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How did it happen that the North won the Civil War, notwithstanding the fact that the South had its own powerful advantages? This paper explores that question using chapters 11, 12, 13 and 14 for reference sources.
Background on the Southern economy and politics
The South greatly expanded its agricultural industry (the plantation system) between 1800 and 1860, and in doing so became "increasingly unlike the North," the author explains in Chapter 11. The "lower South" relied on cotton (short staple cotton) and the market for all that cotton in New England and in Great Britain made many plantation owners wealthy. Because of the skyrocketing cotton industry, more and more slaves were needed to tend those crops, and some 410,000 slaves were moved from the upper South to the lower South. And yet the South depended economically on the North (which had a booming industrial growth period) and…
Civil War represents a decisive period in American history, but also one of violence, during which more than 620,000 Americans died. (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 144) The American Civil War was fought between North and the South, and started as a result of their differences regarding slavery, state's rights and federal authority. The decisive moment was when epublican candidate Abraham Lincoln won the election, and become the president of the United States. This victory influenced seven states to leave the union; on December 20, 1860 South Carolina, and, after the war started six more states left the union (Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi)
While the North's economy was based on manufacturing and industry, agriculture being an isolated activity, in the South it was based on agriculture and slavery. The main crops that were planted in the South were cotton and tobacco. After 1830 the North wanted…
1. Nash, Gary B., Smith, Carter, Atlas of American History, Infobase Publishing, 2007
2. Civil War, Retrieved December 18, 2012, from the Harlingen Consolidated Independent School District website: http://www.harlingen.isd.tenet.edu/coakhist/cwar.html
3. American Civil War, Retrieved December 18, 2012, from the History website: http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war
Civil ar of Northern Aggression
Is the Term Accurate?
The Civil war has been one of the most controversial topics in the history of United States. here it has been given many names like ar Between the States, the ar of the Rebellion and the ar for Southern Independence, one of its most controversial names is the ar of Northern Aggression. There is an enormous amount of literature written on the subject matter in the form of books, articles, research papers etc. however, James McPherson has managed to present a rather accurate and unbiased account of civil war. According to McPherson, despite the violence showed by Northern States, it was the secession of the southern states and initiation in firing the first shot which started the war in the first place[footnoteRef:1]. Therefore, considering that Southern states were just operating in their defensive mode would present a rather inaccurate account of…
McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, Oxford University Press, 2003.
Would the union still have won the civil war if the Border States separated?
The union would have still won if the Border States separated. During the Civil War the Border States, Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, were not critical to the unions victory over the confederates.
Unfortunately, our modern society has been marred with war and strife over its eventful lifespan. A civil disagreement, when accompanied by mass offenses, often ends with deadly war. Throughout history, many nations have been unable to solve their personal grievances with one another in a diplomatic manner. In many instances are solves through protest, boycotts and other contentious means. However, in some instances, society elects the worst possible alternative, which is often war. In retrospect, wars have been fought for many worthwhile causes, even by today's standards. Wars have been fought over liberty, injustice, the potential threat to national security and…
1. Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln: a very short introduction (Oxford U.P., 2009), p. 61. See also Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (2010), p. 100.
2. McPherson, "Battle Cry," pp. 8 -- 85. In Gerson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, p. 68; also Stowe, Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1953), p. 2-39.
3. William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists Triumphant 1854 -- 1861, (1988) pp. 9 -- 24.
4. Curry, Richard Orr (1964), A House Divided, A Study of the Statehood Politics & the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia, Univ. Of Pittsburgh Press, map on page 49.
In a long war, all of the economic, financial and population advantages would favor the North since the South was a mostly agrarian region that imported its manufactured goods. Initially, both sides had expected that the war would be short and decisive, although by 1862 it was clear that it might drag on indefinitely. Jefferson Davis, obert E. Lee and the other Southern leaders realized that their best chance would be to win a series of rapid military victories early in the war then appeal to Britain, France and other European nations for diplomatic recognition. They did not wish to conquer the North nor did they ever imagine that they had the capacity to do so. Their only goal was to gain independence and force the other side to end the war, but the longer it lasted, the more the Union's advantages in population, money, ideology and resources…
Brinkley, A. (2012). American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, Chapters 13 and 14.
Robert E. Lee was also an important general responsible for commanding the Northern Virginia regiment of the confederate army. Lee was interesting in that even though he was a confederate commander he was believed be against slavery.
Lincoln's beliefs about America are forever engrained on the national psyche. Speeches such as the Gettysburg Address are still quoted and reflects the intent of the founding fathers. The Gettysburg Address states, "Four Score and Seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure ("The Gettysburg Address")." These words have been used at many throughout American history in times of distress and change. Also, the current president even took the cites…
Civil War. Library of Congress. 2 April 2009; http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-
McPherson James M. 2003. Battle cry of freedom: the Civil War era . Oxford University
The action was successful and gave them control over the island. The victory encouraged Gillmore to order another attack, this time on Wagner. He ordered the troops to bomb by land and sea. Robert immediately sent out pickets to complement with whites in other regiments. Early on July 16, 54th companies fought with members of 10th Connecticut. A force of Confederate attacked the picket line but the 54th persisted as long as it could. This persistence allowed the 10th Connecticut to retreat behind without much loss and injury. The 54th took the toll for the retreat. It proved that lack troops could put up a fight. That afternoon, Robert and Ned Hallowell exchanged premonitions of not surviving that action. He shared the same with his wife in a letter that the gallantry of his men would make up for the humiliating loss in Darien. y sunset, the 54th Regiment was…
Adler, John, ed. 2005. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Harper's Weekly: Harp Week, LLC
Dhalle, Kathy. 1997. A Biography of Robert Gould Shaw. The American Civil War History Special Interest Group: Bits of Blue and Gray. http://www.bitsofblueandgray.com/june2003.htm
Hickman, Kennedy. 2007. Civil War: Robert Gould Shaw. Military History. About.com: The New York Times Company
http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/1800armybiographies/p/rgshaw.htm?p=1 (Accessed December 2, 2007)
Civil War and Grant
The Civil War in the United States can be considered as the darkest moment in its relatively young history. (Mitgang, 2000) His Gettysburg State of the Union Address is perhaps the shortest in history; but the depth of meaning and the profundity of emotions it invokes should never be forgotten. It starkly contrasts with the inane, self-congratulatory blather of modern presidential administrations.
This hotly contested War had amazing leaders. General Robert E. Lee, for the Confederates, was a gentleman's gentleman, brilliant tactician and wonderful human being. If one were to root for the Unionists as being on the right side of the Civil War, then Lee was a victim of circumstances, who merely happened to lead for the Southerners. (Robert E. Lee, soldier, patriot, educator, 1921) On the other hand, the General Ulysses Grant, the leader of the Union Army, won decisive battle after battle and…
Bradford, N. (2001). Battles and leaders of the Civil War (2001 ed.), New York, Gramercy Books.
Dodge, G.M. (1965). Personal recollections of President Abraham Lincoln, General Ulysses S. Grant, and General William T. Sherman (1st reprint ed.), Denver, Sage Books.
Donovan, T.H. (2002). The American Civil War, Garden City Park, N.Y., Square One Publishers.
Gallagher, G.W. (1999). The Antietam campaign, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.
The War in the West
Just as the causes of the Civil War are not entirely simple or straightforward, the progress of the war was anything but linear. Despite an ultimate Union victory, the Confederacy managed several periods of advancement into Union territories, and they were even more effective at maintaining a hold on their home territories. Thus, the war progressed and regressed in fits and starts at ties, and victories in one region could easily be offset by losses in another. There were several major theaters of the Civil War, and different issues and strategies led to different developments of the war in these theaters at different periods in the war. In the Western theater in the first half of 1862, the Union made a relatively rapid progression into Confederate territory against an under-funded and under-manned enemy army.
By the end of January, the Union had taken most of…
Concord Learning Systems. (2008). "Civil war battles: Theaters of war." Accessed 22 August 2009. http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/cw-battles/theaters.html#3_1862
Hickman, K. (2009). "American civil war: Causes." Accessed 22 August 2009. http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/civilwar/a/CivilWarCauses_2.htm
McPherson, J. (2000). Ordeal by fire. New York: McGraw Hill.
So the professional opportunities for young obert were limited, and the army came as a rescue solution.
Pegging to his life of severe lacks, difficulties and sadness, Lee became a man of strict self imposed limits. He was moderate and never wasteful of either type of resource. Due to his rather stern appearance, he was not the most popular of army men. But he did always serve his country and the cause he believed to be the truest. He had a strong sense of civil duty, and he strived to insufflate it to others.
And while not many will agree with this, Lee was a compassionate man, who cared and strived to protect his subalterns. In working toward this goal, he also understood that his men were the ones who determined the final fate of the war. So he strived to protect their lives. Evidence in this direction stands the…
McPherson, J.M., Battle Cry of Freedom: the Civil War Era, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 019516895X
Historians have long puzzled over the contradictions within Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. As a statement of general principle it seems compromised by Lincoln's refusal to extend manumission to slaves within those border states which permitted slavery but which had remained within the Union at the onset of hostilities: Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware and Maryland. This central contradiction was observed at the time; Evans notes that some Abolitionists claimed it was a clever but meaningless document that freed only those slaves now firmly under Confederate control, in states where Lincoln had no power to do so. 'A poor document but a mighty act,' the Governor of Massachusetts said to a friend. (Evans 192)
I would suggest, however, that our confused understanding of the Emancipation Proclamation derives from understanding the document as part of Lincoln's military strategy. The better way to understand the Emancipation Proclamation is within the context of foreign…
Evans, Eli. Judah P. Benjamin: The Jewish Confederate. New York: Free Press, 1988. Print.
Graebner, Norman A. "Northern Diplomacy and European Neutrality." In Donald, David Herbert. Why The North Won The Civil War. New York: Touchstone, 1996. Print.
Jones, Howard. Union in Peril: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press, 1992. Print.
North, Douglass. Growth and Welfare in the American Past: A New Economic History. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Print.
he beginning of the nineteenth century marked a period of reform and social changes in Europe and the young American state that was triggered and partly encouraged by the new era of industrialization. he transfer from agrarian to industrial societies changed people's lives and offered new perspectives for those concerned for the well being of the society as a whole. he widening gap between the American North and South continued to grow after the euphoria of the first decades since the Declaration of Independence had been proclaimed in Philadelphia in 1787.
he majority of the Americans were still living in an agrarian society, but the numbers were disproportionate between North and South and many historians and political analysts consider these differences in stages of development as the roots of social inequity and finally, of the war between North and South.
While the American North was embracing new technologies,…
The Pre-Civil War Era (1815 -- 1850). History SparkNotes. Retrieved: Dec6, 2009. Available at: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/precivilwar/summary.html
Secession Crisis. The Missouri Compromise. Retrieved: Dec 7, 2009. Available at: http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
Monroe Doctrine, 1823. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved: Dec. 6, 2009. Available at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/jd/16321.htm
The first article in the Rep. is condemned by the two colours, hite Brown, but I can't see why. e are in fearful times, but the Lord reigneth & I have no serious fears for the issue. I feel like Gen. Jackson-"the Union must & shall be preserved" and "their object is disunion; but be not deceived, disunion, by armed force, is treason." I hope no one will be hung, tho' a few deserve it. I have no confidence in man's wisdom; but as I said in my last baccalaureate, God made this government & he will not let man destroy it. (Augusta County: George Junkin to Francis McFarland, January 19, 1861)
hile in comparison to these heated ideologies, only the last of which holds out hope to the end that unity will be restored, the letters and documents from Franklin county express the idea that their chosen voices will…
All sources are found within the Valley of the Shadows documentary project Website Presented by the Virginia Center for Digital History at: http://valley.vcdh.virginia.edu/choosepart.html
The International law stands on two cornerstones of the Codified Law and Customary Law. The Codified Law is represented by the UN Charter that embodies the norms of sovereignty and non-interference in the domestic affairs of the state and contrary to this the Customary law progressively stresses upon the safeguarding of human rights and the security and well being of the individual. Taking into consideration the present situation and emerging norms on intervention, there appears to be two isolated but associated principles on the basic unacceptability of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, to illustrate, the establishment of International Criminal Court and secondly a wider principle emphasizing the significance of the non-use of coercive force so as to allow resolving the clashes internally. The quest for the reasons behind the intervention is necessitated more intensive thought to reveal out the possibly criterion for justifying the intervention as…
Boutwell, Jeffrey. Pugwash Study Group on Intervention, Sovereignty and International Security. Pugwash Workshop on Intervention and Sovereignty. Pugwash Meeting No. 252, 10-11 December 1999. Venice, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.pugwash.org/reports/rc/rc5.htm Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Chester Crocker, Lessons on Intervention, in Managing Conflict in the Post-Cold War World: The Role of Intervention. Report of the Aspen Institute Conference, August 2-6, 1995, (Aspen, Colorado: Aspen Institute, 1996) pp.77-88. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/croc1975.htm Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Implementing Peace Agreements in Civil Wars: Lessons and Recommendations for Policymakers. IPA Policy Paper Series on Peace Implementation. Center for International Security and Co-operation. Stanford University. May, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.ipacademy.org/PDF_Reports/Pdf_Report_Implementing.pdf Accessed on 7 May, 2005
UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: why success is not always cast in stone. Global Dialogues. Vol: 5; No: 1; May 2000. Retrieved from http://www.igd.org.za/pub/g-dialogue/africa/somalia.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
The question to which this report strives to offer an answer however does not refer in particular to either Union or Confederation, but to the entire United States, and to what extent the Civil War revealed a society that was eager to eliminate slavery and create a color-blind society.
The answer is relatively simple -- part of the country was convinced that the old way of keeping slaves was the best solution for individual wealth; the other part of the country envisioned a new society, in which free labor would set the basis for economic prosperity and stability, as well as a prosperous, culturally diverse nation. In the end, it was a battle of right vs. injustices, and the right won, with slavery having been abolished, and with the end result being that of a new American society, in which all individuals enjoy the rights of freedom, liberty and equality.…
McPherson, J.M., Battle Cry of Freedom: the Civil War Era, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 019516895X
McPherson, J.M., Far Cause and Comrades: Why Med Fought in the Civil War, Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0195090233
While compromise over the system of slavery was possible in 1850 it was not effective in 1860's." The paper is an analysis of the compromise of 1850, which was the continuation of the system of slavery, and the description of the events, which led to freeing of the slaves in 1860's. The fundamental differences in agriculture and the adoption of slavery in the South of America gave rise to the early American History. The thirteen states had each developed separately and had differences in beliefs and their culture and issues between them were always irreconcilable. Along with the cultural differences even the geographic differences were made apparent between the North and South America during the hundred-year period that followed after the Constitution was drafted.
Conflicts arose and reached its climax in 1850 regarding the concept of holding people as slaves in the territories that were being formed. In…
McPherson, James M. "Ordeal by Fire: the Civil War And Reconstruction" 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Higher, (June, 2000)
Civil ar / Religious Event
In a certain sense, the Civil ar could be construed as a religious event, principally because the division of the country along the lines of slavery was also reinforced by various religious denominations. Quite simply, Christians in the north of the country vilified slavery as evil and against both God's will and the Bible, whereas Christians in the South justified slavery through God's will and various passages in the Bible. Northerners wanted to prohibit slavery; Southerners wanted to propagate it (Lincoln 2). The most important thing about the religious aspect of the Civil ar is that it merely served to widen and deepen the sectarian differences between these two parts of the country, which primarily differed in their economic means of production. The North was relying on an increasingly growing industrialization that was bereft of slavery, whereas the South remained entrenched in a rural, agrarian…
Lincoln, Abraham. "The First Inaugural Address." 1861. Print.
Chapter 9 YOU HAVE THE REST OF THIS INFORMATION, I DON'T
In spite of their superiority in number, armament and war techniques, the British hopes in the alliance with Southern loyalists failed. They became vulnerable targets to the guerrilla tactics they were not used to. Cornwallis has to keep retreating from South Carolina and then from North Carolina, although in the beginning he placed great hopes in his naval forces that were far more superior than those of the enemy's.
The document signed in the U.S. Constitution by Benjamin Franklin reinforces the idea that the War between the colonists of the new world and the British empire that led to the formation of the American nation was not only an expression of disapproval of new imposed taxes, but it was truly a revolution. The ideals of the revolution were based on the fondness of fundamental human rights. It is true that, in spite of all these high ideal of equality for…
Davis D.B., Mintz S. 1998. The Boisterous Sea of Liberty: A Documentary History of America from Discovery through the Civil War. Oxford University
In an era that would come to be known as "Bleeding Kansas," the territory became a battleground over the slavery question. "Most settlers who had come to Kansas from the North and the South only wanted to homestead in peace. They were not interested in the conflict over slavery, but they found themselves in the midst of a battleground. Violence erupted throughout the Kansas territory between pro and anti-slavery activists, resulting in a death toll of staggering numbers. Several attempts were made to draft a constitution that Kansas could use to apply for statehood. Some versions were proslavery, others free state. Finally, a fourth convention met at yandotte in July 1859, and adopted a free state constitution. Kansas applied for admittance to the Union. However, the proslavery forces in the Senate strongly opposed its free state status, and stalled its admission. Only in 1861, after the Confederate states seceded, did…
The residents of what would become New York came for free land, free religion, and freedom from taxation and many seemed to care little who ruled, and what religion was dominant, as long as there was an opportunity to make money, although the city would gradually take on a more English cultural character.
Even the common conception that the one uniting factor amongst all the new settlements was hostility towards the native residents is not entirely true. It is true that some areas such as Virginia, which began as a colony devoted to economic rather than religious liberty, were characterized by a negative view of Native American culture as less developed than European culture and wars were frequent between settlers and natives throughout New England. However, at the beginning of their dealings with Europeans, Indians had cultural leverage due to their control of certain aspects of trade. "Along the eastern…
Davis, David Brion & Steven Mintz. The Boisterous Sea of Liberty. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2000.
Reflection on the Civil War Periods
The American Civil War is a major historical and turning point for the country America. While the root cause of the war was slavery, the story of the civil war, especially in the South has been significantly distorted to propagate narratives, e.g., the Lost Cause Narrative (Washington Post) that portrays the confederate fight as heroic, enslaved people as being happy, and the argument that slavery had not been the main cause of the war (Early, 67; Vox). In reflecting on the civil war, it is important to look at the events preceding and following the civil war, namely; colonization and enslavement, the civil war and its immediate consequences, and the reconstruction. This paper, therefore, seeks to explore these four periods in terms of how each is important, how it affects race within America, and its effect on the next period. Finally, the paper…
Bassett, John S. Short History of the United States. Macmillan, New York, 1913.
Best, Ryan. \\"Confederate Statues Were Never Really About Preserving History.\\" FiveThirtyEight, 2020; July 8. ABC News Internet Ventures. Web.
Early, Jubal Anderson. A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence, in the Confederate States of America: Containing an Account of the Operations of His Commands in the Years 1864 and 1865. No. 1. CW Button, 1867.
McPherson, James. \\"A Defining Time in Our Nation\\'s History.\\" A Brief Overview of the American Civil War. American Battlefield Trust (n.d.). Web.
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. American Negro slavery: A survey of the supply, employment, and control of Negro labor as determined by the plantation regime. Good Press, 1918.
Snyder, Timothy. The US government should cede territory back to Native Americans. The Guardian, 2018, April 28. Web.
Thomas, Emory M. The Confederate Nation, 1861-1865. Vol. 703. HarperCollins Publishers, 1979.
Tolbert, Payton. \\"This Land is Whose Land? History, Fiction, and the 1800\\'s Cherokee Removal in Inskeep\\'s Jacksonland.\\" Armstrong Undergraduate Journal of History 9.2 (2019): 9.
Racial Capitalism: How Slavery Shaped American Economics and Capitalist Structure and became the Precursor of the Civil War
It was William Henry Seward’s (1858) belief that “the very constitution of the Democratic party commits it to execute all the designs of the slaveholders, whatever they may be.” In other words, the Democrats of the 19th century were firmly in the pocket of slave owners—agents of the slave system. Seward represented the Republican Party and viewed the upcoming election as one that would alter the course of history—as one that would finally bring about a solution to the moral problem of slavery. However, Seward gave a typically political and simplistic account of the conflict among labor, ownership of the means of production, freedom and social mobility. The reality of capitalist structures and racial capitalism in the US was complex and complicated as much by inconsistencies in the North as by…
Berlin, Ira, Steven Hahn, Steven F. Miller, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie S. Rowland. "The terrain of freedom: The struggle over the meaning of free labor in the US South." In History Workshop Journal, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 108-130. Oxford University Press, 1986.
Delony, Edward. “The South Demands More Negro Labor.” De Bow’s Review, 1858: 491-506.
Hammond, James Henry. "Speech of Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina, On the Admission of Kansas, Under the Lecompton Constitution: Delivered in the Senate of the United States, March 4, 1858," Washington, D. C., 1858.
Lincoln, Abraham. “First Inaugural Speech.” 1861.
Lincoln, Abraham. “Second Inaugural Speech.” 1865.
Seward, William Henry. “On the Irrepressible Conflict.” New York History Net, 1858.
Before the Civil War, slave labor in the Southern States numbered almost four million black slaves (Constitutional Rights Foundation para 2). The agricultural proceeds of cash crops such as tobacco, cotton, and sugar cane enriched the Southern States and made the region the nation's economic engine. And fuelling this engine was the slave labor tasked to cultivate the agricultural wealth. The slave economy was so profitable it enriched the nation and, particularly, the Southern States. The wealth enjoyed by the Southern States was so vast, the South produced more millionaires per person in the Mississippi River valley than in areas across the nation. The South was also producing about 75% of the world's cotton by starting the Civil War. The slave economy had become such a big part of the Southern economy to which it had brought wealth that almost nothing could separate them, not even the belief…
Constitutional Rights Foundation. \\"Slavery in the American South.\\" Web. 21 Oct. 2020.
Timmons, Greg. \\"How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South.\\" History.com. A&E Television Networks, 06 Mar. 2018. Web. 21 Oct. 2020.
Warren, Ebenezer. \\"Nellie Norton: Or, Southern Slavery and the Bible. A Scriptural Refutation of the Principal Arguments upon Which the Abolitionists Rely. A Vindication of Southern Slavery from the Old and New Testaments: Electronic Edition.\\" 1864. Web. 21 Oct. 2020.
Hunt, James. \\"On the Negro\\'s Place in Nature.\\" Journal of the Anthropological Society of London 2 (1864): xv-lvi.
U.S. History. \\"The Southern Argument for Slavery.\\" UShistory.org. Independence Hall Association. Web. 21 Oct. 2020.
So-called militant abolitionist events and tactics are simply assertive methods of activism. Labeling David Walker’s appeal, William Lloyd Garrison's “The Liberator,” Nat Turner's revolt, and the Underground Railroad as “militant” not only undermines their necessity but also draws attention away from the militant nature of slavery itself. Calling these events “militant” discredits these events and tactics, all of which were effective in their own ways.
All of these events had a strong bearing on Southern rebellion. However, of these four 1850s political events, the one that most strongly caused the South to declare secession from the United States was the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed new territories to determine their slave status not by geographic borders but by popular vote. The Dred Scott decision was favorable to slave owners and Southerners in general and so likely had the least impact on the South’s decision to secede.
The election of…
Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom : a History of African Americans. New York :McGraw-Hill/Connect Learn Succeed, 2011.
There were several factors that led to a Union victory in the Civil War. One of the most important ones was Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. This not only liberated all slaves in Confederate held states so long as they agreed to fight for the Union, it also made slavery one of the primary issues of the war from that point on. This was especially important for the South’s hope of foreign assistance from England. England had already banned slavery and so now that Lincoln had made slavery the main issue of the war through his Proclamation, England could not very well lend support to the South—because then it would essentially be lending support to slavery.
Another vital factor in the Union Victory was Gen. Grant’s military leadership in the war. Grant succeeded where other Union generals had failed. McClellan for instance had been a big bust for Lincoln, often…
The thesis of Klarman’s Brown v Board of Education and the Civil Rights Moment is that Brown v. Board of Education was a pivotal and massively important moment in American history—but not for the reasons that are typically given. The common understanding of Brown v. Board of Education is that it ended segregation in schools and helped make America a more equal place. Klarman views this is a very superficial approach to the subject, somewhat like a myth and one that needs to be dispelled. He begins by bringing up the dominant theme of the book—racism—which Klarman points out had remained “strong in the North in the years after the Civil War.”[footnoteRef:2] Racism was not just a regional issue; rather, it had been entrenched in American politics throughout the country and to a large degree it was institutionalized. The Jim Crow Era was proof of the institutionalization of racism and…
Dealing with Diversity in America from Reconstruction through the 1920s: The Lost Cause Narrative
Racial policy in the U.S. after the Civil War was supposed to based on the egalitarian principles espoused by Lincoln at his Second Inaugural. However, with Lincoln’s assassination, the Reconstruction Era got off to an ugly start. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) developed to carry on the traditions promoted in the concept of the Lost Cause narrative; the KKK led the charge to carry on the traditions of white supremacy in the South and to resist the ascension of free blacks into public life and administrative positions in government (The Lost Cause, n.d.). Jim Crow laws followed (Schultz, 2018), and segregation of blacks and whites continued well into the 20th century thanks to Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 (). (Schultz, 2018). This paper will show how the Lost Cause of the Civil War effectively sabotaged and influenced…
Davis, J. C. Bancroft. (1896). Plessy vs. Ferguson. Retrieved from http://college.cengage. com/history/wadsworth_ 9781133309888/unprotected/ps/ plessy_ferguson_1896.htm
The Lost Cause. (n.d.). Civil War Journeys. Retrieved from http: //civil-war-journeys.org/the_ lost_cause.htm
Schultz, Kevin M. (2018). HIST5: Volume 2: U.S. History Since 1865 (Student edition). Boston: Cengage.
In 1864, Ulysses S. Grant assumed command of the Union Armies, shifting the Union’s military strategy and leading to some key victories. But the Union also faced setbacks in this phase of the war. In this discussion you will discuss the Union’s strategies in 1864 as well as their successes and failures.
Consider the following in a post of at least 550 words:
• How was the Union military strategy in 1864 successful and unsuccessful in the eastern and western theaters of the war?
The military strategy of Ulysses S. Grant and the leadership of President Lincoln are widely credited for the success of the Union Army during the Civil War. But Grant’s strategy at the time was not viewed as an uncomplicated success, despite some eventual, notable victories over his Confederate opponents. According to Brooks (2017), before the promotion of Grant, Lincoln was extremely frustrated by the tactics deployed…
President Rutherford B. Hays Experience in the SOUTH MOUNTAIN BATTLE
When the American Civil War broke out, Rutherford B. Hayes tendered his willingness to take part in the struggle and joined the Union. He rose through the ranks and had attained a brevet major general rank by the time the war ended. It is important to note, from the onset, that the Civil War was one of our country’s most defining moments. The country owes those who actively participated in the same, such as Hayes, for their role towards the redefinition of the United States of America into one true nation. The challenges these gallant citizens faced in this endeavor were great, and Hayes’ account of his experience during the South Mountain Battle underlines this assertion.
Hayes was instrumental in the victory secured by the union at the South Mountain Battle after his regiment, as part of…
“Chapter XX: Wounded at South Mountain – August – November, 1862.” Ohio History Connection. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://resources.ohiohistory.org/hayes/browse/chapterxx.html
Conwell, Herman. Life and Public Service of Gov. Rutherford B. Hayes. Philadelphia: Quaker City Publishing House, 1876.
Howells, William. Sketch of the Character of Rutherford B. Hayes. New York, NY: Hurd and Houghton, 1876.
Lanning, Michael. Civil War 100: The Stories Behind the Most Influential Battles, Peoples and Events in the War Between the States. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, 2007.
Mahan, Russell. Lucy Webb Hayes: A First Lady by Example. New York, NY: Nova Publishers, 2005.
North and South
The origins of the differences between the north and the south in early colonial America on up to the Civil War stem from political beliefs, economics, and social customs. The South was always more agrarian than the North. The South was also interested in controlling its own trade with other countries instead of having it controlled for them by a centralized government. That is one reason the South resisted the Constitution and why Alexander Hamilton, the leading writer of the Federalist Papers, argued for centralization via a strong federal government. Hamilton thought that if the states could control their own destinies with respect to trade with other countries it would soon enough lead to foreign entanglements in wars and so on. The South rejected this idea out of hand with its Anti-Federalist position, but in the end, the Constitution was ratified following a compromise between the North…
Scene Four: Parker Adderson, Philospher
This scene will take place exactly as it does in the story. The stage will be divided into two parts. In center stage will be the tent with the Parker Adderson and the general. Adderson will be sitting across from the general at the table and will be questioned. The monologue will unfold with only this part of the stage being lit.
After the fight, Adderson will be escorted to stage left where there will be a doctor and campfire along with soldiers guarding Adderson. Adderson will be wrapped in a blanket and must be visibly trembling and shrunken in horror. The general and dead officer will still be in the tent, which will remain lit. The general will come around and order the execution. At this point, the tent and campfire will go black and the right stage will be lit with the fire…
Bierce, Ambrose. "A Son of the Gods." By Ambrose Bierce. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013.
Bierce, Ambrose. "Killed at Resaca." By Ambrose Bierce. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013.
Bierce, Ambrose. "One Of The Missing." By Ambrose Bierce. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013.
Bierce, Ambrose. "Parker Adderson, Philosopher." By Ambrose Bierce. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013.
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…
"Civil Wars Throughout the World."
Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."
http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
In the North, however, abolitionists groups began to see slavery another way. Finally, when Lincoln -- who was perceived as anti-slavery -- was elected, the South fought to exercise what it believed were its states rights by seceding.
After the war concluded, these cultural and economic differences were not gone with the wind. Instead, they were prominent during reconstruction and continue to characterize the culture of the North and South today. McElrath's timeline of reconstruction shows several attempts at making the South racially equal, which can be defined as one of the goals of reconstruction. The Civil Rights Bill and 14th amendment were methods by which this was accomplished. However, Civil ar era culture has left such an impact on the region as to make race relations in the American South still stereotypically tenacious.
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil ar." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.…
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil War." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.
McElrath, Jessica. "Timeline of the Reconstruction Era." About.com. 2009. 26 July 2009.
Civil War in Alabama
The American civil war was a political turmoil that took place during the later years of the 18th Century, particularly between 1775 to 1783, where 13 British colonies joined together to liberate themselves from the British Empire and unite to from the United States of America (American evolutionary War, 2011). It all began with the rejection of the Parliament of the Great Britain as governing body from overseas without their representation and consequently rejecting and sending away all the royal officials and representatives. In turn they formed Provincial Congress in 1774 which made up the self-governing state. This prompted the British to send troops to America to reinstate the direct rule and in return, the Second Continental Congress was formed in 1775 to wade off the British troops and also to defend their decision towards self-governance. This was what was and still is famously know as…
American Revolutionary War, (2011). American Revolutionary War. Retrieved May 24, 2011
Civil War Trust, (2011). James Longstreet: Lieutenant General. Retrieved May 25, 2011 from http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/james-longstreet.html
The Alabama Civil War Round Table, (2011). A Discussion on the American Civil War.
Economic and social differences between the North and the South, states' rights verses federal rights, the fight between the proponents of slavery and abolitionists, and the election of Abraham Lincoln all contributed to the Civil ar. However, all of these causes can trace their roots in the institution of slavery. The major reason the southern states succeed was to maintain slavery, the conflict over western lands was about slavery, Lincoln couldn't maintain the union because of slavery, and the production of cotton demanded slavery.
Ultimately, though both sides claimed to want to achieve their objectives peacefully, the South viewed the North as a threat to its way of life, while the North preferred war rather than let the nation perish.
It seems incredible today that the institution of slavery was only abolished less than a century and a half ago. The idea that one person…
"Abraham Lincoln." The White House. Whitehouse.gov. (2011). 7 August 2011.
Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster: New York, 2005.
Roark, James L., Micheal P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, Alan Lawson, & Susan M.Hartmann. The American Promise: A History of the United States, 4th ed. Volume1: To 1877. Bedford/St. Martin's:Boston-New York, 2009.
Civil war is the most momentous and crucial period in the history of America. Not only did this war bring an end to slavery in the country but also paved way for numerous social and political changes. The country had already been torn by the negative trend in race relations and numerous cases of slave uprisings were taking their toll on the country's political and social structure. While slavery is cited as the most common cause of the Civil War, it is believed that there were several other factors involved. In other words, though slavery was the major cause it was certainly not the only cause.
Though slavery was the major cause of the Civil War, it was the issues of states rights that played the second most important role. We must understand here Confederation was created with 13 colonies coming together and forming central government. But it…
Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History):…
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
The belief was that eventually the North would have to give up, as long as the South could maintain a unified defense (McPherson). The Confederate Army was not well organized in the beginning, however, and the widespread and largely independent militias defending the Confederate borders were stretched too thin in places, allowing the Union Army to break through (McPherson). Technological advancements had large effects on the strategies of both the Union and Confederate armies as well.
The railroad was one of the most important advancements of the time; it was used to ship troops and supplies, and the destruction of railroad lines was common practice by both armies.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm
Smith, Page. Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and econstruction. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionstrategy.htm
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm
Smith, Page. Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionstrategy.htm
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld
Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
"Causes of the Civil War," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon, John B. "Causes of the Civil War." Reminiscences of the Civil War. Page
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
The differences between the Northern and Southern states regarding states' rights issues and industrialization also affected federal policies toward new territories acquired during Westward Expansion. Before the Civil War, the federal government had issued a series of "compromises" designed to appease both northern and southern interests. The Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill were both issued in response to Southern interests but they reflected weakness in the federal government. The Compromise of 1850, for instance, sparked controversy over admitting California to the nation as a free state. Southerners had hoped that new states would at least be able to choose their own policies regarding slavery: to have "the power to choose whether it entered the United States as a slave or free state," ("Causes of the Civil War").
Finally, the issue of slavery itself became a major cause of the Civil War. Southern states prospered as a result of…
American Civil War." (nd). Spartacus. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivilwar.htm
The Causes." (nd). The American Civil War: The Struggle to Preserve the Union. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.swcivilwar.com/cw_causes.html
Causes of the War Between the States - a Southern Perspective." The Blue and Gray Trail. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://blueandgraytrail.com/features/southerncauses.html
Golden, R. (nd). Causes of the Civil War. About North Georgia. Retreived Sept 17, 2006 at http://ngeorgia.com/history/why.html
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…
Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .
The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .
Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .
Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html .
Unlike the more committed New England settlers who were fueled by a desire to practice their faith and farm and to create a 'shining city on a hill,' settlements in the southern regions of North America were made up of single men, unused to labor and farming as well as taking orders. Despite certain famous incidents from this period of history, such as the friendship established between Powhatan and Pocahontas with Captain illiam Smith, settlements like Jamestown floundered (Davis & Mintz 52). The Puritans, for all of the criticism leveled upon them, fared better, perhaps because they brought a form of government and a structured ideology to sustain them as a people, although the struggles that beset this community (not the least of which was the Salem 'witch scare') in terms of tilling unfamiliar soil and surviving a harsh climate cannot be underestimated.
Eventually, all of the colonies began prosper.…
Davis, David Brion & Steven Mintz. The Boisterous Sea of Liberty: A Documentary History of America from Discovery Through the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press,
A stronger Navy allowed the North to enforce the blockade more effectively than the Confederacy could overcome it. The second significant part of the Anaconda Plan was similar in scope and strategic significance: to take control of the Mississippi. When the Union Army eventually did gain control of the mighty Mississippi, the South was effectively split in two. The Anaconda Plan was fulfilled. Not only did the Union have the means by which to enforce their strategies: the Confederacy also lacked as clear a military plan.
While the blockade was nearly automatic and put into place toward the beginning of the war, control over the Mississippi was harder-fought. It meant encroachment deep into Southern territory, where most of the war was fought. Not until 1863 and the Union victory at the Battle of Vicksburg did the Union manage to infiltrate the iver and successfully set up its second major and…
Debating Who Actually Won the Civil War." Dummies.com. Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.dummies.com/WileyCDA/DummiesArticle/id-1229.html
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Secession and Civil War." U.S. History Resources. 31 March 1998. Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
The History Place. "The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865." Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/
Why did the North Win the Civil War?" Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Lesson_35_Notes.htm
hen a northern imposition of tariffs, ratified in Pennsylvania in 1828, began to damage southern income, the 'abomination,' as this legislation was labeled, became a flashpoint for Southern identification with anti-federalist principles. This spoke to one of the strengthening ideological holdings in the South as it pertained to maintaining a slave-labor system in spite of the nation's prevailing cultural, ethical and economical trends.
The South would generally hold that the Constitution was conflictive to the independence of states.
In the unfolding dispute between the regions, South Carolina would be a leader for the concept of nullification, which as explicated in a doctrine anonymously written by southern leader John C. Calhoun, would entitle states to undermine Federal laws that were inconsistent the individual states' constitutions. An act which elicited a military response against South Carolina from then president, Andrew Jackson, this underscored the extremity of distinction in economic interest which had…
APVA. (1997). History of Jamestown. The Association for Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Ret. Online at http://www.apva.org/history/.
Morrison, Michael. (1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Rosenberg, Daniel. (2005). Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. The Historian, Vol. 67.
Woodworth, Steven E. (2000). Cultures in Conflict: The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
He encounters this fascination with the war throughout the South, and as his book shows, it colors how the South views the North, blacks, and perhaps worst of all, it colors how the rest of the country views the South.
As the South continues to cling to their Confederacy, it adds to misunderstandings, stereotypes, and unflattering assessments of the people that make up the South. Many of Horwitz's descriptions sound as if they could be stereotypes, (such as "Tony Cool"), and another writer notes, "And, like it or not, many Americans accept that the trailer-park-trash types are usually Southern. It is an extremely unfortunate stereotype, but it exists" (Begone). By re-creating the Civil War and the South's devastating loss, southerners are simply perpetuating the worst of their society, and these authors all agree on that point.
Begone, Jonah. "Advancing the Southern Cause." WesClark.com. 2006. 12 Aug. 2006. http://www.wesclark.com/jw/southern_cause.html
Begone, Jonah. "Advancing the Southern Cause." WesClark.com. 2006. 12 Aug. 2006. http://www.wesclark.com/jw/southern_cause.html
Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War. New York: Pantheon, 1998.
Rider, Shawn. "Coping Through History: Tony Horwitz's 'Confederates in the Attic,' History, and Reconciliation." Personal Web Page. 1999. 12 Aug. 2006. http://www.wdog.com/rider/writings/horwitz.htm
Civil War Freedmen: Freedmen's Bureau ecords In The Aftermath
In the years following the American Civil war, fought between 1961 and1965, many freedmen lost their homes, got separated from their families, and lost all claim to the little property they had. Although nearly four million slaves were freed, towns and cities in the region lay in ruins and the economy was destroyed. Faced with the challenge of restoring social order and providing assistance to the distressed freedmen, the U.S. government came up with the Freedmen's Bureau, also known as the Bureau of efugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. Established in March 1965 by President Abraham Lincoln, the main aim of this Bureau was to provide relief effort to the former slaves from the south; and to facilitate the social reconstruction that would make the freedmen full citizens. The Bureau also helped them reunite with families, purchase land, establish schools, and even…
The Valley of the Shadow (1865-1870). Freedmen's Bureau Records: Race Relation, Family, Education. The Aftermath. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://vshadow.vcdh.virginia.edu/fbureau/bureau_topics_race.html
Instead of being a source of "organized social power" (Elkins 28) the church had "undergone a relentless process of fragmentation." People were religious, but Elkins asserts that people were seeking "individual satisfaction" rather than building "institutional needs." Elkins (150) delves into the Transcendentalists' view of the church, which was very cynical; "the church as an institution was corrupt..." The two author views are radically different one from the other.
SLAVES & MASTERS: Elkins explains that Southerners had "...a paternal affection of the good master for his blacks" and there were "warm sentiments" in southern Society for "faithful slave" (Elkins 61). However, on page 57 Elkins reports a case where a Virginia Judge in 1827 declined to punish the master who had cruelly battered his slave. Slaves had no legal rights and hence masters could take total control over their lives. Elkins does assert that a master could not kill his…
Elkins, Stanley M. (1968). Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, James M. (1982). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York:
Alfred a. Knopf.
If those seats were held by politicians from free states, the pro-slavery senators would gradually be silenced. Pro-slavery legislation would be impossible to pass in a senate dominated by anti-slavery politicians.
Thus, Westward expansion exacerbated the division between north and south. As pro-slavery Southerners felt increasingly threatened by their abolitionist Yankee counterparts, their representatives in Congress helped embed a second Fugitive Slave Law into the Compromise of 1850. Humiliated by the Underground ailroad and other attempts to subvert the first Fugitive Slave Law, pro-slavery politicians tightened the noose on runaway slaves and Americans who aided them. Therefore, Southerners directly used the Fugitive Slave Law as political leverage, as a means to regain some of their dwindling power in the federal government. The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law exposed the deep rift that had already developed between North and South and effectively presaged the Civil War.
Fugitive Slave Laws." Infoplease. 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007 at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0819828.html
The Kansas Nebraska Act." The History Place. 1996. Retrieved June 27, 2007 at http://www.historyplace.com/lincoln/kansas.htm
Texas in the Civil War
The American Civil War was a monumental conflict in American history. The conflict was brewing for a long time, as southern and northern states argued over the role of the federal government and the extent of state rights. The debate erupted into an outright war with the election of Abraham Lincoln. Seven southern states formed the Confederacy as before the inauguration of President Lincoln. The issue of states' rights originates with the debate of slavery. unaway slaves would escape the south and head to northern states where they would be deemed free, however, Southern states argued that they were still slaves and wanted a return of their property (Baum 1998). The main issue at hand is what rights extended beyond a state. Southern states naturally supported the stance that citizens of every state could take their property anywhere within the United States, in this case…
Baum, D. (1998). The shattering of Texas unionism: Politics in the Lone Star state during the Civil War era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Bell F. Walter. (2005). Civil War Texas: A Review of the Historical Literature. Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 109(2), 204-232.
Buenger, W.L. (1984). Secession and the Union in Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Civil War and by the mid-20th century, the United States was a prevailing and influential nation in the global politics. This was enhanced by the high level of involvement in controlling the events that take place across the world. The U.S. has been an active player in working with other international players in the processes of promoting peace and coexistence among the nations. Its large stake in a number of countries politically or economically has made the U.S. A major player in the international politics. The high involvement of the United States in international relations has led many to argue that it to be considered as the 'policemen of the world'. "The United States acts as the world's police, through taking policy and practical military action/missions in war/conflict torn areas across the world, with the focus to enforce global security."
Indeed, many people have argued that the U.S.…
Benhabib, S. (2008). U.S. Foreign Policy; The legitimacy of human rights. Daedalus, Vol. 137, Issue 3, p. 94-104.
Cameron, F. (2005). U.S. Foreign Policy After The Cold War. London: Routledge.
Kerstin, M. (2004). Security and Human rights; less liberty for greater security? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, No. 27, p. 14-20.
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
In 1834, the British Empire abolished slavery (the Civil War Home Page, 2009). Great Britain had remained one of the United States' largest trading partners and was, at that time, still the most influential nation in the world. Moreover, Great Britain had retained slavery after many other countries ended the practice. The end of slavery in Great Britain also meant that those in the North who wanted the abolition of slavery could support their assertions that the world viewed the United States as backwards and barbarous because of the practice of slavery. Moreover, it certainly changed the potential for allies in the Civil War. Though not a monarchy, the South was an aristocracy and both Britain and France were then-ruled by monarchies. As long as the struggle was about a states-right government rebellion, the root cause of that rebellion, slavery, could be ignored and European countries could provide aid to…
Brotherly Love. (unk.). Historical document: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved February 22,
2011 from PBS.org website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511.html
The Civil War Home Page. (2009). Events leading to war- a Civil War timeline. Retrieved from http://www.civil-war.net/pages/timeline.asp
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857).
Firstly secession could not be allowed as it would divide the country politically, morally and economically. This aspect tended to highlight the differences between North and South. The differences in terms of labor and ethics presented two almost diametrically opposed systems.
With two fundamentally different labor systems at their base, the economic and social changes across the nation's geographical regions - based on wage labor in the North and on slavery in the South - underlay distinct visions of society that had emerged by the mid-nineteenth century in the North and in the South.
Secondly, the war was inevitable due to one word - slavery. While there are many complex issues, such as independence and economics that can be debated, yet the importance of the slavery issue was a factor that was morally and ethically the main element that made the civil war inevitable and a factor that…
African-American Civil War History in the National Park System. September 20, 2005. http://www.it'd.nps.gov/cwss/history/aa_cw_parks.htm
American Civil war: Wikipedia. September 20, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War
Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer. October 1, 2005. http://members.tripod.com/~greatamericanhistory/gr02013.htm
Higham, Robin, and Steven E. Woodworth, eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
During this time he was known for allowing his troops to engage in tactics that were considered to be brutal. This is because he felt that the constant Indian attacks on the railroads and settlers were unacceptable. As a result, he allowed soldiers to attack women, children and men when they were sweeping villages. At the same time, he helped to establish the Command and General Staff College along with writing his autobiography called Memoires. Once he retired from the army he was inducted into the Kappa Psi fraternity and the Irving Literary Society. Upon his death in 1891, Sherman was remembered for being brilliant military tactician and as someone who was willing to give something back to society. This is significant, because it is showing how Sherman's life was focused on military and public service after the end of the Civil War. The answers the question we are studying,…
"George Meade." History of War, 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
"Joshua Chamberlin." Defense Media Network, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Lanning, Michael. The Civil War 100. Naperville, IL: Source Books, 2006. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
civil war on the American economics, military and diplomatic ties. The paper will discuss the effects of the victory of the Unions and the defeat of the Confederates.
The victory of the North in the American Civil War put an end to slavery and to the South's effort to secede from the Union. The years during which the Civil War settlement continued to be contested are known as the econstruction period. econstruction lasted roughly from the end of the war in April 1865 to the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South in April 1877.
Effects of Civil War
The most important result of the Civil War was the liberation of nearly 4 million Southern slaves. The sudden release of so many people would have been a tremendous problem even in an atmosphere free from the bitterness that had been created by a civil war. Postwar…
Civil War: The Effects, Last viewed: 19th May'04
United States History, Civil War Effects and Reconstruction, last viewed: 19th May'04
When more territories were acquired by the U.S. As a result of the Mexican Wars, another uneasy 'Compromise Measure of 1850' was reached that admitted California as a 'free state' and allowed the rest of the states, i.e., Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to decide for themselves whether to permit slavery or not. The tensions between the North and the South went up another notch when the Senate passed the 'Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' which repealed the prohibition of slavery in the territories north of 36° 30' latitude previously agreed in the 'Missouri Compromise.' In reaction to the repealing of the Missouri Compromise, antislavery groups formed a new party (called the epublican Party) that was committed to containing slavery (Gallagher, 2006).
Other Causes of the Civil War: Apart from slavery, the American Civil War was also fought over the issue of preservation of the rights of the individual states. The…
Berkowitz, C. And Moran, K.B. (2006). "Slavery In The U.S. Constitution." Worcester Women's History Project. Retrieved on September 5, 2006 at http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/Slavery/constitution.html
Epperson, J.F. (2003). "The Causes." The American Civil War. Retrieved on September 5, 2006 at http://www.swcivilwar.com/cw_causes.html
Gallagher, G. (2006). "American Civil War." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on September 5, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567354/Civil_War.html
Spicer, J. (2004). "The Cause of the American Civil War: John Spicer Judges That Slavery Was the Key Factor in Producing the Conflict." History Review, (49), 45+.
Civil War in American history [...] why the North won the Civil War, considering how the North and South developed during the 19th century, how the political, economic, and cultural development of the nation placed the North at an advantage and the South at a disadvantage, and finally, how the North ultimately prevailed over the South militarily. The North prevailed in the Civil War for a variety of reasons, from economic to industrial. The South simply did not have the resources the North enjoyed, and they were at a disadvantage from the start of the war. The end was inevitable, but the South resisted much longer than most people had believed, thus dragging the war on and accumulating the losses.
The North won the Civil War not because of wily generals and greater manpower, although that helped. The North won the Civil War for a wide variety of reasons, and…
Woodworth, Steven E. Cultures in Conflict -- The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Death brings the poet closer to a sense of peace with life. As part of the earth, death will return him back to the earth. He writes:
depart as air -- I shake my white locks at the runaway sun; effuse my flesh in eddies, and drift it in lacy jags.
A bequeathe myself to the dirt, to grow from the grass I love;
If you want me again, look for me under your boot-soles. (1334-7)
Here the poet is expressing that he is comfortable with death and dying and it seems as though he is encouraging the reader to be at peace with death as well.
Being at peace with death does not always mean being immune to the pain it brings. e see the poet's reaction to death in "hen Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd." Abraham Lincoln is forever connected to the Civil ar and in this…
Folsom, Ed. "Antebellum Writers in New York." Dictionary of Literary Biography. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed July 16, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Spiller, Robert, et al. Literary History of the United States. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company. Inc. 1974.
Whitman, Walt. "Song of Myself." Leaves of Grass. New York: Signet Classics. 1958.
So Long." Leaves of Grass. New York: Signet Classics. 1958.
The dead were those that were remembered and martyred in the South, and the survivors had to do just that - survive. Northern soldiers eventually got some kind of pension as a reward for their valor, but the South was in disarray, and Southern soldiers really did not gain anything for their valor. The reactions to this were difficult to read, because many soldiers turned to drugs, alcohol, violence, and many suffered from mental problems. This is an area not often explored, and it made this book more interesting. It would have been nice if the editors had included even more essays and evaluations in this section of the book, because it was definitely the most commanding of all the sections.
This was a difficult book to read, because the essays the editor's chose were extremely academic (and some were very dry), and so it made it more difficult to…
Barton, Michael and Logue, Larry M. The Civil War Veteran: A Historical Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2007.