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Global War on Terror
United States' stand on terrorism has come under serious criticism since 9/11 terrorists attacks. Not only the other countries are critical about the global war on terrorism, but the Americans also are actively criticizing their own actions because of the futility of actions they have witnessed so far.
The ongoing turbulence and security issues had forced United State to change the foreign policy and this has raised several questions about the global war on terrorism. It is important and vital for the foreign policy maker of United States to decide whether to pursue an idealistic situation and force other countries to do the same, where there are no issues, problems, or for instance no war or to deal with the reality as it is.
The American military actions are facing several challenges and issues since the 11th September attacks. The country is facing the problems and…
Richardson, B. (2008, February). A new realism: a realistic and principled foreign policy. Foreign affairs, Retrieved May 5, 2012, from
OPPapers. Realism vs. idealism: how american foreign policy has changed since world war ii. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from
Admin. (2010, December 28). Is us foreign policy idealistic or realistic?. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from
Monitoring and enforcing a [CO.sub.2] treaty would be very difficult, if not impossible.
eductions in [CO.sub.2] emissions by rich countries could be negated by increased [CO.sub.2] emissions in fast-growing developing countries (Udall, 1990)."
One of the issues facing the global warming crisis is the debate about who is most responsible for its creation and who should be financially responsible for its curbing. According to recently gathered data Americans are causing a much larger percentage of the problem than less industrialized nation are causing. Americans are producing a larger percentage of the greenhouse gasses that are at the root of creating the global warming crisis (Udall, 1990).
Other nations that have been industrialized are also contributing to the problem however, when all is said and done the entire world will suffer the impact that global warming will cause.
For example, two hundred fifty million Americans produce about nine times more…
Cohen, Neal (2007) What Will it Cost to Fight Global Warming? Talk of the Nation (NPR)
Dewar, Heather (1995) Global warming has already begun, U.N. scientific report warns.(Originated from Knight-Ridder Newspapers) Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service
Flavin, Christopher (1990) Slowing global warming. American Forests
Goode, Stephen, (2004) Singer Cool on Global Warming; Renowned scientist Fred Singer heats up the debate on a controversial topic by showing why the popular theory on global warming is not backed by scientific evidence.(PICTURE PROFILE)
In much of the nation, a warming of four degrees (F) could increase ozone concentrations by about 5%."
As mentioned, increased pollution is one of the results of global warming; and this can also have an effect on human health.
One of the health hazards is the increase of respiratory illness due to the connection between heat waves and air pollution. Another related factor is that it has been found that increased levels of carbon monoxide are related to increases in the pollen count which affects various respiratory ailments. "Photochemical smog and carbon dioxide are factors that have been found to boost pollen production by ragweed. This alone may help account for part of the tremendous rise in asthma. In addition, extreme weather events are becoming more intense and projected to become more frequent.
Solutions and controversy
There is a general consensus among most nations that solutions to this growing…
Christianson, Gale E. Greenhouse the 200-Year Story of Global Warming. New York: Walker, 1999.
Definition of Global Warming. April 22, 2005. http://www.odysen.com/education/glossary/articles/d/DefinitionGlobalWarming.php
D'EMILIO, FRANCESn (2003) "WHO Links Global Warming to More Deaths," AP Online, December 11.
Disease time bomb; With global warming can come big-time health woes. (2000) the Grand Rapids Press, (Grand Rapids, MI), December 28
Despite the harsh, cold winter, 2010 is likely to be the warmest year on record (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.1). But powerful special interest groups with an economic incentive to fight global warming legislation, such as cattlemen who raise methane-generating livestock or the oil and gas industry, may win out in the short-term, politically. Yet they cannot fight the facts. Due to global warming, the "Northern Hemisphere's jet streams… could alter storm tracks, rainfall patterns and food production far to the south" of the equator, and create the conditions for famine and fuel further political unrest in an already war-torn region (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.2).
Urgent action and lifestyle changes are needed, such as radically reducing carbon emissions from automobiles and overhauling existing energy systems (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.2). This could prove quite costly, however, and demand sacrifices of the developing as well as the developed world. The means of addressing global warming is…
"Global Warming." Times Topics. The New York Times. August 17, 2010. [September 26, 2010]
Homer-Dixon, Thomas. "Disaster at the top of the world." The New York Times. August 23,
2010. [September 26, 2010] http://www.nytimes.com /2010/08/23/opinion/23homer-dixon.html?ref=globalwarming
Changing the climate of the earth will also impact living conditions for humanity. People will be forced to deal with the effects of living in a warmer environment, which may mean hotter temperatures and growth of mold and mildew, as well as deal with the issues surrounding home modification to adjust to the new climate variable. There may be a need for increased air conditioning; air conditioners require energy to run, which is going to have to come from power plants. If the power plants are fueled by fossil fuels, the cycle is repeating and enhancing itself. Additionally, air conditioners are known strongholds of disease such as Legionnaires Disease, which may contribute to increased rates of contagion among the human population (Langholz & Turner, 2003).
Another problem that may likely result from global warming is the impact upon the food production system for humanity. Hotter climates may be non-conducive to…
Berger, J. (2000). Beating the Heat: Why and How We Must Combat Global Warming. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Hills Books.
Daly, J. (2002). Solar Variability Causes Global Warming. In J. Haley, & ed., Global Warming: Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 82-89). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Fearnside, P., & Barbosa, R. (2003). Avoided Deforestation in Amazonia as a Global Warming Mitigation Measure: The Case of Mato Grasso. World Resource Review, 352-361.
Gorte, R., & Sheikh, P. (2010). Deforestation and Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.
Ecosystem Dynamics Relative to Repair and Restoration
Ecological restoration activities are created to reverse the effect of previous human activities that damaged important parts of ecosystems. Terry L. Root, senior fellow with Stanford's Institute for International Studies affirms in one of her studies that "One thing we might do now is to consider adjusting the bag limits for hunters so we don't add insult to injury in the coming years. ecause anticipation of changes improves our capacity to manage, it behooves us to increase our understanding about the responses of plants and animals to a changing climate."
In order to anticipate and prevent the predicted changes in planet's ecosystems people must create projects and activities that can improve life. For example, trees can help offset or global warming, because they absorb CO2. People must be encouraged to plant trees and preserve older forests as a way to cut down on…
Dupler Douglas, Kyoto Protocol/Treaty (October 25, 2005). Retrieved February 21, 2007, at http://www.keepmedia.com/pubs/EnvironmentalEncyclopedia/2005/10/25/1131982?cl=&pbl=15
Effects of global warming. Retrieved February 21, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_global_warming
Global warming. Retrieved February 21, 2007, at
TANSITION FOM MODEN WESTEN INDUSTIAL CIVILIZATION TO a POSTMODEN GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION, AS DESCIBED IN THE WITINGS OF OESKES & CONWAY, KLEIN, AND BEY
Humanity has faced a number of crises throughout history, and some of these such as the Black Death in the early 1330s and the Great Plague of 1665-1666 were of sufficient magnitude to kill large percentages of humankind. Even these disasters, though, did not rise to the level of the current threat from global warming. Although the scientific community remains divided concerning the cause of recent climate changes, there is a growing consensus that anthropogenic activities dating to the Industry evolution of the mid-19th century are the primary cause today. Indeed, some researchers believe that the climate change tipping point has already been reached and nothing can be done to reverse the process, meaning in sum the global climate will experience rapid changes that will threaten…
Berry, Thomas. THE DREAM OF THE EARTH (Reprint Edition). Counterpoint, 2015.
Klein, Naomi. THIS CHANGES EVERYTHING: CAPITALISM VS. THE CLIMATE. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.
Oreskes, Naomi & Erik Conway. THE COLLAPSE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: A VIEW FROM THE FUTURE. Columbia University Press, 2014.
Nuclear Power the Best Alternative to Fossil Fuel?
Is nuclear energy the best alternative to fossil fuels in terms of the need for energy, taking into account the economy and the environment? This is an issue that embraces several other issues, in particular global climate change, the science behind climate change, the politics surrounding climate change and the continuing need for new sources of energy. This paper will address those issues using scholarly research and other data produced by worthy sources. Thesis: Available, credible research shows that nuclear power plants today are prohibitively expensive to build and moreover, the public has become increasing fearful and skeptical of nuclear energy following the tsunami and radioactive disaster in Japan. Hence, nuclear power does not appear at this time to be a valid alternative to fossil fuel notwithstanding the need to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Global climate change…
Biello, David. "Spent Nuclear Fuel: A Trash Heap Deadly for 250,000 years or a Renewable
Energy Source?" Scientific American, Retrieved April 3, 2014, from http://www.scientificamerican.com . 2009.
Cascio, Josh. "Crystal River Nuclear Plant decommissioning could take decades." FOX 13
News. Retrieved April 4, 2014, from http://www.myfoxtampabay.com . 2014.
Global warming is caused by the greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, which trap heat inside the planet and keep it from escaping into outer space. Imagine the globe is like a parked car sitting in the sun with all the windows rolled up. The outside of the car may be hot, but the inside of the car will be so hot that belt buckles will burn one's skin if touched. Now if the car's windows were rolled down and the inside heat allowed to escape, the inside of the car would not be nearly as hot. This is essentially what is happening to the planet. Because the atmosphere is being polluted by greenhouse gasses, it is not allowing heat to escape and so the planet is warming as a result. hat causes greenhouse gasses? The primary cause is the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which release…
Markham, Derek. "Global Warming Effects and Causes: A Top 10 List." Planet Save,
2009. Web. 5 May 2016.
NASA. "A Blanket around the Earth." Global Climate Change, 2016. Web. 5 May
forgotten aspect of global warming. Global warming does not merely mean that the earth is getting warmer, temperature-wise. It does not simply mean that summers will be more unpleasant. The melting of the polar ice caps will also cause more severe storms, such as the hurricanes that were affecting the Gulf region when Gore wrote his essay. As well as Arizona being afflicted with more hundred degree days than ever before, for the first time Brazil is being afflicted by hurricanes, forcing scientists to rewrite textbooks which said that the South Atlantic never experienced this meteorological phenomenon. The climate is changing, the ecosystem is changing, and we are to blame writes Gore. Gore writes that what we have done, we can also undo -- and must undo. But although the claim that man-made climate change is real seems undeniable in the light of scientific evidence, the question of how to…
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Jenkins, Amber. (2012). Climate change: Evidence. NASA. Retrieved:
This did not occur, and that in fact flawed the structure and strength of the strategic plan that was in place. This further affirms that stated in the answer to the memo; restructuring was needed. Combined forces were needed, better training and efforts in support of the military were needed. Most of all there was and is still a need for reunification of forces. The memo discusses the importance of forces coming together and supporting and sustaining the views of the UN and its principles, not only would this give everyone involved a more global perspective it will also allow all parties an opportunity to focus their initiatives in unison. There is a need for unification, support, boosting of military morale, and various other initiatives. A fresh perspective is always a great first step.
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo e: Global War on…
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo Re: Global War on Terrorism. Memo, pp.1-9.
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).
Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au
BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.
Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
The capital requirements together with reserve policies were overhauled with the entry of new leadership and avenues of the company. Moreover, the company had to align compensation with long-term returns. The strategies, which were laid by the company after its revival was to settle the dividends of the purchasers, and pay debts, which had been accrued in payments (Stonehouse, 2004).
Porter's Five Force
The Porter's Five Forces have a great influence of the way McDonald's Company has been operating in the market. Literally, the company has embraced all the five figures making up the Porter's Five Forces. These are the forces, which influence the market as it happened to McDonald's Company. The company faced the threat of new entrants into the market. When the company was introduced, it dealt with different products, most of which were also being produced by some other companies. As such, the company had to shift…
Ahlstrom, D., & Bruton, G.D. (2010). International management: Strategy and culture in the emerging world. Australia: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Facella, P., & Genn, a.M. (2009). Everything I know about business I learned at McDonald's:
The seven leadership principles that drive break out success. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gilbert, S. (2009). The story of McDonald's. Mankato, MN: Creative Education.
Global and National Hunger
Hunger can be described as a physical sensation of desiring food. Usually even the highly privileged may experience mild hunger, however brief experience will never be harmful. People suffering from hunger are a larger scale reference to individuals who are unable to eat sufficient food in meeting their basic nutritional needs for a sustained period of time. A large proportion of the world's populations are affected by hunger throughout history. Occasionally it result originates from plagues, war or adverse weather changes.
Several inter-related issues that cause hunger tend to be related to economic as well as other factors that cause poverty. A part from the named above causes of hunger we have drought, famine, diversification of land use to non-productive use, poor eating habit, inefficient agriculture, land right and ownership as other causes of hunger, (Anup Shah, 2010). As we try to solve the problem of…
References Anup Shah, ( 2010). Solving World Hunger Means Solving World Poverty" Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.globalissues.org/article/8/solving-world-hunger-means-solving-world-poverty
Miguel De La Torre, (2012). Will You Eat Less to Reduce Global Hunger? Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.ethicsdaily.com/will-you-eat-less-to-reduce-global-hunger -- cms-19941
World Hunger Education Service, (2011). "2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics" Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
Global Organizations -- IMF
At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, that created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Western capitalist nations sought to avoid a repetition of the events that led to the Great Depression and Second World War by establishing a stable international economic order that was not bound by the rigidity of the pre-1914 gold standard system. The interwar period of 1919-39 was one of economic and politic chaos, featuring deflationary devaluations, closed trading blocs, massive unemployment and the failure of the revived gold standard in 1925-31, which were key factors in the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in 1933 and the fascist takeover of Japan that began in 1931. President Woodrow Wilson had been an early advocate of free trade and had warned against the nationalism and autarky in economic policies that became the norm in the 1920s and 1930s. Secretary of…
Bordo, M.D. "The Bretton Woods International Monetary System: A Historical Overview." pp. 3-108.
Boughton, J.M. 2001. Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund, 1979-1989. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Boughton, J.M. (2004). The IMF and the Force of History: Ten Events and Ten Ideas that Have Shaped the Institution. IMF Working Paper No. 04/75.
Kahler, M. (1990). The United States and the International Monetary Fund: Declining Influence or Declining Interest? Eds. Karns, M.P. And K.A. Mingst. The United States and Multilateral Institutions. Routledge, pp. 91-115.
One of the positive aspects to all this is that there are several career counseling and orientation programs available within and outside of the military. These provide valuable information on "life after the military" and how to go about reintegrating in the civilian world. Most of those who leave, especially the younger ones, can opt to go back to school and earn a college degree (for those who do not have one) or even a master's or doctorate degree.
Another viable option when it comes to thinking about a career in the military is looking for future employers or colleges that accept experience in the military or provide equivalences. This means that a soldier's military occupation specialty can be aligned with related civilian specifications. Having an equivalence in the civilian world means being able to ease out of the military and enter available civilian jobs. These post-military career actions may…
Burns, R. (2011, May 24). Gates: Defense cuts mean smaller U.S. military. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 1, 2011 from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/may/24/gates-defense-cuts-mean-smaller-us-military/
Ratnesar, R. (2011, April 11). Military spending must be part of the deficit debate. Time. Retrieved June 1, 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2064468,00.html
In this order of ideas then, he strives to come up with a theory that explains the construction of global networks, as well as the systems they use to grow and prosper. In order to make his case, Kendall looks at global structures constructed in various domains, including society and technology. He comes to the realization that global peace and order can only be achieved with the full cooperation and collaboration of all structures in the international system. Additionally, there must exist a will and a way in order for the mentioned goals to be achieved. While he recognizes that his arguments address a certain kind of economists and politicians who promoted the idea of a uniform and powerful globalization, he hopes that his points will the least make for an interesting reading.
inally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon…
Finally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon starts at the premise that there exists a direct connection between the three components of population, government and security. This conclusion was found throughout a previous study, which came to raise new questions that are answered in the current analysis. In a perfect world, peace would be achieved through fruitful partnerships between private and public players and would ensure the safety of all populations and all classes. Yet, this is not the case and Dillon argues that while governmentality is the collection of cooperations and collaborations, it represents more of a "technological ontology that proceeds through reflexive epistemologies."
In other words, there is a direct connection between technology and ontology as they validate each other and support each other in reaching the pre-established goals. "Here the dialogical interplay of the ontological and the technological is in evidence. If it takes a metaphysic to imagine a technic, it takes a technic to realize a metaphysic. But even that rendition fails to do justice to the co-evolutionary dynamic that exists in the power relations between technology and ontology. This is a mutually disclosive relationship in which each seems propelled by independent dynamics as well: the technologist continuously to interrogate and refine systems, the ontologist to secure the meaning of being.
Larner, W., Walters, W., 2004, Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, Routledge
he globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
he ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the hird World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some…
The objective of fighting poverty and improving the overall living standards of those individuals in the Third World and the newly emerging nations has become huge undertaking. One would think that the world would be getting richer based on the advances in technology and the many new economic opportunities in the global economy. "The global decline in living standards is not the result of a scarcity of productive resources as in preceding historical periods. The globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
The ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the Third World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some countries earns more than $40,000 a year. But in this same world, 2.8 billion people -- more than half the people in developing countries -- live on less than $700 a year. Of these, 1.2 billion earn less than $1 a day." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
The World Bank is not a bank in the true sense of what the average person would consider a bank. The World Bank has more or less become a specialized poverty focused social and financial assistance program or agency. The World Bank falls under the jurisdiction of the United Nations and is one of their more specialized agencies. The World Bank consists of one hundred eighty four nations currently who are jointly responsible for the oversight of the institution and
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.
A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
" (Johnson, 2005) the notion of ruling against the defendant in all identity theft or related cases may establish the wrong precedent for future cases. "On the other hand, if liability is too readily assessed, it will have the power to bankrupt valuable enterprises because of the often vast numbers of potential plaintiffs and consequent extensive resulting damages." (Johnson, 2005)
Internet security and identity theft is a very pervasive problem globally. In fact, most every nation with a web presence must deal with the same issue of hackers breaching server security or web browser security and stealing identities or other destructive behavior with malicious intent. The United States has a much more serious issue in this realm, however, when compared to countries within Europe, Asia, Africa, ussia, and South America. Although the threat remains global and can affect any nation at any time, the probability of identity theft in America…
Anthes, G. (2010) Security in the Cloud. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(11), 16. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2198161791).
Babcock, C. (2010) Cloud Computing Differences Between U.S. And Europe. Information Week. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224202598
2009. New Straits Times. Cyber security challenges. Retrieved from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10848791436&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10848791439&cisb=22_T10848791438&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=151977&docNo=13
Campbell K., Gordon L., Loeb M., Zhou L. The economic cost of publicly announced information security breaches: empirical evidence from the stock market. Journal of Computer Security Vol.11 Number 3/2003 pgs 431-448
What must however be noted is that globalization has sadly enough also had some negative impacts. Probably the most relevant example in this sense has been the emergence of a war on terrorism in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. Such actions are indeed linked to international law, which did stir up controversy but did not prevent the emergence of the war. "Terror can be regarded as a direct attack on global civil society, a way of creating fear and insecurity that are the opposite of civil society" (Kaldor, 2003). The final impact is that of major disruption in the consolidation of a strong global civil society.
Kaldor, M., 2003, the Idea of Global Civil Society, International Affairs, Vol.…
Kaldor, M., 2003, the Idea of Global Civil Society, International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 583-593
That is supposed to have become one market which does not entail any tariff distinctions between the nations. But it should be noted that some of the analysts feel that it will never become a single entity market, but will remain separated into different varying national markets. The reason is being ascribed to "cultural, informational, logistic barriers and perhaps remaining discriminatory barriers all of which imply an incurable tendency to award contracts to local suppliers." (Is Culture a Major Barrier to a Single European Market? The Case of Public Purchasing)
The general aim of free trade has however changed and it is now not limited any more to the removal of barriers in being able to sell the products made in one country to other countries of the world. This is considered to be even more important for that of the developing countries wherein their progress in development made however…
Madsen, Poul Thois. "Is Culture a Major Barrier to a Single European Market? The Case of Public Purchasing" Retrieved at http://www.ihis.aau.dk/~pmadsen/purchase.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Market Access and Protocol Commitments" Retrieved at http://www.uschina.org/public/wto/ch-memo.html . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Non-tariff Barriers to Imports" Retrieved at http://www.wright.edu/~tran.dung/Chapter8_Pugel.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Tariff" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TariffAccessed 18 September, 2005
Global usiness Strategies
The aftermath of World War II has seen the evolution of economic regionalism as a means for fostering foreign trade thereby economic growth of participating countries. Economic regionalism was a conscious attempt to manage the opportunities and constraints created by international economic tie-ups after World War II through institutional arrangements facilitating free flow of goods and services and coordination of foreign economic policies. It embraced free trade areas, customs unions, common markets and economic unions. On the basis of the level of integration the economic regionalism can be differentiated widely, which can be visualized in the form of creation of free trade areas, custom unions, common markets and economic unions. The member countries practice preferential tariffs levying comparatively lower rates of duty on imports of goods among themselves than that from non-member countries. Free trade among the member countries is protected by a schedule of customs…
Marcial, Pedro. "Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America" retrieved at http://wehner.tamu.edu/mgmt.www/NAFTA / spring99 / Groups99 / pedro / final.htm Accessed on 10 April, 2004
Regional Integration in Central America" Retrieved at http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/blokit/cacmin.htm . Accessed on 10 April, 2004
Stubbs, Nicole Anne. "Regional Economic Integration: a Comparison of NAFTA and the EU" retrieved at http://depts.washington.edu/canada/nafta / 98chapters / 4stubbsnafta98.htm Accessed on 10 April, 2004
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
what is climate change and what is it doing?
The reality of global warming: fact vs. fiction and the marginalized greed-based business perspective
The Economics of global warming vs. The moral impact of global warming on all stakeholders including non-human ones.
Climate change, not global warming: the effects are different in different parts of the globe.
The political, social, and financial challenges that global warming creates and how the challenges can be met.
The Economic, Political, and Ethical Effects of Global Warming
Global warming, or climate change, has economic, social, and political consequences. These consequences are experienced by the non-human populations of the planet, too, and perhaps even more so. The Environmental Protection Agency points out that due to climate change and global warming, migratory birds are flying an average of thirty-five miles further north than they did just forty years ago. The recent Hurricane Sandy…
Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.
The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.
The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…
Das, Dilip K. (2003). Financial Flows and Global Integration. Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. Retrieved April 1, 2009 fromhttp://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/2004/wp13204.pdf
Steil, Benn. (2007). The end of National Currency. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62614/benn-steil/the-end-of-national-currency
S., who is duly aware of their hardships and struggles. Again, there are many reasons why they are not given what they need to succeed (covert imperialism, ideological differences, etc.) but one of the main reasons is global overcapacity. If there are more countries producing goods and services the supply of those goods and services continue to increase. When supply goes up, and demand remains relatively unchanged (or static) one of the only ways to earn a profit is to lower costs (Judis, 2010). Lowering costs means a smaller profit margin. A smaller profit margin means, well, less money for the CEs and shareholders.
ne may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to…
One may think that this theory is a bit of a reach, that there is no conspiracy to retard the efforts of fledgling countries to take a power position in this new "flat" world (Friedman, 2005). And maybe they're right, there is no coordinated effort to do such a thing, it's just the way the system is set up. Either way, whether it's consciously done or unconsciously done, it's the way it is. The facts bear this out.
For starters, and to circle back to that Chinese proverb, why do countries in power continue to delivery fish, instead of curriculum on fishing techniques? Here is an excerpt, from an article regarding the ill effects of food dumping, that underscores this issue, "Food aid (when not for emergency relief) can actually be very destructive on the economy of the recipient nation and contribute to more hunger and poverty in the long-term. Free, subsidized, or cheap food, below market prices undercuts local farmers, who cannot compete and are driven out of jobs and into poverty, further slanting the market share of the larger producers such as those from the U.S. And Europe" (Shah, 2010). There's two additional points to make regarding this scenario. The first is obvious and an iteration of what's just been said, the reason countries in power give away food, supplies, and other resources is because it subverts the efforts of foreign competition. The other reason countries in power donate food, food in particular, is because it helps diminish the available supply in the U.S., thus reducing global overcapacity. One has, no doubt, heard of corn farmers burning their cornfields to serve a similar end, reduce supply to keep prices high.
In the face of this evidence, one can posit that the IMF and the World Bank are two institutions that work toward helping impoverished countries make it to the big stage. After all, they provide funding and assistance to many countries in need. Well, the rebuttal to this fact is that all money comes with strings attached. Or, in short, there's no such thing as a free lunch. Here is a rather concise description of the effect the IMF and World Bank have on the countries they assist, "the way it has happened has required poor countries to reduce spending on things like health, education and development, while debt repayment and other economic policies have been made the priority. In effect, the IMF and World Bank have demanded that poor nations lower the standard of living of their people" (Shah, 2010). The IMF and World Bank don't mind loaning money to struggling nations, as long as those nations follow their orders. It's really a form of new age imperialism whereby nations in power seek to exploit cheap labor and extract resources from
However, this is hardly enough to address further issues across the world economy, including poverty.
Despite the fact that trade has become significantly facilitated by the regulating authorities, it is also true that most member countries are developed countries, while developing countries receive very little in terms of policies to facilitate their international relationships within the trading regime. This has been the paradigm since the inception of the global trade regime. Powerful member countries as it were tended to control the regime.
Currently, the United States is at the most powerful relational position within the trade regime. As such, the country's voting power within the MF and World Bank remains significant, as does the fact of its privilege in the financial regime. The regime is structured in such a way that developed countries enjoy privileges that poorer countries do not. Because it can take advantage of the international strength of…
In conclusion, the IMF and WTO do valuable work in the global trade regime. However, they tend to favor the most powerful and richest member countries rather than those who are in need of help to enter the trading arena. Poorer countries are all but ignored, and the poverty problem remains significant. A truly equal global trade regime would involve an equal platform upon which all countries can trade equally and for the benefit of all involved.
Ravenhill, John. Global Political Economy. Oxford University Press, 2008.
According to UNCEF, replacement of many nutrients such as protein, potassium, magnesium and zince is essential for recovery from malnutrition (http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/treating-malnutrition-as.html).The organization mentions ready-to-use therapeutic foods such as F75 and Plumpy'nut. F75 is high in energy, fat, and protein, and provide a large amount of nutrients while Plumpy'nut contains vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, E, and K, and minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, iodine, sodium, and selenium.
WHO advises that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables contains immune-system boosting mironutrients that can help those suffering from over nourishment to boost their body's natural defenses against infectious diseases (http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20030304.htm)
In the United States, food is more readily available than in developing countries. Yet, there are still amply cases of malnutrition. The types I've cases I've seen while growing up have stemmed from the economic realities of low-income households who lacked the financial resources for food and/or the education and awareness to make good nutritional decisions and to seek the appropriate assistance to help their families.
According to UNICEF, replacement of many nutrients such as protein, potassium, magnesium and zince is essential for recovery from malnutrition ( http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/treating-malnutrition-as.html ).The organization mentions ready-to-use therapeutic foods such as F75 and Plumpy'nut. F75 is high in energy, fat, and protein, and provide a large amount of nutrients while Plumpy'nut contains vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, E, and K, and minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, iodine, sodium, and selenium.
WHO advises that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables contains immune-system boosting mironutrients that can help those suffering from over nourishment to boost their body's natural defenses against infectious diseases ( http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20030304.htm )
One of the largest sources of competitive advantage for a global corporation is the ability to optimize operations on a world-wide scale by minimizing costs and maximizing revenues. This is accomplished by leveraging technology, manufacturing efficiencies, brand names, and/or capital across countries. The major thrust of Starbuck Corporation's global strategy has been to build a global brand to target customers in all major markets throughout the world. However, even with instant name recognition, the company has faced enormous challenges in applying its domestic business model to work in many foreign markets.
Starbucks was founded in 1971 as a gourmet coffee bean roaster and distributor and began to dominate the North American market over the following two decades. To continue its rapid growth and to combat the threat of future market saturation in its own domestic market, Starbucks turned its eye to international expansion in 1996 (Starbucks outlines international…
Coffee in a time of conflict: Starbucks' growth risks backlash (2003, April 17). CNN. Retrieved January 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2003/U.S./West/04/17/profile.starbucks.ap
Holmes, S, Kunii, I. Ewing, J. And Capell, K. (2003, June 9). For Starbucks, there's no place like home. Business Week. Retrieved January 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/03_23/b3836056.htm
Planet Starbucks (B): caffeinating the world. Thunderbird, The Garvin School of International Management. Retrieved January 1, 2004 from Web site: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:vIhzOOZBQ4gJ:www.thunderbird.edu/pdf/about_us/case_series/a07030013.pdf+Starbucks+and+dominance+and+%22north+america%22& hl=en
Starbucks outlines international growth strategy; focus on retail expansion and profitability. (2004, October 14). Business Wire. Retrieved January 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.businesswire.com/webbox/bw.101404/242885958.htm
"The creation of new jobs overseas will eventually lead to more jobs and higher incomes in the United States...An open economy leads to concentrated costs (and diffuse benefits) in the short-term and significant benefits in the long-term. Protectionism generates pain in both the short-term and the long-term." (Drezner, 2004, p.1) in short, what is good for commerce abroad will, in a free market, eventually yield dividends for the American consumer at home.
The allegation that globalization costs workers their jobs is not a new one, however. Even before outsourcing, it was alleged that globalization allowed American businesses to profit off of the lower wages in developing nations, and exploit the labor in these low-wage countries, particularly of poorly paid industrial workers such as women and children. According to anti-globalization activist Robert eissman, "the last 20 years of corporate globalization, even measured by the preferred indicators of the International Monetary Fund…
Drenzer, Daniel. "The Outsourcing Bogeyman." From Foreign Affairs, May/Jun 2004.
Oct 2006] http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20040501faessay83301/daniel-w-drezner/the-outsourcing-bogeyman.html
Weissman, Robert a. (with Russel Mokhiber). "Bush's Challenge: Globalization Good
For the Poor." Aug 2001. Alter.net. [7 Oct 2006] http://www.alternet.org/story/11297/
Global sustainability can be defined as "meetings the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." (Oskamp, 2000, p. 373) This can be interpreted to mean that the present generation must not overuse resources, or created problems which will effect future generations. Many see the problem with humans abusing the Earth's resources as a human behavior problem, and therefore psychologists, sociologists, and other social scientists have a role in altering destructive human behavior. Both George Howard and Stuart Oskamp have identified the problems and proposed several ideas on how psychologists can play an important role in designing non-destructive human behavior.
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the human race and it's ability to sustain itself. It is important to discuss human behavior that can contribute to climate change, as well as the psychological drivers of these behaviors. For instance,…
Oskamp, Stuart. (2000). Psychological Contributions to Achieving an Ecologically Sustainable Future for Humanity. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (3), 373-390. Retrieved from http://188.8.131.52/scholar?q=cache:fELgfd3ftmMJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=
Oskamp, Stuart. (2002) Environmentally Responsible Behavior: Teaching and Promoting It Effectively. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 173-182. Retrieved from http://www.asap-spssi.org/pdf/asap034.pdf
Swim, Janet., Howard, George, et al. (2010) A Report by the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/about/publications/climate-change.pdf
Vitousek, et al. Issues
Vitousek says the major sources of land transformation are pastureland, agriculture, and urban industrial activity. Agriculture (fisheries, artificial environments, row-crops) are high on the list of land transformation, urban industrial activity medium, and pure pastureland low, depending on human involvement.
Humans alter the oceans in many ways, although some are not easy to quantify. Population centers are concentrated near coastal areas and coastal wetlands are also altered. Fishing alters the ecology of the oceans by focusing on the top predators and throwing the system out of balance. Pollutants and other man-made activities cause algal blooms that are toxic to the ecology of the oceans as well. It is the relationship between the different parts of the food chain that are most effected by human involvement.
Part 3 -- The earth can be viewed as a system concept, with the forests the lungs, the waters…
Gannon's series of arguments highlight the major variations in how the Japanese and Koreans perceive time, the role of masculinity in their cultures, the need for self-discipline or not to be aligned with nature (as the Japanese do) and the vastly different approaches to individualism and uncertainty avoidance.
The Japanese see time, and for that matter, their existence, as needing to be disciplined and aligned with natural elements. There is perfection in discipline that allows individuals to align with nature first and secondly with their group and societal norms. According to Gannon starting in the 7th century, Japanese political values stressed the need for group conformity over individualism, and those values continue today throughout the many cultural interactions that this nation has with global trading partners. Korean cultural values stress group consensus and much less of a focus on masculinity index as part of Hofstede, G. And Bond, M. (1988)…
Franke, R., Hofstede, G., and Bond, M. (1991). Cultural roots of economic performance: a research note. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 165-173.
Hofstede, G. And Bond, M. (1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16(4), 4-21.
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
Global randing of Stella Artois
Interbrew's centuries of experience in brewing, beer distribution and sales are all exemplified throughout their global dominance of worldwide beer consumption as presented in the case The Global randing of Stella Artois (eamish, Goerzen, 2012). With an exceptionally high price/Earnings ratio (P/E Ratio) indicating investor confidence in their brand, operations in 80 nations, with the top 10% of markets globally accounting for 86% of sales and 61% of volume production being generated by North America, Interbrew has a solid platform to build their future marketing, selling and product development strategies on. Despite a slow to no-growth level of performance for the global beer markets of just 1 to 2%, investor confidence continues for Interbrew and their performance over the time period of the case study, further signaling the strength of their operations and strategy execution (Marinov, Marinova, 1998). Interbrew faces the challenge of profitably growing…
Beamish, P.W., & Goerzen, A. (2012). Global branding of Stella Artois. (). London: Ivey Management Services, a division of Richard Ivey School of Business.
Dezutter, B. (1997). Experiences of investing in Eastern Europe: A study of a multinational brewing company. European Business Review, 97(3), 139-144.
Hanon, B. (1996). The path to competitiveness: Strategies for investment in central Europe. Columbia Journal of World Business, 31(2), 76-85.
Hede, A., & Watne, T. (2013). Leveraging the human side of the brand using a sense of place: Case studies of craft breweries. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(1-2), 207.
The lack of process orchestration shows that IBM is failing to understand and manage the bargaining power of suppliers effectively. The core requirements of the project center on a series of healthcare professionals who taken together are the stakeholders of a complex payroll processing system (Paull, 2013). The requirements from a project management standpoint is to concentrate on the bargaining power of suppliers as system integration partners and create a unified project plan that can successfully meet multiple stakeholder needs. Making this more difficult than other implementations is the bargaining power of buyers, who also are requiring that IBM construct a system they can quickly use to solve complex supply chain, procurement and strategic sourcing challenges as can be inferred from the article (Paull, 2013).
IBM has also allowed for a greater level of threat from new market entrants as well, through the ineffective management of stakeholder requirements. What's obvious…
Ball, L.D. 2000, "IT education success strategies for change management," Information Systems Management, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 74-77.
By, B.P. 2013, "Michael Dell Offered Lower Price for His Shares to Make Dell Deal Work," LBO Wire, .
Fickenscher, K. & Bakerman, M. 2011, "Change Management in Health Care it," Physician Executive, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 64-7.
Gunasekaran, a. & Ngai, E.W.T. 2005, "Build-to-order supply chain management: a literature review and framework for development," Journal of Operations Management, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 423-451.
Global Politics and Economy:
Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries
The world politics and economy of the late twentieth century were highlighted by the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the promise of a 'new world order' and the rise of 'globalization.' These developments were accompanied by a worldwide trend of increasing democracy, trade liberalization and booming economies. The start of the twenty-first century, on the other hand, has seen the emergence of the so-called 'clash of civilizations' and the long drawn out 'fight against terrorism' with the inevitable slump in global economies. In this essay we shall briefly discuss the major trends of the global politics and economy in this tumultuous period of world history.
Collapse of Communism
The 'Cold ar' period involving intense political and economic rivalry between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union, lasted from the end of orld ar…
Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.
Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002
A good example of this can be seen with the constant declines in consumption since 1966. This is important, because it shows how despite an implosion in demand, many producers felt that their underlying business model would overcome these issues. (artlett)
How New World Growers were able to pose a substantial Threat?
New world growers were able to pose a major threat by using some the latest techniques to address the underlying problems. This can be seen through VRINE analysis, as: the lower price would represent value, the unique taste showing rarity, the same kind of wines as old world producers highlighting imitations, the growth in other regions of world signaling no sustainability and the expansion into new markets showing explore ability. These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how new world producers were able to create a shift in consumer tastes (posing a substantial threat). (artlett)
Bartlett, Christopher. (2003)." Global Wine Wars." Harvard Business School, 21 July 2003. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation
Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)
The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"
Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…
Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Global warming has been at the forefront of debate for decades. In addition to finding alternative energy sources, there have been intellectual disputes about whether global warming is in fact the extensive problem it is reported to be. Another side of the debate focuses on the likelihood of another ice age. Some argue that the earth's cyclic timeline has prepared it for an imminent ice age. There are many conflicting views and ideas, even as scientists strive to better understand the premise of climate change and how to help human beings better manage its effects. Whether the earth is steering towards another ice age or continued global warming, the fact remains that climate change is a reality. Both an ice age and continuing warming will have consequences that can be potentially deadly.
Wayne (2010) lists a number of potential consequences should temperatures continue to rise. Agriculture and thus the supply…
Cocks, F.H. (2010, Jan/Feb). Global Warming vs. The Next Ice Age. Technology Review. Retrieved from: http://www.technologyreview.com/mitnews/416786/global-warming-vs.-the-next-ice-age/
Wayne, G.P. (2010, Aug. 17). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Effects of Climate Change. Skeptical Science. Retrieved from: http://www.skepticalscience.com/The-Good-The-Bad-and-The-Ugly-Effects-of-Climate-Change.html
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
However, it is the cable technician and a lone previously un-promotable Air Force pilot, flying a recovered alien ship, and downloading a computer virus into the mother ship that spells the ultimate downfall of the aliens and saves mankind.
The War of the Worlds' Influence on Independence Day:
Anyone who has watched these two movies can draw immediate similarities. Both are built around the premise that aliens have come to invade Earth, yet, in the end, mankind survives. The most critical comparison of the two movies, faults Independence Day for figuratively stealing the ending from War of the Worlds. Of course in Independence Day the "virus" that kills of the aliens is electronic and not microbial, but the symbolism is simply too obvious.
Just as in War of the Worlds, Independence Day has the nations uniting under the common threat. No longer are national boundaries of relevance, when the fate…
Hunt, KC. Plot Summary for War of the Worlds (1953). 2004. Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0046534/plotsummary .
Molin, Gustaf. Plot Summary for Independence Day (1996). 2004. Internet Movie Database. November 9, 2004 http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/plotsummary .
The War of the Worlds (1953 Movie). 24 Sept 2004. Wikipedia.org. November 9, 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_%281953_movie%29 .
The problem with this strategy was that it determined higher indirect costs that the company did not take into consideration when making this decision.
c) General Motors is one of the most successful U.S. companies. But GM was forced to modify its strategy because the global competition conditions. This is mostly the case of Toyota, which developed into an important competitor of GM on the European, U.S., and Asian market. The numerous advantages of Toyota and its products and services include: lower prices, better supply chain management that is based on Japanese methods, and higher quality management (Klum, 2011).
These advantages helped Toyota become the leader of the Asian market. This helped the company also improve its international position. In addition to this, General Motors' sales and profits significantly reduced. Therefore, the company had to modify its strategy in order to reduce its costs. The company's managers considered that this…
1. The GM's Consolidated Strategy and Enhanced Approach (2011). The Global Mechanism. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://global-mechanism.org/about-us/strategyand-approach .
2. Muller, J. (2009). GM's Global Strategy in Doubt. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.forbes.com /forbes/2009/0622/autos-foreign-aide-gm-global-strategy-in-doubt.html.
3. Klum, E. (2011). General Motors Growth Strategy. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/51055/cars/general_motors_growth_strategy.html .
ar on AIDS
Affordable retroviral drugs now!
Fighting the 'good fight' against AIDS in Africa
It's one of the most long-standing theoretical ethical debates: you know someone is dying, and will die if they do not get a certain kind of medicine. However, the medicine is prohibitively expensive. Do you steal this all-important medication? Or do you allow the person to wither and die, because stealing is wrong -- or rather, because the pharmaceutical companies 'deserve' to make a profit? Of course, you ensure that the individual has the medication, ideally by pressuring the store or company to give you the medicine for free. But although this moral impulse may seem like a 'no brainer' on an individual level, on a mass level, people are still dying in record numbers from AIDS in Africa, in a way that would be unacceptable, if it took place in the so-called developing world.…
Colebunders R. et al. (Oct 2005). "Free Antiretrovirals Must Not Be Restricted Only to Treatment-Naive Patients." PLoS Medicine. 2(10). Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0020276
Global Access to HIV Therapy Tripled in Past Two Years, But Significant Challenges
Remain." (2007). WHO: World Health Organization Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news57/en/index.html
Miller, Charles & Kenneth Goldman. "Merck, AIDS, and Africa." (23 Oct 2003).
In 1066, illiam the Conqueror and his army of Normans established themselves as the dominant power in Britain, and the form of French they brought with them quickly became the language of the powerful classes in British society, while the lower classes still spoke English (English Club, 3). For the second time in just over five-hundred years, a major conquest of the Isle of Britain was conducted by an invading tribe with a foreign tongue. This time, however, the existing language and people were not replaced, but instead the Latin influence of the Norman tongue began to seep into English, creating the first elements of a "bastard" tongue (Anglik.net, 6). ords such as "beef" and "cow" illustrate how the class difference that existed at first between speaker of the Norman and Anglo-Saxon languages eventually resulted in a language with a greater diversity of words than any other -- cow has…
Anglik.net. "A Brief History of the English Language." Accessed 1 February 2009. http://www.anglik.net/englishlanguagehistory.htm
Baugh, Albert C. And Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. New York: Prentice Hall, 2001.
English Club.com. "History of the English Language." Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.englishclub.com/english-language-history.htm
Marsh, George P. The Origin and History of the English Language. New York: Scribner, 1896.
You need a stable foothold and insight into the dynamics of the marketplace from which to be able to peer effectively into the future.... Marketing research can provide real value by helping to provide the radar that will alert the enterprise to perils -- and opportunities -- ahead" (Duboff & Spaeth 2000, pp. 3-13). Proponents of market research maintain that these activities help to ensure that companies remain consumer-orientated. According to Fuglsang and Sundbo (2002), the value of market research can depend on what type of service or product is involved, and what destination country is intended for export purposes. "In practice," they advise, "this means that new products are more successful if they are designed to satisfy a perceived need than if they are designed simply to take advantage of a new technology. The approach taken by many companies with regard to market research is that if sufficient research…
Dictionary of Business. 1996. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brewer, Thomas L. And Alan M. Rugman. 2001. The Oxford Handbook of International Business. New York: Oxford University Press.
Drummond, Lisa B.W. And Mandy Thomas (Eds). Consuming Urban Culture in Contemporary Vietnam. New York: Routledge.
Duboff, Robert and Jim Spaeth. 2000. Market Research Matters: Tools and Techniques for Aligning Your Business. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…
Andresen, F. (2007). Walking on Ice. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.
Ayios, A. (2004). East West Relationships in Russia. Trust and Western Russian Business Relationships. (pp. 156 -- 180). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Horton, P. (2006). Religion. Russia and Belarus. (pp. 77 -- 83). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.
Jones, A. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .
United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.