Epidemiology Essays (Examples)

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Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Words: 2724 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59820068

Epidemiology

Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine. This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late 1990s.Studies carried out in Iceland ( Tryggvason et al.,2005), Sweden (Nilsson et al.,2005), as well as Holland (Goettsch,2004) have indicated that close to 11,14.5 and 12.7 cases per million people per year respectively.Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. study by gaimy et al.,(2007) which was performed consecutively on autopsies indicated that small GISTs having between 1-10 mm in about 22.5% of the individuals aged above 50 years.These small GISTs…… [Read More]

About 50% of the GISTs exhibit a loss of gene off the arm of chromosome 22. This discovery is associated with the progression of the malignant GIST (Fukasawa et al.,2000;Bergmann et al.,1998;Kim et al., 2000;Lasota et al.,2007). There are however some losses that are less frequent on the chromosomes 9q,17q,1p and 11p.Gains are however noted on chromosomes 17q and 8q all of which have a strong association with malignant behavior (El-Rifai et al.,2000;Schurr et al.,2006).

Clinical features

Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the clinical features of GISTs.GISTs are mentioned by Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) to occur in almost every part of the GI tract.They are however more common in the stomach regions ( about 60%), ileum and jejunum (close to 30%), colorectum (about 4%) and duodenum (about 5%).GISTs are rarely seen in the appendix and esophagus (Miettinen et al.,2006;Miettinen, Sobin and Lasota,2005;DeMatteo eat al.,2000). Tumors that lack any form of association with the wall of the bowel are given special name- extragastrointestinal stromal sarcomas are noted to occur in the mesentery, omentum and retroperitoneum (Miettinen et al.,1999;Reith et al.,2000). The clinical symptoms that are associated with GIST are abdominal pain, dysphagia, obstruction, fatigue and satiety.It has been noted that patients may be presented with chronic bleeding to from their GI (Causes anemia). The patient may also present acute bleeding to GI ( as a consequence of the erosion via the gastric or the bowel mucosa). There could also be a rupture into the patient's abdominal cavity thus causing a life-threatening condition called intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Nilsson et al. (2005) indicated that a population-based research indicated that close to seventy percent of GISTs were related to clinical symptoms while twenty percent were not. 10% were detected at the time of autopsies.
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Progress in Global Maternal Health

Words: 848 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42691660

Epidemiology - Person, Place and Time

Epidemiology -- Person, Place, Time

Identify the specific goal you have chosen, describe it in detail, and discuss why you chose to focus on this goal and how it related to population health, both locally and globally.

The specific goal I have chosen is improvement of maternal health. I chose to focus on this goal because reproductive health is an issue for most women whether they live in developed or developing countries -- and because reproductive health is an issue over which the medical and healthcare communities can have relatively high degrees of influence. eproductive health is inextricably related to income at levels of a household, a community, and a nation. The figures representing women who died during pregnancy or childbirth are high (roughly 289,000 globally in 2013), but they are down by about 45% from 1990 levels ("MDG 5," 2014). This is a…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Coeytaux, F., Bingham, D., & Langer, A. (2010). Reducing Maternal Mortality: A Global Imperative. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Retrieved from  http://www.arhp.org/publications-and-resources/contraception-journal/february-2011 

MDG 5: Improve maternal health. (2014).

Trends in Maternal Mortality 1990-2008 . Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank. (September 2010). Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2010/trends_matmortality90-08.pdf
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Concepts and Misconceptions About Autism

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66819799

Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management Autism

Epidemiology of autism

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder. This bio-neurological developmental disorder tends to appear mainly before age three (Oller & Oller, 2011). It is the best popular disease for impairing a child's ability to interact and communicate. This lifelong disability tends to affect various development areas including sensory processing, social difficulty and communication significantly. Autism is manifested in various ways such as delayed verbal development, lack of spontaneity and inability to respond to humor.

From recent epidemiological surveys, the worldwide prevalence of autism is at a median of 60 cases per 1000 people (Steinman, 2014). Moreover, autism averages at 4:1 male to female ratio. Since 1980, the number of kids known to have autism has been increasing dramatically partly because of changes in diagnostic practice. However, we cannot rule out environmental variables when talking about autism. The risk of autism is linked to…… [Read More]

References

Oller, J. W., & Oller, S. D. (2011). Autism: The Diagnosis, Treatment, & Etiology of the Undeniable Epidemic. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Steinman, G. D. (2014). The Cause of Autism: Concepts and Misconceptions. Hollis, NY: Baffin Books Publishing
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Examining the Tools of Epidemiologists

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78346617

Epidemiology in Healthcare

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Immunization Program (NIP) track the number of deaths that occur due to measles within the United States (Gindler et al., 2004). Both programs are run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); however, the data reporting systems for the two organizations are distinct. The NCHS reports deaths as either underlying-cause or multiple-cause mortality, but in the absence of measles confirmation by physical examination or laboratory results. By comparison, NIP reports de-identified information, but only confirmed cases. Gindler and colleagues (2004) compared the two reporting systems and the NIP system was found cable of reporting 71% of deaths due to measles, compared to 64% by NCHS. The death-to-case ratio (DC) varied from 2.05 to 2.83 per 1,000 reported cases among the three databases during the 1989 outbreak. During this period, the prior annual average of 3,000…… [Read More]

References

Bwakura-Dangarembizi, M., Kendall, L., Bakeera-Kitaka, S., Nahirya-Ntege, P., Keishanyu, R., Nathoo, K. et al. (2014). A randomized trial of prolonged co-trimoxazole in HIV-infected children in Africa. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(1), 41-53.

Gindler, J., Tinker, S., Markowitz, L., Atkinson, W., Dales, L., & Papania, M.J. (2004). Acute measles mortality in the United States, 1987-2002. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189(Suppl. 1), S69-77.

Rigby, P. & Alexander, J. (2008). Understanding schizophrenia. Nursing Standard, 22(28), 49-56.

Saha, S., Chant, D., Welham, J., & McGrath, J. (2005). A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia. PLoS Medicine, 2(5), e141.
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Role of Public Health Nurses in HIV Prevention

Words: 1868 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14200387

Epidemiology of Communicable Disease - HIV

Epidemiology of Communicable Disease

Description of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that can lead to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, in susceptible people. Although the human body can eliminate some types of viruses, it cannot eliminate HIV, so once a person get HIV, they have the virus for life.

Within an organism, the HIV virus spreads via body fluids, affecting certain cells of the immune system. These cells are referred to as T cells or CD4 cells. As HIV moves through the body, such a massive number of T cells are destroyed that the body can no longer effectively fight off infections and other diseases. This is the point at which an HIV infection results in full-blown AIDS.

Although…… [Read More]

References:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC) Retrieved  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ 

Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. AIDS.gov. Retreived http://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/

Control of Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: Public Health Guide for Emergencies. The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retreived  http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-refugee-and-disaster-response/publications_tools/publications/_CRDR_ICRC_Public_Health_Guide_Book/Pages_from_Chapter_7_.pdf
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Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About HIV in the USA

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83204211

Epidemiology of HIV

Epidemiology & Communicable Disease

Description of HIV

HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).

HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]

References

Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from  http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03 #S2X

____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from  http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/ 

____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Retreived from  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ basics/index.html
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Where the Zika Virus Came From

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70652881

Epidemiology in the News: Incidence and Prevalence of the Zika Virus

Healy (2016) reports in the L.A. Times that scientists are currently pursuing five strategies of dealing with the Zika virus. Before reporting on these strategies, Healy provide an epidemiology of the virus, beginning with its first reported incidence in 1947 in Uganda. From Africa, Healy shows that the virus spread to Asia and the Americas. Connected to the spread of the disease is the concern of "whether cases of microcephaly followed in its wake but were undetected at the time" (Healy, 2016). To determine the connection of microcephaly to Zika, the island of Yap was studied by epidemiologists, who noted that in 2007 "between 68% and 88% of residents over the age of 2 were infected with the virus" (Healy, 2016).

Yap provides a useful means of studying the disease because island nations such as Yap, which are small…… [Read More]

References

Gordis, L. (2014). Epidemiology. PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Healy, M. (2016). Five ways scientists are going after the Zika virus. Los Angeles

Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-science-of-zika-five-ways-20160223-htmlstory.html.
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Breast Cancer Detection Methods

Words: 934 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45945883

Epidemiology

The Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality has issued its recommendations for breast cancer screening. In this article, they make a few different recommendations. First, they recommend screening for women 50-74 years. They note that women under 50 should make the choice for themselves as to whether or not they wish to begin screening. They note that there is little evidence to support screening age 75 onward. This body, however, recommends against teaching breast self-examination.

Also noted is that "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the additional benefits and harms of clinical breast examination beyond mammography. They also find that there is insufficient evidence of incremental benefits for the use of digital mammography or MI. The lack of evidence does not mean that these things are ineffective or do not provide value, just that there is no evidence that they do, which is different.

The most controversial aspect…… [Read More]

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: Screening for breast cancer. Retrieved from http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf09/breastcancer/brcanrs.htm

Dundar, P., Ozmen, D., Ozturk, B., Haspolat, G., Akydiz, F., Coban, S. & Cakiroglu, G. (2006). The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in Western Turkey. BioMedCentral. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-6-43

Gwarzo, U., Sabitu, K, & Idris, S. (2009). Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Northwestern Nigeia. Annals of African Medicine. Vol. 8 (1) 55-58.

Rosotowich, V. (2006). Breast self-examination. SOGC Committee Opinion. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.174.6517&rep=rep1&type=pdf
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Human Papilloma Virus and the Description of

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82241998

human papilloma virus and the description of epidemiology as it relates to the virus. Steps and methods of epidemiology have been discussed in detail alongside statistical data for demographics taken from surveillance records. Moreover, research data have been taken as vital assistance to compliment the study of this research paper and to prove results with evidences from researches (Duncan, 1988).

Statistics have been taken from World Health Organization for the rate of occurrence and risk factors involved with the diseases caused by the virus. Epidemiology cannot be defined unless its steps and methods are explained (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005). The epidemiology for papillomavirus diseases includes descriptive methods of epidemiology and in this paper; the focus has been made on describing the process steps with respect to papillomavirus. There are five steps, which define how the epidemiology process is carried out; keeping in mind one of the two approaches of the…… [Read More]

References

Duncan, D. (1988). Epidemiology: basis for disease prevention and health promotion. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.

Fletcher, R.H., & Fletcher, S.W. (2005). Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gordis, L. (2009). Epidemiology E-Book. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Krickeberg, K., Pham, V.T., & Pham, T.M. (2012). Epidemiology: Key to Prevention . New York, NY: Springer.
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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97332427

Psuedomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Epidemiology

The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.

Ecology

P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…… [Read More]

References

Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long.
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Dermatology Issues

Words: 2388 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1119702

Dermatology Differential Diagnoses

Dermatology Differential Diagnosis

Skin conditions can be notoriously difficult to diagnose. It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and pathology of common conditions in order to make a thorough diagnosis of the current case. Here, the research states that "key questions for the patient include the time of onset, duration, location, evolution, and symptoms of the rash or lesion. Additional information on family history, occupational exposures, comorbidities, medications, and social or psychological factors may be helpful" (Goldstein et al., 2012). All of this knowledge provided by the patient can ultimately help lead to differential diagnoses that can then prepare treatment.

In this current case study, there is a 33-year-old male suffering from a rash. The patient has a rash of 2-weeks duration located behind the knees and elbows bilaterally. It is itchy, red, somewhat raised, and dry. At times it has had clear drainage. Thus, the "papules…… [Read More]

References

Dunphy, L., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (2011) Primary care: The art and science of advanced practice nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-2255-5

Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2013). Treatment of Psoriasis.

Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2014). Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriasis.
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Rates of death and disease

Words: 2419 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658414

Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000

of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52

of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238

The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]

per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population

130 per 100,000 population

183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.

The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]

14 per 100,000 population

130 per 100,000 population

144 per 100,000 population

264 per 100,000 population

e. none of the above

B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3

3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…… [Read More]

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Public Community Health Public Community

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92680489

" (Rosen, 1) in a regard, community health falls within this purview and is a subset to the broader topic of public health.

c. Differences in roles of public and community health nurse and nurse in an acute care setting

The role which is given to the nurse in the public or community health context should be essentially similar to that which is seen in an acute care context. Ethical, practical and medical conditions remain unchanged from one context to the next. However, the nurse will be required to prepare for certain distinctions which do denote a difference. Particularly, nurses in public health settings are less likely to possess the resources and facilities which are afforded those in the acute care setting. This means that in many instances, public health nurses can only function as the front line for consultation, diagnosis and basic treatment. here more serious concerns become apparent,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Health Disaster OC. (HDOC). (2008). Health Disaster Management Division. Oraange County Health Care Agency.

Orange County Health Care Agency (OCHCA). (2009). Epidemiology & Assessment. County of Orange California. Online at http://ochealthinfo.com/epi/

Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. JHU Press.
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Detection of the Borna Disease Virus Relating

Words: 6358 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80489172

detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.

The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]

Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]

Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]

bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.

3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,[2000]. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135

4.Author not available, [2003] Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at  http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm 

5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. [2000]. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.

6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
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HIV AIDS Epidemic Among the Homeless

Words: 2896 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20134468

HIV / AIDS epidemic among the homeless

HIV, the epidemic that seems to have no end, rears it head year after year causing catastrophic damage. Now more than ever, all individuals regardless of race or demographics must be weary of the devastation this virus can cause. One social economic class that is particularly prone to this epidemic is that of the homeless community. According the center for disease control and prevention, the African-American community accounts for nearly 46% of people living with a HIV diagnosis (1). Of those, 23% are homeless. What is even more mindboggling is the fact that the African-American community only accounts for 13% of the current U.S. population.

Estimated ates of New HIV Infections,

by ace/Ethnicity and Gender, 2006

(Source: CDC. Subpopulation Estimates from the HIV Incidence Surveillance System -- United States, 2006. MMW. 2008; 57(36):985 -- 989)

Obviously, the best way to mitigate the risk…… [Read More]

References

1) "HIV / AIDS and African-Americans | Topics | CDC HIV / AIDS." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 03 May 2011. .

2) "HIV and AIDS among African-Americans." AIDS & HIV Information from the AIDS Charity AVERT. Web. 03 May 2011. .

3) "Sexual Activity Fact Sheet." Sexual Activity Fact Sheet. Summer 2008. Web. May 2010. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf>.

4) "Child Trend Databank." Child Trend Data Bank. Web. May 2010. .
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Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young

Words: 2102 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98392642

Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?

Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).

Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…… [Read More]

References

Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm

Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm

Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp

Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
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Infections What We Have Learned

Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44136618

Due to their contact with different patients, it allows them to become carriers of the disease.

It is important to study the relevance of SARS to epidemiology because epidemiology can provide an amount of diverse and important information that can facilitate the process of controlling, if not totally preventing, its spread. y relating SARS to epidemiology, people can become aware of the whole story on SARS. Moreover, epidemiology can be a fundamental source in finding solutions to combat the disease. Thus, providing another measure in the management and control of its spread. For instance, in the outbreak cases of SARS in many places worldwide, the article indicated that epidemiology provided appropriate models in containing the disease.

ibliography

Emerging Infections: What Have We Learned from SARS?

Retrieved on Nov. 12, 2004, from CDC.GOV.

Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no7/pdfs/04-0166.pdf… [Read More]

Bibliography

Emerging Infections: What Have We Learned from SARS?

Retrieved on Nov. 12, 2004, from CDC.GOV.

Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no7/pdfs/04-0166.pdf
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Yellow Fever the Fever by

Words: 775 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6726884

Studies suggest certain mosquitoes may also transmit the virus (Mulla, 1999).

The host for the disease is humans, and the environment of the case study includes the regions of Norfolk and Portsmouth. The agent examined is yellow fever. Other possible hosts include mosquitoes known to bear infection, like the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Mulla, 1999).

Primary Secondary Tertiary Prevention

If living at the time, primary prevention would have included avoidance of natural spread of the disease. This may have been almost impossible however as ships frequently traveled to cities via ports. However, temporary quarantine of ships entering port from affected areas may have served as a primary prevention technique for preventing spread of the disease (Oberle, 2001). Secondary prevention methods would have included providing citizens with clean waters and immunizations (Oberle, 2001).

Vaccines have proven beneficial for preventing yellow fever transmission in humans. Unfortunately vaccines were not available at the time…… [Read More]

References

Mulla, Z.B. (1999 - Oct). "Yellow Fever." Florida Dept. Of State. 15, October 2005:

http://www.doh.state.fl.us/Disease_ctrl/epi/htopics/reports/yell_fev.pdf

Oberle, M. (2001). Oberle, M. "Bioterrorism: A changing world and what you can do." http://healthlinks.washington.edu/nwcphp/bt/27nov2001.ppt

Wagner, L. (2005 - Jul). "The Fever." The Virginian Pilot, Available:
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Mold Remediation in Wilkes-Barre PA Mold Remediation

Words: 1924 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56576698

Mold emediation in Wilkes-Barre, PA

Mold emediation

Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA

Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA

Pennsylvania was hit hard in September, first by Hurricane Irene and then by the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee (Huber, 2011). Close to 100,000 residents living in areas that were inundated in 1972 due to Hurricane Agnes were ordered to evacuate on Thursday, September 8, 2011 (The Times Leader, 2011) and were not allowed to return until Saturday afternoon or later (Olson, 2011). Fortunately, the levees built in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes did their job and a comparatively low number of 5,400 homes were exposed to floodwaters (Huber, 2011). However, those residents whose homes were flooded will be faced not only with physical damage to their property, but also the threat of significant exposure to mold-generated bioaerosols if their homes were exposed…… [Read More]

References

Brandt, Mary, Brown, Clive, Burkhart, Joe, Burton, Nancy, Cox-Ganser, Jean, Damon, Scott et al. (2006). Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of hurricanes and major floods. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 1-27. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5508a1.htm 

Cabral, Joao P.S. (2010). Can we use indoor fungi as bioindicators of indoor air quality? Historical perspectives and open questions. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 4285-4295.

Committee on Damp Indoor Spaces and Health (CDISH). (2004). Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. NAP.edu. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309091934

Cummings, Kristin J., Cox-Ganser, Jean, Riggs, Margaret A., Edwards, Nicole, and Kreiss, Kathleen. (2007). Respirator donning in post-hurricane New Orleans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13, 700-707.
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How Have Epidemics Changed

Words: 929 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8685046

epidemiology changed and evolved from the 1900s to the present? What effects have these changes had in your area of health care?

More than a hundred years ago, the primary focus of epidemiology was on containing the spread of epidemics such as cholera, tuberculosis, and polio. Knowledge about disease transmission, improved sanitation, and vaccinations have made many of these diseases either manageable or eradicated them. Today, the primary challenge for epidemiology is the shift to focusing on lifestyle-related complaints such as obesity, inactivity, and smoking which cause chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Often, these can be more difficult to treat given that the lifestyle changes that they require both individuals and government to make are more complex and far-reaching than simply improving sanitation or getting vaccinated.

As a result, there is a greater need to educate the public and to encourage changes in habits and behavior,…… [Read More]

References

Achievements in public health, 1900-1999: Changes in the public health system. (1999).

MMWR, 48(50); 1141-7. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4850a1.htm 

Dengue epidemic in Bolivia: how dengue can be prevented. (2009). WHO. Retrieved from:

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/multimedia/podcasts/2009/dengue_bolivia_20090313/en
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Inpatient Health Quality of Care

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97648849

Mortality prevention is certainly an area where the strongest interventions are most justified.


Bluegrass Hospital Quality of Care

Industry Comparison Quality of Care Standards

("Patient safety and," 2011)


1. Based upon the report card alone, the hospital is deficient in esophogeal resection, pancreatic resection, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, coronary artery bypass grafts, craniotomies and acute myocardial infarctions. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages were just slightly above the national average and within the standard deviation.


2. As an administrative official, it is prudent to check the internal data charts personally at a departmental level to make sure the data is accurate and was collected correctly and without bias.


3. The QI teams would then determine the specific on site measures needed to rectify the problems and the level of interventions necessary. These interventions would be more stringent with regard to the above factors due to fact that patient mortality could be involved.


4. Recommendations…… [Read More]

Works Cited


Catchpole, K.R., et al. (2007). Patient handover from surgery to intensive care: using formula 1 pit-stop and aviation models to improve safety and quality. Pediatric Anesthesia, 17, 470-478.


Pronovost, P.J. (2009). Reducing health care hazards: lessons from the commercial aviation safety team. Health Affairs, 476-489.

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Obesity Among Blacks in General

Words: 2218 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1096221

Blacks also have a 320% higher rate of hypertension-related end-stage renal disease than the general population (Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).

According to a study of diet-related chronic diseases among black men in Florida, it was found that almost two-thirds of blacks in Florida are estimated to be at risk for health problems related to being overweight. The percent of the total population that is at risk for health problems related to being overweight compared to the State of Florida in shown in Table 2 below.

Table 2. Percentage of Black/White Population at isk for Overweight Health Problems - Florida vs. The U.S. (Source: Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).

Florida National

Black 62.4-65.4

White 52.0-56.0

The authors of this study point out that many blacks do not eat a sufficient amount of vegetables and other foods that require the recommended levels of nutrition. Clearly, there is more involved in the epidemiology and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.

Collins, C.F. (1996). African-American women's health and social issues. Westport, CT: Auburn House.

Diet-Related Chronic Diseases that Disproportionately Affect African-American Men. State of Florida: Health. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from www.5aday.gov/aahealth/aamen/diet/pdfs/FL_state.pdf.

Drevenstedt, G.L. (1998). Race and Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Religious Attendance on Subjective Health. Review of Religious Research, 39(3), 246.
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Arnold T & Shelbourne K

Words: 2152 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42250538

. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.

2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.

Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.

he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…… [Read More]

This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.

Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.

The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
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Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26433183

With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.

ibliography

1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at,  http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf 

4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
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Theory-Based Research Eyle John Changing

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80790683

On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.

The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…… [Read More]

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Pancreatic Cancer

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31029482

Pancreatic Cancer

Etiology:

The most common cause of pancreatic cancer is smoking which accounts for 25 -- 30% of cases (urveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program). Other factors include hereditary pancreatic cancers, adults with diabetes of minimum duration two years, hereditary pancreatic, and a history of other family cancers (GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas). The Consensus Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology advises that patients with a genetic history of pancreatic cancer should be referred to specialist centers where they can receive diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, genetic counseling, and advice on secondary screening (Ulrich et al., 2001).

Pathology:

Most pancreatic cancers (about 90%) originate in the ductal region and are usually discovered when they are locally advanced. They are called ductal adenocarcinoma. Others (80-90%) occur in the head of the gland (GUT). Lymph node metastasis is common as well as…… [Read More]

Sources

Doheny, K ( July 2, 2012) Medication Errors Affect Half of Heart Patients WebMD  http://www.webmd.com/heart/news/20120702/half-of-heart-patients-make-medication-errors 

GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas  http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/suppl_5/v1.full 

Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program. http://seer.cancer.gov/faststats/html/inc_pancreas.html

Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, et al. (2001) Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet;358:1576-85
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Sexual Transmitted Disease

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78834875

STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .

CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .

Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
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Combating the Infectious Balamuthia Mandrillaris Ameba

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20163869

California Encephalitis

Although relatively rare, California encephalitis (CE) can be a highly lethal disease that is caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba. In fact, of the 10 cases of CE reported to the California Encephalitis Project during the period from 1999 through 2007, all but one patient died. Today, though, the majority of victims of CE survive the condition, but a significant percentage (about 20%) experience long-term complications as a result. To determine the facts about this potentially deadly human pathogen, this paper reviews the literature to provide the history of CE including its first outbreak, how the disease is transmitted, and the epidemiology of CE. In addition, a discussion concerning the search for a vaccine for CE is followed by description of the treatments and public health considerations of CE. Finally, an examination of the concern CE has for public health is followed by a summary of the research…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, J. R. & Schneider, J. R. (2005, April). Quantitative genetics of vector competence for la Crosse virus and body size in Ochlerotatus Hendersoni and Ochlerotatus Triseriatus interspecific hybrids. Genetics, 169(4), 1529-1532.

Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis -- California, 1999 -- 2007. (2015). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5728a2.htm.

California encephalitis. (2015). Right Diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.right diagnosis.com/c/california_encephalitis/intro.htm.

California serogroup - pathogen safety data sheet. (2015). Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds27e-eng.php.