436+ documents containing “epidemiology”.
Definition and Description of Epidemiology
The word epidemiology was derived from the Greek words where "epi" means upon, "demos" means people, and "logos" means study.
Epidemiology can be defined in detail as the study of distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems. (Last, 2001)
Here, in the definition the distribution refers to analysis of persons, classes of people, places that are being affected by the specific disease and determinants refers to factors that influence population health; these factors may be chemical, physical, biological, social, economic, cultural, behavioral or genetic. Health-related states refers to causes of death, diseases and behaviors such as use of tobacco, use of health services and reactions to preventive treatments. Specified population refers to those groups who indicate identifiable characteristics and application to prevention and control is aim of public health to….
AIDS. (2012). U.S. Statistics. Retrieved from Aids.gov: http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/statistics/
Bonita, R., Beaglehole, R., & Kjellstorm, T. (2006). Basic Epidemiology. China: World Health Organization.
CDC. (2011). HIV Among Youth. USA: CDC.
Health Knowledge. (2012). The Steps in Outbreak Investigation Including the Use of Relevant Epidemiological Methods. Retrieved from HealthKnowledge.org.uk: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/disease-causation-diagnostic/2g-communicable-disease/outbreak-investigation
The "where" category is at the right corner, and can be delineated as Fulton, Georgia. All three categories interact with each other to offer conclusions for the study. Additional factors such as child abuse and the crime rate can then be examined in terms of these categories.
According to osenberg & Handler, descriptive epidemiology focuses on the pattern and frequency of health issues for a population group, while analytic epidemiology searches for the determinants of health outcomes. Generally, epidemiological studies tend to focus on both of these in order to most adequately examine and remedy the problems involved.
For the specific problem of teenage pregnancy in Fulton, however, it is estimated that a descriptive type of epidemiology would be more suitable. In this regard, it is estimated to be of greater importance to focus on a descriptive approach of the existing problem than on factors that prevent it. In order to….
BMJ (2009). What is epidemiology? http://www.bmj.com/epidem/epid.1.html
Georgia Agape. (2009). Teenage Pregnancy? Important Information for You. http://www.georgiaagape.org/unplanned_pregnancies/teen_pregnancy.html
Georgia Department of Human Resources (2009). Adolescent Health and Youth Development: Community Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program. http://health.state.ga.us/programs/adolescent/community.asp
Georgia Family Connection Partnership (2009). Fulton County, Georgia: Profile of Child, Family and Community Well-Being. http://www.gafcp.org/kidscount/profiles/Fulton_Fact_Sheet_2008.pdf
Recent estimates suggest that while representing 25% of the ever sexually active population, 15 to 24 years of age acquire nearly half of all new STD" (Special focus profiles: Adolescents and young adults, 2007, Surveillance 2006: CDC).
Explained the type of epidemiology used
hile most of the data compiled is based upon statistical evidence from clinics and hospitals, in addition to this analytical methodology, research indicates in a descriptive fashion that teenage girls are particularly at risk as well because of physical reasons: "the greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured and is probably more susceptible to infection, they are at particularly high risk for infection if sexually active" (Special focus profiles: Adolescents and young adults, 2007, Surveillance 2006: CDC). Men who engage in unprotected intercourse with other men….
Chlamydia. (2007). Surveillance 2006. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved January 9, 2009 at http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/chlamydia.htm
Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet. (2007). CDC. Retrieved January 9, 2009 at http://www.cdc.gov/std/Chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia.htm#Common
Epidemiological triangle. Retrieved January 9, 2009 at http://w3.salemstate.edu/~bporemba/epi99/sld047.htm
Special focus profiles: Adolescents and young adults. (2007). Surveillance 2006. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved January 9, 2009 at http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/adol.htm
"Epidemiology." World Health Organization. Viewed 13 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/epidemiology/en/
2. Qualitative research, and qualitative understanding, is very useful in translating certain ideas into words that can be more readily understood by the researcher. Quality is understood as a subjective term and by trying to model quality into a form that can be translated mathematically allows this type of data to be manipulated and crafted to fit certain arguments. Descriptive terms such as good and bad are relative terms and qualitative analysis seeks to standardize these terms in order to communicate their understanding of these terms to more complex and mathematically-based languages.
Oftentimes researchers will use qualitative words, phrases and meanings and somehow translate them into numerical data that then can be processed and put through the statistical wringer. The human condition works with both qualitative and quantitative aspects within the brain. Focusing too much on one side of the equation….
Participants were included if they had experienced sexual or physical assault in childhood or adulthood and met criteria for PTSD at the time of the initial assessment, were at least 3 months posttrauma (no upper limit), and if on medication, were stabilized. Women with current substance dependence were included if/when they had been abstinent for 6 months. Those with substance abuse were permitted to participate if they agreed to desist in usage during the period of treatment. Following telephone screening, potential participants were invited to be assessed for possible participation, at which time they discussed and signed informed consent for participation.
Subjects. A total of 256 women were assessed for possible participation by assessors who were blind to group assignment. The most common reasons for exclusion from the study (n = 94) were not meeting the criteria for PTSD (n = 28), current substance dependence (n = 12), medication instability….
Barlow, DH (ed.). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders (3rd ed.).
Monson, C.M., Schnurr, P.P., Resick, P.A.., Friedman, M.J., Young-Xu, Y. & Stevens, S.P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 898-907.
Mueser, K.T., Rosenberg, S.D., Xie, H., Jankowski, M.K., Bolton, E.E., Lu, W. Rosenberg, H.J., McHugo, G.J. & Wolfe, R. (2008). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive- behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 259-271.
Resick, P.A., Galovski, T.E., Uhlmansiek, M.O., Scher, C.D., Clum, G.A. & Young-Xu, Y.
Epidemiology Intersecting With and Impacting Nursing Work
Although epidemiological research may seem far removed from the work of the clinical nurse, in actuality it has a material impact upon how nurses interact with patients every day. A good example of this is the mounting epidemiological evidence indicating that there is an obesity epidemic in the United States. Without this knowledge, a nurse might be inclined to ignore a patient whose weight is on the borderline of overweight and normal weight, particularly if the patient is young. But the risk of children and adolescents becoming overweight, despite the previously high levels of activity and growth of these age groups, is likewise increasing due to sedentary behaviors and an increased reliance upon convenience, nutrient-poor but calorically dense foods.
If a child or an adult has risk factors such as sedentary behavior, poverty, or membership in certain historically discriminated-against groups with higher risk factors for….
Influenza. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/flu.html
Nguyen, D. & El-Serag, H. (2010).The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 39(1): 1 -- 7. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2833287/
Epidemiology of Elderly Driving Safety
Ball, K., Edwards, JD, Ross, LA, and McGwin, G. (2010) Cognitive Training Decreases Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement of Older Drivers. The American Geriatrics Society. Journal Compilation. 58:2107-2113.
Bauza, G. (2008) High Mortality in Elderly Drivers is Associated with Distinct Injury Patterns: Analysis of 187,869 Injured Drivers. Journal of Trauma. 2008.
Kulikov, E. (2011) The Social and Policy Predictors of Driving Mobility Among Older Adults. Journal of Aging & Social Policy. 23:1-18, 2011. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Routledge.
Munro, CA, et al. (2010) Predictors of Lane-Change Errors in Older Drivers. JAGS 58:457-242, 2010. The American Geriatrics Society.
In some mammals with this capability, an unfertilized egg may begin developing into an embryo or the development can just stop. Investigators even suspected that the difficulties experienced by teams in mammal-cloning experiments were due to the absence of RNAs in the sperm. In cloning, scientists would take the DNA from a non-germ cell, add it to an egg denuded of its DNA and trick it into developing as though it were fertilized by a sperm. The procedure would work only a few times. Most of the time, it would develop gross defects, which often delayed further development. John Eppig, a reproductive biologist at Jackson Laboratory in ar Harbor, Maine, suggested that the success of cloning was a strong argument against the supposed key biological role of apparently large numbers of RNAs being delivered by the sperm (Travis).
It has been estimated that infertility occurs in 2 million couples in….
American Family Physician. Chlamydial Infection and Male Infertility. American Academy of Family Physicians: Gale Group, November 15, 1993
Health News. Pain Relief with Acupuncture. Belvoir Media Group LLC: Gale Group, October 2006
Needling Away your Back Pain. Belvoir Media Group LLC. Gale Group, June 2006
Kang, Han K. Evidence for a Deployment-Related Gulf War Syndrome by Factor Analysis. Heldref Publications: Gale Group, 2002
Furthermore, reports reveal that major organs of the body such as nerves, blood vessels, kidney and so forth are at immense risk of being damaged after the onset of type 1 diabetes. Moreover, history illustrates that diabetes cut down the years from the life of sufferers (Achenbach, Bonifacio, Koczwara, & Ziegler, 2005).
Clinical type 2 diabetes is also developed through a number of stages. The person initially becomes resistant towards responding to the presence of insulin in blood. This result in fluctuation of blood glucose level from the normal value for certain period of time and when the condition persists, diabetes is said to have developed. Consequently, medical treatment and preventive measures are implemented to control the prevailing state of disorder (amlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000).
(amlo-Halsted & Edelman, 2000)
Generally, type 2 diabetes is initiated during adulthood. Its history demonstrates that its signs and symptoms are not distinctively observed; however, in most….
Achenbach, P, Bonifacio, E, Koczwara, K & Ziegler, AG 2005, 'Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes', Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 25-27
Cryer, PE 2004, 'Diverse Causes of Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure in Diabetes', the New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 22, pp. 2272 -- 2277.
Ferrara, a 2007, 'Increasing Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus', Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no.2, pp. 141-146.
Flaws, B, Kuchinski, LM & Casanas, R 2002, the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus With Chinese Medicine: A Textbook & Clinical Manual, First Edition, Blue Poppy Enterprises, Inc., Colorado.
This includes the prison population, the patients in the hospital and any county-assisted long-term care facilities, and all of those who utilized the relief shelters set up throughout the county. Those residents who attempted to shelter in place rather than evacuating to one of the relief shelters as recommended will also need to be served, of course, but as the scattered nature of these residents will require a much greater expenditure of time and available resources in order to treat and asses far fewer people, the bulk of resources must first and foremost be applied to those population centers already established prior to, during, or immediately in the wake of the emergency event. The response for these populations will be relatively straightforward, and the focus on these community populations specifically is directly needs-based.
Not only will these populations require fewer per-person resources and time expenditures in order to be assessed….
A decrease in the rates of recent infections, a reduction in the lifetime risk of TB infection, and a reduction in the effective contact number would reflect the control of TB among the adults.
The primary target for the long-term TB control should be to reduce the high force of TB infection, particularly in densely populated sub-urban areas. This is because the effectual contact numbers and the population prevalence of the infectious TB cases are the drivers of the high force of infection for the TB epidemic. Using of antiretroviral therapy (AT) as prevention has a strategy of controlling the HIV epidemic will have a supplementary effect in the control of the TB that is HIV-associated. A full implementation of the available AT guidelines, among the HIV- infected patients, will decrease the pre-AT TB infection burden. There is a need to target high-risk communities, and accompanying a shift in priority….
Cobelens, F., Kampen, S., Ochodo, E., & Atun, R., Lienhardt, C. (2012). Research on Implementation of Interventions in Tuberculosis Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. PLOS Medicine.
Keren Middelkoop, K., Linda-Gail Bekker, L., Landon Myer, L., Rodney Dawson, R., & Robin Wood, R. (2008). Rates of tuberculosis transmission to children and adolescents in a community with a high prevalence of HIV infection among adults. Oxford Journals, 47 (3), pp. 349-355.
Lawn S.D., Bekker LG., Middelkoop K., Myer L., & Wood R. (2006). Impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in a peri-urban community in South Africa: the need for age-specific interventions. Clin Infect Dis; 42: pp. 1040 -- 7.
Shimao, T. (2005). Tuberculosis and its control -- lessons from the past and future prospect. Kekkaku Tuberculosis, 80(6), pp. 481-489.
Epidemiology and Type II Diabetes
In order to correct or avoid a medical condition, especially one that is preventable, a person has to have a good understanding of what is causing that condition and how to prevent (or reverse) it in order to promote optimum health. However, one cannot work on preventing a condition without examining the literature on it, in an effort to determine what actually works and what does not. There are many "cures" and "remedies" for a number of conditions, and a significant number of those remedies and cures are not helpful. Some may actually be dangerous, so it is very important to understand the true nature of what is being offered to a person or a community when it comes to remaining (or becoming) healthy. Here, type II diabetes will be discussed in order to determine how to use the literature review and other data so it….
Boussageon, R., Bejan-Angoulvant, T., Saadatian-Elahi, M., Lafont, S., Bergeonneau, C., Kassai, B., Erpeldinger, S., Wright, J.M., Gueyffier, F., & Cornu, C. (2011). Effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and microvascular events in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 343: d4169.
Farmer, A.J., Perera, R., Ward, A., Heneghan, C., Oke, J., Barnett, A.H., Davidson, M.B., Guerci, B., Coates, V., Schwedes, U., & O'Malley, S. (2012). Meta-analysis of individual patient data in randomised trials of self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes. BMJ (Clinical research ed.,) 344: e486.
Fasanmade, O.A., Odeniyi, I.A., Ogbera, A.O. (2008). Diabetic ketoacidosis: Diagnosis and management. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 37(2): 99 -- 105.
Kumar, V., Fausto, Nelson., Abbas, A.K., Cotran, R.S., & Robbins, S.L. (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th. ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Shellfish-associated hepatitis a in 1961
Rippey, S.R. (1994). Infectious disease associated with molluscan shellfish consumption.
Clinical Microbiology Review. 7(4):419. DOI: 10.112/CMR.7.4.419. http://cmr.asm.org/content/7/4/419.full.pdf
This article provides a historical overview of the shift to the dominance of different disease pathologies associated with consuming tainted shellfish. Prior to the 1950s, the most common disease associated with eating tainted shellfish was typhoid fever. However, improved sanitation has changed this and the last case of shellfish-derived typhoid fever was reported in 1954. Hepatitis A, in contrast to typhoid, is on the rise: the first case was reported in 1956 in Sweden. In 1961, there were a number of outbreaks reported in Mississippi and Alabama of consumers of raw oysters and of raw clams in New Jersey and Connecticut.
Diseases associated with shellfish consumption can be difficult to track: in many healthy individuals they present themselves only as mild gastrointestinal distress and are not reported to health authorities. In….
86(5): 1757 -- 1763. doi: 10.1172/JCI114902. Retrieved from:
Epidemiologically speaking, tryptophan-associated eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (L-TRP-EMS) is a relatively new disease but reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. In 1989. Epidemiologic data was able to connect the dots and link the syndrome to intake of L-tryptophan (L-TRP) to a specific manufacturer (Crofford 1990). Symptoms appeared in patients who were ingesting the amino acid L-tryptophan (L-TRP) for a variety of minor problems, including insomnia and depression. However, the 'treatment' soon was revealed to be worse than the disease L-TRP-EMS is "characterized initially by eosinophilia, myalgias, and edema, and subsequently by myositis, fasciitis, skin sclerosis and peripheral neuropathy" (Crofford 1990). The development of the syndrome was linked to one manufacturer, suggesting that a contaminant in the process may have been implicated in the disorder. However, this is far from conclusive given that many asymptomatic individuals ingested the amino acid from the possibly contaminated batch. The article details the construction of an animal model to simulate the disorder to better understand the possible epidemiology and progression of L-TRP-EMS.
Epidemiological Approach to the Study of Male Adolescent Suicide in Idaho
Throughout history suicide has remained an enigma in cultures that are far and different from each other. The act of taking one's life has been a representation of religious beliefs, cultural attitudes, and the answer to pain and suffering. Although suicide is mainly frowned upon in the western world is such countries as Japan and India the act of suicide is a requirement of honor and social acceptability and the passage of time has seen the emergence, and rejection, of varying attitudes toward suicide. For example, during the persecution of Christians by the omans an acceptable practice of a Christian woman to prevent herself from being "deflowered" by a oman soldier the act of suicide was not only accepted but expected as well. In fact the omans and Greeks both were of the opinion that suicide was a responsible….
Bailar, J.C. (1997) The promise and problems of meta-analysis. New Eng. J. Med. 337:559-561*
Blackman, M (1996), You asked about ... adolescent depression. The Canadian Journal of CME [Internet]. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://www.mentalhealth.com/mag1/p51-dp01.html . *
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for InjuryPrevention and Control.
(2003). http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars .
Prevention Epidemiology Provide a Framework Health Professional Intervene Prevent Disease, Injury Disability
Levels of prevention in epidemiology: Obesity
Obesity is responsible for an estimated 3,000,000 premature deaths every year and the numbers of obese persons in the U.S. are increasing (Nammi et al. 2004). In the field of epidemiology, it is recognized that it is not enough to merely treat the symptoms of a disease: in fact, when the disease is fully manifested is often the least effective stage to intervene. Prevention is often the best cure, particularly for chronic health conditions like obesity. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has identified three distinct levels of public health promotion: primary, secondary, and tertiary, all of which are necessary to address the problems generated by obesity.
"Primary prevention reduces both the incidence and prevalence of a disease" (Three levels of prevention, 2007, CDC). In the case of obesity, this might include physical education….
Epidemiology Definition and Description of Epidemiology The word epidemiology was derived from the Greek words where "epi" means upon, "demos" means people, and "logos" means study. Epidemiology can be defined in detail…Read Full Paper ❯
The "where" category is at the right corner, and can be delineated as Fulton, Georgia. All three categories interact with each other to offer conclusions for the study.…Read Full Paper ❯
Recent estimates suggest that while representing 25% of the ever sexually active population, 15 to 24 years of age acquire nearly half of all new STD" (Special focus…Read Full Paper ❯
References. "Epidemiology." World Health Organization. Viewed 13 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/epidemiology/en/ 2. Qualitative research, and qualitative understanding, is very useful in translating certain ideas into words that can be more…Read Full Paper ❯
Participants were included if they had experienced sexual or physical assault in childhood or adulthood and met criteria for PTSD at the time of the initial assessment, were…Read Full Paper ❯
Medical - Epidemiology
Epidemiology Intersecting With and Impacting Nursing Work Although epidemiological research may seem far removed from the work of the clinical nurse, in actuality it has a material impact upon how…Read Full Paper ❯
Epidemiology of Elderly Driving Safety AnnotatedRead Full Paper ❯
In some mammals with this capability, an unfertilized egg may begin developing into an embryo or the development can just stop. Investigators even suspected that the difficulties experienced…Read Full Paper ❯
Furthermore, reports reveal that major organs of the body such as nerves, blood vessels, kidney and so forth are at immense risk of being damaged after the onset…Read Full Paper ❯
This includes the prison population, the patients in the hospital and any county-assisted long-term care facilities, and all of those who utilized the relief shelters set up throughout…Read Full Paper ❯
A decrease in the rates of recent infections, a reduction in the lifetime risk of TB infection, and a reduction in the effective contact number would reflect the…Read Full Paper ❯
Epidemiology and Type II Diabetes In order to correct or avoid a medical condition, especially one that is preventable, a person has to have a good understanding of what is…Read Full Paper ❯
Epidemiology Shellfish-associated hepatitis a in 1961 Rippey, S.R. (1994). Infectious disease associated with molluscan shellfish consumption. Clinical Microbiology Review. 7(4):419. DOI: 10.112/CMR.7.4.419. http://cmr.asm.org/content/7/4/419.full.pdf This article provides a historical overview of the shift…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
Adolescent Suicide Epidemiological Approach to the Study of Male Adolescent Suicide in Idaho Throughout history suicide has remained an enigma in cultures that are far and different from each other. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Prevention Epidemiology Provide a Framework Health Professional Intervene Prevent Disease, Injury Disability Levels of prevention in epidemiology: Obesity Obesity is responsible for an estimated 3,000,000 premature deaths every year and…Read Full Paper ❯