Epistemological Essays (Examples)

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Quality Health Care Delivery

Words: 637 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76385958

Health Care Quality Concerns
1. For the most part, the relationship between clinical quality and patient experience of care is direct. Therefore, if clinical quality is ensured, patients will typically experience quality care. Similarly, if the clinical quality of the administration of care is poor, patients will experience lower quality levels of care. The crux of this relationship is the fact that clinical quality is a causative agent in the patient care experience. It is necessary to have high levels of clinical quality in order for patients to experience quality care. The former directly impacts the latter. In several instances, notably positive patient care experiences are the outcome of commendable clinical quality.
2. Accountability plays a considerable role in the consistent delivery of the quality of care administered in healthcare settings. It is one of the means of ensuring that there is such consistency in the care delivered, because it…… [Read More]

References

Capuano, A.W., Dawson, J.D., Ramirez, M.R., Wilson, R.W., Barnes, L.L., Field, R.W. (2016). Modeling Likert scale outcomes with trend proportional odds with and without cluster data. Methodology. 12(2), 33-43.

Joshi, M. S., Ransom, E. R., Nash, D. B., & Ransom, S. B. (2014). The Healthcare Quality Book. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

 


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Qualitative Phenomenon

Words: 465 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94460966

Epistemological assumptions

The epistemological assumption of the research is that social media fundamentally changes the way that people relate to one another, specifically how they relate to marketing and brands. It also changes the way that marketers try to reach customers.

Marketers currently face a quandary about the degree to which they must balance the use of social media with more traditional forms of media. While the overall direction of current research suggests that social media will be used more and more as a form of customer engagement, companies often feel it is still important to use other ways to connect with customers because not all consumers are 'online' (this is heavily dependent upon the type of demographic targeted by the industry) and not all customers respond to online messages the same degree they respond to other, more traditional channels. Businesses can also be change-resistant about the idea of incorporating…… [Read More]

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Ontology 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology

Words: 3653 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75331223

The research too has to be reliable and valid cohering to an internal and external scientific definition of reality that is more physical and eschews the metaphysical and the abstract.

Ontological Basis

Positivism accepts a certain reality of existence and insists that this reality can be discovered by universal and immutable scientific / mathematical principles (Tribe, 2009) .

Epistemological Basis

The researcher has to distance himself as much as possible from his research in order to come to verifiable attempts. The scientific approach can help hims distance himself.

Interpretive Paradigm

An alternate rendering of this can be the constructionist paradigm where the approach depends upon the researcher in question and is often inductively created. It is subjective and avowedly so and the meaning / conclusions / perspective is generated from one's particular experiences, way of thinking, and origin (Oakes & Minca 2004, p. 30).

Ontological Basis

The researcher acknowledge existence…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, DM (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press

Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996

Hartmann, Nicolai. 1953. New Ways of Ontology. Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co.

Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Watson the Philosophy of Watson

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3182249

This is only using the mind as a metaphor for intelligence, however, which would again be a problem for James and would also be a problem from an ontological perspective. In order to consider whether or not Watson has a mind, and indeed whether or not any computer could ever have a mind, a consideration of Gilbert Ryle's thoughts concerning the nature of the mind is very much needed. Ryle asserts that the misunderstanding of the split between the mind and the body that has been a philosophical problem since at least the time of Rene Descartes arises because people misunderstand the nature of the mind by equating it with the body. Though the body is part of what Ryle calls the "deterministic system" of the world and though people have tried to explain the mind using the same deterministic system, what is meant by "mind" in this sense has…… [Read More]

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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2206 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Management and Theory

Leadership and coaching go hand in many ways because to coach is to lead, and to lead is to coach others. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really theoretical mentoring within the context of a particular organization or activity. For centuries, scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to find a specific and complete definition for coaching and leadership, but have not had much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level; while coaching takes that decision making and often compartmentalizes it into split-second action. In the era of gloablization, theoretical decision making this has become even more critical now that there are so many divergent cultural opportunities that require new skills, approaches, and even that allow coaching to occur not just in the physical environment, but in the virtual as well, with no regard for geographic or political boundaries (Drucker,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2007). Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1265-1281.

Cortes, J. (2012). How Many Coaching Models Can You Find?, Retrieved from:

 http://www.what-is-coaching.com/coaching-models.html 

Drucker, P.F., et al. (2001), Harvard Business Review on Decision Making, Boston, MA:
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Clinical Implications of Levinson's Stage

Words: 2168 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69843208

Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.

The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…… [Read More]

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Levinson Part Two Examination of

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18172594



Tenet of the theory

2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.

Methodological assumptions of this model

. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.

Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…… [Read More]

3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.

One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.

A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."
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Knowledge and Management

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34300467

Epistemology

At first glance, the idea that an epistemological stance, a notion that is more associated with philosophy than with managerial pragmatism, can influence a management research problem seems out of the question. However, this is not the case: the researchers own views on knowledge and on approaches towards knowledge can obviously play a significant role in the way the research is conducted.

Gray (2009) is one of the theoreticians that goes into great detail to describe ways in which the choice of an epistemological perspective or stance influence the formulation of a management research problem. According to Gray, the relationship between the management research problem and the epistemological perspective is given by the research methodology, which, in turn, is affected by the "theoretical perspectives adopted by the researchers" (Gray, 2009).

In other words, Gray identifies a direct connection that starts with the epistemological perspective, leads to theory and theoretical…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Johnson, Phil, Duberley, Joanne, (2000). Understanding Management Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.; 1 edition

2. Gray, David, (2009). Doing Research in the Real World. SAGE Publications Ltd.; Second Edition
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Beyond Evidence Reading One William

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40235625



Clifford supports his thesis by telling two stories. In the first, he discusses a man who has doubts that his ships is sea worthy, but assumes that it will make the journey because it has done so many times in the past. After the men die at sea because of the poor construction of the ship, Clifford argues that the ship owner is to blame for their deaths. If the ship does not sink and no men die, however, Clifford's position is that the owner is no less guilty. Instead, a wrong has been committed in simply believing that the ship will be sound with no evidence. In the second story, Clifford suggests that some people of power sincerely believe that others are abusing their power in a horrendous way. Because of this, these people make many publications and accusations regarding those who are believed to be abusing their power.…… [Read More]

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Scandal in Philosophy

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97306381

Scandal in Philosophy

In Soccio's account of Immanuel Kant's philosophy, Immanuel Kant saw as a "Scandal in Philosophy" the basic disjunction between western philosophical schools, such that indicated both sides were in part mistaken about their premises. There are several important mediating figures here, whom we must understand first if we wish to understand Kant's own identification of this problem, his "Scandal in Philosophy," and Kant's means of correcting it. For this reason, an account of Kant requires a long foregrounding, because to a certain degree the "Scandal" Kant identified had been brewing for well over a century, and it involved four major predecessors: Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. We must summarize them before approaching Kant's critique of them.

We need to cast back first to Descartes in the seventeenth century, and recollect the phenomenon of Cartesian Dualism, which posits that mind is a mysterious substance that is not to…… [Read More]

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Caregiving and the Resultant Subjective

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42010442

Baronet's second assumption was that a low level of family support and a high level of relationship would also be associated with low feelings of satisfaction (the epistemological assumptions on the part of the caregiver). Results, however, showed that family support played no part neither in determining feelings of satisfaction nor in providing subjective burden resultant from caregiving activates.

Science as a discipline incorporates eight characteristics. hese are: empirical (i.e. evidence-based, hard facts); systematic (i.e. related to or consisting of a system); theoretical (i.e. related to or consisting of a theory); provisional (i.e. temporary until replaced by another theory that makes more sense); public (i.e. he findings of science are not restricted to any specific sector, but are available to the public sector as a whole); objective (i.e. attempting to be corroborated by reality rather than biased and subjective); self-reflective (i.e. aiming to step back and criticize itself); and open-ended…… [Read More]

The empirical and the objective characteristics are obvious in her attempts to connect qualitative emotional factors (i.e. subjective feelings of satisfaction) to 'hard' conditions, and to pronounce association only after scientific association was gauged. The systematic (and similarly theoretical) principle can be demonstrated by Baronet's use of theoretical measures. Each of these measures has, in turn, been formulated on empirical principles, but they consist of particular theories -- or systems -- that posit a means to assessing and gauging certain situations.

Source

Baronet, a.M. (2003). The impact of family relations on caregivers' positive and negative appraisal of their caretaking activities. Family Relations, 52, 137-141
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Epistemology and Ontology

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43958043

POSITIVISM vs. INTEPETIVISM DEBATE

Epistemology and Ontology

For my part, however, I no longer want to be labeled as a positivist researcher or an interpretive researcher. It is time for us to move beyond labels and to see the underlying unity in what we are trying to achieve via our research methods. The commonalities in my view are compelling and paramount. We ought to celebrate them because they underpin the value of our role as scholars. The differences, on the other hand, are ancillary. We should understand them, but they should not divide us. The challenge for us now is to rethink and develop a new rhetoric so we come to a deeper understanding of the metatheoretical assumptions that underlie our research. (Weber, 2004, X)

Weber's declaration is at the heart of this paper's examination. The paper attempts to gauge the frameworks of three articles in relation to Weber's concerns…… [Read More]

References:

Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (1997). The Ubiquity and Potency of Labeling in Organizations. Organization Science, 8(1), 43-58.

Becker, J., & Niehaves, B. (2007). Epistemological perspectives on IS research: A framework for analysing and systematizing epistemological assumptions. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 197-214.

Boland Jr., R., & Tenkasi, R. (1995). Perspective Making and Perspective Taking in Communities of Knowing. Organization Science, 6(4), 350-372.

Jackson, J.W. (1993). Realistic group conflict theory: A review and evaluation of the theoretical and empirical literature. Psychological Record, 43(3), 395-405.
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Hermeneutic or Phenomenological Research Hermeneutic and Phenomenological

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29142081

Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch

Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.

The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…… [Read More]

References

Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.

Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.

Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web.  http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
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Consumer Internet Commerce a Rhetorical Approach

Words: 4073 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41216100

complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.

Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…… [Read More]

Reference:

VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)

Survey Questionnaire

MY ROUGH IDEA:

1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
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Challenges and Strengths

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11743570

Postmodernism and Post-Positivism

Challenges and Strengths

Post-positivism vs. postmodernism

Two of the dominant paradigms within the modern epistemological discourse are that of post-positivism and postmodernism. They are often used relatively loosely and postmodernism in particular is deployed in a very flexible manner, to denote a form of art based upon pastiche and humor with a kind of ironic, self-referential quality. The difficulty of defining postmodernism is due to the fact that the philosophy denies the idea of modern 'progress' or the ability to arrive at a secure definition of reality. Instead, "postmodernists deny both the possibility and the desirability of an integral postmodernist philosophy," and postmodern philosophers often seem to share little other than a sense of opposition to modernism (Nekrasas 2011). The idea that there are no truths, only subjective beliefs, might seem antithetical to the sciences, including the health sciences, and there are some postmodernists who deny the…… [Read More]

References

Hutton, Erica. (2009). An examination of post-positivism. Erica Hutton, PhDc.

Retrieved May 6, 2011 at  http://www.ericahutton.blogspot.com/2009/03/examination-of-postpositivism.html 

Nekrasas, Evaldas. (2011). Positivism, post-positivism, and postmodernism.

Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-26/chapter_viii.htm
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Communist Answer Martin's Four Subsidiary Philosophical Questions

Words: 454 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26097710

communist answer Martin's "Four Subsidiary Philosophical Questions" -- ontological, epistemological, axiological, teleological questions? You find questions Chapter 1 Martin text, Presentation Module 1.

Communism: Four subsidiary philosophical questions

Although the 'four subsidiary philosophical questions' are often applied to religious systems of thinking, they can also be applied to secular worldviews such as Marxism. The ontological starting point of Marxism, or the question of 'who am I' is that every individual is fundamentally a material being, defined by his or her economic status. The world is divided into the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' who are engaged in a perpetual struggle over the world's scarce resources. Although ideologies such as religion or nationalism may be used to mask the importance of economics, historical circumstances -- and therefore the nature of humanity -- are primarily defined by material possessions. People are defined by their class. Similarly, the epistemological questions of how does one…… [Read More]

References

Chambers, W. (1987). Witness. Washington, DC: Regency Publishing.

Martin, G. (2006). Prevailing worldviews of western society since 1500. Marion, IN: Triangle

Publishing. ISBN: 97811931283168.This is the name of the book
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Rose When Determining the Human Behavior Lead

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77559274

rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.

To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…… [Read More]

References

Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation

Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.

Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.
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Difficult to Provide a Definition to Discourse

Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75057093

difficult to provide a definition to discourse analysis in reference to its use as a research tool. Instead of being a formalized methodology, it is more of a mind-set or epistemological approach. In this sense, Discourse Analysis is neither a qualitative nor a quantitative research method, but a manner of questioning the basic assumptions of quantitative and qualitative research methods. Discourse Analysis does not provide a tangible answer to problems based on scientific research, but it enables access to the ontological and epistemological assumptions behind a project, a statement, a method of research, or - to provide an example from the field of Library and Information Science - a system of classification[footnoteRef:1]. Furthermore, it challenges the assumptions that the scientific method places upon research. Generally this method questions the entire essence of the research problem itself and the inherent assumptions that it makes. [1: (Palmquis)]

History and Development

Looking at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boettcher, S. "The Linguistic Turn." Writing Early Modern History. n.d.

Clark, S. Thinking with Demons. London: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Lingual Links. "What is conversation analysis?" N.d. Lingual Links. Online. 29 December 2013.

Palmquis, U. "Discourse Analysis." N.d. University of Texas. Online. 29 December 2013.
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Descartes Explain Descartes' Cogito in

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73270563



Explain why science is of central importance to Locke's theory of knowledge. (Make sure that you explain Primary and Secondary qualities... And their relation to science and knowledge.)

Science, and scientific knowledge gleaned from empirical observation is key to Locke's theory. Locke did not believe all things were or could be subject to doubt. Unlike Descartes, who believed that the truth of existence was manifest in the human mind, and the ability of the human mind to think, Locke believed in the truth of exterior, scientific observation and empirical knowledge, and thus the scientific method had validity as a source of real, certain knowledge.

But Locke, conversely, did not take a position on the opposite extreme of Descartes and state that merely because observations and truth outside of the realm of the self and the mind was verifiable as knowledge, there was no such thing as subjective perception. There were…… [Read More]

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Emic vs Etic Emic or

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69645492

The emic view engages descriptions, dialogue and meanings identified by the participant that are important. In the discussion of terrorism, the emic view would be the view of the terrorist. This view may be opposed to the view of those who attempt to understand terrorism.

With terrorism the emic view is particularly important because there may be cultural differences between the terrorist and those who attempt to study terrorism. This difference is even larger is the researcher is from the West. Countries in the West view the actions of terrorists as inherently heinous and "evil." This view often does not give any credence to the meanings that terrorist give to their behavior. Thus the emic view or the insider view is critical to understanding and predicting patterns of terrorism. When the West is understood to the eyes of the "terrorist" existing behaviors and cultural norms are often seen as unacceptable…… [Read More]

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Plato Nietzsche and Watt on

Words: 2447 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33111550

The book discusses the prevalent impression of oneself as a separate ego covered in a bag of skin that is similar to a hallucination that accords neither with experimental philosophy nor with the religions of the east, more specifically Hinduism. This hallucination undermines the use of technology and of formal education in general, because of its involvement in the destruction of humanity. atts favors the kind of education that gives us a sense of existence.

Allan atts, in his book: "On the Taboo Against Knowing hom you are" starts by questioning the amount of knowledge that a young person is supposed to seek in order to be in the know. He suggests the presence of some inside information and some special taboo on life that most teachers and parents have not taught. Culture plays a crucial role in the education of the young people through offering a platform for cultural…… [Read More]

Works cited

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the idols. Trans.Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale.

London: Cambirdge university press, 1895. Retrieved from  http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/GotDamer.html 

Plato. The Republic. Trans. B. Jowett. London: Cambridge University press, 1998. Retrieved

http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile-fk_files=3274525
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Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso

Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72636028

Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from:  http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract 

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
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Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Words: 2063 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37920764

Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…… [Read More]

References

Brady, J. (2003). Critical literacy, feminism, and a politics of representation. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 142-153). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths-

Freire, P. (1970, 1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury Press.

Giroux, H. (1983). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.

Gaudino, E.G. And de Alba, A. (2003). Freire -- present and future possibilities. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 123-134). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths-
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Sensibility and Paul De Man Conclusions Despite

Words: 1993 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70054660

SENSIBILITY AND PAUL DE MAN "CONCLUSIONS"

Despite the fact that De man was not a trained philosopher his post war theoretical work is majorly concerned with the nature of the subject and the language in addition to the role played by language and subject in the larger epistemological question of how and what one can claim to know. As a scholar in the field of literature, however, he often took his departure from, and kept returning to, the problems that mostly affect literature in terms of language and criticism. De man did some work in literary theory and criticism dating back to 1950s, although this work cannot be associated with any previous school of criticism that were flourishing during that era. (De man 567)

esearch questions

What major theme does Austen bring about in her book 'sense and sensibility'

What styles does she use to build on the major theme?…… [Read More]

References

Moore, Lisa L. Dangerous Intimacies: History of the British Novel. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2000.

O'Farrell, Mary Ann. The Nineteenth-Century English

Novel and the Blush. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1995.

Stoval, Bruce. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. 4th Ed.
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Skepticism Against Skepticism One of

Words: 2816 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87063827

Ex-hypothesi, however, this is impossible, and thus you are unable to know that you have two hands (and much else besides) (Pritchard 2007).

Indeed, Moore's common sense approach to the problem is far too limited. It needs further elucidation in order not to appear suspect to the skeptic.

Suppose one were to attempt an evidential form of Mooreanism, such as in the following example (Pritchard 2007):

know E.

If I know E, then my evidence for E. favors E. over the known to be incompatible BIV hypothesis.

My evidence for E. favors E. over the known to be incompatible BIV hypothesis.

This argument surpasses the common sense approach taken by Moore, and thus requires further elucidation. Once you claim that you have evidence in favor of one hypothesis over another, then such simple formulations as expressed above will not do.

Pritchard thus brings in other forms of anti-skepticism in his…… [Read More]

References

Pritchard, D. (2005). Epistemic Luck. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pritchard, D. (2007). "How to be a Neo-Moorean," Internalism and Externalism in Semantics and Epistemology, (ed.) S. Goldberg. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Special Ed Philosophy a Special

Words: 1433 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13632993

Gerl (2010) points out in his advocacy of metaphysics as a way of approaching the philosophy of special education that this helps to construct a legal perspective which is evolving in a way that is consistent with the evolution of ethical perspectives of human dignity, individual rights and the treatment of those with disabilities. hile this strikes as relevant, Gerl even concedes that one may not be suited for the metaphysical philosophy of special education law "if a lack of ambiguity appeals to you." Indeed, in a sense, traditional civil rights case law in combination with the ideals delivered by an axiology discourse should serve to effectively address the need for the evolution in ethical perspective. And quite simply stated, the philosophical underpinnings of Logic are problemetized in the educational context by the sheer force and divergence of opposing political, ideological and economic priorities. Therefore, the idea of constructing logical…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gerl, J. (2010). The Metaphysics of Special Education Law. Special Education Today.

Gordon, M. (1994). Toward a Complete Axiology of Classroom Practice. Boston University.

Kozleski, E. (2005). Logic Model for Whole School Educational Reform. National Institute for Urban School Improvement.

Silverman, J.C. (2007). Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 42-51.
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Epistemology and Theory of Knowledge

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11781369

From an epistemological perspective the focus on reporting and analysis, control and management that were the initial design goals of these systems led to an overly-reliant mindset on historical data. As a result, a posteriori knowledge was deficient in the first decades of these systems being used.

The need for explaining and analyzing the epistemological structure of these systems' transitions from being entirely a priori centric to seeking to integrate a posteriori intelligence and knowledge changed the theory of how enterprise systems contribute to knowledge management and creation. The concepts of a posteriori analysis, more reliance on constructivist approaches to analyzing the performance of enterprise systems served as a catalyst for increased use of analytics, metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs). Paradoxically as constructivism became more prevalent as a means to explain the value of information systems and their associated technologies, a priori analysis also became more granular, quantified and…… [Read More]

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Western Education in Ethiopia There

Words: 2820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56501202

" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)

According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)

It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information.  http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm 

Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.

Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.

Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80307899

Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3 

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
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Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research

Words: 4305 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85640226

Counseling Master Questionnaire

Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…… [Read More]

References

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Plato a Platypus and the Enlightenment

Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47560104

Plato and the Platypus

Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cathcart, Thomas and Klein, Daniel. Plato and a Platypus Walk Into A Bar: Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes. New York: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.
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Islamization of Knowledge This Work

Words: 5650 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30455111

Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)

Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php

Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.

Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)

Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]

References

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Nightingales Realist Philosophy of Science

Words: 2639 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40041066



More importantly, however, contemporary realists differ from Nightingale in four main areas, those of theistic assumption, methods of research, determinism, and naturalism. While contemporary realists certainly agree with Nightingale's position that simply realizing fact is not enough, and that actions based on findings is important (Porter, 2001), Nightingale inserted a certain assumption of God into her realistic viewpoints that modern realism avoids. Whereas Nightingale supported the concept that man's actions were dictated by God, modern realists recognize specific non-theistic causes for behaviors.

Secondly, Nightingale relied solely on quantitative method of research, since such methods were most available in her period. Such methods, involving the scientific, external, specific identification of patterns of events, are useful, but modern realists understand the need for individualistic understanding of information. Whereas Nightingale's focus was on identifying the patterns of relationships, modern realists focus more on understanding those relationships (Porter, 2001).

Third, modern realists differ slightly…… [Read More]

References

Barker, P.J., Reynolds, W., and Stevenson, C. (1999.) The human science basis of psychiatric nursing: theory and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 25-34.

Bashford, A. (2000.) Domestic scientists: Modernity, gender, and the negotiation of science in Australian medicine. Journal of Woman's History, 12(2), pp. 137.

Lawler, J. Knowing the body and embodiment: methodologies, discourses, and nursing. In J. Lawler (Ed.), The Body in Nursing (pp, 38-45). Melbourne, Churchill Livingstone.

Porter, S. (2001.) Nightingale's realist philosophy of science. Nursing Philosophy, 2, 14-25.
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Romantic Relationships IT's Up and Down All

Words: 3852 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5331606

omantic elationships: It's Up and Down, All Around" by Dailey, ossetto, Pfiester, and Surra (2009). Overall, the study was considered to be of good quality, with appropriate application of qualitative theory and methods. Criticism of the conceptual framework included a reductionist approach to theoretical models, and a lack of any discussion of an audit trail.

Purpose / Significance of the Study

The researchers have clearly stated the purpose of the study, how it relates to the literature, and what phenomenon will be explored. The research questions fundamentally express the puzzle that the researchers wish to explore and provide a preliminary look at what they hope to glean from the study.

The corpus of research on dating relationships is substantial; however, the variant of couple relationships characterised by the occurrence of breakups and renewals, and the concomitant dynamics and bases of relational stability, has not received much empirical attention. The study…… [Read More]

References

Barbour, R.S. (1998) Mixing qualitative methods: Quality assurance or qualitative quagmire? Qualitative Health Research, 8 (3), pp. 352-361.

Braier, H.B., & Kelley, H.H. (1979) Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R.L. Bugress & T.L. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developing relationships, pp. 135-168. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Daily, R.M., Rossetto, K.R., Pfiester, A., & Surra, C.A. (2009) A qualitative analysis of on-again / off-again romantic relationships: It's up and down, all around. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 443.

Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (2005) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=X85J8ipMpZEC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=qualitative+research+constructivist+interpretive+and+naturalistic&source=bl&ots=D1J8N2T7fm&sig=Wp3XqW10yGXb7ifAFLxWIaSCiSM&hl=en&ei=-KizTf-_MY2osQP7mtnrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=qualitative%20research%20constructivist%20interpretive%20and%20naturalistic&f=false
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Define What Is Meant by Postpositivist Realism

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67610281

Post positivism

Defining Post positivism:

definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society

Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Moya, Paula. Learning from Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles. University of California Press, 2002.
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Teachers Attitudes Case Study

Words: 1408 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77419900

Sleeters (2009) research helped to indentify and address some important issues within the realm of education, and specifically addressed the challenges and biases that these teachers hold when developing curriculum for the students. The purpose of this article review is to account for the arguments presented in the aforementioned article and develop some independent analysis that can be helpful in applying the data in more a practical and localized fashion. This essay will first describe the topic and then explain how this topic was scientifically explored through the positing of certain ideas and premises. The essay will then examine the procedures that the research undertook to realize the result. The conclusions will then be discussed to determine the results, validity and applicability of the work before offering a final summary relating the work to today's situation and how it may best applied in a real world situation.

The main thrust…… [Read More]

References

Sleeter, C. (2009). Developing teacher epistemological sophistication about multicultural curriculum: A case study. Action in Teacher Education, 31(1), 3-13.
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African Religion African Traditional Religions

Words: 1535 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6541574

As with water methods of visually perceiving patterns, divination serves as a literal mirror for the cosmos. The visual cues of divination such as cowry shells or the patterns made by mice sometimes serves as a pictorial language spoken between nonhuman and human participants. That language is not one used in human communications, even though it may inform human social order and modes of cognition.

The language of divination represents communication between human and super-human forces. A diviner acts much like a translator would, communicating the perceived patterns of cosmic order to an individual or to the community. Divination is integral to all traditional African religions as well as to the religions of most other cultures. The function of divination is artistic, epistemological, and expressive. Divination also creates, maintains, and interprets social and spiritual order.

orks Cited

Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African Arts. Summer 2002. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0438/is_2_35/ai_94010411/?tag=content;col1

"Exploring Africa." African Studies Center. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m14/activity2.php

Peek, Phillip M. African Divination Systems. Indiana University Press, 1991.

Pemberton, John III. "Divination in Sub-Saharan Africa." Art and Oracle: African Art and Rituals of Divination. 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/oracle/essayPemberton.html
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Gender and the Fashion Industry

Words: 1943 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44872704

Also, all women must be pressed to ask why they seek to embody the female ideal of beauty, and are willing to sacrifice so much to do so. Even if the fashion industry were to ban all models wholesale beneath a BMI of 18.5, while male chauvinists might delight in the curves of the models gyrating on the catwalks of Milan, the ideals held up for women to fulfill would hardly be much more attainable. This would still eliminate the old, many non-white women, short women, disabled women, and yes, even plain women, from individuals deemed physically ideal.

The real question is why must a woman 'feel' beautiful at all to feel culturally validated and accepted. Central to the debate is not just homophobia, but the assumption that there is a single, 'real' womanly ideal, thin or fat, that must be found and then celebrated by the culture. At best,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bordo, Susan. The Body Betrayed. Berkley: University of California Press, 1995.

Fuss, Diana. "Fashion and the Homospectatorial Look." Critical Inquiry. 18. 4. Summer

1992. Identities. pp. 713-737. Accessed on 17 Nov 2007 through JSTOR http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0093-1896%28199222%2918%3A4%3C713%3AFATHL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B

Holland, Erik. "Possible solutions to some problems that this site is trying to solve." Feminine Beauty. 2007. 18 Nov 2007. http://femininebeauty.info/solutions.htm
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Nigerian Reproductive Health This Literature

Words: 2096 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50997857

It is never possible to know everything about the world: We each possess a limited perspective. However, the point of research (as opposed to other ways of investigating the world, such as writing poetry) is to maximize the amount of knowledge that one can acquire.

Textual analysis in this case would treat written assessments of the state of reproductive health in Nigeria as a form of narrative about the culture, a form of storytelling. To describe it as storytelling, however, might be construed as implying that the texts in question are somehow fictional, or even intentionally inaccurate. But the point of textual analysis, the fundamental reason that this form of research design and analysis exists to begin with, is that all texts (whether written or verbal) can be analyzed as a form of story.

From this perspective, storytelling is seen as one of the most basic of all human activities,…… [Read More]

References

Chandler, R. (1994) Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/.

The qualitative vs. quantitative debate, n.d. Retrieved from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/gentrans/pop2f.cfm.

Textual analysis, n.d. Retrieved from  http://culturalpolitics.net/popular_culture/textual_analysis
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Belfast Study Reconciling Safety and Succession Planning

Words: 3112 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42203913

Belfast Study

econciling Safety and Succession Planning

iSummary Prospectus

Hermeneutics Worldview

Company background

The Experts, their composition and grounds of expertise.

The epistemology of the experts.

Decision makers.

The epistemology of the decision makers.

The Belfast Board

The petroleum experts

Current state of knowledge

Discuss the problem

Discuss the source of the problem

Analyze the problem.

Insights

Derived insights

Summary Prospectus

Belfast is a petroleum company with core competences in oil and gas exploration, development, and production located in Calgary. Its experts are petroleum engineers many of whom have substantial years in the petroleum sector. The company's decision makers are its Board of Directors. Belfast Company's decision makers and experts disagree about the experience level of engineers that the company needs to supervise sensitive oilfield operations. Whereas the Board believes that newer engineers should become exposed to a broader range of activities in the field, the experts disagree and hold…… [Read More]

References

Agbons, P. (1975). A historical evolution of the petroleum engineering profession. Ibadan,

Oyo: University Press.

Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE). Investopedia. Retrieved http://www. investopedia. com/terms/b/barrelofoilequivalent. asp#ixzz1UlxCgNhr

Belfast Petroleum, Inc., BloomsbergBusinessWeek. Retrieved http://investing. businessweek. com/research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp-privcapId
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Structure Constrains Growth Bounded Rational

Words: 2848 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59638757

404). They found that complexity especially in hierarchical organizations strongly determines success of design choice outcomes, especially when endogenous adaptation in different modules delivers "local performance improvement" (Ethiraj and Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). This is based on H.A. Simon's 1962 model of organizations, products and technology as complex, evolving systems where some choices constrain decision-making in the lowest levels, and also "near-decomposability" (Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404), the argument that intermodular interaction becomes clustered over time between "isolated subsets of interactions" (Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). Specific units interact more than others, i.e. partnering is not uniform across all departments.

Thus arise multiple, unique interactions within the complex firm that allows for complex evolution (Simon, 1962, ctd. In Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). This becomes problematic to predict, as an empirical phenomenon that develops organically. Numerous researchers had described possible designs of various complexity, but choosing which…… [Read More]

Predictions from transaction cost, resource-based, and real options theories. Journal of Management 29(6), 937 -- 961. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00085-0

Nickerson, J.A. And Zenger, T.R. (2002). Being efficiently fickle: A dynamic theory of organizational choice. Saint Louis: John M. Olin School of Business, Washington University, 1-40. Retrieved from https://news.wustl.edu/Documents/vacillation.pdf

Rajan, R.G. And Zingales, L. (2001). The firm as a dedicated hierarchy: A theory of the origins and growth of firms. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Aug. 2001. Retrieved from faculty.chicagobooth.edu/luigi.zingales/papers/research/hierarchy.pdf
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Education Philosophical Influences on American

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88283685

There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)

No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.

eferences

Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]

References

Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from  http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/ 

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408

Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2

Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
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System Theory the Origin and

Words: 4711 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99908857

However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).

Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.

Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.

Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
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Humans Have Wondered About Certain

Words: 2625 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90332643

This object, though, sets in human consciousness in many divergent ways -- perception, memory, retention, etc. Depending on the manner in which the idea is intentional, the object may be identical but interpreted different and thus a divergent sense of reality for individuals. Opposite of Descartes and Kant, there is no one finite way of describing this object and it is entirely dependent upon the method of reduction and interpretation in which we find meaning. hen we reference a thing, this object, then, we are closer to representing a Platonian version of forms or ideas in that thing -- the thing's essence or idea. Some say that when we describe an identical thing as what we really "see" or measure, it does not mean that this is the entirety of the thing. The ultimate goal of phenomenology, then, is to understand how these different aspects are merged into the actual…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Phenomenology. (2008). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology/ 

Annas, J. (2003). Plato: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Audi, R., ed. (1999). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, C. (January 12, 2008). Remarks on Simone Weil's Mysticism. Retrieved from:
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Gifts of the Jews Thomas Cahill's Book

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55507725

Gifts of the Jews

Thomas Cahill's book The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the ay Everyone Thinks and Feels demonstrates what happens when a great idea is ultimately brought down by a lack of critical and rhetorical rigor. This is not to suggest that The Gift of the Jews is not worth reading, or that its insights are not valuable, but rather that every surprising fact or remarkable contribution is lessened somewhat by a longing for what the book could have been, had Cahill simply been more precise in his language and extensive in his sourcing. As it is, The Gifts of the Jews is an entertaining, surprising examination of Jewish history and culture, albeit one whose evidence ultimately falls short its boldest claims. By examining the book's central thesis regarding the Jewish contribution to the conception of time and historicity alongside the more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews. New York: Anchor Books, 1999.
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Combination of Modern and Postmodern Bereavement Theory Explain and Contrast

Words: 5009 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16035742

Postmodern Bereavement Theory

Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…… [Read More]

References

Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf

Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,

69(5), 975-989.

Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
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Student Technology Teachers' Values and Assumptions How

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54499214

Student Technology Teachers' Values and Assumptions: How They Impact on Teaching Practice" by endy J. Dow. The study that Dow conducted involved a phenomenological evaluation of student teachers' experiences of learning which led to her conclusions about the fixed nature and structure of knowledge. Even though the study methodology was unorthodox and limiting in some respects, the study findings appear to support Dow's conclusions regarding teacher education courses.

The study methodology departed from the norms that typically use in-depth semi-structured interviews or pencil and paper measures to explore epistemological beliefs. Instead, the study used in-depth analysis of third-year students' reflective journals over the course of a university term. hile this departure from the accepted methodology had the benefit of accessing a record of the students' independent and voluntary reflections on their progress or lack thereof, it raises questions about the study findings. The article does not present enough information on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dow, W.J. (n.d.). Student technology teachers' values and assumptions: how they impact on teaching practice. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2011 from: http://www.iteaconnect.org/Conference/PATT/PATT19/Dowfinal17.pdf
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Radical Behaviorist Critique

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25094600

adical behaviorism is a branch of psychological study that postulates that human "behavior" is at the integral part of psychological study. Unlike other disciplines such as cognitive psychology that concentrates on internal factors such as thoughts or rather obsessive preoccupations, behaviorism theory only considers the "observable" factors of the outside environment. In this paper, I analyze the strengths and weaknesses of radical behaviorism in light of cognitive psychological theory.

Skinner who relied on Behaviorist evolution advanced the theory that preceded philosophical argument that was presented by Watson. Fuentes (2000) traces the philosophical origin of the Skinner theory to empiricism and positivism. On the other hand, he argues out that its epistemological paradigm bear direct relationship to objectivism where reality dwells from without the individual, and knowledge is simply an illusion of reality (Fuentes, 2000).

Skinner's adical Behaviorism was anchored in the notion that learning is a product of change that…… [Read More]

References

Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(1), 63-90.

Funtes, B.F. (2000). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan

Russell, J. & Cohn, R. (2012). Radical Behaviorism. Hoboken: Book on Demand
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Quantitative and Qualitative

Words: 6879 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12570660

Vaismoradi, 2013)

Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.

With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.

J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.

Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.

2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.
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Overarching Goal of This Study

Words: 18833 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98616754

Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.

Positivist Research Paradigm

The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.

Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.

Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.

Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
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Cultural Diversity in the Workplace

Words: 2398 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41953999

To resolve this conflict in the situation where demographic and experiential differences are found qualitative researchers, such as those studying different cultures, might employ guides, interpreters and/or other "native" individuals to introduce and help them assimilate into the culture, in order to observe it or in some cases they use time as their tool, immersing for longer periods of time with limited or no interruption to eliminate any bias that might occur in research results because of his or her presence. Even among researchers this is not seen as a perfect set up but it can help resolve some of the intrusion challenges associated with diversity.

One of the major problems, as qualitative researchers see it in historical research is the fact that the researcher has often been seen and thought of as holding a position of authority over the subjects being studied. This idea of "social capital" is pervasive,…… [Read More]

References

Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field/. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

Finkleman, J.M. (2007) Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation: The Dysfunctional Side of Diversity. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (4) 254 -- 260

Pugh, S.D. Dietz, J. Brief, a.P. & Wiley, J.W. (2008) Looking Inside and Out: The Impact of Employee and Community Demographic Composition on Organizational Diversity Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6) 1422 -- 1428.

Merchant, B.M. & Willis, a.I. (Eds.). (2001). Multiple and Intersecting Identities in Qualitative Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.