Enlightenment Essays (Examples)

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Spinoza's Argument Against Free Will

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8118593


Baruch Spinoza believed that humans' actions and activities are not based on free will, but rather humans are moved to action and thought because he believed that nothing happens by mere chance. His rationale for believing as he does is the basis for this essay.

Free Will vs. Determinism

A review of what Spinoza believed is not the easiest thing to accomplish since some of what Spinoza puts forward is seemingly esoteric to the lay person or student engaged in research. But in researching Spinoza's philosophy, looking carefully at his positions, one can come to understand basically why he did not believe in free will. He believed that God, and God alone, is free to make decisions and to act according to His free will. Since God is Nature, and Nature is God, and therefore everything that exists on Earth are there because God decided, of His own free…… [Read More]

The following incident is being used as a metaphor for Spinoza's ideas. He believed that everything in nature takes place by necessity (and mankind is part of Nature). When the enormous section of a hill in Washington State became too saturated (after numerous heavy rains earlier in 2014), and collapsed into a village, killing / burying many people and their homes, that can be used as a metaphor for what Spinoza was saying. Thousands of tons of wet earth roared down into the village with no warning, but that disaster was determined by Nature. The land didn't decide it would suddenly give way and hurtle down upon the village.

In fact, the logging around that piece of land took away the roots of trees that otherwise would have kept the hill in place. And the river below was known to be cutting into the hill, eroding important features of the land -- a definite determination that led to the horrific event. Moreover, the heavy rains in Washington State leading up to the collapse also determined that the land would give way. So, if one can see the hill as a human entity, as part of Nature that has intelligence (which may seem to be a stretch, but it does have value as an example), that entity did not have free will to decide when it would slide down into the village. The existing Natural World realities determined if and when it would roar down into the village.

In conclusion, humans governed by determination, and not by free will. One's will is not put into motion by a decision one makes, but rather one's will acts out of necessity which has been predetermined by God, or Nature, which is also God, according to Spinoza. In other words, there are no should have arguments or could have arguments, or ought to have done arguments in terms of why an action or activity or decision was performed. That is because the behavior in question was externally or internally caused by the person who could not possibly have acted other than the way he or she did.
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Buddhism Jean Smith

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50949935

Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment

Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years ago, when Buddha achieved enlightenment he spent the next forty-five years teaching others that personal growth and awakening is possible through finding the truth within themselves. This concept is very alien in comparison to Western religions. There are many aspects of Buddhism, but what is essential is that personal awakening is possible personal experience and that suffering can be ceased through changing behavior, meditation, and transcendent wisdom. We are grateful to Siddartha Gautama for institutionalizing the practices we call Buddhism today so that we may better understand what Buddha experienced, and what he taught to the people along the Ganges River. Two essential understandings in the teachings of Buddhism are Buddha-nature and Enlightenment.

To understand Buddha-nature we must first to come…… [Read More]

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Forced Nature Or How the

Words: 2079 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49083148

Rousseau implied that this proved the point that women ought to serve their husbands and children, and that they had no need to be educated as a man. Wollenscraft used the fact that women must bear children as evidence that they must be educated, because as they age they will need consolations of the mind to keep them satisfied as their motherhood and old age draws them away from the sensual pleasures of youth. A good mother and grandmother, she would suggest, will not be a Roussean heroine constantly hoping to passively seduce men and defining her life accordingly.

Unlike Rousseau or those scholars which based their opinion on old bones, the feminist thinkers of the Enlightenment based the core of their arguments regarding women on the same arguments which male philosophers of the era used to support universal (white) male suffrage and democratic proceedings. During this era, philosophers (including…… [Read More]

Bibliography de Gouges, Olympe. "The Declaration of the Rights of Women." in: SOURCE. pgs 124-128

Schiebinger, Londa. The Mind has No Sex. Harvard University Press: Cambrige, 1989.

Wollenscraft, Mary. "Women and the 'Rights of Man.' In: SOURCE. pgs 56-62
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Napoleon Although There Are Some Elements of

Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24673777


Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ellis, Geoffrey. Napoleon. Essex: Pearson, 1997.

Lecture Notes.

Professor emails.
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Modernity and Postmodernity

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35387098

dialectic of the Enlightenment in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. We will tangentially see how these concepts are linked to modernity and post modernity. Also, we will see what the two alternatives to dealing with the demise of the Enlightenment as Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue. The author will also refer to Lyotard and Habermas's stance on the issue. We will answer the question of why one can not separate the concerns of modernity and postmodernity from each other. We will see how the two discourses inform each other in terms of above subjects.

The dialectic of the Enlightenment has almost always been known in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. ather than having to look upon it as having died Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue that by becoming a philosophical issue, it is now beyond being localized to one discipline. The modern…… [Read More]


Fairfield, P.. (1994). Habermas, Lyotard and Political Discours. Available:

http://www.*****/pdf/19/rp_19_5.pdf. Last accessed 20 Feb 2012.
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Origin of Species

Words: 2291 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12726516


Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":

The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, John Angus. Why Was Darwin Believed? Darwin's Origin and the Problem of Intellectual Revolution. Configurations 11.2 (2003) 203-237.

Cosans, Chris. Was Darwin a creationist? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.3 (2005) 362-371.

Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Sixth Edition. Project Gutenberg. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2009/2009-h/2009-h.htm

Diderot, Denis. "Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Richard N. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.084
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Western History Looking Into the

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76697361

The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.

King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.

One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]

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John Locke Biographical Research During the

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90966106

He continued to study medicine with Thomas Sydenham as his mentor. (ikipedia)

He had an unsuccessful attempt to prevent James II from reaching the throne, and, as a result of his failure, he had been obliged to flee England. He did not return to England until 1689, when James II had been removed from power. It only took one year until he published his most important work: An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. He had been inspired from the works of Decartes when he wrote the essay. Locke also paid great interest to politics, which motivated him in writing the Two Treatises of Government. His work related to the fact that the state has to protect the rights that its citizens have, including the right to property.

The fact that he considered the people to be more important than the state and that freedom of religion was vital in order for…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. (2008). "John Locke." Retrieved May 23, 2009, from The European Graduate School Web site: http://www.egs.edu/resources/locke.html

2. (2009). "John Locke." Retrieved May 23, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke
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Evening in the Palace of Reason Bach

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45069138

Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment (Harper Perennial, James Gaines), 2006.

Gaines' book discusses two of history's greatest men, each of whom became great for a different reason. One was a political leader and statesman the other a musician. he biography of each could not have been more different. Both had tough lives and both fought against enormous stakes but one lived in a palace and the other travelled from place to place living in some at most only 3 years. One sampled jail and the other saw his partner killed and was saved by being sent to the military. One was homosexual and the other happily married in love. Bach's love in contradistinction to that of Frederick was more serene and meaningful. His music absorbed him and made him happy. He was focused; his life purely devoted to cantatas…… [Read More]

Two great men who met at the end of one's life and the pinnacle of the energy of another. Their lives could not have been more different but both can inspire us in different ways.


Gaines, J "Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment." Harper Perennial, 2006."
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Buddhism Is Distinct From Most

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15758920

Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.

Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…… [Read More]


Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).

Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/

Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.

Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
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Buddhism Jean Smith

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51538319

Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana

For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian immigrants arrived on these American shores as workers - the unique teachings and practices of Buddha have incorporated itself into Western society. And throughout the migration of this religion through the centuries, one goal has never changed: to achieve enlightenment as Buddha had under the bodhi tree. And what Buddha did next is the fundamental foundation of Buddhism: he taught others how to achieve it, too: he didn't keep the secret to himself. But there is no secret in achieving enlightenment. It only requires commitment, aspiration, following certain practices and vows, and understanding many concepts within Buddhism can an individual become enlightened. Three of the concepts an individual must come to understand are the laws of karma, identifying Nirvana, and knowledge…… [Read More]

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West There Are Three Major Religions That

Words: 2443 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8772700


There are three major religions that have established themselves in China: Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; and of the three, only Buddhism is not indigenous to China. Buddhism found its way to China along the Silk oad, brought by missionaries from India. For centuries, the three religions have co-existed with many Chinese adopting elements of each in their daily lives. Whatever similarities, or symbiotic elements each contains, the three religions have also competed with each other for prominence and prestige within Chinese society. At different times each has been the dominant religion, fully supported by the Imperial Court, however, Buddhism, since it's incorporation into Chinese society, has viewed itself as the superior religion. While most Buddhists are completely comfortable with the idea of other religious ideals in society, and even embrace certain aspects of them, they still feel that Buddhism is superior. One piece of Chinese literature, generally accepted as…… [Read More]


Hodus, Lewis. (2006). Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New Vision Publishers.

Qiancheng Li. (2004). Fictions of Enlightenment: Journey to the West…. USA:

University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books

Wu, Cheng'en. (n.d.). Journey to the West. Retrieved from               http://www.chine-informations.com/fichiers/jourwest.pdf
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Huineng's Platform Sutra When it

Words: 1113 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62757857

" (Huineng Reader, p.43) in other words, if people freed themselves from the attachments of things, events, and thoughts, then the truth of human purity could flow freely and be recognized.

Finally, the fourth element of Huineng's Platform Sutra was the idea that if people followed the teachings set forth in the Platform Sutra, then enlightenment did not need to take years but could come at any time. Unlike other Buddhists, Huineng taught that it did not take a lifetime of studying and practice to attain enlightenment, in fact, it was people's devotion to the dharma that often became a form of attachment. Instead, it took the recognition of the intrinsic nature of the mind and the liberation from attachments; which could come through the practice of non-thought. If people could accomplished these things, then they could attain sudden, or instant, enlightenment. As Huineng declared to his disciples "those in…… [Read More]

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Joey's Going Commando Lead to a State

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2570342

Joey's "going commando" lead to a state of American cultural Enlightenment?

Adorno's "How to read a television show," the American cultural industry of television, different definition of Enlightenment, and the departing NBC network show "Friends"

One of the most complex words in the English language is Enlightenment. Consider the many levels of meaning that have been attached to the word, throughout history and in the many dictionaries that line the shelves of modern libraries. To begin with the Internet, as all searches for meaning must begin in the 21st century, according to an Internet site identifying itself as "brainydictonary," the definition of "Enlightenment" is a noun that means the "act of enlightening, or the state of being enlightened or instructed." Enlightenment relates to the expansion "of conscious states, expanding consciousness, expansion of consciousness, consciousness expansion. (Brainydictionary, 2004)

However, the expansion of the mind on a personal level is a relatively…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adorno, T. "How to Look at Television." Culture Industry. Routledge Classics.

Brainydictionary. "Enlightenment. http://www.brainydictionary.com/words/en/enlightenment160280.html

Enlightenment." PBS Glossary.  http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/enlight-body.html
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Thomas Jefferson A Pioneer in

Words: 5416 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9505486

Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education

Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.

From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.

In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."

uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…… [Read More]



Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.

Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.

Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
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Religions of Buddhism and Christianity

Words: 2909 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69498612

Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.

The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…… [Read More]


Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.

Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
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History of the Rosicrucian Order

Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46875287

ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]


Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.
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Dangerous Liaisons Film Research Paper

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95927806

Europe witnessed a flowering period in the 18th century that historians call the Age of Enlightenment. A period filled with experimentation as well as intellectual curiosity, people relied on the power of human reason in order to understand society and nature. One specific manifestation of the Enlightenment was a steadfast faith in the stable progression of civilization via scientific development. Because of this religious judgment went to the wayside. Instead, people wanted improvement through freedom, equality, and tolerance. French writers/thinkers expressed these sentiments and notions through their work. These philosophers devoted their passion to useful thought and not speculation. Towards the latter half of the 18th century (1782), such thinking took the form of a highly scandalous story, Dangerous Liaisons.

ritten by Pierre Ambroise Choderlos de Laclos, a member of minor nobility and a French intelligence officer within the army, Dangerous Liaisons describes French nobility and the search for sex…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns, William E. The Enlightenment. ABC-CLIO, 2015. Print.

Duchovnay, Gerald. Film Voices. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004. Print.

McAlpin, Mary. Sexuality And Cultural Degeneration In Enlightenment France. Routledge, 2016. Print.
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1500 to 1800 Was Perhaps

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66018852

Two examples of this "Enlightened Despotism" were Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia. They based their monarchial powers, not on the Divine Right of Kings, but upon the need for a strong authoritative government to promote greater welfare within the state. These rulers created greater national standards and regulations that helped the state create a strong political infrastructure that veered away from traditional custom-based doctrine. As a result, Enlightened Absolutism became the norm within European government as monarchs began to systematically create a method to entrench national level reforms that would provoke greater political, economic and social stability.

Ultimately all four of these events are strongly interrelated because they were changes in the mindset of individuals. At the core level however, they were all reactions and extensions of the Reformation movement, which promoted greater individual liberty and free thinking. Absolutism and its evolution led to…… [Read More]

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Age of Reason Age

Words: 2901 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56114727

You can't just issue degrees without having the use of force lurking in the background to make sure those degrees have some "teeth" so to speak. But Rousseau rejected that idea.

Rousseau also rejected the notion that ties between family members were an appropriate model for relationships between the state and its citizens. In using precepts from what Aristotle had written two thousand years earlier (in Aristotle's Politics), Rousseau - who admitted that he owed a profound debt to Aristotle - "was adamant that the authority of man over man in civil society - whether for good or evil - had been and ought to be established by choice and not necessity," okler explained.

Justice, in other words, cannot thrive if the government is in a paternal partnership with citizens (the belief that father knows what's best isn't applicable to government in a true democracy); a just society is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldridge, A. Owen. Voltaire and the Century of Light. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Hampson, Norman. Will & Circumstance: Montesquieu, Rousseau and the French Revolution.

London: Duckworth, 1983.

HighBeam Encyclopedia "Origins of the Revolution / Rousseau." (2005). Retrieved 29 Nov, 2006, at http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/frenchre_effectsoftherevolution.asp.
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Principal Intellectual Movements Anglo-American Colonies Eighteenth Century

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5410188

Principal intellectual movements Anglo-American colonies eighteenth century: Great Awakening Enlightenment." You sources relevant paper. Use Reich's Colonial America reference research report if draw material source assigned, footnotes book, article,

The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment:

Wrestling for the souls and the minds of colonial settlers in the Americas

The colonial period in the Americas was a time of intense intellectual ferment. Two seemingly contradictory intellectual movements arose: that of the Great Awakening and the American Enlightenment. The Great Awakening was a period of religious revivalism that arose within the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies. The American version of the Enlightenment, a movement which began in Europe, was characterized by intellectual curiosity and a belief in the need for rationalism over superstition when governing human affairs. oth of these conceptions of the 'human' shaped the future, evolving history of America.

While many of the American colonies were founded by people fleeing…… [Read More]


"The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. December 17, 2010


Hooker, Richard. "The American Enlightenment." World Civilizations. Updated June 6, 1999.

December 17, 2010
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17th and 18th Century Europe

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49770450

Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.

The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]

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Siddhartha Asceticism Played a Major

Words: 1285 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80036208

hat Siddhartha gained from his encounter with the ascetics was, ironically, a lesson about how asceticism is insufficient on its own to aid the quest for enlightenment. Asceticism was for Siddhartha like a drug: a means to escape the world or a promise of inner peace. The author describes Siddhartha's asceticism like an addiction in Chapter Two, describing the intense lifestyle as a predictable, perpetual cycle that leads the practitioner nowhere (Chapter 2). Siddhartha then describes asceticism explicitly like a drug, comparing meditation and fasting to drinking and gambling. Asceticism is "a short escape of the agony of being a self, it is a short numbing of the senses against the pain and the pointlessness of life," (Chapter 2). Siddhartha notes that the "same escape, the same short numbing is what the driver of an ox-cart finds in the inn, drinking a few bowls of rice-wine or fermented coconut-milk," (Chapter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cort, J.E. "Singing the glory of asceticism: devotion of asceticism in Jainism." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 2002 70(4):719-742; doi:10.1093/jaar/70.4.719. Retrieved July 28, 2008 at http://jaar.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/70/4/719

Hesse, Herman. Siddhartha. Online edition retrieved July 28, 2008 at  http://www.online-literature.com/hesse/siddhartha/ 

Miles, M. "Toward a New Asceticism." The Christian Century Foundation. Retrieved July 28, 2008 at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1708
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Colonial Development the Progression of

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4889719

However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…… [Read More]

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Freemasonry in Pre-1917 Russia Free

Words: 3982 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81981926

I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)

The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.

Catherine the Great

One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1994. Print.

Hosking, Geoffrey a. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2001. Print.

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.A History of Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Print.

Dmytryshyn, Basil. Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. New York: Wiley, 1974. Print.
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Republicanism the Rise of Republicanism

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69429893

Intellectual development is reflected in the creation, development and eventual preference for a specific type of government or representation in the society. Consequently, this period of intellectual development helped promote the freedom and social order, as more forms of representation and governance were developed and implemented in American society. Republicanism's eventual dominance over other governments and political ideologies, however, reflects the society's need to preserve and champion their individual freedoms and at the same time, maintain social order despite people's political differences and beliefs.

The Great Awakening emerged as an ideology, a religious movement that embodied social order and served as a precursor to the American Revolution (declared in the late 18th century). This revivalist religious movement in American history paved the way for an "open and undisguised Unitarianism" among different Christian sects and churches in America. While there was still diversity among churches and sects, the Great Awakening improved…… [Read More]


Castiglione, D. (2002). "Republicanism and its Legacy." European Journal of Political Theory, Vol. 4, No. 4.

Goodman, J. (2005). "What is classical liberalism?" National Center for Policy Analysis. Available at: http://www.ncpa.org/pub/what-is-classical-liberalism

Pettit, P. (1997). Republicanism: a theory of freedom and government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Philp, M. (2004). "Enlightenment, Republicanism and Radicalism." In the Enlightenment World. NY: Routledge.
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Pali Canon Principles of Buddhism

Words: 418 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57260557

The Buddhist ideals of Nirvana/Enlightenment are an existence that are free from Tanha, Upadana, and therefore also Dukkha. The deepest truths in Buddhism are not absolute or completely objective, but rather any teaching that helps one to reach Nirvana, and there is no specific set of guidelines for what teachings or writings may be considered to be from an Enlightened point-of-view because Buddhism is highly personalized for each student. Recognizing the detrimental effects that seeking external confirmation of worth and becoming attached to material and worldly things can have on one's spirituality and mental health alike are the first steps necessary in finding peace. Realizing that the self is whole from the inside, not the outside, can allow a person to deal with everyday life with far more success. If one realizes that having his or her car wrecked, or not getting a promotion at work, or even losing a…… [Read More]

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Allah and Brahman Perhaps the

Words: 1894 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89442419

Modern Protestantism tends more to suggest that salvation is purely the work of God, and that the human need only accept salvation and all past and present sins will be forgiven, requiring them to do nothing more to be saved. In this schema, good works are merely acts of devotion. In either case, the death of Christ provides forgiveness for sins, and the soul which has been forgiven is upon death taken into heaven where it is purified and allowed to live eternally in luxury thereafter. The only downside, here, is that one has only one life in which to accept Christ. Anyone failing to do so in that time, is sentenced to never-ending punishment and pain.

The uddhist idea or Enlightenment, on the other hand, leads to a Nirvana which is the cessation of pain and suffering and one-ness with the universe. This enlightenment comes from the individual learning…… [Read More]


Chandra, Summet. "Allah and Krishna are the Same Person." Prabhupada Hare Krishna News Network, http://religion.krishna.org/Articles/2000/10/00184.html

Names of Paradise," Al-Islam. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/

Robinson, B.A. "Introduction to Islam" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm &  http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr1.htm 

Robinson, B.A. "BUDDHISM: Comparison of Buddhism & Christianity" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
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Wollstonecraft & J J Rousseau the Influence of

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89020339

Wollstonecraft & J.J. Rousseau

The influence of humanity and reason in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau on education and women

The age of Enlightenment put forth the importance of humanism and reason, concepts that creates a balance between humanity's innate tendency to experience emotions while at the same time, cultivating a rational view of experiencing sensations and interactions around him/her. Indeed, discourses that were created and published in the 18th century reflected the use of reason in order to elucidate the nature of human beings. 'Enlightenment discourses,' in effect, provide an important insight into the humanism and reason that dwells inside the human mind.

These important concepts of the Enlightenment were shown in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau. oth being proponents and believers of the principles reflective of the Enlightenment, they expressed their views of how humanism and reason influenced their position…… [Read More]


Rousseau, J.J. (1762). E-text of "Emile." Available at: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/pedagogies/rousseau/em_eng_preface2.html.

Wollstonecraft, M. (1792). E-text of "Vindication of the rights of women." Available at:  http://www.bartleby.com/144/ .
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Hume and Montesquieu David Hume and Baron

Words: 1293 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58457022

Hume and Montesquieu

David Hume and aron de Montesquieu were two of the Enlightenment Era's most famed philosophers. These two men had remarkably innovative ideas regarding the subject of commerce, which were very similar in many ways, yet different in others.

Renowned philosopher David Hume's Political Discourses essays presented an argument against the mercantilist theory, which insisted on retaining money only in one's own country (Penelhaum, 1995). Hume's gold-flow theory argued that increased money in one country automatically circulates to other countries.

For example, according to Hume, if England receives an influx of new money, the new money will increase the prices of labor and domestic products in England. As a result, foreign country will offer cheaper products than England, which will then import these products, resulting in the circulation of money to other countries.

Hume asserted that the same thing occurs if a country loses money. If England loses…… [Read More]


Bankowski, Z. Revolutions in Law and Legal Thought (Enlightenment, Rights and Revolution Series). Aberdeen, 1991.

Penelhum, Terence. David Hume: An Introduction to His Philosophical System. Purdue University, 1995.

Shackleton, Robert. Montesquieu. Oxford University Press, 1985.
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Mozart and Salieri Throughout the

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51142260

In the scene where the Emperor and his aides argue about the language for the new opera, one of the aides notes, "Plain German for plain people," and "German is too brutal" ("Amadeus"). Underlying this conversation is the idea that the north could not possibly be civilized or educated, and only the elite and attuned listened to the classical music emanating from Italy. This also indicates how the culture was changing, and indicates the difference between the two composers. Mozart welcomed writing in German, but was open to any language, while Salieri plodded along in Italian. He was not open to change and innovation, while Mozart championed it in his music and his life.

Throughout the film, it is clear Salieri cannot grow to accept the changes in Classical music. He represents the old morals of the enaissance, while Mozart represents the new morals of the Enlightenment that would forge…… [Read More]


Amadeus. Dir. Milos Forman. Perf. F. Murray Abraham, Tom Hulse. Orion Pictures, 1984.
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Rousseau in the Social Contract

Words: 2255 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60950117

Thus, it becomes necessary for society to compel this individual to act in accordance to the general will in order to stall a descent into arbitrary standards and meaningless identifications, and because acting in accordance with the general will means exercising reason and the freedom of thought and expression, this compelling takes the form of forcing someone to be free. The individual is ultimately compelled by society to utilize the full extent of his or her reasoning capabilities, which is ultimately the only means of achieving any true freedom, as freedom of action can only come from freedom of thought, expression, and an accurate, reasonable view of objective reality.

It is important to note that even in the instance where society compels an individual to obey the general will, the individual is still not suffering any kind of undue infringement of rights, because by definition the force exerted on that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kant, Immanuel. "An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? ." Literary Link. N.p.,

1784. Web. 19 Sep 2012. . '

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Trans. G. DH Cole the Social Contract. New York: Cosimo Classics,

2008. Print.
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Government Has a Perfect Right

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48657994

eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.

orks Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .

Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.

Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.

Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. Web. April 2013. .
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Heavenly Realm or Alternate Universe

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12985567

(Conze 78)

After recognizing Mara's ill intent, Sakra resolves to "recall the Perfection of Wisdom, bring it to mind, repeat it, and spread it." (Conze 78) This definitely indicates some sort of process or method. What is interesting is that you have to both "recall" the perfection of wisdom, then "bring it to mind." (Conze 78) So merely remembering it is not enough, you have to focus on it after making yourself remember it. Then, you "repeat it," indicating that it is some sort of chant or mantra. (Conze 78) Finally, you "spread" it. I think "spread" means to let it penetrate your mind and expand, as thoughts tend to do when you focus on them. (Conze 78)

After Sakra performs the Perfection of Wisdom, Mara is discouraged, and "immediately" "turns back again" and "goes on his way." (Conze 79) This implies that Mara was more disappointed than defeated, going…… [Read More]


Conze, Edward (1973). The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines and its Verse Summary.

Silk, Jonathan (1998). The Heart Sutra in Tibetan: A Critical Edition of the Two Recensions

Wriggins, Sally Hovey (2004). The Silk Road Journey with Xuanzang.

Prebish & Keown (2007). Introducing Buddhism.
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Invention of Peace Discussion 1

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54023333

When Serbia refused, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia, forcing the mobilization of ussia to prevent the destruction of Serbia.

German forces mobilized in support of Austro-Hungary by prior agreement, and declared war on ussia in response to her mobilization of forces.

To avoid a war on two fronts, Germany attacked France because of the fear that France would attack Germany once Germany and ussia went to war against each other.

Britain entered the war against Germany because Germany invaded Belgium to bypass the most fortified approaches into France. By 1917, German attacks on neutral shipping bound for England provoked the U.S. To enter the war as well. Some of the first action of the wider war was the occupation of German colonies in Asia and Africa. By the end of the war, England was poised to rule much of the Middle East until after World War II, which control was…… [Read More]


Howard, M. (2000) the Invention of Peace: Reflections on War and International Order. London: Yale University Press.
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Romantic Ideal in the Poetry of William

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37554090

Romantic ideal in the poetry of William Blake, William Wordsworth and Walt Whitman shares the attitude that the most worthy part of human existence lies in simplicity and deep emotion rather than rational thought. Romanticism is based upon a movement away from the rationality of Enlightenment and the wealth-driven society inspired by Industrialism. This ideal is reflected in the work of the poets mentioned above. To demonstrate this, "The Chimney weeper," "Ode: Imitations of Immortality" and "I ing the Body Electric" from each respective poet are considered.

William Blake

Blake's poetry emphasizes the evils of existing power systems within society, and how these are used to oppress the poor and powerless. This is shown in his poem "The Chimney weeper." The little chimney sweeper is representative of the poor and oppressed suffering under the current systems of power. The parents and the church are images reflecting the oppressive forces. The…… [Read More]


Blake, William. "The Chimney Sweeper."

Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric."

Wordsworth, William. "Ode: Imitations of Immortality."
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Religion Judaism and Christianity European

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95099784

ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.

Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.

The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…… [Read More]


Judaism; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) Extracted July 22, 2006; Website;


Why the Jews Rejected Jesus: The Turning Point in Western History; David Klinghoffer (March 2006) Extracted July 22, 2006
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Green Tara Tibetan Art -

Words: 2111 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71028000

The most striking difference of this painting is the extensive use of gold leaf. A matured use of shadow and detail can be seen in this tangka, indicating a later, more developed art form. It lacks the detail to symmetry found in the other two examples as well. This piece provides an excellent contrast to the earlier two Tangka that were examined. it's attention to shading, clear outlines, and accents in gold may indicate the Menris school of the 1500s (Tibetanartschool.com).


Tangka paintings are an important part of Tibetian life. Many regional differences exist in the painting styles and techniques that are employed in the paintings. It might be noted that Tangkas in western Tibet take on a Chinese flavor. Tangkas of the religious nature are divided into three major portions. They are the top, middle and lower portions of the painting, representing the heaven, earth and underworld (U-wayttours.com).…… [Read More]


Asianart.com. Desire and Devotion: Art From India, Nepal, and Tibet in the John and Berthe

Ford Collection. <  http://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/desire/tara.html  > Accessed

November 23, 2010.

Rumsey, D. Green Tara.
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Yakup Kadri's Yaban and the

Words: 1719 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26254391

It was reflected in the Republic's closure of religious convents in 1925. (Fleet, Faroqhi, & Kasaba, p. 164). The Republic also replaced the Islamic canon law with a secular civil code in 1926. (Fleet, Faroqhi, & Kasaba, p. 164-165). Thus, Yaban's portrayal of the gullible peasant populace and their attachment to Islam, illustrates the social obstacles that the Nationalist government was reacting to with its secularizing reforms.


Karaomerlio-lu's views might be represented by Celal's resignation with the village and warned future bureaucrats of the impossibility of Nationalist enlightenment there. Ironically, Yaban's publicisation of their condition invoked political sympathy for them, leading to intensified efforts to nationalize, civilize, and develop peasant villages. This sentiment was represented by Kadro, a leftist publication managed by the Kemalist regime's opposition party, which advocated peasant interests in the Republic. (Turkes, 2001, p. 92-93). In response, the Republican People's Party, which ousted the Kemalist regime,…… [Read More]


Karaomerlio-lu, Y. (1932). Yaban. Istanbul: Ileti-im, 2006 (1932(.

Fleet, Faroqhi, & Kasaba (2008). The Cambridge History of Turkey, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press.

Turke? M. (1998). "The Ideology of the Kadro [Cadre] Movement: A Patriotic Leftist Movement in Turkey." Middle Eastern Studies 34, no. 14 (1998): 92-119.

Baykan & Robertson (2009). Identity, Culture and Globalization - Annals of the International Institute of Sociology.
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Science and Religion in the 17th Century

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69708860

Science and Religion in the 17th Century

he Interaction between Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century:

ransforming our World

he world we know today has been shaped by many important events. Some people may see the industrial and the technological revolutions of the past two centuries as central pillars that have helped humanity not only survive, but also advance greatly. Others may see political revolutions as central to our society's progress, be they wars for independence in the colonies of the 20th century, or be they the mother of drastic political change, the French Revolution. Others yet may believe that cultural revolutions, such as the Enlightenment of the 18th century, a phenomenon that spurred great change and bore great thinkers, truly altered society. However, above all, one must note that without the interaction between science and religion and the issues this brought to light in the 16th and 17th…… [Read More]

To prove his voice, even under arrest, Galileo continued making discoveries, most notably discovering sunspots on the surface of the Sun. Thus, he was not silenced, and his works have survived even to today and have greatly aided other scientific advancements. Another notable example of fantastic scientific advancement and survival is found in Nicolaus Copernicus' Gold Jagiellonian Globe, a globe surrounded by a celestial metal sphere with a clock inside that can tell date, time, month and the position of the sun in the sky. Such machines, though not available to the greater population, at least gave other intellectuals the ability to see beyond religion and start questioning their world, thus paving the way, much later, for the masses. [3: Commemorating Copernicus. Science News, Vol. 103, No. 15 (Apr. 14, 1973), p. 236 Published by: Society for Science & the PublicArticle Stable URL:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3958075 ]

These "disagreements" between science and religion, exemplified by such people as Galileo and Copernicus would eventually give way to the Enlightenment in the 18th century, which, as aforementioned, truly transformed the world. Though at the time it was difficult to be on a different side than the church, the obstinate stance of these early intellectuals was eventually rewarded. Without their efforts, for example, the period of Enlightenment may never have taken place. Because these scientists existed and worked hard at making and publishing their discoveries, during the 1700's, society continued to make unparalleled progress in the cultural, astrological, astronomical, political, mathematical and artistic fields.

In other words, the interaction between science and religion for two centuries eventually led to a temporary dissipation of ritualistic, religious dogma in the higher strata of society, and shaped events that were to alter forever the landscape of the Earth in the following centuries. It is due to the Enlightenment, and specifically the works of such philosophers as John Locke, whose essays are unparalleled in wisdom, for example, that America is a democratic country. The inability of religious dogma to slow down the ever-quickening pace of discovery was all too real and the measurable positives of science during the 16th and 17th centuries were too great of an advance to be resisted. Eventually, religion had to step back and give science its well-deserved foot forward. [4: Uzgalis, William. "John Locke," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .]
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Religion Origin Cultural Practices and Its Influences

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99193448

religion, origin, cultural practices and its influences on Confucianism.

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy that is developed from the life and teachings of Buddha. Buddhism has almost 380 million followers all over the world. The number has been increasing at a greater proportion in the modern era. The religion started over almost 2500 years ago. The main message of Buddhism is that a soul should attain enlightenment. The religion preaches a way of living which is based on the avoidance of self denial and self indulgence. One interesting factor about Buddhism is that there is no superior God in Buddhism.

Buddha (in Sanskrit means the "Awakened One") lived in mid 6th- 4th century Before Christ, a teacher in the North of India. Siddhartha Gotama, who later became Buddha, was born in a well off rich family. He had a simple and luxurious life but decided to give up all…… [Read More]


Miyamoto, Musashi. A Book of Five Rings, translated by Victor Harris. London: Allison & Busby; Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. 1974

Sun Tzu. The Art of War: Sun Zi's Military Methods. Columbia University Press. 2007
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Happiness That Goes Beyond the Mere Absence

Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78252810

happiness that goes beyond the mere absence of pain and suffering. People feel joy and happiness for things both minor and major. I would describe the absence of pain and suffering as contentment perhaps. The Buddhist would argue that the absence of those things leads to a state of permanent bliss, which is more powerful than transient happiness. However, the Buddhist view also assumes that the fleeting nature of happiness we feel is a source of suffering, because even during those moments we are weighed down by the idea that the happiness will not last. I do not feel that this is necessarily the case. Permanent bliss and happiness are two different things, and the possibility of one does not eliminate the value of and possibility of the other.

Even a refugee can experience euphoria, yes. This is a loaded question, actually, because of the framing. It is certainly less…… [Read More]