The idea of electric cars, which run on big rechargeable batteries in opposition gas-powered internal combustion engines, has been around for years. But growing climate-alteration worries, tougher fuel-efficiency standards, billions in government subsidies, and a lot of venture capital seem to be generating a tilting point that could move electric cars from the transportation borders into the majority (The future of the electric car, 2010).
An electric car by definition will utilize an electric motor for forward motion instead of being powered by a gasoline-powered motor. The years 1899 and 1900 were the high spot for electric cars in America, as they sold more than all other kinds of cars. The 1902 Phaeton built by the oods Motor Vehicle Company of Chicago, had a range of eighteen miles, a top speed of 14 mph and cost two thousand dollars. In 1916, oods produced a hybrid car that…… [Read More]
Energy Efficiency and Environmental Justice…
Policy Energy Efficiency
Energy Efficiency and Environmental Justice: From Incentive only to Mandate with Incentive Policy Plans
Energy Efficiency and Environmental Justice: From Incentive only to Mandate with Incentive Policy Plans
Energy Efficiency and Environmental Justice Policy Barriers
Under the provision of 12 U.S.C. § 1701t: U.S. Code - Section 1701T, Congress has reaffirmed the right of all U.S. citizens and especially those who cannot provide housing accommodations for themselves have "decent homes and suitable living environments." The U.S. code responds to the fact that this goal has yet to be met on the federal or state level, yet does not address the full definition of what constitutes a "suitable living environment." Environmental justice is a foundational aspect of new laws regarding where we live and work and though some address has been accommodated in housing laws for the safety of low income households with…… [Read More]
Ecological Preservation at the Hart of Dynamic Boca de Iguanas Development (2008) St. Michael Strategies (SMS) Press Release. PR.com online available at http://www.pr.com/press-release/35513
Jeffrey Chow, Raymond J. Kopp, Paul R. Portney. (2003). Energy resources and global development. Science, 302(5650), 1528-31. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 490116241).
Mattson, K.M., and Angermeier, P.L. (2007) Integrating Human Impacts and Ecological Integrity into a Risk-Based Protocol for Conservation Planning Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 39, No. 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/t13674l78j31jq05/
Maximizing building performance: through environmental strategies (2003) Buildings 1 July 2003. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/operations/facilities/601308-1.html
Negative Secondary Impacts from Oil and Gas Development (nd) the Energy & Biodiversity Initiative. Online available at http://www.theebi.org/pdfs/impacts.pdf
Santopietro, George D. (2005) Raising Environmental Consciousness vs. Creating Economic Incentives as Alternative Policies for Environmental Protection Journal; Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 29, 1995. Excerpt online available at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000322449
APPENDIX 'A'…… [Read More]
energy and how it can be produced. Further it also delves on the various forms of energy and how energy can be conserved at home?
What is energy? Energy is the vital and life sustaining force that is the source of the power that is used in the manufacturing of goods, the transportation of these goods, and the business involved in these two activities that form the backbone of the economy of the entire world. The supply and the demand of energy play an extremely important role in the economic output of a nation, and also in the national security of the entire nation. The United States of America alone expends about $500 billion on energy each and every year. (Energy… [Read More]
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…… [Read More]
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…… [Read More]
Energy in Bloomington Indiana 11/16/2010 Mary Sullivan
The objective is to reduce city energy consumption in Bloomington Indiana by 6% by November 15, 2015 through installation/retrofitting of high-efficiency direct and indirect lighting systems in city-owned property. This objective is important because energy reduction is a vital component of both fiscal and environmental responsibility and vitalization. In the 2010 State of the City address, the Mayor of Bloomington stressed two intended approaches to economic vitalization. The first was to strengthen what they already have, and second to pursue what they still need to "achieve a strong, diversified, local economy." Since lighting is one of the most basic, important, and visible uses of energy it is a prime candidate to be strengthen and improved via an energy reduction initiative. Nationally, the cost of lighting presents approximately 20% of the overall energy consumed. Indiana statistics are consistent with this figure. Commercial and public…… [Read More]
Then, a second major difference resides in the sources used to retrieve the necessary funds. The nonprofit organizations do indeed get the support of the federal budget in the meaning that they are often exempt from tax payment; but they have to raise the funds by themselves without any additional help or interference. They do this through the organization of various events, such as concerts, dinner parties or theatre plays, during which wealthy members of the community donate money to the causes promoted by the NPOs. In the case of governmental institutions however, the funds come directly from the state officials. The money is initially collected from the general public in the form of taxes, fines or other transfers to the state budget, and then redistributed to the state agencies.
A third difference also deals with the financial nature of the organizational activities, but is somewhat different from the previous…… [Read More]
All other sources of energy used within my home: Apart from the electricity which is used in the home for most appliances, gas is also used in the kitchen to power the stove and the hot water boiler system for the house. This is also then used in the heating system in the house. Water is the other main source of energy which is used in the house, for washing dishes such as in the dishwasher, washing clothes, having showers, washing the car and watering the lawn. Gas is used for an emergency generator in the case of a power cut to the house, and also for some of the tools such as the lawnmower. Logs are also burned on the fire in the winter.
Areas in the home where energy efficiency could be improved: Energy efficiency could be improved by making sure that all electrical items are turned off…… [Read More]
Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy
Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.
Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…… [Read More]
My energy use varied depending on the day. In general, heating oil is used, so this will increase on days that are cooler or wetter. Electrical reflects appliance usage for the most part. There is a baseline of electrical usage for things like lights, coffee maker and other daily essentials. Electricity usage spikes on laundry day in particular. There is a small solar component to the heating, providing heat for a couple of rooms. Auto gas reflects car usage, which fluctuates. There is a commuting baseline for five out of seven days, and so non-commuting days can see lower gasoline usage.
The local energy company uses primarily coal as its power source, but also makes use of a small percentage of nuclear power as well. The utility posts this information on its website. The different power sources are all outlined, so consumers can effectively understand the source of the…… [Read More]
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…… [Read More]
TerraLogos could capitalize on partnerships with organizations such as local realtors. If the company's name appeared on real estate agency websites, this could enable TerraLogos to target new home buyers who wanted to improve the energy efficiency of their new homes. This would be effective because new home buyers might be likely to note the name of the company, even while they are still searching home listings. Also, new home buyers often contract numerous repairs and modifications on a new home, to bring it into livable condition to their family.
The value of 'greener' buildings and the savings generated by green buildings has even been acknowledged by home insurance companies. According to a 2008 MSNBC story: "Two major insurers are launching 'green' insurance programs that will let homeowners reconstruct their property with more environmentally friendly building materials, appliances and landscaping, even if it costs more than the replacement value stated…… [Read More]
Who is Leading the International Clean Energy Race?
The race for clean energy is already underway, but some countries are in vanguard while others remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Unfortunately, even the winners of the clean energy race fail to realize the full range of benefits that can accrue to renewable energy sources as long as other countries continue to rely on fossil fuels for their energy needs. To determine the facts about what is happening today and likely outcomes for the future, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe how developing countries can reach 100% renewable energy as well as some of the more severe challenges that are involved in providing clean energy in developing regions of the world. In addition, a discussion concerning whether the goal of achieving clean energy access for all humanity by 2030 is achievable or not is followed by an analysis of…… [Read More]
The Effect of "uperior Efficiency" on an Organization's Operations & Process
GM's Lansing facility gets nod from EPA for superior energy efficiency
From: MLive.com - http://www.mlive.com/auto/index.ssf/2011/12/gms_lansing_facility_gets_nod.html
This article speaks about GM's newest U.. plant, which is set, as of December 5, 2011, to receive an Energy tar certification for "superior energy efficiency" from the U.. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In order to receive this raging, the 2006 plant, which is in Lansing and which is called the Lansing Delta Township Assembly Plant, had to, according to the article, "perform in the top 25% of similar facilities nationwide for energy efficiency and meet strict energy performance levels set by the EPA," for a year, from 2010-2011 (Wayland, P1, 2011).
uperior efficiency qualification as important. According to the same article, these demonstrate commitment from companies towards protecting their practices, and thereby their customers. The fact that top officers are committed…… [Read More]
Green Is the New Green
Here at Adobe, we're proud to win the Platinum Certification Award from the U.S. Green Building Council for our work in energy savings and greening up the company. We're also proud we were the first office building in the world that the Council awarded this distinction. What helps us keep on reducing, reusing, and recycling every day are the efforts of you, our employees, who are always the first to create new ideas and methods to save energy and make our company even more green. Our platinum status was based on "sustainability; water efficiency; energy efficiency and atmospheric quality; use of materials and resources; indoor environmental quality; and innovations in upgrades, operations and maintenance." Now, we want to take those elements to a higher level, with your help.
In the past, we have "reduced electricity use by 35%, natural gas use by 41%, domestic water…… [Read More]
alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and evaluate them based on their relative availability, renewability, and known environmental impacts. We begin with a baseline characterization of fossil fuels, and outline some of the factors contributing to their current market and industry dominance. We then examine three of the current most prominent and viable renewable alternatives to fossil fuels, including the controversial nuclear energy technology and two emerging technology areas, wind power and algae-based bio-fuels.
Subterranean petroleum-based resources which are currently extracted via drilling and other methods also originated as living algae albeit hundreds of millions of years ago, which accounts for their categorization as "fossil" fuels along with other hydrocarbon-based deposits including coal and natural gas. The combined fossil and renewable biofuels worldwide market was estimated at $5.8 trillion dollars in 2010, of which approximately $1.5 trillion was based in the United States. The cost per unit weight of fossil-based fuel…… [Read More]
Economics of Energy
There are different theories with respect to energy. Mearns argues that people should save energy, because there is a limit to how much proved reserves of hydrocarbons and there may even be limits to how much non-hydrocarbon energy available. It is necessary, therefore, to be highly efficient in our energy use (IanMearns.co.uk, 2014). His views contrast with those of someone like Christof uhl, who is the chief economist for BP. uhl argues that such efficiency is already occurring, that the West is experiencing lower levels of energy intensity and demand is primarily being driven by the developing world. Changes in the fuel mix are also a factor, he argues, and when developing nations follow the West in lowering their energy intensity, energy demand will start to stabilize (uhl, 2014).
The EIA release (2014) supports uhl's contention that energy use in the U.S. is starting to stabilize, and…… [Read More]
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…… [Read More]
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…… [Read More]
Global energy and climate objectives have contributed to the increased development and use of renewable sources of energy that focus on lessening the environment impact of generating energy. The conventional sources of energy have contributed to significant environmental impacts, especially climate change. The environmental impacts that are brought by emission of greenhouse gases from conventional energy sources are endangering the world's ecosystems and human life. As a result, renewable energy sources are considered as suitable alternatives to help lessen environmental impacts while meeting energy needs. There are various renewable energy sources that are regarded as suitable alternatives to conventional sources including solar, wind, and electric energy. Even though these sources have minimal environmental impacts compared to conventional sources of energy, they are not cost-effective yet.
Solar, Electric and Wind Energy
Wind energy has been considered as one of the cheaper energy generation methods unlike conventional sources of energy…… [Read More]
However, they are worth considering on the long haul. Since the oil and gas reserves are suffering from a chronic shortage, a major company such as Exxon should think strategically and expand into this area. The discussion is more complex, in the sense that intensive research and development efforts are needed to both improve the above mentioned alternatives and to discover new sources of energy.
Exxon Financial esults
Due to the high crude-oil and natural gas prices, in the context of a busy hurricane seasons in the Gulf of Mexico, Exxon has reported record figures for 2005, mounting up to $36 billion in net income and 31% return on average capital.
Source: Exxon Mobil 2005 Company eport
The results Exxon reported for the 2005 fiscal year are impressive:
record earnings of $36 billion, up 46%;
net income per common share of $5.76;
net income to average shareholder's equity of 339%…… [Read More]
Energy is the basis of industrial civilization and modern society. There is little doubt that without energy, modern life would cease to exist. Over the last two hundred years, human beings have relied heavily on fossil fuels for their energy needs. Fossil fuels, however, are non-renewable and in limited supply and if we continue to use the earth's fossil fuel resources at the present rate, we would soon run out of the earth's fuel reserves. Moreover, burning of fossil fuels contributes to air pollution, acid rain, and global warming that could ultimately make life unsustainable on our planet. ith several promising alternate energy sources such as 'geothermal,' 'nuclear,' 'wind' and 'solar' power having proved either too expensive, too dangerous or impractical, the need for a new invention that provides an alternate fuel was never more urgent as it is today. The invention that I have in mind is the…… [Read More]
Organizing research-development-engineering meetings
Such meetings were organized by Continental in order to focus around researchers and developers within the company and to grant them an entrepreneur value, in order to directly confront them with the demands expressed by the managers in charge of divisions that worked with the market and with customers. These meetings were in the favor of both the company and the researchers and developers. This is because the company benefitted from the ideas and brainstorming of these employees, while researchers and developers had the chance to express their knowledge and skills and to present their innovative ideas.
Developing the company into becoming a systems supplier for the automotive industry
This strategic direction can be explained through Grunberg's ambition and belief in Continental's capability of developing cutting-edge technology and therefore creating the competitive advantage needed by the company in order to become the leader in the market in…… [Read More]
Hybrid vs. Gas Powered Cars
Currently, global warming and a shrinking natural resource base are two of the greatest headaches for governments and regulators alike the world over. The price of gas in the U.S., for instance, almost doubled over the last decade, from $1.86 in 2004 to $3.62 on average in the first half of 2014; and given that more than half of the country's oil consumption is taken up by motor vehicles, one question looms -- what will the situation on our roads be like when our oil reserves can no longer sustain our consumption needs? Then there is the even greater problem of greenhouse emissions and global warming. The transport sector accounts for approximately 17%-18% of total CO2 emission globally, and automakers have been under intense pressure to roll out emission-free automobiles, and thereby reduce the damage resulting from the Greenhouse effect. More and more regulators are…… [Read More]
Future of Energy: Guiding Decisions ith Evidence
In order to reduce the negative environmental impacts of an ever growing human population and increasing demands for energy as technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities and even households have the opportunity to shift their energy sources to those that are renewable. However, not all locations are equally amenable to any particular form of energy. This analysis will look at personal consumption of energy of the course of a normal routine and attempt to determine the major sources of energy use that are present in my life. It was found that heating and cooling and transportation were among the leading items that contributed to my total energy consumption. There are various ways in which these energy consumption sources could be minimized to create a better conservation of energy strategy in my normal routine.
The world is facing environmental crises from…… [Read More]
emote access controls.
Network security management.
Compliance with the policies and procedures of the company is very vital to the organization, and the policies and procedures should be clearly communicated to the appropriate business teams.
Intruder: The suggested treatment for the attack by the external intruder such as hacker is to ensure that all communication within the organization is encrypted to deter the unauthorized access to the company data. Moreover, the organization should use antivirus to protect the company data from the attack such as Trojan horse, worm, virus etc. Compliance to policies and procedure is so vital to assure an organizational IT security.
Disgruntled Employee: Company needs to evaluate each personnel before being allowed to handle sensitive information. There is a need to conduct background check on each employee. The background check could verify potential employee criminal background, and social background. Employee should be asked to sign…… [Read More]
Waste & Energy
Waste products and fossil fuel usage are in part byproducts of our civilization and in part they are drivers of our civilization. Disposing of waste and managing fossil fuels present tremendous challenges to our society. We know that climate change is going to have a significant effect on the world, so that the world 100 years from now is quite different from the world today. We know that our waste cannot simply be thrown out, or it will pollute our environment. This presentation will outline specific examples to illustrate the problem.
I want you to take out your phone. It's probably already out. When will you be replacing that phone? Within the next year or two, maybe three if it's a new one. What's in a phone and where does it go? Electronics are a major category of waste, and a massive environmental challenge. Batteries are a…… [Read More]
Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.
Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…… [Read More]
There is injustice done to the ratepayers through higher rates. Some others will benefit by the subsidized energy efficient products such as light bulbs, refrigerators, consultation services, and to cap it is argued that a utility service provider is in no position to fix the benefits as much as the customers and since it depends on many individuals and therefore the energy efficiency and the interest rates and the price of electricity are all subjective.
Thus the allowing of corporations to fleece the customer on their interpretation of the Demand analysis is wrong because the Corporations often attempt to have a very high rate exceeding 12% for capital Such irreversible investments would often require a rate of return of over twenty percent that makes the service affordable only for the very upper class leaving the rest in darkness. Since the investment cannot be reversed, there is a risk of the…… [Read More]
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…… [Read More]
This presents challenges because neither high-pressure compressed hydrogen gas nor cryogenic liquefied hydrogen can easily be handled at home." (Panasonic, p. 1)
This underscores the reality noted by this proposal and cast to further examination in the research justified by this proposal that any real implementation of an energy source transformation would be a considerable commercial, political, economic and practical endeavor.
All of that noted, it still remains that case that hydrogen has the potential to light the way for a better fuel economy, a more efficient society and a more pristine environment in Singapore. This is because at its root, hydrogen carries not just the potential for clean-burning but also for greater energy-storing capacity. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) "hydrogen is the lightest gas and also the most energy-dense fuel per mass. One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 Btu, three times the energy of…… [Read More]
Green building, a term also known as green construction or sustainable building refers to a structure and the use of processes that are environmentally responsible and also efficient when it comes to resources throughout the life cycle of the building process; from siting to the design, construction, the operation, its maintenance, renovations that are made and demolition. Therefore a green building design involves the finding of a balance between building a home and the sustainable environment. It requires a lot of cooperation of the design team, engineers, architects and the client throughout the stages of the project. The practice of green building has expanded and complements the classical building concerns of utility, economy, comfort and durability. Sustainable development refers to the ability of achieving a continuing economy prosperity while at the same time protecting the natural systems within the planet and providing a high quality of life for people (Katz,…… [Read More]
In the GEOMA methodology, carbon dioxide displaces methane within the water lattice which reforms into a more stable state than was present with the methane. While this new technology is still in development, it is very promising (Traufetter, 2007). ecent advances by researchers from Japan, China, India, Canada, Australia, and the United States could result in commercial exploitation of Methane gas within the decade.
Natural gas recovery techniques have come a long way since that first primitive well in Fredonia. Now, a complex and sophisticated process brings natural gas from the field to your home. Exploration for new sources of natural gas has become a highly evolved science. Geologists study the physical structure of a potential site. The scientists can use seismology and magnetometers to develop three dimensional models of the earth using computer programs designed for that purpose. These models allow the geologists to narrow down specific areas that…… [Read More]
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…… [Read More]
CEFC and the Future of Environmental Finance
The Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) represents the most aggressive environmental finance initiative sponsored by the Australian Government to date. The CEFC is an independent entity established as part of the Clean Energy Future Policy by the Australian government. As of March 2012, funding for the program totaled AUS $10 billion in government backed investments for the commercialization and deployment of clean energy technologies. This research will explore the CEFC and its role in the development and deployment of environmentally friendly energy sources and alternatives.
Governments around the world recognize the need for developing clean and renewable energy sources that reduce their environmental impact. The topic of global warning and climate change has increased the need for the development of less energy intensive and environmentally damaging energy sources. Although the role of human beings in these changes is a topic of debate, it…… [Read More]
Solar is the Solution, author Steve Heckeroth argues that solar energy is the key to alleviating climate change. Heckeroth builds his argument on the statement that "Solar is a promising source of future energy supplies because not only is it clean, it's remarkably abundant." Another one of Heckeroth's claims is that "relying on coal, oil and natural gas threatens our future with toxic pollution, global climate change and social unrest caused by diminishing fuel supplies." These statements are internally valid; although Heckeroth does not provide quantitative data to back up these statements, they are easy to reference. Moreover, Heckeroth establishes his own credibility as an author qualified to write about environmental science by stating "I have been studying our energy options for more than 30 years." Of course, "studying" something for thirty years does not automatically make a person an expert. Heckeroth is admitting that he is a layperson who…… [Read More]
Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).
PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…… [Read More]
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…… [Read More]
Steam and Gas Turbines
Combining steam and gas turbines into one power generation system has been a tremendous boom for multiple industrial sectors. As Pirsh & Sage (n.d.). point out, "the major advantages advanced for such cycles were the improvement in overall cycle efficiency and the reduction in capital costs," (p. 39). A combined steam and gas turbine provides the best of both worlds by minimizing heat loss and maximizing energy output gains. Energy companies like GE have been actively promoting the use of combined steam and gas turbines; while others like ANSYS have been dedicated to the development of cutting-edge combined turbine systems for use in multiple sectors. In addition to their obvious applications in commercial and private power generation, combined steam and gas turbines also have rich potential for use in naval and maritime situations.
Gas and steam combined turbines are therefore available in a wide range of…… [Read More]
Future of Technology
hat qualitative parameters might be considered in future energy price scenarios -- take the year 2025 and list, with a brief explanation, the parameters you consider should be included.
Many measurable elements of an energy future exist because they are in use in the present. These quantities, such as the amount of fossil fuel that will be available for use in the year 2025, can be determined through testing and geological surveys. It can also be estimated how much fossil fuel will be used during that amount of time to a fairly reliable degree (Brandon & Lewis). However, there are goals that are less available for exact determination. These more nebulous goals are what government agencies like to present to the public because they sound good, but they are also the parameters by which future energy pricing might be determined.
The efficiency of a system, either of…… [Read More]
Serbia EPS sustainability report is an annual report regarding the social responsibility of Serbia's electric power industry. The report is released in attempts to make this industry to become a competitive player in the regional market to inspire and drive others industries in the country. Generally, strong and successful companies in this industry that operate based on social principles and market rules contribute to the community's prosperity. The main goal of the corporate social responsibility report is to examine the company's measures toward achieving sustainability. The sustainability efforts of Serbia EPS Company are geared towards ensuring the firm is a major player in the country's electric power industry in order to stimulate and drive the growth of other industries as well as contributing to the enhancement of the entire community. This report provides significant insights that contribute to the development of various recommendations for improvement in relation to corporate social…… [Read More]
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…… [Read More]
I think that people think what they do does not make a difference. However, if enough people do it, then it could make a difference, and make people more aware of alternatives at the same time.
I feel the current political policies, for the most part, are critically flawed and need to be radically reformed. In fact, I think many politicians have their heads in the sand over this issue, and need their attitudes totally readjusted. I just read an article online that the Nevada Legislature wants to rescind a law giving "green" builders tax breaks, because it could cost the state too much money (Bellisle). This seems extremely short sighted and backward to me. It is a time when we should be encouraging the use of alternative power and building methods, rather than rescinding tax incentives. That is just one reason I feel the current political policies are fatally…… [Read More]
Below is a chart depicting various amounts of energy consumption by the average individual in Society? Notice that "space cooling," "water heating" and "lighting" segments contribute nearly 30% of all energy consumption in the household (Australian Energy Outlook 2006).
This energy consumption however, is variable in nature. Lighting costs or space cooling costs are dependent primarily on individual preference and discipline. By simply turning off lights, or reducing the amount of time in the shower, individuals can significantly reduce excessive energy use. Through this practice, society can achieve a significant and sustainable reduction in energy use (Tester, 2005).
In addition to excessive use with automobiles, lighting, cooling, and CO2 emissions mentioned above, I think Society must commit to energy savings in a profound manner. This is my biggest opportunity in regards to excessive energy use. Many individuals simply are not committed to such behavior. Their activities regarding energy reflect this…… [Read More]
Green Building Laws
Green Building and Green etrofitting
The department of Federal Environmental Executive defines green building like this: Elevating the competence by which the built structures consume energy, equipment and water along with decreasing the adverse effects on health of human beings including the surroundings by improved structure, maintenance, procedure, operation, choice of a better site and elimination of waste. The subsequent section explains the current guiding principles for retrofitting and green building (Columbia University, 2005).
Established Green Building Guidelines
The aim of United States Green Building Council (USGBC) is to improve the infrastructure and quality of work while constructing buildings which are environment friendly, lucrative, hale and hearty to work and live in (Columbia University, 2005). LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) given by USGBC is usually thought to be the finest power in green building (Brown et al., 2002).
LEED was established by USGBC in 1999…… [Read More]
But the of the efficiency of the design requires further proof. It is necessary to ensure that the all of the rays "directed to the virtual elliptic receiver at the exit aperture are reflected by the concentrator to some point on this receiver" (Garcia-Botella, et al.). The explanation of the math for this process is explained in a long section of the report from Garcia-Botella, et al.;
"Three properties of one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator geometry are useful: (1)
All meridional sections of a one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator are hyperbolas, (2)
all cross sections of a onesheet hyperbolic concentrator are ellipses and (3) the tangent plane, at any point P. Of a one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator, is defined by the bisector of the angle FPF0, where F. And F0 are the foci of the hyperbola in the meridional plane (Fig. 2), and the tangent line to the elliptic cross section at P. All the…… [Read More]
Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation
Status of the Sustainability Movement
The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).
This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…… [Read More]
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…… [Read More]
Nu Star Energy L.P. is a limited partnership that is publicly traded and headquartered in San Antonio. It has 9,063 miles of pipeline, eighty-six terminal facilities, four storage facilities for crude oil and two refineries for asphalt. It is the second in size among independent liquid terminal operators in the United States. It operates in the U.S., Netherlands, Canada, United Kingdom, Antilles and Mexico. The entire system of the partnership can hold up to 86 million barrels in its storage infrastructure. It has refineries for asphalt, crude oil and has pipelines for refined products. Also present are terminals for refined products, a storage facility for petroleum, a terminal operation as well as storage facilities for crude oil. NuStar strives to protect the environment and continually works to improve its programs and processes so as to meet even the most stringent of environmental practices. This has resulted in better environmental performance.…… [Read More]
Because of the wide variety of feedstocks ethanol offers great opportunity for economic growth and can help generate jobs outside traditional system.
There are many benefits of using ethanol as an alternative fuel. Most importantly the manageability of E85 is far easier than gasoline as it is less volatile. E85 fueling equipment is slightly different but costs almost the same as one used for storing and dispensing petroleum fuels. It is even possible to convert petroleum equipment into an E85. Moreover using E85 will reduce our overall use of petroleum consumption and replace it with a fuel produced or grown in the U.S. E85 also offers considerable environmental benefits. FFVs specifically designed for ethanol-based fuels are easily available, recommended and are affordable. Today E85 is sold at 60 stations in 16 states according to an Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet. (obinson, 2004). Even though the overall mileage of E85 is…… [Read More]
Nova Scotia Government and Politics
The government's environmental discourse of "sustainable prosperity" emphasizes that in Nova Scotia the province's financial future is intensely attached with the task of making a cleaner environment. The province's Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act pursue to "validate global leadership by having one of the cleanest and most maintainable Environments in the world by the year 2020."
The choice to relax an environmental target is perplexing for a province that has recognized this broad-minded environmental and economic vision, and from a new government that has been getting honors for its green energy wits. Nova Scotia is known to be one the first jurisdiction in Canada to put caps on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions inside its electricity subdivision and it has lately propelled a strategy concentrated on making renewable energy a strategic sector for growth.
In the past there have been some promises made to the…… [Read More]
This helps to establish the case that a gap exists between that which science accepts about biofuels and that which politicians present on the subject.
This is complimented by Thornton's (2006) concise detraction of ethanol, this article serves as reinforcement for the recurring case that the process of yielding energy from ethanol is too consuming of time and energy, and thus, should be disregarded as a means to developing an alternative fuel source.
The certainty that the world community must attend with urgency to a transition to a clean-burning and effective alternative fuel source dominates discourse today on oil production and energy efficiency. And there is a dominance in this discussion, as well as in current implementation, of the endorsement of biofuels. A clear-burning energy source derived from the fermentation of sugars found in various plant-cellulous, for some time this has been sought as a possible alternative fuel to…… [Read More]
Criteria of buyer/investor on project type and location
A huge variety of CDM project locations, types and sizes exists and these are open to potential CDM investors. The national investment climate plus factors at the national level influence decisions on where, what type of projects to undertake as well as whether they ought to be developed as CDM projects. The investor's role in CDM project influences the physical spread of the CDM market. For instance, a technology provider who is offered payment partly via CE revenues may have a broad list of options of potential areas where to locate the project but a smaller choice of project type to engage in. Some funds set aside and intended for CDM funding have been decided upon as intended for specific project types and specific geographical areas. For example, the Spanish Carbon Fund directs its energies towards establishment of CDM projects in North…… [Read More]
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
It accomplished…… [Read More]
Concerns about the availability of fuel also slows adoption. In a simulation representing California, entrepreneurs opened alterative fuel stations in urban areas but not in less-populated rural areas where demand is initially lower. According to Science Daily (2007), urban alternative fuel drivers must then avoid the rural areas, reducing the appeal of alternative fuel vehicles and slowing their sales everywhere. In theory, the fuel efficiency of alternative fuel vehicles should attract more buyers; however, in reality, since drivers of alternative fuel vehicles need much less fuel, energy suppliers build fewer alternative fuel stations. This in turn lowers the appeal of these vehicles, and sales of alternative fuel vehicles may in reality decline. Thus, as indicated above, the positive factors associated with alternative fuel vehicles do not meet the burdens that a car rental facility would face with adding alternative fuel vehicles to their rental fleet.
Incentives for Adding Alternative Fuel…… [Read More]
" (NCGA, 2008) The following chart shows the U.S. Corn Supply and Total Use between the years of 1988-1989 and 2008-2009.
Source: NCGA (2008)
U.S. corn growers are stated by the NCGA to have responded to the increase in demand by producing "the five largest corn crops in history over the past five years - with the 2007-08 crop setting an all-time record of 14.4 billion bushels." (NCGA, 2008) Annual production is stated to have averaged 11.3 billion bushels from 2003/04 to 2007/08 compared with an average of 9.5 billion bushels in the previous five crop years." (NCGA, 2008) Acres are planted by corn growers in response to the marketplace signals and when corn demand is high and "revenue per-acres is strong relative to other crops, farmers will plant more corn." (NCGA, 2008) This is precisely what occurred in 2007 as farmers planted "92.9 million acres to corn, a 19%…… [Read More]
In homes and buildings, the thermal mass of concrete plays a big role in energy efficiency. The high thermal mass of concrete offers this benefit: it stores and releases the energy required for heating or cooling and hence, reduces "temperature swings in homes and buildings."
Interestingly, concrete also helps big rig trucks and "over-the-road trucks" use less fuel; that is because concrete's rigid pavement design is better than asphalt pavement in terms of fuel consumption. And concrete pavement is "light-reflective" and so it requires "less energy than other materials to illuminate." The Cement Americas narrative goes on to report that members of the Portland Cement Association have voted to adopt a goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions "per ton of product by 10% (from 1990 levels) by the year 2020."
The Portland Cement Association (PCA), meantime, has its own informational eb site (www.cement.org) and the PCA claims that concrete is…… [Read More]
This article serves as an important reminder of the frequent conflict between science and politics. Science suggests two different hypothesis -- one, that the Kyoto Protocols are feasible, another that they are not. Democrats, in defiance of an unpopular president who is largely viewed as sympathetic to big business interests and hostile to the environment; wish to pass more stringent mandatory requirements, as they are proud their new legislative majority. Industry analysts say these standards are impossible to meet. Environmental lobbying groups with a different political agenda challenge industry scientists. Much of the technology used to cut emissions is in an experimental stage, and it is uncertain if it is economically feasible or even effective. The report also suggests consumers purchase more hybrid cars, but consumer concern for fuel efficiency seems to be waning rather than increasing, unlike the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Congress can limit consumer…… [Read More]
She also mentions the huge energy giant British Petroleum (BP) came up with some honest and effective marketing in its green promotions. And while it is laudable for an oil company to invest in green technologies, BP did it with "appropriate humility that admits its own guilt while setting the stage for conversion to alternative energy sources" (Ottman, 2002). Meantime she says to Exxon, "ake Up!" because Exxon was at that time running "green-themed" ads that spoke to the need to "find more oil."
In still another green marketing-themed article from Ottman, she writes in the publication in Business that while the George . Bush Administration "abdicates responsibility for a strong response to slowing down" global climate change, Bush's lack of leadership on the issue opened a "unique window of opportunity for America's advertisers and marketers" (Ottman, 2002). That advice to advertisers and marketers is this: using the same effective…… [Read More]