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Definition and Description of Epidemiology
The word epidemiology was derived from the Greek words where "epi" means upon, "demos" means people, and "logos" means study.
Epidemiology can be defined in detail as the study of distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems. (Last, 2001)
Here, in the definition the distribution refers to analysis of persons, classes of people, places that are being affected by the specific disease and determinants refers to factors that influence population health; these factors may be chemical, physical, biological, social, economic, cultural, behavioral or genetic. Health-related states refers to causes of death, diseases and behaviors such as use of tobacco, use of health services and reactions to preventive treatments. Specified population refers to those groups who indicate identifiable characteristics and application to prevention and control is aim…… [Read More]
The "where" category is at the right corner, and can be delineated as Fulton, Georgia. All three categories interact with each other to offer conclusions for the study. Additional factors such as child abuse and the crime rate can then be examined in terms of these categories.
According to osenberg & Handler, descriptive epidemiology focuses on the pattern and frequency of health issues for a population group, while analytic epidemiology searches for the determinants of health outcomes. Generally, epidemiological studies tend to focus on both of these in order to most adequately examine and remedy the problems involved.
For the specific problem of teenage pregnancy in Fulton, however, it is estimated that a descriptive type of epidemiology would be more suitable. In this regard, it is estimated to be of greater importance to focus on a descriptive approach of the existing problem than on factors that prevent it. In order…… [Read More]
Recent estimates suggest that while representing 25% of the ever sexually active population, 15 to 24 years of age acquire nearly half of all new STD" (Special focus profiles: Adolescents and young adults, 2007, Surveillance 2006: CDC).
Explained the type of epidemiology used
hile most of the data compiled is based upon statistical evidence from clinics and hospitals, in addition to this analytical methodology, research indicates in a descriptive fashion that teenage girls are particularly at risk as well because of physical reasons: "the greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured and is probably more susceptible to infection, they are at particularly high risk for infection if sexually active" (Special focus profiles: Adolescents and young adults, 2007, Surveillance 2006: CDC). Men who engage in unprotected intercourse with other…… [Read More]
"Epidemiology." World Health Organization. Viewed 13 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/epidemiology/en/
2. Qualitative research, and qualitative understanding, is very useful in translating certain ideas into words that can be more readily understood by the researcher. Quality is understood as a subjective term and by trying to model quality into a form that can be translated mathematically allows this type of data to be manipulated and crafted to fit certain arguments. Descriptive terms such as good and bad are relative terms and qualitative analysis seeks to standardize these terms in order to communicate their understanding of these terms to more complex and mathematically-based languages.
Oftentimes researchers will use qualitative words, phrases and meanings and somehow translate them into numerical data that then can be processed and put through the statistical wringer. The human condition works with both qualitative and quantitative aspects within the brain. Focusing too much on one side…… [Read More]
Participants were included if they had experienced sexual or physical assault in childhood or adulthood and met criteria for PTSD at the time of the initial assessment, were at least 3 months posttrauma (no upper limit), and if on medication, were stabilized. Women with current substance dependence were included if/when they had been abstinent for 6 months. Those with substance abuse were permitted to participate if they agreed to desist in usage during the period of treatment. Following telephone screening, potential participants were invited to be assessed for possible participation, at which time they discussed and signed informed consent for participation.
Subjects. A total of 256 women were assessed for possible participation by assessors who were blind to group assignment. The most common reasons for exclusion from the study (n = 94) were not meeting the criteria for PTSD (n = 28), current substance dependence (n = 12), medication instability…… [Read More]
Epidemiology Intersecting With and Impacting Nursing Work
Although epidemiological research may seem far removed from the work of the clinical nurse, in actuality it has a material impact upon how nurses interact with patients every day. A good example of this is the mounting epidemiological evidence indicating that there is an obesity epidemic in the United States. Without this knowledge, a nurse might be inclined to ignore a patient whose weight is on the borderline of overweight and normal weight, particularly if the patient is young. But the risk of children and adolescents becoming overweight, despite the previously high levels of activity and growth of these age groups, is likewise increasing due to sedentary behaviors and an increased reliance upon convenience, nutrient-poor but calorically dense foods.
If a child or an adult has risk factors such as sedentary behavior, poverty, or membership in certain historically discriminated-against groups with higher risk…… [Read More]
Epidemiology of Elderly Driving Safety
Annotated… [Read More]
In some mammals with this capability, an unfertilized egg may begin developing into an embryo or the development can just stop. Investigators even suspected that the difficulties experienced by teams in mammal-cloning experiments were due to the absence of RNAs in the sperm. In cloning, scientists would take the DNA from a non-germ cell, add it to an egg denuded of its DNA and trick it into developing as though it were fertilized by a sperm. The procedure would work only a few times. Most of the time, it would develop gross defects, which often delayed further development. John Eppig, a reproductive biologist at Jackson Laboratory in ar Harbor, Maine, suggested that the success of cloning was a strong argument against the supposed key biological role of apparently large numbers of RNAs being delivered by the sperm (Travis).
It has been estimated that infertility occurs in 2 million couples in…… [Read More]
Furthermore, reports reveal that major organs of the body such as nerves, blood vessels, kidney and so forth are at immense risk of being damaged after the onset of type 1 diabetes. Moreover, history illustrates that diabetes cut down the years from the life of sufferers (Achenbach, Bonifacio, Koczwara, & Ziegler, 2005).
Clinical type 2 diabetes is also developed through a number of stages. The person initially becomes resistant towards responding to the presence of insulin in blood. This result in fluctuation of blood glucose level from the normal value for certain period of time and when the condition persists, diabetes is said to have developed. Consequently, medical treatment and preventive measures are implemented to control the prevailing state of disorder (amlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000).
(amlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000)
Generally, type 2 diabetes is initiated during adulthood. Its history demonstrates that its signs and symptoms are not distinctively observed; however,…… [Read More]
This includes the prison population, the patients in the hospital and any county-assisted long-term care facilities, and all of those who utilized the relief shelters set up throughout the county. Those residents who attempted to shelter in place rather than evacuating to one of the relief shelters as recommended will also need to be served, of course, but as the scattered nature of these residents will require a much greater expenditure of time and available resources in order to treat and asses far fewer people, the bulk of resources must first and foremost be applied to those population centers already established prior to, during, or immediately in the wake of the emergency event. The response for these populations will be relatively straightforward, and the focus on these community populations specifically is directly needs-based.
Not only will these populations require fewer per-person resources and time expenditures in order to be assessed…… [Read More]
A decrease in the rates of recent infections, a reduction in the lifetime risk of TB infection, and a reduction in the effective contact number would reflect the control of TB among the adults.
The primary target for the long-term TB control should be to reduce the high force of TB infection, particularly in densely populated sub-urban areas. This is because the effectual contact numbers and the population prevalence of the infectious TB cases are the drivers of the high force of infection for the TB epidemic. Using of antiretroviral therapy (AT) as prevention has a strategy of controlling the HIV epidemic will have a supplementary effect in the control of the TB that is HIV-associated. A full implementation of the available AT guidelines, among the HIV- infected patients, will decrease the pre-AT TB infection burden. There is a need to target high-risk communities, and accompanying a shift in priority…… [Read More]
Epidemiology and Type II Diabetes
In order to correct or avoid a medical condition, especially one that is preventable, a person has to have a good understanding of what is causing that condition and how to prevent (or reverse) it in order to promote optimum health. However, one cannot work on preventing a condition without examining the literature on it, in an effort to determine what actually works and what does not. There are many "cures" and "remedies" for a number of conditions, and a significant number of those remedies and cures are not helpful. Some may actually be dangerous, so it is very important to understand the true nature of what is being offered to a person or a community when it comes to remaining (or becoming) healthy. Here, type II diabetes will be discussed in order to determine how to use the literature review and other data so…… [Read More]
Shellfish-associated hepatitis a in 1961
Rippey, S.R. (1994). Infectious disease associated with molluscan shellfish consumption.
Clinical Microbiology Review. 7(4):419. DOI: 10.112/CMR.7.4.419. http://cmr.asm.org/content/7/4/419.full.pdf
This article provides a historical overview of the shift to the dominance of different disease pathologies associated with consuming tainted shellfish. Prior to the 1950s, the most common disease associated with eating tainted shellfish was typhoid fever. However, improved sanitation has changed this and the last case of shellfish-derived typhoid fever was reported in 1954. Hepatitis A, in contrast to typhoid, is on the rise: the first case was reported in 1956 in Sweden. In 1961, there were a number of outbreaks reported in Mississippi and Alabama of consumers of raw oysters and of raw clams in New Jersey and Connecticut.
Diseases associated with shellfish consumption can be difficult to track: in many healthy individuals they present themselves only as mild gastrointestinal distress and are not reported…… [Read More]
Epidemiological Approach to the Study of Male Adolescent Suicide in Idaho
Throughout history suicide has remained an enigma in cultures that are far and different from each other. The act of taking one's life has been a representation of religious beliefs, cultural attitudes, and the answer to pain and suffering. Although suicide is mainly frowned upon in the western world is such countries as Japan and India the act of suicide is a requirement of honor and social acceptability and the passage of time has seen the emergence, and rejection, of varying attitudes toward suicide. For example, during the persecution of Christians by the omans an acceptable practice of a Christian woman to prevent herself from being "deflowered" by a oman soldier the act of suicide was not only accepted but expected as well. In fact the omans and Greeks both were of the opinion that suicide was…… [Read More]
Prevention Epidemiology Provide a Framework Health Professional Intervene Prevent Disease, Injury Disability
Levels of prevention in epidemiology: Obesity
Obesity is responsible for an estimated 3,000,000 premature deaths every year and the numbers of obese persons in the U.S. are increasing (Nammi et al. 2004). In the field of epidemiology, it is recognized that it is not enough to merely treat the symptoms of a disease: in fact, when the disease is fully manifested is often the least effective stage to intervene. Prevention is often the best cure, particularly for chronic health conditions like obesity. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has identified three distinct levels of public health promotion: primary, secondary, and tertiary, all of which are necessary to address the problems generated by obesity.
"Primary prevention reduces both the incidence and prevalence of a disease" (Three levels of prevention, 2007, CDC). In the case of obesity, this might include…… [Read More]
Fatty Acids Colorectal Cancer
Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer
The article titled "Dietary Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study" describes a seven-year study of close to 3000 subjects studying the relationship between fatty acids and colorectal cancer. As the study involved the analysis of data collected on colorectal patients over a seven-year period, and thus started with the outcome of colorectal cancer and traced backwards to discover a relationship between exposure to fatty acids and this outcome, it was by definition a "Case-Control" study (the title of the article also presents the study as a case-control one). The researchers began with about 1500 colorectal patients and 1500 control subjects and administered weekly questionnaires, called "semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire" involving 150 food items and the frequency the participants ate them. (Theodoratou, 2007, p.182)
This type of study is particularly useful in studying the outbreak and spread of diseases…… [Read More]
Epidemiology and What I Learned
This epidemiology course has been very helpful for me in terms of boosting my knowledge of incidence, distribution and control of diseases as well as other variables that pertain to health issues. It has deepened my understanding of and appreciation for the time, energy, commitment and work that goes into researching the history of diseases, such as Zika, in order to better understand how it originated and where, how it migrated, and what the various factors in the case can tell researchers about the nature of the disease or how best to treat it (Healy, 2016). It is like reading and writing a history book for future generations -- except instead of writing about persons long dead, it is like writing about a real danger to human health that is happening at this very moment. There is a real sense of urgency and importance in…… [Read More]
Epidemiology in the News: andomized Trials
Although screening is an essential part of modern health care and treatment, there is evidence in research that there are few screening tests available in handling major diseases. The research shows that there isn't even a reduction in disease-specific deaths. The situation makes death a common occurrence in the circumstances. There was an assessment of 16 screening tests focusing on 9 main diseases that manifest death as a common outcome. The research team found 98 Meta analyses and 45 random, but controlled trials that focused on deaths caused by specific diseases or just deaths that result from all causes. eductions in deaths that come from specific diseases were significantly rare while all-cause mortality deaths were the rarest (OUP, 2015).
The study used systematic review to systematically evaluate evidence from randomized controlled trials (CTs) to determine whether screening reduces mortality arising from diseases that often…… [Read More]
Etiology and epidemiology of cardiac arrhythmiasc
Comment by Sabina:
Etiology and epidemiology of cardiac arrhythmias
In chapter 2 I will be discussing the etiology and epidemiology of cardiac arrhythmias. I will discuss some of the causes of this disease, discuss what is cardiac arrhythmias, risk factors associated with the disease and who is at risk for cardiac arrhythmias. I will address some of the themes and key ideas that will be presented in the chapter.
What is cardiac arrhythmias?
Cardiac arrhythmias are an irregular heartbeat of the heart. During an arrhythmia the heart could beat too slow, too fast or just irregular. There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, however the two main types are; atrial fibrillation and a life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia, it involves a dysfunction of the two upper chambers of the heart. Cardiac arrhythmias…… [Read More]
HuGE Cancer Epidemiology
Masson, L. Sharp, S.C. Cotton and J. Little. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Breast Cancer: A HuGE Review. Am. J. Epidemiol. (15 May 2005) 161 (10): 901-915.
Category of HuGE Information
The types of information available from the article:
Prevalence of gene variant
Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 plays a key role in phase I metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and in estrogen metabolism. It is expressed predominantly in extrahepatic tissues, including the breast. Four CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms (3801T-C, Ile462Val, 3205T-C, and Thr461Asp) have been studied in relation to breast cancer. The 3801C variant is more common than the Val variant. Both variants occur more frequently in Asians than in White populations. The 3205T-C polymorphism has been observed in African-Americans only. Little data are available on the geographic/ethnic distribution of the Thr461Asp polymorphism. The functional significance of…… [Read More]
Public health as a field comprises the convictions, science, and skills relating to the preservation and improvement of the health of the general public through preventative endeavors instead of curative ones. One of the basic sciences that are critical to promoting public health is epidemiology. As a tool, epidemiology is useful in the protection and promotion of public health through the application of common sense as well as scientific reasoning (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2015). One of the main areas of epidemiology is descriptive epidemiology. Descriptive epidemiology focuses on the description of diseases and their determinants. It is useful in the organization and analysis of various diseases and the occurrences of those diseases in the given geographical area over time. Descriptive epidemiology is therefore capable of generating etiological research hypotheses (Liu, 2018). This paper discusses the role of descriptive epidemiology in nursing today.
Descriptive epidemiology refers to a…… [Read More]
Dream Job Turned Nightmare: Valley Fever
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018a), coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley fever, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. The fungus is commonly found in the soil in the Southwestern U.S. and Mexico region. When people breathe in the spores of the fungus, which can hang in the dusty air, they can develop Valley Fever. People who already have weakened immune systems are most likely at risk for developing Valley Fever (Woods et al., 2000). Those with healthier immune systems tend to recover within a few weeks, though sometimes it can take months to heal completely and antifungal medication may be provide for treatment. This paper describes how descriptive and analytical epidemiology can be used to provide a response plan for the disease.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion on why…… [Read More]
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]
Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.
IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.
Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.
This…… [Read More]
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, And Prevention
Acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea) can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites, but in the United States the most common cause is the norovirus (CDC, 2012b). The norovirus contributes to 800 deaths and 70,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. each year, but unless a person is elderly, very young, severely ill, or immunocompromised, most people suffer only minor symptoms. Since the estimated U.S. health care burden of norovirus infections around $2 billion annually (CDC, 2012a), this report will examine what is known about norovirus etiology and how these infections can be prevented.
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention
The norovirus belongs to the virus family Caliciviridae and contains a single-stranded NA genome encased within an envelope-free protein isocahedral capsid (Morillo and Timenetsky, 2011). Based on recent sequencing information, noroviruses can be grouped into five genogroups: G1, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV. Only GI, GII, and GIII infect…… [Read More]
Epidemiological Case #2: Norovirus in Vermont
Applying Epidemiology study epidemics. More specifically, study occurrence distribution health problems. Using epidemiological techniques outlined chapters week's reading, address questions case studies outlined .
Epidemiological Case #2: Norovirus in Vermont
The questions to ask the mother include what the problem is i.e. illness description, tests performed, treatments provided, and if patient hospitalized or dead. Who is ill including names, sex, gender, occupation, and how they are related. When the person became ill, date and time the illness began. Where the infected person is located, their address and telephone numbers. Finally, what caused them to become ill?
The symptoms of the three children are mostly due to an infection. The incubation period of around 24 hours and short illness duration are consistent with a virus. Based on the information that the stool was negative for the usual bacteria, then a virus would be the likely…… [Read More]
Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment
HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…… [Read More]
Egger et al. have come up with a unified obesity prevention and epidemiology -connected strategy labeled ‘obesity ecological model’ (OEM) (Egger, Swinburn & Rossner, 2003). Host elements encompass individual mindsets and opinions, conduct, and physiological modifications (Mela, 2005). From a social standpoint, modern lifestyle supports reduced everyday physical exercise, which constitutes a key obesity driver. Leisure time is largely devoted to TV-viewing and personal computer, laptop or smartphone use. The above distinct influences contribute to the decreased expenditure of energy, having overt repercussions for leftover energy. This steady physical exercise reduction, perhaps, serves as a key factor for the growing obesity rate. Minor behavioral modifications (for instance, decreased calorie intake or a half-hour brisk walk daily) may play a part in checking the obesity pandemic (Korbonits, 2008).
The vectors identified encompass huge portion sizes, energy-saving tools, and foods/drinks packed with calories and low on beneficial nutrients (Hu, 2008). Vectors responsible…… [Read More]
S. History, 2011).
Only after aggressive government intervention did the Dust Bowl conditions improve. The government, even before the drought was broken in 1939, was able to reduce soil erosion by 65% through the actions of the Civilian Conservation Corps, which planted 200 million trees to "break the wind, hold water in the soil, and hold the soil itself in place" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). Farmers received instruction by the government on "soil conservation and anti-erosion techniques, including crop rotation, strip farming, contour plowing, terracing and other beneficial farming practices" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). For the first time, the government took an interest not simply in preserving some of its land from development in the form of national parks, but gave counsel to farmers how to use the land.
The gap between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' already wide even before the Great Depression, grew into…… [Read More]
6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003).
Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated, it would take a modern outbreak to ascertain the prognosis of individuals with the disease in modern times. Many feel however, that discourse on the subject is best left unsaid, because the more people discuss the disease, the more likely it is that someone will inadvertently get hold of the disease and attempt to use it.
Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the isk," the Hastings Center eport, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.…… [Read More]
Like other researchers, the CCOHS notes that allergic reactions including inflammation, redness and formation of blisters may only appear after prolonged exposure to possible allergens; for some this may mean exposure to a substance for a few days before symptoms arise, for others exposure throughout a lifetime may result in some minor dermatitis (CCOHS, 10007). Typically, as others have confirmed, exposure is first necessary, then a process referred to as sensitization, where a worker may become "sensitized" to a compound they work with, the penetration of the epidermal layer of the skin, following an allergic reaction, a process which can take up to four weeks (CCOHS, 1997).
This process results when allergenic compounds binds to proteins naturally occurring in the skin, and lymphocytes or protective agents within the body react to protect the skin from damage; tissue-damaging chemicals called "lymphokines" may be released, which ultimately result in the symptoms commonly…… [Read More]
Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, National Institute of Health
Every second person in Armenia, irrespective of sex, is a smoker. Only 15% of the population have never smoked before WOMEN and SMOKING
53,6% smoked some time in the past
Chart indicates % of women smoke... cigarettes per day
Chart indicates that in Armenia among the smoking women the percentage of women with higher education is significantly more than those having secondary education.
Tobacco and Teenagers
In Armenia about half of the smokers start smoking reaching the age of 18, 36,6% of teenagers are smoke
Number of cigarettes per day
Boys and girls
Boys and young men in Armenia start smoking much sooner than girls, more than a half of a yang men start doing it before reaching the age of 18. Absolute majority of girls in Armenia start smoking after the…… [Read More]
Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine. This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late 1990s.Studies carried out in Iceland ( Tryggvason et al.,2005), Sweden (Nilsson et al.,2005), as well as Holland (Goettsch,2004) have indicated that close to 11,14.5 and 12.7 cases per million people per year respectively.Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. study by gaimy et al.,(2007) which was performed consecutively on autopsies indicated that small GISTs having between 1-10 mm in about 22.5% of the individuals aged above 50 years.These small GISTs…… [Read More]
Epidemiology - Person, Place and Time
Epidemiology -- Person, Place, Time
Identify the specific goal you have chosen, describe it in detail, and discuss why you chose to focus on this goal and how it related to population health, both locally and globally.
The specific goal I have chosen is improvement of maternal health. I chose to focus on this goal because reproductive health is an issue for most women whether they live in developed or developing countries -- and because reproductive health is an issue over which the medical and healthcare communities can have relatively high degrees of influence. eproductive health is inextricably related to income at levels of a household, a community, and a nation. The figures representing women who died during pregnancy or childbirth are high (roughly 289,000 globally in 2013), but they are down by about 45% from 1990 levels ("MDG 5," 2014). This is a…… [Read More]
Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management Autism
Epidemiology of autism
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder. This bio-neurological developmental disorder tends to appear mainly before age three (Oller & Oller, 2011). It is the best popular disease for impairing a child's ability to interact and communicate. This lifelong disability tends to affect various development areas including sensory processing, social difficulty and communication significantly. Autism is manifested in various ways such as delayed verbal development, lack of spontaneity and inability to respond to humor.
From recent epidemiological surveys, the worldwide prevalence of autism is at a median of 60 cases per 1000 people (Steinman, 2014). Moreover, autism averages at 4:1 male to female ratio. Since 1980, the number of kids known to have autism has been increasing dramatically partly because of changes in diagnostic practice. However, we cannot rule out environmental variables when talking about autism. The risk of autism is linked to…… [Read More]
Epidemiology in Healthcare
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Immunization Program (NIP) track the number of deaths that occur due to measles within the United States (Gindler et al., 2004). Both programs are run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); however, the data reporting systems for the two organizations are distinct. The NCHS reports deaths as either underlying-cause or multiple-cause mortality, but in the absence of measles confirmation by physical examination or laboratory results. By comparison, NIP reports de-identified information, but only confirmed cases. Gindler and colleagues (2004) compared the two reporting systems and the NIP system was found cable of reporting 71% of deaths due to measles, compared to 64% by NCHS. The death-to-case ratio (DC) varied from 2.05 to 2.83 per 1,000 reported cases among the three databases during the 1989 outbreak. During this period, the prior annual average of 3,000…… [Read More]
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]
Epidemiology in the News: Incidence and Prevalence of the Zika Virus
Healy (2016) reports in the L.A. Times that scientists are currently pursuing five strategies of dealing with the Zika virus. Before reporting on these strategies, Healy provide an epidemiology of the virus, beginning with its first reported incidence in 1947 in Uganda. From Africa, Healy shows that the virus spread to Asia and the Americas. Connected to the spread of the disease is the concern of "whether cases of microcephaly followed in its wake but were undetected at the time" (Healy, 2016). To determine the connection of microcephaly to Zika, the island of Yap was studied by epidemiologists, who noted that in 2007 "between 68% and 88% of residents over the age of 2 were infected with the virus" (Healy, 2016).
Yap provides a useful means of studying the disease because island nations such as Yap, which are small…… [Read More]
The Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality has issued its recommendations for breast cancer screening. In this article, they make a few different recommendations. First, they recommend screening for women 50-74 years. They note that women under 50 should make the choice for themselves as to whether or not they wish to begin screening. They note that there is little evidence to support screening age 75 onward. This body, however, recommends against teaching breast self-examination.
Also noted is that "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the additional benefits and harms of clinical breast examination beyond mammography. They also find that there is insufficient evidence of incremental benefits for the use of digital mammography or MI. The lack of evidence does not mean that these things are ineffective or do not provide value, just that there is no evidence that they do, which is different.
The most controversial aspect…… [Read More]
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…… [Read More]
Dermatology Differential Diagnoses
Dermatology Differential Diagnosis
Skin conditions can be notoriously difficult to diagnose. It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and pathology of common conditions in order to make a thorough diagnosis of the current case. Here, the research states that "key questions for the patient include the time of onset, duration, location, evolution, and symptoms of the rash or lesion. Additional information on family history, occupational exposures, comorbidities, medications, and social or psychological factors may be helpful" (Goldstein et al., 2012). All of this knowledge provided by the patient can ultimately help lead to differential diagnoses that can then prepare treatment.
In this current case study, there is a 33-year-old male suffering from a rash. The patient has a rash of 2-weeks duration located behind the knees and elbows bilaterally. It is itchy, red, somewhat raised, and dry. At times it has had clear drainage. Thus, the "papules…… [Read More]
Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52
of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238
The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
144 per 100,000 population
264 per 100,000 population
e. none of the above
B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3
3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…… [Read More]
" (Rosen, 1) in a regard, community health falls within this purview and is a subset to the broader topic of public health.
c. Differences in roles of public and community health nurse and nurse in an acute care setting
The role which is given to the nurse in the public or community health context should be essentially similar to that which is seen in an acute care context. Ethical, practical and medical conditions remain unchanged from one context to the next. However, the nurse will be required to prepare for certain distinctions which do denote a difference. Particularly, nurses in public health settings are less likely to possess the resources and facilities which are afforded those in the acute care setting. This means that in many instances, public health nurses can only function as the front line for consultation, diagnosis and basic treatment. here more serious concerns become apparent,…… [Read More]
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…… [Read More]
Due to their contact with different patients, it allows them to become carriers of the disease.
It is important to study the relevance of SARS to epidemiology because epidemiology can provide an amount of diverse and important information that can facilitate the process of controlling, if not totally preventing, its spread. y relating SARS to epidemiology, people can become aware of the whole story on SARS. Moreover, epidemiology can be a fundamental source in finding solutions to combat the disease. Thus, providing another measure in the management and control of its spread. For instance, in the outbreak cases of SARS in many places worldwide, the article indicated that epidemiology provided appropriate models in containing the disease.
Emerging Infections: What Have We Learned from SARS?
Retrieved on Nov. 12, 2004, from CDC.GOV.
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no7/pdfs/04-0166.pdf… [Read More]
Studies suggest certain mosquitoes may also transmit the virus (Mulla, 1999).
The host for the disease is humans, and the environment of the case study includes the regions of Norfolk and Portsmouth. The agent examined is yellow fever. Other possible hosts include mosquitoes known to bear infection, like the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Mulla, 1999).
Primary Secondary Tertiary Prevention
If living at the time, primary prevention would have included avoidance of natural spread of the disease. This may have been almost impossible however as ships frequently traveled to cities via ports. However, temporary quarantine of ships entering port from affected areas may have served as a primary prevention technique for preventing spread of the disease (Oberle, 2001). Secondary prevention methods would have included providing citizens with clean waters and immunizations (Oberle, 2001).
Vaccines have proven beneficial for preventing yellow fever transmission in humans. Unfortunately vaccines were not available at the time…… [Read More]
Mold emediation in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Pennsylvania was hit hard in September, first by Hurricane Irene and then by the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee (Huber, 2011). Close to 100,000 residents living in areas that were inundated in 1972 due to Hurricane Agnes were ordered to evacuate on Thursday, September 8, 2011 (The Times Leader, 2011) and were not allowed to return until Saturday afternoon or later (Olson, 2011). Fortunately, the levees built in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes did their job and a comparatively low number of 5,400 homes were exposed to floodwaters (Huber, 2011). However, those residents whose homes were flooded will be faced not only with physical damage to their property, but also the threat of significant exposure to mold-generated bioaerosols if their homes were exposed…… [Read More]
Mortality prevention is certainly an area where the strongest interventions are most justified.
Bluegrass Hospital Quality of Care
Industry Comparison Quality of Care Standards
("Patient safety and," 2011)
1. Based upon the report card alone, the hospital is deficient in esophogeal resection, pancreatic resection, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, coronary artery bypass grafts, craniotomies and acute myocardial infarctions. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages were just slightly above the national average and within the standard deviation.
2. As an administrative official, it is prudent to check the internal data charts personally at a departmental level to make sure the data is accurate and was collected correctly and without bias.
3. The QI teams would then determine the specific on site measures needed to rectify the problems and the level of interventions necessary. These interventions would be more stringent with regard to the above factors due to fact that patient mortality could be involved.
4. Recommendations…… [Read More]
Blacks also have a 320% higher rate of hypertension-related end-stage renal disease than the general population (Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
According to a study of diet-related chronic diseases among black men in Florida, it was found that almost two-thirds of blacks in Florida are estimated to be at risk for health problems related to being overweight. The percent of the total population that is at risk for health problems related to being overweight compared to the State of Florida in shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Percentage of Black/White Population at isk for Overweight Health Problems - Florida vs. The U.S. (Source: Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
The authors of this study point out that many blacks do not eat a sufficient amount of vegetables and other foods that require the recommended levels of nutrition. Clearly, there is more involved in the epidemiology and…… [Read More]
. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.
2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.
Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.
he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…… [Read More]
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…… [Read More]
The most common cause of pancreatic cancer is smoking which accounts for 25 -- 30% of cases (urveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program). Other factors include hereditary pancreatic cancers, adults with diabetes of minimum duration two years, hereditary pancreatic, and a history of other family cancers (GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas). The Consensus Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology advises that patients with a genetic history of pancreatic cancer should be referred to specialist centers where they can receive diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, genetic counseling, and advice on secondary screening (Ulrich et al., 2001).
Most pancreatic cancers (about 90%) originate in the ductal region and are usually discovered when they are locally advanced. They are called ductal adenocarcinoma. Others (80-90%) occur in the head of the gland (GUT). Lymph node metastasis is common as well as…… [Read More]
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]
Although relatively rare, California encephalitis (CE) can be a highly lethal disease that is caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba. In fact, of the 10 cases of CE reported to the California Encephalitis Project during the period from 1999 through 2007, all but one patient died. Today, though, the majority of victims of CE survive the condition, but a significant percentage (about 20%) experience long-term complications as a result. To determine the facts about this potentially deadly human pathogen, this paper reviews the literature to provide the history of CE including its first outbreak, how the disease is transmitted, and the epidemiology of CE. In addition, a discussion concerning the search for a vaccine for CE is followed by description of the treatments and public health considerations of CE. Finally, an examination of the concern CE has for public health is followed by a summary of the research…… [Read More]
The main factor of the pathophysiology for Jennifer is a marked pain in her throat. Her throat has become sore, specifically her cervical nodes (which is a sign clearly indicative of disease). Thus it is difficult to eat, which explains why she neglected to eat her breakfast. Another capital aspect of Jennifer’s pathophysiology which is particularly revealing is her fever, which is common in children (de Pont, 2015, p. 2). Initially her fever was low grade. However, in just a matter of days it exceeded 103 degrees. Her body is attempting to counteract the effects of the malady afflicting it via the fever. One of the foremost associated alterations of her adaptive responses is the current state of her skin. Her skin is desiccated and warm, which is indicative of the fever the child has experienced over the past couple of days. Her skin will likely continue to…… [Read More]
Comparison of pathophysiology of CVI and DVT
The pathogenesis of CVI is not completely understood; however, it's based on both venous reflux and obstruction; or an amalgamation of the two. Though venous reflux is actually based on a number of mechanisms, the key elements are venous valve ineffectiveness, vessel wall swelling, hemodynamic elements and additionally venous hypertension. These systems could be further exasperated by dysfunctional pumping devices (vascular and/or muscle pump), for example, in inert patients or even individuals with stiff joints (Goerge and Santler, 2017). Similarly, Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is actually blood clotting in a deep vein of a limb (normally pelvis or the thigh or calf). Low-level extremity DVT frequently results from damaged venous return (for instance, in inert patients), endothelial injury or even dysfunction (for example post fractures of leg) as well as, hypercoagulability. Concurrently, upper-level extremity DVT frequently outcomes from endothelial injury because of pacemakers,…… [Read More]
These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).
There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…… [Read More]
The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)
An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…… [Read More]