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ESL (English Second Language)
Context and significance
elevant background literature
Limitations and anticipated problems
ESL (English Second Language)
In many nations, there are many high school students who have parents who speak no English. Often times this can be a problem because the kids will often have to interpret for them and very often involves them to miss school in order to do this. Is it possible that because there is a constant interruption in school that theses occurrences are having some kind of an effect on their achievement and even attendance. However, it seems to make sense that when these parents begin ESL (English second language) classes that there is a possibility that it may help their children achieve better in high-school because of less time having to interpret for them.
High-school students that have parents that do not speak english, involvement with their education have changed much through…
Burnham, J.J., Mantero, M., & Hooper, L.M. (2009). Experiential training: Connecting school counselors-in-training, English as a second language (ESL) teachers, and ESL students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 37(1), 2-14. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236000483?accountid=34899
N, E.P. (2001). Moving from the ESL classroom into the mainstream: An investigation of English language anxiety in Mexican girls. Bilingual Research Journal, 25(1), 31-38. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222011973?accountid=34899
Nina, L.W., & Lu, C. (2012). "English language learners": An analysis of perplexing ESL-related terminology. Language and Literacy, 14(3), 83-n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1428558373?accountid=34899
Ortmeier-Hooper, C. (2008). "English may be my second language, but I'm not 'ESL'." College Composition and Communication, 59(3), 389-419. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220713217?accountid=34899
Language and Language Practices
Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…
Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…
Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html
Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng
Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
Language Diversity and Education by Carlos J. Ovando, the author makes the point that the language diversity present in the United States has significant implications for all teachers and all students. He emphasizes the importance of both a person's first language and the dominant language in a culture. He notes the complexity of learning a second language: in addition to the cognitive mastery of vocabulary and grammar involved, fluency in a language involves discourse (structure of paragraphs and larger chunks of written language); appropriateness (adjusting language to the social setting); paralinguistics (body language, gestures, volume, pitch, etc.); and pragmatics (cultural norms involving language, subtle conversation skills). Even though ESL students may seem to be learning English rapidly, those language skills may be largely social and inadequate t the cognitive demands made on it in a classroom.
Ovando gave examples of true dialects in the United States -- creoles, or combinations…
If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.
Ascription to the rules of…
Kemerling, Garth. "Language and Logic." 27 Oct 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e04.htm
Schutz, Ricardo. "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." 20 Aug. 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from
2002, 108)." By 1996 the teaching of English in Thailand was compulsory for all primary children from the first grade.
Teaching English as a Second Language in Thailand
Although the teaching of English as a second language has been present in Thailand for quite some time, there are still many issues that arise as it pertains to teaching English in Thailand. In some ways it may appear that English language pedagogy is still in its infancy. For instance many people in Thailand have low degrees of proficiency in English (Laopongharn & Sercombe, 2009). This is particularly true as it pertains to the speaking and writing of English. The problems present in Thailand as it pertains to Teaching English as a foreign language has many different causes (Laopongharn & Sercombe (2009). For the purposes of this discussion, Thai culture will be explored as an impediment to the teaching of English as…
Adamson, J., 2003. Challenging beliefs in teacher development: potential influences of Theravada Buddhism upon Thais learning English. Asian EFL journal, 5 (3), 1-21.
Adamson, J., 2005. Teacher development in EFL: what is to be learned beyond methodology in Asian contexts?. Asian EFL journal, 7 (4), 74-84.
Chou, C. 2000. Chinese Speakers' Acquisition of English Conditionals: Acquisition Order and L1 Transfer Effects. Second Language Studies, 19(1), pp. 57-98
Forman R. (2008) Using notions of scaffolding and intertextuality to understand the bilingual teaching of English in Thailand. Linguistics and Education 19-319 -- 332
The Norman conquest had forever altered the face of history and the face of the English language.
The period thought of as the Middle English period roughly from 1150-1500 is a period that is demonstrative of the massive changes associated with the Norman conquest. Though there is some evidence that French did not completely overtake English in common or official use the language had a great influence upon English via the Normans and the elasticity of the language at its source.
The Middle English period (1150-1500) was marked by momentous changes in the English language, changes more extensive and fundamental than those that have taken place at any time before or since. Some of them were the result of the Norman Conquest and the conditions which followed in the wake of that event. Others were a continuation of tendencies that had begun to manifest themselves in Old…
Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.
Emerson, Oliver Farrar. The History of the English Language. New York: Macmillan, 1894.
McCrum, Robert & MacNeil, Robert. The Story of English: Third Revised Edition. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Spreading the Word; Restore VOA's English-Language Broadcast Funds." The Washington Times 15 Feb. 2006: A19.
Language and Literacy
Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…
Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.
In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.
Advantages and Disadvantages
In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…
Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative
Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].
Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].
Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
English -- the CV
Professional communication skills in English
Looking back over your portfolio and the course as a whole, what have you learned (about yourself/your strengths/weaknesses/the job application process/employer expectations/interviews etc.), and what ideas/information will you use in future internship and job applications? Why? (If you feel you have not learned anything, please explain why you feel that is, and explain what would have changed that).
One of the most important things I have learned this semester is the difference between casual and professional English. When communicating with English language speakers on a casual level, I often find it easy to be understood, provided that my intention is sincere. Friends are willing to overlook bad grammar and poor choice of vocabulary. I can restate what I mean, use body language and gestures, and laugh at my own lack of comprehension. During a job interview, however, an employer is assessing…
Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.
Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English Language Learners. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Krashen, S. (2010). On language acquisition. Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug
"Nebraska: ELL Resources," (n.d.). Colorin Colorado. Retrieved online: http://www.colorincolorado.org/ell-basics/resources-state/nebraska
As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.
Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.
Principles and features of task-based language teaching.
Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just…
Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.
Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Breen, M., 2005. Learner contributions to task design.. Chicago: Penguin.
Candlin, C.N., 1984. Syllabus design as a critical process, ELT Documents. Cambridge: Pergamon & the British Council.
Sometimes students have obstacles to contend with as they enter school. One such barrier can be language. The student I worked with is a Chinese first year student who is attempting to assimilate to AP class schedules. He is a 14-year old interested in learning the English language and is having problems not only learning the language but balancing out the needs of his identity versus the American culture. English Language Learners often must contend with several influences and deal with a new culture that may seem dauting and stressful[footnoteRef:1]. His name is Bo. [1: Larry Ferlazzo, English Language Learners: Teaching Strategies That Work (Santa Barbara, Calif: Linworth, 2010)]
Bo recently immigrated to the United States with his family two years ago. While Bo has learned conversational English and some grammar, he still has problems writing in English. The way to write simplified Chinese is different than English and so…
Action Research Proposal
The number of school-age English Language Learners in the state of Alberta is increasing at a fast pace. As these students begin studying, they experience a great deal of challenges, which can impact the acquisition and learning of the English language (New York University, 2018). In particular, one of the key challenges faced by these students is pronunciation. What is more, unlike mathematics, English language does not have a material set of rules or guideline as to what sound every letter of the alphabet signifies. For instance, the letter e can be pronounced as e, eh. In addition, the tenses of verbs can also hamper learning. Cultural differences also play a key role in acquisition of the English language (Wold, 2006). There have been deliberations regarding the most efficacious approaches of second language instruction. Picture seeing texts and hearing sounds that do not correspond with those that…
As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a…
AdLit. (n.d.). Building Trust with Families. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells/
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong
With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…
Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf
Poon, A.Y.K., Lau, C.M.Y. And Chu, D.H.W. (2013, March). Impact of the Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy on Learning: Some Preliminary Findings. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, Vol. 4, Iss.1. Retrieved from: http://infonomics-society.org/LICEJ/ImpactoftheFineTuningMediumofInstructionPolicyonLearningSomePreliminaryFindings.pdf
Tsui, A.B.M. (2008). Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong: One Country, Two Systems, Whose Language? Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Edited by James. W. Ollofson and Amy B.M. Tsui. Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Zeng, W. (2007). Medium of Instruction in Secondary Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong:
Language Policy and Planning
Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()
Decision making in language planning
There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…
Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.
Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.
Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.
Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
Language continually reminds one (or not), and underscores and reinforces (or not) one's roots, identity, and authentic self. That is, I believe, the real reluctance of those who would cling, too stubbornly, it has been argued by Hayakawa and others, to their first, original tongue. That is also why much of the intimacy, energy, comfortableness, and fun instantly evaporated from the Rodriguez family atmosphere the afternoon one of Richard's teachers suggested to the children's parents that the family speak more English, and less Spanish, at home.
Along with one's language of birth (whatever it is) come feelings of being understood and accepted; and from those spring a sense of one's own selfhood and identity. In my opinion, that is the main, underlying, reason why 'English Only' Legislation is not a particularly practical solution to multilingualism in the United States (if multilingualism needs a "solution"). This is not because such legislation…
Crawford, James. "Introduction." Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy. James Crawford (Ed.). Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 1.
Hayakawa, S.I. "The Case for Official English." In A Meeting of Minds: A Brief Rhetoric for Writers and Readers. Patsy Callaghan and Ann Dobyns
Eds.). New York: Pearson Longman, 2004. 446-452.
Headden, Susan, et al. "One Nation One Language: Only English Spoken
Apparently this view has much in its favor.
When we compare modern English with some of those Indian languages which are most concrete in their formative expression, the contrast is striking. When we say "The eye is the organ of sight, the Indian may not be able to form the expression the eye, but may have to define that the eye of a person or of an animal is meant. Neither may the Indian be able to generalize readily the abstract idea of an eye as the representative of the whole class of objects... (p. 64).
It does not seem to occur to Boas anywhere in the Handbook that such a way of talking about the world might not arise because the mind of the American Indians that he is writing about is "primitive" but rather because he or she is seeing the world in a very different way.
Boas, F. (1911). The handbook of American Indian languages. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Boston: MIT Press.
Lewis, H. (2001). Boas, Darwin, Science and Anthropology. Current Anthropology 42(3): 381-406
Whorf, B.L. (1941). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language in Language, culture, and personality, essays in memory of Edward Sapir. (L. Spier, ed.) Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund.
Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.
Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…
Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).
In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the
speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?
Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.
As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…
Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.
Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43 -- 59). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183 -- 196.
feature of language and why?
The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…
Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from:
Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from: http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test4materials/secondlangacquisition.htm
What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/grammar-what.htm
African-American Vernacular English
There are a couple of theories as to the origin of African-American Vernacular Englsh (AAVE). Some linguists believe that the language derives from est African languages. This dialect theory is based on the knowledge that most African-Americans who were brought to the United States from Africa had to learn how to speak English by ear. The may have picked up some of the English words incorrectly and incorporated the incorrect words in their language. Another theory is called the Creole Hypothesis. This theory bases its origin on the thought that slaves developed the language themselves. The slaves, who came from many different countries in Africa formulated AAVE so that they may talk amongst themselves. They developed with is called a pidgin by combining words from their own language with new words from America. They used grammar and speech patterns that were known to them from their own…
Jackson, Jenny Ebonics and Gullah, One and the Same? (http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~petersj4/jenny.htm)
Labov, William Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence (Labov (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
Rickford, John. "Creole Origins of AAVE http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/CreoleOriginsOfAAVE.html
Where Did It Come at (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
United States make English its Official Language?
The calls for English to be adopted as United States' official language have been prevalent since 1919 when President Theodore Roosevelt stated that the country has room for only one language i.e. The English language. The advocacy for English-only in the United States has been fueled by attempts to develop a unique American nationality. Actually, President Roosevelt advocated for English to be adopted as the official language of the United States because of the explicit and unqualified link between language and citizenship. However, since the beginning of this advocacy the issue on whether the United States should make English its official language has attracted various arguments and counter-arguments between supporters and opponents. The determination of a suitable position regarding the issue requires an evaluation of arguments by both sides.
Advocacy for English as America's Official Language
In contrast to popular belief, the United…
Brice, Brandon. "Why English Should Be the Official Language of the United States." Washington Times Communities. The Washington Times, LLC., 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. .
Fabian, Jordan. "No, It's Not Necessary to Make English the Official Language." Online Posting. ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 June 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. .
Jackson, Raynard. "Should English Be Our America's Official Language or Not?" Online Posting. Charisma News - Informing Believers with News from a Spirit-filled Perspective. Charisma Media, 7 July 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. .
Miller, Eric C. "Should English Be the U.S. Official Language? -- Eric C. Miller -- Aeon." Aeon Magazine. Aeon Media Ltd., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. .
Educators believed that Hawaiian Creole English use was associated with low academic achievement, low socioeconomic status and a negative community stereotype. Hawaiian students were to be encouraged to become primarily fluent in Standard English. This belief was that fluency and subsequent improvement in academic achievement would allow students greater opportunities in education and in life.
Teachers were to encourage the speaking of SE in the classroom and model such speaking for their students. Because no provisions were made to support teachers and their students, the board's action essentially maintained the status quo. Critics of this policy stated the banning of HCE was a blow to Hawaiian cultural identity, even though the ban did not encompass the use of classic Hawaiian but rather the pidgin dialect.
Strong support from parents, teachers, native Hawaiians and community activities as well as a maelstrom of media coverage resulted in the Board of Education rewriting…
1. University of Hawai'i, Department of English as a Second Language. (2000). Language varieties network: Pidgins, creoles, and other stigmatized varieties. Retrieved on June 5, 2007, from www.lll.hawaii.edu/esl/langnet
2. Pidgin-only called hindrance in schools. (1987, July 29). Honolulu Advertiser
3. Sato, C. (1985). Linguistic inequality in Hawaii: The post-Creole dilemma. In N. Wolfsan & J. Manes (Eds.), Language of inequality (pp. 255-72). Berlin: Mouton
Also, student's vocabulary and formality of speech can and will differ in different social contexts, from school to home to the playground, as indeed does all human speech, as even teachers adopt a greater degree of formality speaking to the principal, to students, and also in their own homes.
hy teach standard speech at all? hat to do when certain patterns of speech, such as Black English, have different grammatical variations than standard written English? One approach is to stress contextual aspects of speech in education. (Chaika, 1994, p.299) It cannot be denied that job applicants and people are validated and valued differently, depending on how their speech coheres to Standard ritten English. Even dialect speakers are evaluated on a valuation gradient, as speakers with certain desirable accents, like a British accent for example, might be esteemed more than speakers with a traditionally Black or Spanish accent, unfairly. (Chaika, 1994,…
Adger, Carolyn Temple. (Mar 1997) "Dialect Education: Not only for Oakland." Vol. 20. No. 2. ERIC Database. Retrieved 2 Oct 2005 http://www.cal.org/ericcll/news/199703/9703Dialect.html
Chaika, Elaine. (1994) Language -- The Social Mirror: Teaching Methods. Third Edition. New York: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Wolfram, W., Christian, D., & Adger, C. (1996) Dialects in schools and communities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
African-American Vernacular English can be described as an assortment of American English that is mostly used by urban-working class and mostly bi-dialectical middle-class black Americans. The language is also commonly known as Black Vernacular English or Black English. In some cases, particularly outside the academic community, it is referred to as Ebonics given its distinctive features and similarities with other non-standard English varieties. The similarities with other varieties are evident when compared to various standard and non-standard English languages that are commonly used in the United States and the Caribbean. In the past few years, African-American Vernacular English has been the subject of various public debates and attracted considerable attention among sociolinguists. This paper examines the development of this language, its distinctive features, cultural context, and socio-economic implications of the use of African-American Vernacular English.
oots of African-American Vernacular English
The history and origin of African-American Vernacular English and other…
Fisher, D. & Lapp, D. (2013, May). Learning to Talk Like the Test: Guiding Speakers of African
American Vernacular English. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(8), 634-648.
Harris, Y.R. & Schroeder, V.M. (2013, January 24). Language Deficits or Differences: What We
Know about African-American Vernacular English in the 21st Century. International Education Studies, 6(4), 194-204.
Spanglish is a combination of Spanish and English, with each of these two languages having more or less of an influence on the final product depending on the circumstances. The speech of Spanghlish users involves them bringing together the two languages and creating a dialect that is not native to the country they inhabit. Spanglish is widely used in Hispanic communities in North America, as they prefer it as an intermediary dialect assisting them to connect with the English-speaking community.
Living in two cultures can have a strong impact on a person, as he or she gradually comes to switch back and forth between cultural values promoted in each of these respective environments. This is perfectly demonstrated by individuals speaking Spanglish, taking into account that they need to concentrate on adopting attitudes that enable them to improve their relationship to both English and Spanish-speaking communities.
Although Spanish plays an integral…
Betz, Regina M., "Chicana "Belonging" in Sandra Cisneros' The House on Mango Street," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://rmmla.innoved.org/ereview/SI2012/Betz.pdf
Canas, Alberto, "Spanglish: The Third Way," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://www.hokuriku-u.ac.jp/jimu/kiyo/kiyo25/209.pdf
Cisneros, Sandra, "The House on Mango Street," (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004)
Johnston, Bethany, "Code Switching as Spanglish," (GRIN Verlag, 14 Jan 2011)
Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).
One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…
Baker, Colin. (1993).Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Bialystok, Ellen. (1991). Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge University Press.
Bilingual. 2004.WordIQ.com. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual
Davis, Laura and Keyser, Janis. Parenting Experts: Bilingual Family Pros and Cons. ParentsPlace.com
Foreign Language Education in High School
The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…
Clark, Leon E. "Other-Wise: The case for understanding foreign cultures in a unipolar world." Social Education, Vol. 64, Issue 7, 2000.
Garrett, Nina. "Meeting national needs: the challenge to language learning in higher education.
Change, 1 May 2002
Gramberg, Anne-Katrin. "German for business and economics." The Clearing House, 1 July 2001.
The groups were distinguished by those who participated in language acquisition activities employing enhanced reading with word-based activities and those who participated in what the researcher called 'narrow reading,' which occurred without this supplementary instruction. The two groups were asked to retain the same scope of fifty selected vocabulary words. Min would find that those in the former group, denoted as the "RV" group, performed significantly better than those in the "NR" group. In interpretation, Min tells that "the results show that the RV group demonstrated significantly more knowledge about the target vocabulary than the NR group on the acquisition and retention tests. The researcher concludes that reading plus focused vocabulary exercises are more effective and efficient than the narrow reading approach in enhancing target vocabulary acquisition and retention among EFL secondary students." (Min, p. 75)
Min would go on to suggest that the value in this study rests in…
Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411
Min, H.T. (2008). EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading Plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading. Language Learning, 58(1), 73-115.
properties of human language (displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural, transmission, discreteness, duality) discuss how human language differs from animal communication.
Unlike animal language, human language can possess the property of displacement. Displacement "allows the users of language to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment." (21) A human need not cry out in pain in the moment, but one can describe the silent pain one felt later on, displacing the experience into the future rather than when it was actually experienced. 'Let me tell you what a day I had,' is a very human, displaced expression. There is also a less arbitrary nature to human language, because human language is contextual. For instance, for although same beast would be a dog in England or a perro in Spain, yet the same dog would still give the same barking sound in both lands, if it were the same…
Yule, George. "The Study of Language." Second edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996
Traditional Methods of Language Teaching
The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:
Grammar Translation Method
The Audio-lingual Method
The Direct Method
The Silent Way
The Communicative Approach
Cognitive code learning
The Natural Approach
Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach
The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.
Grammar Translation Method
This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.
The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…
Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr
Communicative language teaching. Sil International.
Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
(Farah and idge, 2009)
The successful shift from textbook, memory-based curriculum to a standards-based curriculum is therefore dependent on three things: the development of national standards and goals for curriculum; the development of corresponding assessment tools; and the re-education of teachers towards the objective of altering teachers' attitudes and views of their role in the education system. ather than simply drilling memorized facts, words or phrases into a student's consciousness-as is the case with a memory-based curriculum-teachers in a standards based, student-centered curriculum are responsible for helping students to apply such knowledge to practical situations for social success, over and above academic success.
English as a Second Language. (2010). etrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/
English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. etrieved December 30,
2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html
Farah, S., & idge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum…
English as a Second Language. (2010). Retrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/
English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. Retrieved December 30,
2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html
Farah, S., & Ridge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum Development in the UAE. Dubai
These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).
In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…
Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2
knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.
Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT
Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
Age and Learning a New Language
hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.
The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age
"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).
hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…
Cenoz, Jasone. (2003). "The Effect of Age on Foreign Language Acquisition in Formal
Contexts. In Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language, M. Mayo, and M.
Lecumberri, Eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, Jim, and Davison, Chris. (2007). International Handbook of English Language
Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.
Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…
Kuhl, Patricia K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713-727. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038
Lightbrown, Patsy M. & Spada, Nina. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press.
Learning a language: Gaining fluency in a language to be free
The acquisition of language is never a culturally neutral process. When someone learns his or her first or even a second language, that individual also acquires a status in the eyes of the world, based upon how that language is perceived. The race of the speaker, his or her perceived level of education, gender, and race all interact with the stereotypes that exist in the gazer's mind. In Christine Marin's essay "Spanish Lessons," Marin chronicles how her unsteadiness in Spanish did not initially bother her, given the fact that she grew up in a society that prized whiteness. Gradually, as she grew older and her attitude towards her heritage changed, her lack of fluency in her native tongue became a burden. Similarly, Malcolm X was forced to grapple with his complex relationship with the English language. On one hand,…
Grammar Error Correction
Grammar Correction Best Practices
The art and science of grammar correction has seismic implications on native and new speakers to English alike. The ability to communicate in a clear and cohesive fashion, both verbally and in writing, whilst using the proper syntax, punctuation, sentence structure and spelling is vital for the message to be clear. Further, it is seen as a sign of intelligence or lack thereof for someone to use the obviously wrong words and sentence structure while communicating in writing or via speech. hile grammar and languages teachers are perhaps fighting a losing battle right now given the fairly sloppy nature of many people including supposed language professionals like writers and journalists, there are indeed some verifiable and known best practices that can and should be used to help combat the grammar failures that pervade the sphere of communication in the United States as well…
Chan, Alice Y.W. "An Algorithmic Approach To Error Correction: An Empirical
Study." Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2006): 131-147. Education Research
Complete. Web. 31 July 2014.
Chodorow, Martin, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault. "The Utility of Article And
Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students
J. Elizabeth Estevez
Educ2205I-Content Research Seminar
Mathematics is a powerful tool for interpreting the world. Research has shown that for children to learn how to use mathematics to organize, understand, compare, and interpret their experiences, mathematics must be connected to their lives. Such connections help students to make sense of mathematics and view it as relevant. There has, however, been controversy with regard to children from non-English backgrounds and the best ways to get them to make those connections. Questions are raised regarding how to instruct these children who are referred to as English language learners (ELL's). Should they initially be taught in their native language with gradual exposure to English in language classes, or should they be immersed in English as early as possible. Based upon ideas presented in research studies and my own ideas as a former bilingual teacher,…
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.
A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).
The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
The graph on figure 2 of Collier and Thomas' article (p. 8) also attests to the efficacy of two way immersion classes, perhaps even more so than the first graph. This is primarily due to the fact that there is a greater disparity in the average test scores for students who were enrolled in these classes, versus those that are not. Furthermore, since the learning of English is the principle objective for dual language learners, this graph attests to the value in students enrolling in two way immersion courses in which they learn both Spanish and English.
Another fact that this second graph alludes to, and which is noted in comparison efforts with the first graph, is that there is a relationship between achievement in Spanish and achievement in English. This is particularly true for non-native English speakers. Learning basic fundamental aspects of their own language naturally correlates to a…
Collier, V.P, Thomas, W.P. (2004). "The astounding effectiveness of dual education for all." NABE Journal of Research and Practice. 2:1.
Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:
Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).
In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term…
Adamson, H.D. (1993). Academic competence: Theory and classroom practice. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.
Bernhardt, E.B. (2001). Progress and procrastination in second language reading research. Retrieved January 29, 2003 at http://language.stanford.edu/conferencepapers/AAALBernhardt01.doc
Carrell, P.L. (1983a). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication. 2, 25-34.
Carrell, P.L. (1983b). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning. 33, 183-207.
acial or ethnically-based teasing and peer pressure has long been associated with academic achievement, as Tyson et al. point out in his 2005 report studying the behaviors of blacks and whites during high school. While Tyson et al. also suggests that "school structures" are somewhat to blame for "stigmas" of "acting white" or "acting high and mighty" (582), he maintains that that teasing and peer pressure and also important components.
Because of the profound social implications of interactions between formulaic speaking and non-formulaic speaking students, teachers in the third year classroom need to be aware of students' interpretation of the formulaic speaking students, monitoring the communication between the groups. In addition to being aware of the situation, teachers should use the problem to educate students about stereotypes and teasing in addition to encouraging formulaic speaking students to express themselves in the language of instruction. Thus, third year students' use of…
Hamilton, Kendra. (2005). The Dialect Dilemma. Black Issues in Higher Education. 22
O'Neil and Gish. (2008). Customer did not provide the rest of the citation.
Pearson, David P., Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Kamil, Michael L. (2007). Theory and Research into Practice: Vocabulary Assessment: What We Know and What We Need to Learn. Reading Research Quarterly. 42 (2), 282-296.
Perez, Samuel a. (2000). Using Ebonics or Black English as a Bridge to Teaching
As a result, the variables that can be extracted from this information, is that there needs to be a wide variety of solutions made available to educators. At the same time, there must be more support in helping them to reach out to these students. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest amounts of learning comprehension. This helps to make the Action Research Project more effective by: understanding how this can improve the student's grasp of the materials and what are the underlying weaknesses in using this technology. (Zimmerman, 2009, pp. 3356 -- 3362)
This resource that was written by Freeman (2008) is significant, because it is highlighting how using technology to teach English language learners can improve the overall amounts of learning comprehension. The reason why, is because a host of different ideas are being presented in format that is using the various language skills of the student…
Black, R. (2009). English Language Learners, Fan Communities and 21st Century Skills. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 52 (8), 668 -- 697.
Freeman, B. (2008). Creating a Middle School Mathematics Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education. 29 (1), 9 -- 19.
Lopez, O. (2010). The Digital Learning Classroom. Computers and Education. 54 (4), 901 -- 915.
Moore, S. (2009). Uses of Technology in the Instruction of Adult English Language Learners. Centers for Applied Linguistics. 1 -- 4.
sign language in public settings for people who are deaf.
Writing notes as a way to communicate with people who are deaf is convenient, for people with normal hearing, and recommended, by people with normal hearing. In the world of hearing people, recommendations for using note writing as a way to communicate with people who are deaf is common.
Communication at work. Employers are advised to supplement their communication with employees who are deaf by writing notes. For example, Equal Access Communication, an advocacy organization suggests that supervisors may wish to keep a white board or a chalk board by the work area of an employee who is deaf. The supervisor is reminded to keep the writing simple and concise, first establishing the subject to be discussed and then providing an explanation. Further, the supervisor is reminded that the person who is deaf may experience difficulties understanding idioms or double…
Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H.B., and Thompson, R. (n.d.). Bimodal bilingualism: Code-blending between spoken English and American Sign Language, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and University of California, San Diego. Retrieval http://emmoreylab.sdsu.edu/pdf-bilingual/bilingual1.pdf
Teplin, E. (2008, August 26). Representing deaf and hard of hearing people: Legal requirements & practical suggestions. The Hennepin Lawyer. Retrieved http://hennepin.timerlakepublishing.com/article.asp?article=1246
Internet sources accessed http://www.signofthetimes.us/Medical.htm
These recommendations include increased funding for bilingually staffed mobile mental health care clinics in Mexican and Salvadorian migrant areas, increased youth violence counseling in areas of Vietnamese refugees, and an increased presence of mental health community centers in areas of Chinese immigrant areas. By tailoring services to the areas they serve, the non-English speaking communities could be more quickly treated, and more effectively counseled (Smith, et al., 2004).
There is no question that psychological services, including drug and alcohol treatment, counseling, psychiatry, violence therapy, and general psychological services are available in the Central Valley area for the non-English speaking residents of the community. However, based on studies of the unique populations, it is clear that more specific care is needed to provide these populations with adequate mental health services. It is only through additional funding, and more programs, tailored to suit the needs of local clients, that all citizens of…
CAADV (California Alliance Against Domestic Violence). (2004). Linking Communities: A Multicultural and Diversity Resource Guide, 2003-2004. Sacramento, C.A.: California Alliance Against Domestic Violence.
California Endowment. (2002).
California Endowment Report, 2001-2002. Los Angeles, C.A.: Blue Cross of California.
Fresno County Mental Health Plan. (July, 2000). Fresno County Mental Health Plan Provider Manual. Fresno, C.A.: Fresno County Human Services System.
Cultural Sensitivity Language Based Amoja Three ivers' "Cultural Etiquette," Lynette Clemetson's "The acial Politics Speaking Well," observations experience, write a draft essay dealing issues cultural sensitivity language.
Prejudices and the politics of 'speaking well'
"Ethnocentrism," as defined in Amoja Three ivers' essay "Cultural Etiquette" is "a tendency to view alien groups or cultures in terms of one's own" and "the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own group and culture, accompanied by a feeling of contempt for other groups and cultures." Because how we speak feels so natural to us, there is a tendency to assume that people who cannot speak our language must be less intelligent -- or people who look differently from us cannot be masters of English. This is a common form of linguistic ethnocentrism. We assume that a recent immigrant is not intelligent because he or she is just learning the language -- even though…
Clemetson, Lynette. (2007). On the politics of speaking well. The New York Times.
Rivers, Amoja Three. (1996). Cultural etiquette. Communities. Retrieved:
Learning Problems vs Language Problems
The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.
The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…
Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf
Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff
An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process
(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from: http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
The author offers some concrete suggestions for creating a literacy-friendly household. The first step offered is to make reading a central household activity. This can be achieved by holding daily reading sessions in which collective reading takes place. Family reading time can consist not just of reading stories aloud but also articles from newspapers or the nutritional information on food containers. When reading is presented as a treat or a reward, rather than as a chore, the young learner is more apt to develop positive associations with literacy.
While the article lacks any scientific analysis or empirical evidence, it does offer helpful tools for parents wishing to improve their child's literacy. When literacy problems are recognized early, the child has a greater opportunity to improve and avoid falling behind in class. Because so many school subjects are reading-dependent, creating a literate household is a primary means of ensuring a child's…
Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada
The role of language in identity construction of the Inuit in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada), which nourishes the evolution of their ethno-territorial movement in the eastern Canadian Arctic, had been around since the 1970s. This paper is an analysis of the legal-political context of the Quebec State then enables the detachment of the cornerstones of its policy speech in general, and finally those with respect to the indigenous population, in particular to the Inuit language.
There are eight major Inuit communities: those of the LABADO, the UNGAVA, and the BAFFIN, of Iglulik, the CAIBOU, of Netsilik and Copper as well as the Inuit of the Western Arctic (which replaced MACKENZIE INUIT). There are five main dialects Inuit in Canada Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut and inuttut grouped under a single language, Inuktitut or Inuktitut. (McGrath 2007) At the last census, 70% of Inuit said they…
Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451653
Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742535961
Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit art: a history. McFarland. ISBN 0786407115
De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7
Through this paper, I will present my personal response to Ayoola's article, 'Challenges to a new generation of Nigerian writers in English', which was first printed in Cambridge University Press's English Today, 85th Edition, Vol. 22, Issue 1, dated January, 2006.
The article's author narrates the challenges new Nigerian writers encounter in an atmosphere that treats rising authors in an unfriendly way. The experiences that are portrayed and analyzed in the article typify the experiences as well as predicament of these new creative writers. Language choice issues -- native tongue or English -- are reviewed, in addition to the many justifications, whether noble or not, presented for aspects like genre choice, audience recognition issues, the writer's reactions to the phenomena of globalization and democracy, and ineffective do-it-yourself (DIY) marketing/promotion and publishing (Kehinde Ayoola, 2006). Through this response paper, I will articulate my standpoint, in writing, with regard to the abovementioned…
nation continues to grow in diversity, our education system will have to deal with problems associated with language and cultural differences. The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the impact of language, culture and community on education. The main focus of our analysis will be the importance of a common language in the classroom. e will begin our discussion by providing the definition of language.
According to the American Heritage Dictionary, language is defined as the "Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols." (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language) Language can be share amongst people in a particular culture, ethnic group or people that are members of the same generation. Language allows individuals to express their thoughts and feelings and is essential to success in academics.
Importance of Common Language in the Classroom…
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Bata et al. 1999. "Creating Crisis": How California Teaching Policies Aggravate Racial Inequality in Public Schools." June 18, 2003. Applied Research Center. http://www.arc.org/Pages/ECC_print.html
For both teachers, however, Boxer and Cortes-Conde highlight moments where the teacher talk lends itself to greater student interaction. At these moments, the teachers often fostered group discussions by asking students about their own cultural norms. When teachers took on the role of information brokers, students resumed the role of passive learners. The authors argue that open dialogue is crucial to fostering pragmatic and sociocultural competence, and that teachers can create this open dialogue and a place of comfort and still encourage pragmatic awareness. (Hall & Verplaetse, 2000, p. 15)
Stressing among new and existing foreign language educators the importance of classroom interaction as well as cultural expression is essential, as the manner in which context is delivered, as apposed to content lectured upon creates foundational interest and potential independent motivation to learn. Curriculum, must be inclusive and collaborative to engender individual motivation, which is essential to foreign language learning,…
Atanda, R. "Do Gatekeeper Courses Expand Education Options?" Education Statistics Quarterly 1:1 Retrieved October 10, 2007 at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol_1/1_1/4-esq11-c.asp www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570
Belz, J.A. (2002). Social Dimensions of Telecollaborative Foreign Language Study. Language, Learning & Technology, 6(1), 60. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570
Christian, D., Pufahl, I., & Rhodes, N.C. (2005). Fostering Foreign Language Proficiency: What the U.S. Can Learn from Other Countries. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(3), 226.
Creswell, John (1997) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing From Among Five Traditions. New York: Sage Pulications.
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
Picture Book Is Worth More Than a Thousand Words: Teaching ESL Students
The use of picture books to teach English as a second language has been demonstrated to be quite successful. Experts in literacy attribute this to the way that pictures in the books help to fill in gaps in meaning. A fundamental consideration is that if the picture books are to be used as an aide to teaching English, cultural differences must not be too great, or else the cultural differences must be a primary topic of the story. Indeed, some experts consider texts that are highly culturally specific, and are "intertextually and intervisuablly rich," are not translatable since they are too rooted in a specific locale.
Intervisuality refers to the ease with which a concept can be viewed from a variety of different media. Intertextuality refers to the interrelationship between works of literature with regard to the way…
Colomer, T., Kummerling-Meibauer, B., and Silva-Diaz, C. (2010). Directions in picture book research. London, UK: Routledge Publishing.
Desmet, M.K.T., (2001). Intertextuality / Intervisuality in Translation: The Jolly Postman's Intercultural Journey from Britain to the Netherlands
Children's Literature in Education, 32(1), 31. Retreived from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1005214004763#
Jalongo, M.R., Dragich, D., Conrad, N.K., and Zhang, A. (2002). Using wordless picture books to support emergent literacy. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(3), 167-177.
language-in-use, whether it is presented as text or speech. The meaning of the term is very heterogeneous and covers more than one approach to this subject. These approaches are very different with regard to their focus, purpose and techniques.
As far as focus is concerned, discourse analysis may concentrate on the conclusions of the discourse itself or on the social processes and structure in accordance to which the discourse is constructed. Systemic linguistics approaches are appropriate for the first category, as there is always a very well defined boundary between language and society, with emphasis on the former. On the other hand, the common discourse analysis in sociology and social psychology has a broader focus and usually rejects the artificial distinction between discursive and social actions -- since "all discourse is action and all action is discursive."
The differences in purpose are not specific to discourse analysis but to social…
1 Zellig S. Harris, Discourse Analysis, Language, Vol. 28, No. 1 Jan.-Mar., 1952, 1-30
2. Goodin G., Perkins K, Discourse Analysis and the Art of the Coherence, Collefe English, Vol. 44, No. 1, January 1982, 57-63
3. Hutchby, I, Woofit, R. Conversation Analysis: Principles, practices and applications, Cambridge, 1998
4. Fairclough, N. 'Critical and descriptive goals in discourse analysis', Journal of Pragmatics 1985, 9, pp739-63,
The first independent clause begins in a strong active voice, with a strong decisive verb, (Graff, 2006).
This represents his shift from true passiveness to a form of non-violent action. Then, the dependent clause "realizing that except for Christmas," begins with a gerund. The verb to realize is transformed into a noun with the adding of a "-ing." This is aimed at showing the general modality of the speaker. The speaker and all involved had a previous knowledge of the realization involved in the process. Then King Jr. refers back to the object Easter with the subject and verb of "this is." This is a form of a relative clause which is therefore a form of adjective clause, (Lewis, 1986).
The next sentence continues the modality of the gerund verb. This sentence is a dependent attached to an independent clause first beginning with a gerund, "Knowing that a strong economic…
King, Martin Luther Jr. (1963). Letter from Birmingham jail. University of Pennsylvania. African Studies. 12 June. 2008. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html
Lewis, Michaels. (1986). The English verb: an exploration of structure and meaning.
Language Teaching Publications.
Strunk, William & White, E.B. (1999). The elements of style. Longman Publishers.
Neuroscience and Linguistics
LINK AND COMMONALITIES
The Language-Ready rain
Linguistics authorities oeckx and enitez-urraco (2014) Theorize that modern man possesses a language-ready brain structure, which earlier homo species did not. This, they believe, came as a result of developmental changes shown by a more globular braincase in modern man from the time of the split of species from the Neanderthal-Denisovans. The development changes were primarily in the cortical level, accompanied by anatomical changes in the sub-cortical level, which resulted in this globularity. Modern man's resulting capacity for language can be gleaned from and explained by the functional consequences of these changes. These experts point to the thalamus, which is mainly responsible for the uniquely evolved language and human cognition of modern homo sapiens (oeckx & enitez-urraco)/
oeckx & enitez-urraco (2014) isolated a probable gene, which could be strongly influential in the unique development and connectivity of the thalamus as well…
Boeckx, C and Benitez-Burraco, A. (2014). The shape of human language-ready-brain.
Vol. 6 Article 292, Frontiers in Psychology: Boeckx and Benitez-Burraco: Research
Ge, J. et al. (2015). Criss-language differences in the brain network subserving intelligible speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science: National
One example of this is the "famous egg box metaphor of international society (in which states were the eggs, and international society the box), one might see this unevenness as a pan of fried eggs. Although nearly all the states in the system belong to a thin, pluralist interstate society (the layer of egg-white), there are sub-global and/or regional clusters sitting on that common substrate that are both much more thickly developed than the global common, and up to a point developed separately and in different ways from each other (the yolks)" (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6).
For example the EU and North America, for example are "sub-global interstate societies that are more thickly developed within themselves. Lesser attempts to create thicker, liberal, regional interstate/international societies by cultivating joint economic development can be found in...various other regional economic cooperations," such as OPEC (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6). "Above some of…
Armstrong, David. (2007). Order and Justice in International Society. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/readarmstrong.doc
Bania-Dobyns, Sarah. (2005, Aug). The Contribution of the System Concept to the English School: Clarifying the System Concept by Means of Methodological
Pluralism. Paper for the Panel 'ES Theory Debates' WISC Conference Istanbul. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/papers.htm
Buzan, Barry & Ana Gonzalez-Pelaez. (2005, Aug). The Middle East Through English