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War Society Modern World
War has been an integral part of the development of our civilization from the earliest times. It is estimated that there are more than 14,000 wars that have occurred since events began to be recorded and this has resulted in the death of billions of people. It was an essential part of the survival and behavior of human beings and the society at large. This attitude continued in our society and was even passed on from one generation to another. As modernization began to evolve, this behavior continued in the society, though the end result was different. During the last two centuries, war was used by countries as a brutal form of handling international relations. Differences with other countries were resolved through armed conflicts rather than peaceful negotiations and war was used as an instrument of foreign policies. Unfortunately, this has resulted in the death of…
War of the oses can be considered to be the bloodiest conflict fought in England to date. Beginning in 1455 and ending in 1487, the conflict was rooted in a struggle between the heirs of King Edward III and King Henry IV, who were divided into the House of Lancaster, represented by a red rose, and the House of York, represented by a white rose, hence, the conflict being commonly referred to as the War of the oses (Jokinen, 2013). Ultimately resulted in the establishment of the Tudor dynasty, one of the most recognized, albeit short-lived dynasties of the British Empire. The Tudor dynasty was able to unite both houses and effectively eliminate the conflict between the House of Lancaster and the House of York, and ensured that neither House could lay claim to the throne.
The conflict between the House of York and the House of Lancaster dates back…
Elizabeth of York, Queen of England. (n.d.). Tudor History. Accessed 6 June 2013, from http://tudorhistory.org/people/eyork/
Gormley, L. (2010). Wars of the Roses. Accessed 6 June 2013, from http://www.warsoftheroses.com/
Jones, B. (2013, February 5). Body found under parking lot is King Richard III, scientists prove. CNN. Accessed 6 June 2013, from http://www.cnn.com/2013/02/03/world/europe/richard-iii-search-announcement/index.html
The Tudors -- the War of the Roses. (2013). History on the Net. Accessed 6 June 2013, from http://www.historyonthenet.com/Tudors/wars_of_roses.htm
This is not to suggest that either the United States or the Soviet Union were necessarily desiring this conflict, because "based on the scattered evidence now available from Soviet archives," Stalin was "wary and reluctant" in his support of the North, and only finally agreed to offer military equipment and advice when it became clear that China would intervene should the Soviet Union fail to offer support (Cumings 144). Likewise, the United States was hesitant in the face of South Korean entreaties to assist with a proactive invasion of the North, definitively stating that "ashington would not come to the aid of [the South] unless it were attacked without provocation" (Cumings 145). Recognizing this reveals that although the Korean ar was a proxy war in the sense that either side was supported and partially controlled by external actors, there were serious internal divisions between the North and South which made…
Ackerman, Spencer. "Afghanistan, Iraq Wars Killed 132,000 Civilians, Report Says." Wired.
Wired Magazine, 29 Jun 2011. Web. 1 May 2012.
The Experience of War
War has changed greatly in character from the days of knights in shining armor. The concept of a "state" rather than just a regional ruler has changed the dynamic of war. Rather than meeting on a battlefield and duking it out, two armies now willfully attack civilian targets to demoralize a population, cut off trade routes to starve a population, and, if it comes to it, invade and conquer to dominate a population. The fear of this type of war penetrating a single country is what has provoked so much peacemaking since World War II, the possibilities for nuclear destruction have forced an end to large-scale conflicts. Yet there do remain trouble spots all over the world. In 2003, Iraq became one of them, as the United States invaded the Middle Eastern country, and until 2011, has occupied and reshaped the country in every way…
ar on Terror & Human Rights
The so-called "war on terror" -- initiated by former president George . Bush after 9/11 -- has not succeeded in ending terrorism but it opened the door to numerous violations of human rights. A survey of verifiable, peer-reviewed sources in the literature show clearly that the Bush Administration and members of the military under Bush's command carried out human rights violations in the name of the "war on terror." In this paper instances of human rights violations by the United States -- based on the war on terror -- will be presented.
Violations of Human Rights by the U.S. In the "ar on Terror"
The United States of America has stood for democracy and human rights in countless situations through the years. The U.S. has intervened in myriad international conflicts, especially when a tyrant was snuffing out a democratic movement, or an ally of…
Alexander, Janet Cooper. (2012). John Yoo's War Powers: The Law Review and the World.
California Law Review, 100(2), 331-364.
MacAskill, Ewen. (2009). Obama releases Bush torture memos. The Guardian. Retrieved August
28, 2012, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
War on Terror
Although the rhetoric on the War on Terror has subsided somewhat since Bush left office, terrorism itself remains an unfortunate reality around the world. The War on Terror was largely a propaganda machine, which perpetuated a cultural climate of fear. As Coaty points out in Understanding the War on Terror, fear-mongering is destructive rhetoric. In the end, too much fear-driven crisis leads to uninformed and ill-devised political strategies. The responses to terrorism should be complex and multifaceted, taking into account the complex and multifaceted nature of terrorism itself. Terrorism has taught an important lesson in global politics and culture: the world is no longer dominated by the modern nation state. Just as capitalist enterprises around the world have learned how to transcend national boundaries and operate on a global scale, so too have extra-governmental organizations from terrorist groups to NGOs. In Understanding the War on Terror, Coaty…
Coaty, P. (2012). Understanding the War on Terror. Kendall-Hunt.
However, little concern is given to the Afghan people when their innocent is killed due to military action of developed nations. This too will only exacerbate the turmoil within the country. Revenge is a powerful emotion, especially when an individual has nothing a stake to achieve it. As such, due in parts to foreign operations in Afghanistan, many individuals have extreme animosity towards the developed world.
t is therefore much better to have some military presence in the Middle East simply to keep the peace rather than stake an all out assault. This middle ground approach will help to diminish animosity towards the developed world while also helping the Afghan people protect themselves. believe this middle ground method will help stabilize the nation while allowing the people of Afghan to be accountable for any subsequent democratic changes within the nation.
Finally, the developed world can not afford to inhabit Afghanistan.…
It is therefore much better to have some military presence in the Middle East simply to keep the peace rather than stake an all out assault. This middle ground approach will help to diminish animosity towards the developed world while also helping the Afghan people protect themselves. I believe this middle ground method will help stabilize the nation while allowing the people of Afghan to be accountable for any subsequent democratic changes within the nation.
Finally, the developed world can not afford to inhabit Afghanistan. The entire Euro zone is going through a cataclysmic event with default on the horizon. As such austerity measures are needed to simply balance the Euro zone budget (Farrer 2012). Likewise American is approaching insolvency as its debt burden approaches $14 trillion. To add an ongoing war to an already stressed budget would be a path to insolvency. As such, it is not in the developed world's interests to stay in Afghan. The war alone cost America nearly $2 billion dollars a day. Currently, the war in Afghanistan has cost the United States $506,678,275,022 (Cost of War, 2012). The cost of funding is both impractical and irrational. A more prudent middle ground approach to this argument would be to withdraw troops in order to lower the cost of funding, while also using joint military force to help alleviate the cost burden. As mentioned earlier some presence in the Middle East is warranted. The extent to which this military force is used is the error. There is simply no need for American taxpayers to pay $506 Billion for a fruitless war. By lowering the amount of personnel in the area and allowing allies to help fund a larger portion of the war, this aspect can be properly solved. This middle ground approach allows Americans to save on future war expenditures while also bringing military personnel back home.
I am however, not naive. I do realize conflicts arise and should be dealt with in the interests of national security. Many individual want the United States and Europe to perish, that is without a doubt. If force must be used, I would instead elect to use sanctions. These
ells uses the idea of violence as a catalyst to explain human behavior and thinking. Violence seems the perfect solution throughout "The ar of the orlds" and regardless of how they look at the problem, both the Martians and people believe that by using violence they are probable to experience victory. However, when considering that the Martians' superior technology is not enough to provide them with the opportunity to be victorious, it appears that violence is not a solution in this case and that ells wanted to raise public awareness concerning the risks that imperialist nations take by getting involved in environments they have a limited understanding of.
Busch, Justin E.A., "The Utopian Vision of H.G. ells," (McFarland, 2009)
Crossley, Robert, "H. G. ells," (ildside Press LLC, 1986)
Flynn, John L., "ar of the orlds: From ells to Spielberg," (Galactic Books, 2005)
ells, Herbert George, "The ar of…
Busch, Justin E.A., "The Utopian Vision of H.G. Wells," (McFarland, 2009)
Crossley, Robert, "H. G. Wells," (Wildside Press LLC, 1986)
Flynn, John L., "War of the Worlds: From Wells to Spielberg," (Galactic Books, 2005)
Wells, Herbert George, "The War of the Worlds - Literary Touchstone Classic," (Prestwick House Inc., 01.01.2006)
War on terror has changed significantly since the attacks of 2001. errorism has always been a part of American life, with the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901 by Leon Czolgosz. More recently, however, the United States has contested with terrorism stemming from extreme Islamist groups that are at ideological odds with the Western way of life. he war on terror that began in 2001 has grown to represent billions of dollars and thousands of individuals whose mission it is to never allow another attack on U.S. soil again, if they can help it. he tools of the U.S. have grown, yet so have those of terrorist groups worldwide.
he war on terror began as an immediate strike into Afghanistan, and slowly grew into Iraq, and the world at large. More recently, it has been seen in places like Libya, Syria, Egypt, and Yemen. he war itself began as…
The future of counter-terrorism and the struggle of the War on Terror will be fought in many ways. The first line of defense will be the U.S. troops sent abroad to secure missions, similar to the one that killed Osama bin Laden. The second line of defense will be the spy agents and agencies that are charged with discovering terrorist plots and putting an end to them before they can be hatched. This line of defense is typically handled by the Central Intelligence Agency, however others like the FBI have had an impact as well. This line of defense grew dramatically, as the agencies had stopped spying as much after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and instead they now had to hire specialists in several different languages including Arabic and Urdu. The third line of defense from terrorists lie on U.S. soil, and is typically considered a combination of the National Guard, the FBI, the NSA, and the entirety of America's local police force. This line of defense is important because these professionals are constantly looking out for terrorists and suspicious activity, and are usually the first ones to notice this.
The final line of defense from terrorists lies in the population of the U.S. itself. This includes the general populace, which is now much more able to understand and respond to terrorist threats, due to the extensive coverage of September 11th. America depends on the good nature of its citizens to report problems and to prevent crimes from taking place, and overall, the citizenry can be trusted to this task. There is a subset of America's population that is Muslim that has an extra duty to be vigilant against extremists that may enter their communities. Often, terrorists will not associate with anybody outside of their immediate communities, and therefore the only way for law enforcement to know what these extremists are doing is from insiders who are willing to work alongside the police to resolve issues before they happen.
In conclusion, the evolution of counterterrorism has morphed from a backburner issue, into the most important aspect of American daily life, and finally into the current position of persistent vigilance. The laws that were passed in the wake of 2001 have had sweeping effects around the nation. The Patriot Act has strengthened the U.S. government's control over its citizens, and the federal agencies tasked with counterterrorism have maintained their expanded state for over a decade. The future of American terrorism and the war on terror have yet to be determined, however the world seems to have taken a firm stance against terrorism anywhere, as attacks have touched dozens of countries around the world. From Spain and France in Europe, to India, Indonesia, and Pakistan in Asia, to Somalia and Sudan in Africa. The threat of terrorism is, by nature, never ending, and therefore neither can be the world's attention to the issue.
768). Yet the widespread slaughter of people in the name of total war was a principle varying point between Asian and estern powers during the 19th century.
Despite whatever moral and philosophical objections Clausewitz might have raised to total war, he certainly saw value in involving as much of a population as possible in its martial efforts. In this respect, he conceived of war from a decidedly nationalistic viewpoint, in which women and children may not have directly been involved in battles but were certainly useful in employing the spirit of nationalism that could motivate an entire populace to focus its efforts on successfully waging war. Tactically, however, some of Clausewitz conceptions stemmed from those of Asian antiquity, particularly from Sun Tzu's longstanding treatise the Art of ar. Although this book was written well before the 19th century, it was certainly influential in its early conception of war in which…
Clausewitz, Carl von (1984). On War [Vom Krieg] (Indexed ed.). New Jersey: Princeton University Press
Eicher, David J. The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001
Hitler, Adolph. "No title." www.teachgenocide.org. 1939. Retrieved from http://www.teachgenocide.org/files/Hitler%20-%20The%20Armenian%20Genocide.pdf
Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, V:7: The Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press
In the later part of 18th century when Britain was ruling the thirteen colonies of North America, the representatives from the thirteen colonies constituted a governing body called Continental Congress. The main objective of this body was to deal with complaints against British government and try to resolve the issues amicably. But as the continued imposition of taxes made the local population literally belligerent against the British government the resistance acquired the status of legitimate struggle. As the resistance transformed into armed struggle both sides fought on the propaganda front as well. British termed those people among the local population that still supported the monarch in Britain and were willing to fight on behalf of British empire as 'loyalists' while 'rebels' and traitors to them that fought against British. On the other hand rebels in the eyes of British declared their resistance as just and called themselves 'patriots' who…
Timothy M. Helmus, Val E. Arndorf, Edgar a. Toppin, Norman J.G. Pounds (1984), the World and its People, the United States and its Neighbors. Silver Burdett Company 17-205 00, ISBN 0-382-02833-3 (p.p 106-118)
In the film the Battle of Algiers (1997) the backdrop or setting is the ancient city with its narrow winding passageways, tunnels, stairways, and arches. The old city is complex, full of danger and hiding places, a metaphor for the war itself and the participants who must survive. The issue is to whom the country should belong and who should have power, the French colonialist invaders or the indigenous people. It is about the indigenous people gaining their rights and benefiting from the country's resources. It is not about the physical landscape. The social community that has set up a Cause is a group of resistance fighters -- guerillas or terrorists, in contemporary terms.
According to arsen (2004) Plato taught that war was a way to assert cultural identity, and the rules of war develop from this sense of how the warriors see themselves collectively: "Cultural identity defines the war,…
Larsen (2004) provides a typology of four landscapes or spaces related to war and cultural identity. These four experiences of space in modern culture "shape our arguments around the nature of war as dealing with belonging and identity" (p. 481): the national landscape, the guerilla landscape, the perceived landscape, and the aesthetic landscape. The national landscape is the basis of the entire structure.
In the national landscape, anybody who lives anywhere else is fundamentally different and "incurably alien" (p. 482). The people's natural identity comes from having been born in this place. On one hand it is a peaceful home. On the other, "it is a sign of the foreignness and artificiality of others and thus legitimizes war. This concept of national space is similar to Loraux's (2002) description of the ancient Athenians' concept of the city. They saw two aspects of the city, inside and outside. Inside is civilization and peaceful pursuits such as marriage, business, and art. Outside the city is where war is waged, and "only the city that enjoys internal peace can wage war outside, and that is both its duty and its fate" (p. 23). On one hand it is a peaceful home seen from the distance, as the city of Algiers is shown in the location establishing shot for the Battle of Algiers before the story starts. The Algerians are the people who are born there and in their "right place."
History, however, reveals a resistance had formed long before the war against French colonial occupation
Civilians lose their civil liberties in times of war. Thousands are arrested, often only for associating with suspects. The rights of those arrested are often suspended or denied. Others are harassed because of their very opposition to war and policies of oppression. Unquestionably, war robs society of resources that can otherwise be used constructively. It diverts the energy of those who can make significant contributions to the security and peace of the world. It fosters fear, suspicion, intolerance, violence and hate. It only weakens the social bond within the family, which is the core of a civilized society (Radiant Justice).
War is clearly a major affliction in the family and a threat to its stability. It takes the life, freedom or sanity of the father, who is most often the main source of support for the family. In his absence or death, the mother must compensate and often, in loneliness…
1. Bargo, Michelle. Ripples Moving Outward: the Human Impacts of War. Humanist: American Humanist Association, 2005
2. Mercier, Marie Helen and Despert, Louise. Psychological Effects of War on French Children. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2006
3. Radiant Justice Implementation Group. Effects of War. Radiant Justice Terrorism, 2005. http://www.iserv.net/~ige/rj/terror4.html
4. Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture and Trauma. Summary and Impact of Torture and Trauma on the Family. Victorian Foundation for Surivors of torture and Trauma, Inc., 1996. http://www.cvt.org/main.php/EffectsofTortureandWarTraumaonFamilies
" In addition, the war in Iraq has been another opportunity to see the effects of the weapons of mass destruction, which have caused the death of approximately 300 Americans and of a countless number of Iraqi people, in the American Government's point-of-view.
Even though it has been sustained for many times that "the War of Terror" is useless and meaningless, many scholars, such as David Tufte, sustain that "The short-run impact of military spending is for a boost in GDP. In the long-run however, the effects from the current war with Iraq will depend on what happens with oil prices. Oil prices tend to have a very big impact on the economy. An escalating price per barrel of oil can trigger a recession."
What can be outlined from this is the fact that modern wars seem to have economic conflicts as their main cause: World War II occurred because…
Pierre MANENT "A Political Philosophy for the citizen," Artheme Publishing House, Paris, 2001
Benjamin CONSTANT, "About liberty at antique and modern people," Oxford University Press, 2000
FELDMAN, Amy, "War, the Economy, and You," Money, 2002
Joshua GOLDSTEIN, "The Real price of the War: How You Pay for the War on Terror," New York University Press, 2004,
In one sequence, O'Brien describes in poetic eloquence the same patterns which the research cited here above notes. Particularly, though all are exposed to the same terrors and opportunities in Vietnam, some are more prone than others to returning home with the dependencies formed at war. O'Brien tells that "you come over clean and you get dirty and then afterward it's never the same. A question of degree. Some make it intact, some don't make it at all . . . Vietnam had the effect of a powerful drug: that mix of unnamed terror and unnamed pleasure that comes as the needle slips in and you know you're risking something. The endorphins start to flow, and the adrenaline, and you hold your breath and creep quietly through the moonlit nightscapes; you become intimate with danger." (O'Brien, 114)
The explicit connection that O'Brien makes here between the war and the abuse…
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2001). Vietnam-Era Drug Problems Last for Decades, Study Finds. Psychiatric News, 36(18), 20.
Langdale, T. (2009). Drug Use and Addiction in War. Highest Five. Online at http://www.highestfive.com/combat/drug-use-and-addiction-in-war/
O'Brien, Tim. (1998). The Things They Carried. Broadway, Reprint Edition.
Robins, L.N.; Davis, DH & Goodwin, D.W. (1974). Drug Use by U.S. Army Enlisted Men in Vietnam: A Follow-up on Their Return Home. American Journal of Epidemiology, 99(4), 235-249.
What is the opinion about whether the U.S. should have been there in the Iraq War or not? (America at War)
The fact is that, in general, humanitarian intervention in a war, anywhere in the world, is accepted as a necessary thing, and also as an accepted fact of life, wherein the states that can afford to intervene and offer humanitarian help are welcomed with open arms. In this case, the intervention of the U.S.A. is not viewed by many as being humanitarian in any way, and it is a lesser-known fact that the Security Council had not actually approved the intervention. The Human ights Watch, which usually keeps a lookout for the state of affairs in the world, takes no part in the issue of the involvement of any particular state in any war, and because of the fact that the U.S. intervention in the Iraq War was not…
America at War. 29 June, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.pbs.org/flashpointsusa/20040629/infocus/topic_01 / Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gulf War. Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved From
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War Accessed on 11 March, 2005
War and Poetry
The Gallantry and Repugnance of War in Poetry (19th and 20th centuries)
The history of war had long been portrayed into two radically different ways in literature: realistic and romantic. The realistic imagery of war and conflict primarily depicts the feeling of patriotism and at the same time, disillusionment of humanity as deaths and destruction dominate. Portrayals of betrayed loyalty and wastage of human lives and property are common images illustrated when describing the state of war. Of course, these images were derived from experience, hence giving this imagery of war a realistic feel and thought. Romantic images of war also abound, and are usually shown as the anti-thesis or 'positive' side of going to war. The romantic depiction of war shows the gallantry or desirability of engaging in war: the war symbolized the patriotism of people, pledging their allegiance and loyalty to their country or group.…
Jones, G. (1969). E-text of "A tear for those who gave their all." Available at: http://grunt.space.swri.edu/atear.htm.
Kipling, R. (1899). E-text of "The white man's burden." Available at: http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/kipling.html.
Tennyson, A.L. (1854). E-text of "The charge of the light brigade." Available at: http://www.nationalcenter.org/ChargeoftheLightBrigade.html .
Wordsworth, W. E-text of "Occasioned by the Battle of Waterloo." Available at: http://www.sonetos.com.br/sonetos.php?n=1875.
In the past years media has proved to be the essential teacher when it comes to the history of certain events. Other than word of mouth, the media has been the most influential tool in our daily lives. From morning newspapers, to the radio on the drive to work, to the new Time magazine in the mail, to the 6 o'clock news, media is everywhere. Like it or not, media influences people's ideals on an everyday basis. Since media constitutes as the most influential teacher, you'd expect to hear all sides of the story, free from political bias, but this is rarely ever the case. On August 2nd, 1990, Iraqi president Saddam Hussein sent troops into and occupied the neighboring country of Kuwait. On November 8th, 1990, President George ush announced the military offense at "Operation Desert Storm" and soon formed an international coalition to move Iraq out of…
Gulf War Chronology" USA Today - World 3 Sept. 1996. Accessed 8 April 2003. Online http://www.usatoday.com/news/index/iraq/nirq050.htm
Philly.com - The Region's home page. The Philadelphia Inquirer long-term archives search. Accessed 8 April 2003. Online http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/archives/
The Washington Times, Long-term archives search. Accessed 8 April 2003. Online http://www.washtimes.com/archives.htm
NewsBank News Library. Long-term archives search. Accessed 8 April 2003. Online http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives
The whole country. Vietnam, the place talks." The environment sinks under their skin, uncomfortable and yet unavoidable -- in short, hell.
There is also a growing sense of insanity among the men that O'Brien describes in this story. There is the crack-up of the team that Mitchell Sanders describes, and the idea of playing catch with a smoke grenade as an idea of fun -- both of these instance reflect a certain necessary insanity. Without going a little crazy, these men would lose their minds. Any situation where insanity becomes necessary to retain sanity, and thus where insanity becomes normal, must be a type of hell. This confusion is most clearly reflected in Rat's letter to Lemon's sister; telling a grieving family member about how her brother went "out on ambush almost stark naked, just boots and balls and an M-16" shows the level of disconnect from "normal" normal.
Military historians and strategists alike have written volumes of content on the American way of war. Given the developments such as the American troops' involvement in Afghanistan and their leaving Iraq, it is, perhaps, time to relook the American way of war for conflicts in the future. Russel Weigley[footnoteRef:1]was the first to attempt to define the American approach to the war in 1973. Many writers have grappled with the concept as they try pointing out the various strategies of America to war and trying to distinguish between a way of battle and a way of war. They illustrate the pros and cons of these traits in both major wars and smaller conflicts.[footnoteRef:2] Historians have also attempted to describe the nature of the American strategic approach to war, which entails the advancement of America's national interests in a wide range of ways. It shows how our culture shapes the American…
Echevarria, A. J. (2004). Toward an American way of war. US Army Command and General Staff School.
Hoffman, F.G. (2014). Adapt, innovate, and adapt some more. Proceedings, US Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 410, 268–6110.
Keravuori, R. L. (2011). Lost in Translation: The American Way of War. Small Wars Journal, 17.
Linn, B. M. (2010). The American Way of War Debate: An Overview. Historically Speaking, 11(5), 22-23.
Stewart, R. W. (2010). M521RA: Excerpt from War in the Persian Gulf: Operation DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, August 1990-March 1991 (Vol. 70). US Army Command and General Staff School.
Weigley, R. F. (1977). The American way of war: a history of United States military strategy and policy. Indiana University Press.
Lai and Clausewitz
Clausewitz (1989) defined war as an “act of human intercourse” (p. 149), and just as in intercourse there are various modes of expressing oneself or making a point so too in warfare are there various strategies. Lai (2004) makes the case that the Western way of war is based in part on the theories of Clausewitz and on the idea that technological superiority is a major component of victories strategy. On the other hand, Lai (2004) suggests that there is something to be said for the Eastern way of war, which focuses on ethics, long-term strategy, the concept of “shi,” which refers to intelligence, deception, deterrence and stratagem, and diplomacy.
Clausewitz operates in the tradition of force—i.e., that force is what wins battles and that battles are fought on the battlefield. Lai’s focus on the Chinese way of war based on the Art of War by Sun…
The U.S. adapted to wartime needs during WWII by mobilizing people for war (drafting and enlisting men to be soldiers), opening factors to build machines for war, raising funding for the war by introducing war bonds, and relying on volunteers to help civil defense government programs. The Office of Civilian Defense was established to help keep communities safe. The Civil Air Patrol was started to empower civilians to patrol the borders and coasts. Women also started working in factories to support the war effort while the men were off training and fighting. Immigrants from Mexico were also brought in to help with the farming. Even the black community, which beforehand had continued to be marginalized under Jim Crow, was recruited to join the war effort and enlist as soldiers. The film The Negro Soldier was a big hit during WWII as it promoted the dignity of the African American…
Violation of the Law of War
The United States is a party to the 1949 Geneva Convention (GC) that outlines the Law of War. Ratification to the GC treaty implies that the US seeks to protect the victims of war. The GC outlines unjustifiable destruction and appropriation of property as a violation of the law of war (US Marine Corps , 2005). Article 17 of GC demands a local agreement to validate the evacuation of the population from besieged areas to aid in ease movement of medical equipment, personnel, and wounded people. The company commander violates Article 17 of GC by issuing an order to the mayor as opposed to entering into an agreement with the mayor on the evacuation of the local population. Although the commander fulfills the Article 18 of the Geneva Convention that mandates the removal of barriers to the distinctiveness of the civilian’s hospital emblems, the…
Usual Roles for Men and Women Raising Families in the 1950s after World War II
Background of researched generation or individual, historical and present
The 1950s epoch is often perceived as an era of conformity, during which both genders adhered to their stringent roles and acted following the society's expectations. After the damage and devastation caused by the Great Depression and the Second World War, numerous people in the society chose to build a society that is both peaceful and successful. Even though it was expected that women would identify themselves fundamentally as wives and mothers and to steer clear of work outside the home setting, women continued to constitute a substantial percentage of the post-World War II labor force. The culmination of the war instigated significant changes. Notably, working women were supplanted by the soldiers who were returning home after the war. The communications relayed in popular culture, as…
Why the Intelligence Community Ineffectively Uses HUMINT
“To address the challenges facing the U.S. intelligence community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis.”—Richard A. Best, Intelligence Issues for Congress, 2011, p. 2
Since 9/11, the intelligence community has been at the heart of numerous policy decisions—from the invasion of Iraq to U.S. foreign relations with China and Russia. While the objective of the intelligence community is to provide legitimate intelligence to policy makers, numerous researchers have pointed out that in the post-9/11, policy has often shaped intelligence rather than the other way around, as it is intended to be.[footnoteRef:2] As Best notes, “intelligence from human contacts—humint—is the oldest intelligence discipline and the one that is most often written about in the media.”[footnoteRef:3] As the CIA is the primary collector of human intelligence along…
An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress, 2009. https://fas.org/irp/eprint/overview.pdf
Best, Richard A. Intelligence Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service: CRS Report for Congress, 2011.
Best, Richard A. Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service: CRS Report for Congress, 2002.
Cirincione, J., Mathews, J., Perkovich, G., Orton, A. WMD in Iraq: Evidence and implications. DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2004.
“Declaration of George Tenet,” Aftergood v. CIA, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, Civ. No. 98- 2107, April, 1999, at http://fas.org/sgp/foia/tenet499.html.
DeVine, Michael E. Intelligence Community Spending: Trends and Issues: CRS Report for Congress, 2018.
Fischer, C.T. Bracketing in qualitative research: Conceptual and practical matters. Psychotherapy Research Methods, 19(4-5) (2009), 583-590.
Hersh, Seymour. Selective Intelligence. The New Yorker, 2003. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2003/05/12/selective-intelligence
However, in the end, they were unable to stop the war despite their best efforts. The war happened anyway, in spite of the best intentions and actions to prevent it. T he actions of the various governments were reactions to events that they had tried their best to prevent. They did not make a full-blown effort to convince their people of the need for war, until the war had already begun. Had the war been intentional on the part of Germany or any other entity, there would have been plans in place to gain the support of the people long before August 1, 1914.
Only Germany had such a plan in place. However, this does not mean that they started the war intentionally. It might mean that they saw it coming and wanted to be prepared. In the end, only the players know what their motives were on any particular…
The Treaty of Versailles (1919), esp. Article 231, http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/versailles.html
Memorandum of Prince Karl Max Lichnowsky (1914)
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
The book is constructed on two main theses, the first revolving around the relevance of the Barbary wars in the freeing of the American population and in its formation as stable and confident people. The second thesis focuses on the Tripolitan war played in the formation of the modern American Navy. However the general history courses place little emphasis on the wars against the Barbary States, the naval forces commemorate them and recognize the role they played in the formation of the modern U.S. Marine. A third specification which could be made relative to the book is that, however not implicit, it also presents the historical conflict between the American and Islamic forces, relating as such to a contemporaneous matter, which is not as new as one could think.
"Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines" is written in…
Gregory Fremont-Barnes, "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines," Osprey Pub Co, November 2006
Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Random House, http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9781846030307 , last accessed on October 1, 2008
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
The third theater of operations, besides the naval and Canadian one, was focused on the ritish push towards the capital city. Although successfully burning out Washington, the ritish were discouraged by the strong hold of Fort McHenry and the battle of New Orleans, in which they were defeated by Major General Andrew Jackson. As the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December 1814, news of this came to the American and ritish forces almost two months after the signing, putting also an official end to the war. As with altimore's fight, the defense of Fort McHenry, the author reminds the reader of another important information on the significance of this war. The battle of altimore later inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled anner" which later became the national anthem of the United States.
As the author goes on with the war narrative, he introduces various descriptions…
Borneman, Walter. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. Harper Perennial, 2005
An arguably even stronger influence, however, comes from the other side of the economic railroad tracks. Though few come out and say it, it is likely that many of the elite members of society approve of war not out of any sense of nobility or honor, but because war has direct extrinsic benefits for them. These benefits are both political and economic in nature, and tend to positively affect all of the elite -- those at the top of the economic, political, and military ladders. There is often, of course, a great overlap in these areas of power, which only makes the problem that much worse (Mooney & Knox 2007). It might at first be difficult to see how widespread death and destruction could benefit anyone, but it is actually quite simple.
The simplest and most sinister benefit is the economic one. War leads to huge increases in production and…
Mooney, L. & Knox, D. (2007). Understanding Social Problems. New York: Thompson/Wadsworth.
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…
Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.
Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.
Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.
Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm .
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…
Bancroft, Hubert H.. American war for Independence: Early Causes. 2002-2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/americanw_bb.html .
Leach, Douglas Edward. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Morison, S.E., ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.
By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.
As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…
Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,
McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.
It makes sense, then, that H.G. ells once "said he would 'rather be called a journalist than an artist'" (ells qtd. In McConnell 176). If the dangers of the twentieth century would come from the way unrestricted scientific advancement coupled with self-interest results in new, terrifying methods of industrialized slaughter, then the particular mode or perspective of the artist, as an opposed to the journalist, would be insufficient or irrelevant. In other words, if both the journalist and the artist seek truth, but the artist also seeks beauty, then the journalist is actually the one better suited for a world in which beauty has been overwhelmed by death and destruction on a scale and with a swiftness heretofore unimagined.
The narrator of The ar of the orlds reflects this shift, because he tells his story with as little artifice and characterization as possible, instead opting to describe the "death […]…
McConnell, Frank. "H. G. Wells: Utopia and Doomsday."Wilson Quarterly (1976-). 4.3 (1980):
Partington, John. "The Pen as Sword: George Orwell, H.G. Wells and Journalistic Parricide."
Journal of Contemporary History. 39.1 (2004): 45-56.
Why should this be so?
If the educational experience of boys is slipping, then this is an issue that should concern everyone.
Education should be a good experience for all children - male or female. Feminists have recognized previously that young girls were being shortchanged, a fact that should have concerned everyone in society (including Goldberg). To say that the education of boys slipped simply because feminists improved the education of girls is a post hoc fallacy.
Second, Goldberg ignores that there are many other issues that affect girls once they are out of college. Even if they do better academically, this does not translate to gender parity in the working world. There is still a significant wage gap between the genders, and women remain underrepresented in many leadership positions in the corporate world. These statistics challenge Goldberg's suggestion that boys suffer into manhood due to their lack of a…
By relating to how individuals were accustomed to using violence in order to put across their thinking ever since the beginning of time, Freud wanted Einstein and the whole world to understand that people were predisposed to using violence in spite of the fact that they lobbied with regard to how violence is wrong. Not only did Freud believe that people were prone to violence because of their barbaric nature, as he also believed that "killing an enemy satisfied an instinctual inclination" (Freud). It is practically as if Freud considered that people were even capable to kill someone as long as they believed that they would put an end to a serious threat by doing so.
"The ar of the orlds" is meant to stand as an allegory for imperialism, taking into account that it describes aliens in a totalitarian way and emphasizes their ultimate defeat as their…
Freud, Sigmund, "Why War, response," Retrieved April 9, 2013, from the Scribd Website: http://www.scribd.com/doc/8267730/Why-War-Sigmund-Freud
Wells, H.G. "The War of the Worlds," (Arc Manor LLC, 30.05.2008)
It is surely impressive to observe how ells' theory can be applied in a series of cases, taking into account the numerous (apparently) powerful communities that attempted to conquer and persecute other cultures and eventually ended up suffering. ells wanted people to understand that plans to conquer foreign cultures are likely to fail as long as the individuals interested in persecuting others are not interested in understanding the values of societies they are interested in integrating and as long as they are solely concerned in the material aspect of their actions.
Although "The ar of the orlds" appears to treat the matter of imperialism superficially (taking into account that individuals in the story do not interact with Martians and that the oppressors do not install puppet governments), the reality is that ells provided readers with the ability to interpret his writings. The fact that he was writing during a period…
Wells, H.G., "The War of the Worlds," (Arc Manor LLC, 30.05.2008)
Nevertheless, at the same time when Churchill took his place as leader of the ritish armed forces, the Germans had dealt an impressive blow by invading and eventually conquering elgium, France, and the Netherlands. Standing as one of the greatest powers in the world at the time, France had only managed to hold off its oppressors for a month and a half before signing an armistice with the Axis forces and allowing the German and Italian troops to occupy its territory.
eing excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade ritain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the ritish had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to ritain, they backed the ritish by agreeing to a trade…
Being excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade Britain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the British had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to Britain, they backed the British by agreeing to a trade of destroyers meant to strengthen the British naval forces.
Japan, Italy, and Germany had signed a Tripartite Act in September 1940, stating that any country that would attack the Axis powers would be required to go at war against the three. Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Tripartite Act in November, influencing the Germans in wanting to attack the Soviet Union. The Germans advanced into Greece consequent to Bulgaria signing the Tripartite Act. The Germans did not hesitate to unleash a surprise attack on the Soviets with operation Barbarossa on 22 June, 1941, once again proving that the German armed forces could easily brake through defense lines, regardless of their strength (the Soviets had been preparing defensive campaigns even before the start of the war).
The Axis advance in the east had come to a halt near Moscow, thus marking the moment when the German could no longer continue the Blitzkrieg and had to engage in traditional warfare.
hen the author got home to his village, no one believed him, but within a day the military was proceeding to the spot where the martians had landed in the Southwestern suburbs of London.
The second cylinder fell on Sunday, a day later, on the Byfleet Golf Links. The next night another cylinder fell on the fields near Addlestone. By then the inhabitants for miles around had panicked and fled, and the army moved in, though most of the soldiers were ignorant of what they were fighting. From each cylinder, in one day the martians constructed huge mechanical tripods with robot-like arms which rushed across the countryside. They burned the village of oking, wrecked the trains, killed people and wiped out the army (ells 78). A soldier described them as "giants in armour....Hundred feet high. Three legs and a body like 'luminium, with a mighty great head in a hood...."…
Encyclopedia of World Biography. "Herbert George Wells," 2005-6. Thomson Gale.
Paramount. War of the Worlds Website. 2008. http://www.war-of-the-worlds.org/Radio/ .
Wells, H.G. War of the Worlds. London: Tor Classic Mass Market Paperback. 1898.
This did not occur, and that in fact flawed the structure and strength of the strategic plan that was in place. This further affirms that stated in the answer to the memo; restructuring was needed. Combined forces were needed, better training and efforts in support of the military were needed. Most of all there was and is still a need for reunification of forces. The memo discusses the importance of forces coming together and supporting and sustaining the views of the UN and its principles, not only would this give everyone involved a more global perspective it will also allow all parties an opportunity to focus their initiatives in unison. There is a need for unification, support, boosting of military morale, and various other initiatives. A fresh perspective is always a great first step.
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo e: Global War on…
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo Re: Global War on Terrorism. Memo, pp.1-9.
The municipality, for instance, tried time and again to upend or regulate Carnaval, the annual festival "of the flesh'; that precedes lent and that had deep African roots. The city's Chief of police, on another occasion, stated that "None has the right to discredit the setting in which they live by reviving African customs" (124).
The Black middle class were complicit in this War on Blackness since they were seeking to escape their slave past and become accepted into White society,. They only way they could do so, they felt, was by assimilation. In this way, they joined forces by mocking and attempting to eradicate all African-sourced customs. The Afro-Uruguay newspaper, la Conservacion, for instance, railed against African religion and celled for abolishment of all African-based customs. Many of these rich Black middle class became the powerful politicians and political leaders of the Mexico of that age shaping the politics…
Some of the most emotionally incendiary propaganda to utilize the medium of film was conceived and directed towards partisans during the fighting of World War II. A pair of films, Went the Day Well and 49th Parallel, delicately play upon the psyche of their intended audiences to get viewers to emotionally, (and perhaps even physically) take a stance during the fighting of the second Great War. By demonstrating various aspects of homeland vulnerability and enemy infiltration, these movies were created to galvanize audiences into an anti-Nazi stance at the time when Hitler's Third Reich was at its peak of power.
The events that constitute the plot of Went the Day Well are obviously designed to prey on the fears of British residents during World War II. The film actually was released in 1942 while the war was still contested -- and largely undecided -- and depicts Nazi's posing…
Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas
Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great ritish, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from ermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind ritish territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of…
Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.
Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of
1982. Faber & Faber, 1990.
Gustafson, Lowell S. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford University Press, 1988.
War on Iraq
United States declared that its main motive behind launching military attack against Iraq was to destroy Saddam's so-called vicious plans against the humanity. But how can we justify destruction of terrorism with more terrorism, how did American plan to root out terrorism with the help of massive military attacks which resulted in the death of numerous civilians and left Iraq in a deplorable condition? The answer is simple: Bush administration was never honest with the public and had no solid evidence to link Iraq with terrorist activities around the world, neither did there exist any proof of Saddam having any weapons of mass destruction. But America still went on war, just to declare its supremacy on the world and to show everyone that it had the power to do anything it wanted to do. I staunchly believed that war was wrong and now with the Iraq in…
Later that night as the couple is preparing to go to bed, they rehash the events of the dinner, and we can see that they have grown apart. Barbara comments on Oliver's phony laugh, and Oliver defends his laugh and his behavior in interrupting Barbara's Baccarat story, by explaining that he has his eyes on the prize of becoming law partner, and if that means he has to force a laugh on occasion, then he is willing to do that for his family. Even at this point in the movie, however, the Roses do not recognize that they are in trouble as a couple and as a family. It is also clear that the love is fading, at the beginning or early days of their marriage, Barbara would never have criticized Oliver, but would have acquiesced without comment. It is perhaps that acquiescence that is at the root of their…
Bus, David and Malamuth, Neil (1996). Sex, Power, Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist
Perspectives, Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Print.
DeVito, Danny (1989). War of the Roses, Motion Picture Film, Gracie Films, USA,
Peace, therefore, is dependent upon the power-play between capitalism, socialism, consumerism and communism -- and often they all overlap. The problem arises when domination rather diplomacy becomes a tactic of certain world powers. Rather than working with other nations at the expense of commercial or ideological interests, nations (like the U.S.) revert to underhanded scheming, acts of espionage, terrorism, and war, and militarism to undue rival nations' hegemony. The Middle East is a prime example for the way the est has gone about ending "terrorism" and restoring "peace." The idea that the U.S. is at all interested in peace is a complete farce. It is interested in nothing but profits.
Peace can be attained, however -- as Kennedy showed during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Roger Fisher, illiam Ury, and Bruce Patton all agree when they affirm that the best way to peace today is through negotiation and diplomacy. By putting…
Fisher, Roger, et al. "Getting to Yes." Approaches to Peace. [Barsh, David, ed.] UK:
Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Schweitzer, Christine, ed. Civilian Peacekeeping: A Barely Tapped Resource. Sozio-
Publishing, 2010. Print.
ar in Iraq
The top story for May 1, 2005 in the New York Times concerning Iraq was titled, "Iraq Insurgents Continue ave of Attacks." The Chicago Tribune had no top stories on Iraq for this date and the ashington Post's only story on Iraq concerned Iraq's power grid problem. The LA Times' top story is titled "Iraq to Purge Corrupt Officers." Therefore the two domestic stories concerning Iraq come from the New York Times and the LA Times. The two foreign stories discussed were links found on the Iraq Daily web site. One is from The Independent Bangladesh and the other is from Dawn, a Pakistan English newspaper.
The New York Times article is an Associated Press report concerning the Sunday attacks in Iraq. It reports that insurgents' attacks are continuing for the third straight day and have included ambushes, car bombs, and drive-by shooting, bringing the death toll…
"Iraq2 still crippled by violence." The Independent Bangladesh. May 1, 2005.
"Iraq1 troubles keep haunting U.S.." Dawn. (Pakistan). May 1, 2005
Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.
Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.
Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.
Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.
Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.
. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and erman Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.
. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years'…
Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247 .
Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001),
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
How can God satisfy both participants in the conflict?
Twain's moral is that the religious rhetoric used to justify war and the merging of patriotism and faith is always suspect. Each side believes that his or her cause and nation is just. During wartime, prayers 'cancel one another out' and show the hypocrisy of the inflated, one-sided view of warfare expressed in propaganda. It is easy to see Twain's message reflected in real life, particularly in the cases of ethnic conflicts where participants are pitted in age-old hatreds and use religion as a justification for their crimes. Such was the case of the Bosnians vs. The Serbs and the Protestants vs. The Catholics of Northern Ireland. To pray for victory in war, points out Twain's old man, is to pray for the death of other people: "If you pray for the blessing of rain upon your crop which needs it,…
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
Form this point-of-view (Goodman) the war hawks are considered to this day the catalysts of the 1812 war, despite the circumstances and the eventual need for world consideration.
Overall it can be concluded that the war hawks represent a rather controversial presence in the history of the United States. While some argue that they are in fact responsible for a painful war against ritain that could have been averted, other view them as important characters in shaping the honor and prestige of the United States in the decades to come.
Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .
Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186
Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives,…
Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .
Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186
Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives, 1812 ." The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 367-390
Muhall, Jill K. The War of 1812 . Huntington Beach: Shell Education, n.d.
It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. hese include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. he article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." his comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.…
The second material I am using is an article by ABC News Good Morning America "Iraq War Images Seep into Popular Culture." It is available online at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/IraqCoverage/story?id=759253&page=1 , This material mainly explains how the war in Iraq is becoming part of America at home. It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. These include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. The article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." This comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.
Third media material I am using is the "war and militarism" section of FAIR [Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting]. The website is available at http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=7&issue_area_id=26 . FAIR is dedicated to challenging the mainstream media reporting. It has specific sections that deal with a variety of issues, but most important for my blog is the section on war and militarism. The articles here show how often mainstream media reports present wrong impressions of wars and militarism. The media often lies about the realities of war and militarism and many people accept media representations as truth and fail to see many negative consequences of wars. For instance, Pat Tillman, a former popular soccer player who went to war but became an anti-war soldier and killed in a friendly fire, was at first reported to have been killed in a heroic fight with the Taliban. FAIR helps to expose these kinds of lies of the mainstream media.
All three materials are important for my blog. The documentary extra featuring George Gerbner explains the relationship between violent images in the media and American culture. The video tells how heavy exposure to violent images has affected America's national psyche. Many people are addicted to violence and crave for more and more violent imagery in films and on TV. The ABC News article is important to my blog because it explains how an ongoing war -- in this case, the Iraq War -- enters the American society. It explains how the Iraq War is becoming part of our popular culture. And the third media material is invaluable to my blog because it regularly publishes articles that are relevant to the topic of war, violence, and the nation. I will add these materials to my blog and also add my detailed commentaries because my purpose is not only to present media materials, but also try to explain some of the consequences of our culture's increasing obsession with war and violence.
He turns some readers off with his vitriolic attacks. Further, his attacks are is blatant propaganda. hy? Because while Taibbi does mention that the Democrats already crafted legislation more than once - setting timetables for withdrawal and tying those timetables to funding, bills that Bush subsequently vetoed - he uses quotes from unnamed "congressional aides" to solidify his assertion that the Democrats just wanted to "score political points without ever being serious about bringing the troops home."
Taibbi does use evidence that there are anti-war leaders outside of ashington who are discouraged and bitter. But he fails to build a case for his most radical assertion, that the Democrats "hijacked the anti-war movement itself" in order to play to the voters, and that the Democrats filled the "ranks of peace groups with loyal party hacks." This is pure propaganda, and the evidence he provides is very thin. He doesn't name…
Biddle, Stephen. "Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon." Foreign Affairs 85.2 (2006): 2-14.
Taibbi, Matt. "The Chicken Doves." Rolling Stone Issue 1046 (2008): 37-39.
This article addresses why children and adolescents may become violent, what factors influence them, what are the signs, and what preventive measures work in society's attempts to end violence among children and adolescents. In our society today, many parents have become irresponsible, not only allowing their children to immerse themselves in violent video games and movies but also causing a lot of violent behavior among their children by having unhealthy marriages, abusing their children, and becoming alcohol and drug addicts. This problem needs to be addressed, and therefore I found it important to include into my blog.
The last material I decided to include into my blog is an article by a professor of education who talks about the connection of toys to violence. This article points out that we often look at violence in media, TV, the Internet as causes of violence among Americans but we rarely…
ar Is Permanent
"Nothing, nothing will ever be the same" is the last line in Peg Lauber's poem "Six National Guardsmen Blown Up Together." And it's true; nothing is the same after war. The ravages of war and conflict are permanent, indelible. This is a theme that is explored in the aforementioned Peg Lauber poem as well as in the poem "Facing It" by Yusef Komunyakaa. It is the purpose of this paper to explore the meaning of, and thematic import of, permanence in these two plangent war poems.
"Facing It" is a poem about Vietnam. The speaker of the poem is at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in ashington, D.C. He is looking into its black reflective gabbro walls, "My black face fades, / hiding inside the black granite" (Komunyakaa). He is confronting (facing) the unbearable cost of war. And he realizes that he is at once both a part…
Lauber, Peg. "Six National Guardsmen Blown Up Together." New Orleans Suite.
Wisconsin: Marsh River Editions, n.d. Web.
Komunyakaa, Yusef. "Facing It." Pleasure Dome: New and Collected Poems.
Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 2001. Print.
During the major battle Sir Francis Drake is quoted, "There was never anything pleased me better than seeing the enemy flying with a southerly wind to the northward" ("Elizabethan ar"). The Spanish Armada was forced to sail northward while the fleet of England was able to attack. Once the larger ships were so far out to sea as to not be a threat, the reminder crashed into the shores of Norway with a starving wasted crew. Those that survived had to surrender as many soldiers did due to the new weapon at the English army's disposal, the musket.
Queen Elizabeth helped inspire advancement in technology and science. The invention of firearms was just before the Elizabethan era but she was just the encouragement the army needed to upgrade. In 1595, all soldiers were ordered to replace their bows with a musket. The most popular one at the time was called…
"Elizabeth I." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2009