September 11 that resulted in the escalation of the…
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
Iranian hostage and Jimmy Carter
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
wrong with this picture?
The viewpoint being espoused expresses some wonderful ideas but fails to take into consideration the basic selfishness of man. Expecting the kind of cooperation and dedication that would be necessary to accomplish what is being suggested in this scenario is highly idealistic. It would require the putting aside of both national interests and personal interests on a scale much larger than that necessary for the United Nations to operate. Suggesting that this might be possible is unrealistic. ather, the more reasoned approach is to allow the natural markets to develop.
In the short-term, the world's energy supply system will remain essentially as it is for the next several decades except that the demand in growth will continue due to sustained modernization in China, India and elsewhere. This means that new sources of oil and other energy sources need to be developed alongside strides in energy efficiency.…
Adger, W.N. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 681-715.
Armitage, K.C. (2005). State of Denial: The United States and the politics of global warming. Globalizations, 417-427.
This is rooted in his Christianity. The book provides important insight into Carter's personal understanding of his Southern Baptist religion, and its positive role in making the world a better place and making him a better man and advocate for social justice.
immy, Carter, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, (New York: Simon & (Schuster, 2006) states that America is in crisis, not simply in an immediate political crisis regarding the Iraq War. In his most recent prose offering, Carter takes on what he sees are the most serious issues of the present day, including the war, violence at home, and global warming. He criticizes the growing gap between rich and poor and the lack of charity at home and abroad. America also seems out of touch in viewing itself as a global policeman that does not need the United Nations, and America is one of the few remaining democratic…
Jimmy, Carter, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, (New York: Simon & (Schuster, 2006) states that America is in crisis, not simply in an immediate political crisis regarding the Iraq War. In his most recent prose offering, Carter takes on what he sees are the most serious issues of the present day, including the war, violence at home, and global warming. He criticizes the growing gap between rich and poor and the lack of charity at home and abroad. America also seems out of touch in viewing itself as a global policeman that does not need the United Nations, and America is one of the few remaining democratic world powers to still allow citizens to own handguns, and to allow the death penalty. Most interesting is the book's critique of the current Christian evangelical movement Carter used to identify with as a Southern Baptist, which Carter sees as ignoring the true call for moral leadership for social equality justice and instead passing judgment against 'others' such as homosexuals.
Primary Sources: The 'Crisis of Confidence' Speech," Jimmy Carter: The American
Experience. PBS, 15 Jul 1976, 6 Feb 2007, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carter/filmmore/ps_crisis.html . offers the complete text of one of Carter's most infamously honest speeches to the American public. The speech, many think, later contributed to Carter's loss of the White House to President Reagan. It demanded sacrifice rather than promised an uncomplicated 'morning in America' that Americans at the time wished to dream of, and one of its most characteristic lines reads: "Our nation must be fair to the poorest among us, so we will increase aid to needy Americans to cope with rising energy prices. We often think of conservation only in terms of sacrifice. In fact, it is the most painless and immediate way of rebuilding our nation's strength. Every gallon of oil each one of us saves is a new form of production. It gives us more freedom, more confidence, that much more control over our own lives." Carter's ethics and moral values shine through, as this speech is read through the sadder, wiser eyes of the present.
Transform Unsustainable Organization Into Sustainable One
Land and water management
Energy, carbon and transport management
Supply chain management
Waste, pollution, recycling management
Sustainability performance indicators
Long-term sustainability vision
The final report is prepared in conjunction with the ANW Construction Ltd. The report prepared to demonstrate the level of sustainability is effective in highlighting the key features that the business has implemented in its operations. The following sections are focused to the differences that a sustainable organization can have in comparison with the unsustainable business. The recommendations are made based on the academic and professional literature. The notable areas for sustainability in a business are addressed as land, water management, energy, carbon, transport management, supply chain management, waste, pollution, and recycling management. Furthermore the report also provides insight on the sustainability performance indicators, social sustainability, and long-term sustainability vision for businesses.
According to Bell, and Morse (2008)…
Alcamo, J., & Olesen, J.E. (2012). Life in Europe under climate change. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: measuring the immeasurable?. USA: Earthscan.
Chang, C.M. (2010). Service Systems Management and Engineering: Creating Strategic Differentiation and Operational Excellence. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Evans, N., Campbell, D., & Stonehouse, G. (2003). Strategic management for travel and tourism. USA: Routledge.
In many ways, the Vietnam ar represented the height of Cold ar tensions in much the same way that the decade was giving way to an inevitable breaking point in environmental negligence. Though the years which would follow would see a gradual intensification of environmental protection laws, these have by and large been nullified by the impact of that for which Abbey offers the most criticism. ith both Vietnam and the destruction of many of America's richest points of flora and fauna diversity being the products of our ongoing 'evolution' toward technological, industrial and commercial advance, Abbey is persuasive in drawing a sympathetic mistrust of modernity from the reader. Ultimately, it produces a sense of loss for ildland Recreation opportunities while simultaneously reinforcing the primal importance of such experiences.
In this way, Desert Solitaire stands in 20th century environmental history as a guide to alternative living. hile he is unflinching…
Abbey, Edward. (1968). Desert Solitaire. McGraw-Hill Group.
Duryee, Kent. (1996). Edward Abbey: A Man Hard to Talk About. Desert USA. Online at http://www.desertusa.com/mag00/nov/papr/abbey.html
Temple, Eric. (1982). An Interview With Edward Abbey. Phoenix, AZ: KAET-TV
" (McDonald-Gibson, 2007) Therefore, although the entire planet suffers the consequences, it is a limited part of its inhabitants that perpetuates the crisis. From this perspective, developing nations demanded, on a regular basis even, the right to speak out their intentions and to have a unified position in terms of promoting sustainable development and implicitly the general environmental policies promoted by the UN.
Yet another element is in fact in relation to the previous two. Developed nations, although somewhat reluctant to their limitation of economic practices that would increase the limit of emissions, promised strategies and results for succeeding in reducing the greenhouse effects and all the additional side remarks. In this sense, throughout the debates on environmental policies, states such as Canada, France, and the United States would sponsor any initiative with the precise target. Therefore, there are some proposals for developing nations to reduce their need for fuel.…
European Union. The Kyoto protocol - a brief summary. European Union web site, accessed 19 June 2007, at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/kyoto.htm
Freestone, David, and Charlotte Strech. Legal aspects of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Mechanisms. Making Kyoto work. Oxford: OUP.
Hohmann, Harald. Basic documents of international environmental law. International Environmental Law & Policy Series. Vol 1. London: Graham&Trotman, 1992.
Hollo, Erkki ed al. Legal aspects of climate change: Instrument choice and the Kyoto mechanisms. Retrieved 19 June 2007, at http://www.sci.utu.fi/projects/maantiede/figare/UGS/UGS-177.pdf
Environmental pollution has become a significant problem in this century, and a lot needs to be done to solve it. The article Lose 300 Tons of Co2 in Just Three Weeks by Kate Sheppard is about how environmental pollution can be reduced through documentation of how much waste companies release. How Farmers Are Going To Save Civilization by Jenn Hardy is about 'permaculture', a concept that advocates for reducing pollution, recycling renewable resources and applying solutions. The third article written Attention To Whole Food Shoppers by obert Paarlberg talks about food crisis, advocating for organic foods whose production is slow. The people, who are the stewards of the environment, are the major facilitators of the achievement of a pollution- free world.
Lose 300 Tons Of Co2 In Just Three Weeks,
Toxics elease Inventory model created in the 1980s aims at reducing the use of harmful products in…
Hardy, J. (2009). THIS ? How Farmers Are Going to Save Civilization.
Paarlberg, R. (2010). Attention Whole Foods Shoppers.
Sheppard, K. (2010). Lose 300 Million Tons Of CO2 in Just 3 Weeks!
China's Rise: The strategic Stake
While we have so far discussed the positive economic impact of a growing China from the perspective of Australia, there are also some concerns about China's growing stature and the changing strategic balance. As a communist nation, the U.S. And its allies including Japan have always viewed China with caution. China has repeatedly claimed that it is fully committed to peaceful economic growth as Zha Peixin, the vice president of CPIFA (Chinese people's institute of foreign Affairs) stated, "China will stick to the peaceful development, opening up, and building a harmonious society domestically and promoting a harmonious world internationally." However, the recent arrest of the Australian mining giant Rio Tinto's executive officer in China over charges of espionage has created some friction in the relationship. The recent issues involving Australia granting of visa for Rebiya Kadeer, the human rights activist from China, much against the…
1) ABS, 'China: Factsheet', Retrieved 19th Sep 2009, from, http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/chin.pdf
2) Frederick Balfour, 'China Surprisingly Strong GDP Growth 7.9%', Retrieved 19th Sep 2009, from, http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/blog/eyeonasia/archives/2009/07/chinas_gdp_grow.html
3) Richard Lester & Edward Steinfeld, 'China's Real Energy Crisis', Retrieved 19th Sep 2009, from, 'http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~hapr/winter07_gov/lester.pdf
4) Zhou, Z.Y. And Tian, W.M. (eds) (2005), Grains in China: Foodgrain, Feedgrain and World Trade, Aldershot, Ashgate