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Epistemological Beliefs and Organizational Leadership
Epistemological Philosophies: Comparing Plato and Protagoras
To understand our quest for knowledge, we often have to go back to some of the classical theories in order to get a full view of how modern theories have developed. Understanding classical philosophy is not blindly reading one philosopher and then assuming you have the knowledge of thousands of years of Greco-oman thought. There were major differences within the philosophers of that time, and these differences have remained to influence more modern philosophical thought. Understanding the similarities and differences of two very different minds like Plato and Protagoras can help clarify the differences in epistemological theories and how they relate to organizational leadership today.
Plato was a classical Greek philosopher whose work has continued to influence the field of philosophy and the study of epistemology even into the present day. Plato's works are often disguised within a relatively…
Cooper, David E. (1999). Epistemology: The Classic Readings. Wiley Press.
Feldman, Richard. (2003). Epistemology. Prentice Hall.
Moser, Paul K, & vander Nat, Arnold. (2003). Human Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Approaches. Oxford University Press.
Russell, B. (2004). History of Western Philosophy. Psychology Press.
Epistemological Analysis of a Personal Experience
In people's most ordinary encounters with new information, and in their most refined knowledge pursuits, as human beings our beliefs regarding knowing and knowledge affect us. Human beings personal epistemologies, epistemic cognition, mean of knowing or epistemological theories get activated during the process of knowing and learning. For instance, when we read newspapers, we usually make judgment concerning the trustworthiness made in the newspapers. Similarly, in people professional and personal lives, they face up to the learning of new ideas and skills besides making determinations as regards their worth and value. Notably, in classrooms, students habitually encounter new information and perhaps view the learning procedure in different ways, and depending on whether they view knowledge as integrated constructs set or accumulated facts. In this regard, learners can view themselves as active knowledge constructors or passive receptors. I view myself as a knowledge constructor given…
Cooper, D.E. (1999). Epistemology, the classic readings. Michigan: Blackwell Publishers.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2010). African-American history reconsidered. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
Feldman, R. (2003). Epistemology. New York: Prentice Hall
Moser, PK. & Nat, A.V. (2003). Human knowledge: classical and contemporary approaches 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
econciling Safety and Succession Planning
This paper discusses the philosophical assumptions and epistemological stances of Belfast Petroleum, Inc. As they relate to issues of on-boarding, transitioning, and promoting new engineers to greater levels of responsibility. Belfast Petroleum is based in Calgary, Canada, and was acquired by Merit Energy, Ltd. On July 14, 1999. The core competencies of the Belfast Petroleum are services related to oil and gas exploration, development, and production.
Experts and Decision Makers
I will draws on the field-based paradigm of the petroleum engineering experts and the corporate-responsibility paradigm of decision makers on the Board to characterize and describe the lenses through which they see the world. A major aim of this paper will be to reveal the extent of alignment between the world views of these two groups.
Experts in the field of oil and gas services are petroleum engineers, presumably many of…
Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE). Investopedia. Retrieved http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/ barrelofoilequivalent.asp#ixzz1UlxCgNhr
Belfast Petroleum, Inc., BloomsbergBusinessWeek. Retrieved http://investing.businessweek.com / research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=3221826
Delanty, G. And Strydom, P. (2003). Philosophies of social science: The classic and contemporary readings. New York, NY: Open University Press.
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. [trans. Myra Bergman Ramos]. New York, NY: Continuum International Sales Group. Retrieved http://www.pedagogyoftheoppressed.com/
Epistemological Belief in the External World
Can We Know the External World Through Our Limited Sensory Perceptions?
(1) Our senses are limited.
(2) We can only perceive the world through our senses.
(3) Therefore, our understanding of the external world is limited and not sufficiently justified in assuming that it is absolute in its existence.
"What will then be true? Perhaps just the single fact that nothing is certain," so were the words of one of the most infamous Western philosophers, ene Descartes (Descartes, 1998, p 63). Descartes is infamous for the proposition that we cannot believe much of what we previously had, based on the concept that all can be doubted with its connection to our sensory perceptions. Essentially, we only have a limited knowledge of the external world based on our own limited perceptions; yet this limited knowledge is in no way sufficiently justifiable to say that we…
BonJour, Laurence. (2002). Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses. Rowman & Littlefield.
Daniel, Stephen. (2012). Descartes methodic doubt. Texas A&M University. Web. http://philosophy.tamu.edu/~sdaniel/Notes/descar1.html
Descartes, Rene. (1998). Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy. Hackett Publishing.
epistemological perspective text ( sources) coincides view truth human mind grasps reality. Explain find
There are several different perspectives of epistemology, which is the justification for or the source of belief upon which all knowledge is based. One of the most compelling viewpoints that serve to explain how humans can actually perceive truth is empiricism. Essentially, empiricism is the notion that the truth can be ascertained via sensory information from the five traditional sources (hearing, seeing, tasting, touching, and smelling). There are a couple of central tenets to this epistemological approach, one of the most salient of which is the fact that whatever cannot be validated from the five senses cannot be accepted as truth by those adhering to the empirical perspective of epistemology. Still, the rationale behind this point-of-view is extremely logical, represents some of the earliest thought on this subject, and can be readily employed to validate any…
Klein, Peter. (2011). "Skepticism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/skepticism/
oman: An Epistemological Programme of Mastery
The philosophical discussion of the nature of the female mind and specifically the epistemology of women has been universally debated for as long as there has been recorded words. hat is the nature of God? And then: hat is the nature of Man? followed shortly there after by: hat is the nature of oman?
It is not a secret that most of the first recorded philosophers were men, in fact this is even true today. To many this qualifies as the reason for the inherent misogyny associated with epistemology and its relationship to women.
ithout the insight of women, which was voiced by many but was not always well-known, the internal workings of the mind of a woman is simply a mystery associated with the proprietary circumstances of her allowable voice. It is within the context of the late 18th century that we begin…
Woolstonecraft M, Vindication of the Rights of Women
De Beauvouir, S. The Second Sex.
Saul, J. Feminism: Issues and Arguments.
Hornsby, J. & M. Fricker, Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy.
We are, in essence, simply made up of a lot of different people through time and history. The people today are an evolved version of everyone that came before and this pattern will continue. This has to do with Spirit. He says, "Spirit is indeed never at rest but always engaged in moving forward" (p 5). On that same note, in Peirce's "Fixation of Beliefs," he talks about the struggle between beliefs and doubts (inquiry) and how the purpose is to know if one is dealing with a doubt or a belief. This can be likened to Hegel's theories in that inquiry is all about evolving. One cannot evolve -- society cannot evolve -- if there is not this struggle to find the truth or beliefs.
Where Peirce strays from Hegelian thought and thus widens the epistemological gap is that he says that there are
Real things, whose characters are…
The Marxist view views the postmodern as the culture of late Capitalism (Jameson), which in turn is not "epochal" or unique but is essentially an outgrowth of Capitalistic politics and economics.
This is in contrast to the more positive appraisals of postmodernism by other theorists like Hebdige; who envisages a reduction of class consciousness and other positive outcomes of the postmodern mode of thought.
Baudrillard's view is also considered, which tends to see postmodernism in terms of a "new" or epochal change in various aspects of human culture. Despite his pessimism and rejection of postmodern culture, he provides insight into the nature of postmodern culture. He stresses, for example, the way that postmodern culture is focused on images, similitude or representations of reality and whether it is no longer possible to separate reality from fiction.
Baudrillard's view is also important it that it highlights two central aspects of postmodernism and…
Health Care Quality Concerns
1. For the most part, the relationship between clinical quality and patient experience of care is direct. Therefore, if clinical quality is ensured, patients will typically experience quality care. Similarly, if the clinical quality of the administration of care is poor, patients will experience lower quality levels of care. The crux of this relationship is the fact that clinical quality is a causative agent in the patient care experience. It is necessary to have high levels of clinical quality in order for patients to experience quality care. The former directly impacts the latter. In several instances, notably positive patient care experiences are the outcome of commendable clinical quality.
2. Accountability plays a considerable role in the consistent delivery of the quality of care administered in healthcare settings. It is one of the means of ensuring that there is such consistency in the care delivered, because it…
Capuano, A.W., Dawson, J.D., Ramirez, M.R., Wilson, R.W., Barnes, L.L., Field, R.W. (2016). Modeling Likert scale outcomes with trend proportional odds with and without cluster data. Methodology. 12(2), 33-43.
Joshi, M. S., Ransom, E. R., Nash, D. B., & Ransom, S. B. (2014). The Healthcare Quality Book. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
The epistemological assumption of the research is that social media fundamentally changes the way that people relate to one another, specifically how they relate to marketing and brands. It also changes the way that marketers try to reach customers.
Marketers currently face a quandary about the degree to which they must balance the use of social media with more traditional forms of media. While the overall direction of current research suggests that social media will be used more and more as a form of customer engagement, companies often feel it is still important to use other ways to connect with customers because not all consumers are 'online' (this is heavily dependent upon the type of demographic targeted by the industry) and not all customers respond to online messages the same degree they respond to other, more traditional channels. Businesses can also be change-resistant about the idea of incorporating…
This is only using the mind as a metaphor for intelligence, however, which would again be a problem for James and would also be a problem from an ontological perspective. In order to consider whether or not Watson has a mind, and indeed whether or not any computer could ever have a mind, a consideration of Gilbert Ryle's thoughts concerning the nature of the mind is very much needed. Ryle asserts that the misunderstanding of the split between the mind and the body that has been a philosophical problem since at least the time of Rene Descartes arises because people misunderstand the nature of the mind by equating it with the body. Though the body is part of what Ryle calls the "deterministic system" of the world and though people have tried to explain the mind using the same deterministic system, what is meant by "mind" in this sense has…
Management and Theory
Leadership and coaching go hand in many ways because to coach is to lead, and to lead is to coach others. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really theoretical mentoring within the context of a particular organization or activity. For centuries, scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to find a specific and complete definition for coaching and leadership, but have not had much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level; while coaching takes that decision making and often compartmentalizes it into split-second action. In the era of gloablization, theoretical decision making this has become even more critical now that there are so many divergent cultural opportunities that require new skills, approaches, and even that allow coaching to occur not just in the physical environment, but in the virtual as well, with no regard for geographic or political boundaries (Drucker,…
Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2007). Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1265-1281.
Cortes, J. (2012). How Many Coaching Models Can You Find?, Retrieved from:
Drucker, P.F., et al. (2001), Harvard Business Review on Decision Making, Boston, MA:
Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.
The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…
Tenet of the theory
2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.
Methodological assumptions of this model
. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.
Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…
3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.
One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.
A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."
At first glance, the idea that an epistemological stance, a notion that is more associated with philosophy than with managerial pragmatism, can influence a management research problem seems out of the question. However, this is not the case: the researchers own views on knowledge and on approaches towards knowledge can obviously play a significant role in the way the research is conducted.
Gray (2009) is one of the theoreticians that goes into great detail to describe ways in which the choice of an epistemological perspective or stance influence the formulation of a management research problem. According to Gray, the relationship between the management research problem and the epistemological perspective is given by the research methodology, which, in turn, is affected by the "theoretical perspectives adopted by the researchers" (Gray, 2009).
In other words, Gray identifies a direct connection that starts with the epistemological perspective, leads to theory and theoretical…
1. Johnson, Phil, Duberley, Joanne, (2000). Understanding Management Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.; 1 edition
2. Gray, David, (2009). Doing Research in the Real World. SAGE Publications Ltd.; Second Edition
Clifford supports his thesis by telling two stories. In the first, he discusses a man who has doubts that his ships is sea worthy, but assumes that it will make the journey because it has done so many times in the past. After the men die at sea because of the poor construction of the ship, Clifford argues that the ship owner is to blame for their deaths. If the ship does not sink and no men die, however, Clifford's position is that the owner is no less guilty. Instead, a wrong has been committed in simply believing that the ship will be sound with no evidence. In the second story, Clifford suggests that some people of power sincerely believe that others are abusing their power in a horrendous way. Because of this, these people make many publications and accusations regarding those who are believed to be abusing their power.…
Scandal in Philosophy
In Soccio's account of Immanuel Kant's philosophy, Immanuel Kant saw as a "Scandal in Philosophy" the basic disjunction between western philosophical schools, such that indicated both sides were in part mistaken about their premises. There are several important mediating figures here, whom we must understand first if we wish to understand Kant's own identification of this problem, his "Scandal in Philosophy," and Kant's means of correcting it. For this reason, an account of Kant requires a long foregrounding, because to a certain degree the "Scandal" Kant identified had been brewing for well over a century, and it involved four major predecessors: Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. We must summarize them before approaching Kant's critique of them.
We need to cast back first to Descartes in the seventeenth century, and recollect the phenomenon of Cartesian Dualism, which posits that mind is a mysterious substance that is not to…
Baronet's second assumption was that a low level of family support and a high level of relationship would also be associated with low feelings of satisfaction (the epistemological assumptions on the part of the caregiver). Results, however, showed that family support played no part neither in determining feelings of satisfaction nor in providing subjective burden resultant from caregiving activates.
Science as a discipline incorporates eight characteristics. hese are: empirical (i.e. evidence-based, hard facts); systematic (i.e. related to or consisting of a system); theoretical (i.e. related to or consisting of a theory); provisional (i.e. temporary until replaced by another theory that makes more sense); public (i.e. he findings of science are not restricted to any specific sector, but are available to the public sector as a whole); objective (i.e. attempting to be corroborated by reality rather than biased and subjective); self-reflective (i.e. aiming to step back and criticize itself); and open-ended…
The empirical and the objective characteristics are obvious in her attempts to connect qualitative emotional factors (i.e. subjective feelings of satisfaction) to 'hard' conditions, and to pronounce association only after scientific association was gauged. The systematic (and similarly theoretical) principle can be demonstrated by Baronet's use of theoretical measures. Each of these measures has, in turn, been formulated on empirical principles, but they consist of particular theories -- or systems -- that posit a means to assessing and gauging certain situations.
Baronet, a.M. (2003). The impact of family relations on caregivers' positive and negative appraisal of their caretaking activities. Family Relations, 52, 137-141
Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch
Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.
The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…
Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.
Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.
Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web. http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…
VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)
MY ROUGH IDEA:
1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
Epistemology represents the study of knowledge. This applied to a philosophical context means understanding how an individual learns something, what the basis for genuine knowledge is, and what that knowledge signifies. Many interpret knowledge as true, justified belief, meaning a claim can be justified, the claim is true, and the individual believes in the claim. Over time such exploration of thinking has led to the formation of two main branches of philosophical epistemology. These are Rationalism and Empiricism. Empiricism states that the input from senses (experience and observation) helps a person find true knowledge. Rationalism on the other hand, emphasizes reason instead of the use of the senses to justify claims and beliefs. Outside of philosophy, epistemology is used to understand how people acquire knowledge and learn like Genetic epistemology. When so many areas of study can be examined via the lens of epistemology, it makes developing a personal epistemology…
Postmodernism and Post-Positivism
Challenges and Strengths
Post-positivism vs. postmodernism
Two of the dominant paradigms within the modern epistemological discourse are that of post-positivism and postmodernism. They are often used relatively loosely and postmodernism in particular is deployed in a very flexible manner, to denote a form of art based upon pastiche and humor with a kind of ironic, self-referential quality. The difficulty of defining postmodernism is due to the fact that the philosophy denies the idea of modern 'progress' or the ability to arrive at a secure definition of reality. Instead, "postmodernists deny both the possibility and the desirability of an integral postmodernist philosophy," and postmodern philosophers often seem to share little other than a sense of opposition to modernism (Nekrasas 2011). The idea that there are no truths, only subjective beliefs, might seem antithetical to the sciences, including the health sciences, and there are some postmodernists who deny the…
Hutton, Erica. (2009). An examination of post-positivism. Erica Hutton, PhDc.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.ericahutton.blogspot.com/2009/03/examination-of-postpositivism.html
Nekrasas, Evaldas. (2011). Positivism, post-positivism, and postmodernism.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-26/chapter_viii.htm
communist answer Martin's "Four Subsidiary Philosophical Questions" -- ontological, epistemological, axiological, teleological questions? You find questions Chapter 1 Martin text, Presentation Module 1.
Communism: Four subsidiary philosophical questions
Although the 'four subsidiary philosophical questions' are often applied to religious systems of thinking, they can also be applied to secular worldviews such as Marxism. The ontological starting point of Marxism, or the question of 'who am I' is that every individual is fundamentally a material being, defined by his or her economic status. The world is divided into the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' who are engaged in a perpetual struggle over the world's scarce resources. Although ideologies such as religion or nationalism may be used to mask the importance of economics, historical circumstances -- and therefore the nature of humanity -- are primarily defined by material possessions. People are defined by their class. Similarly, the epistemological questions of how does one…
Chambers, W. (1987). Witness. Washington, DC: Regency Publishing.
Martin, G. (2006). Prevailing worldviews of western society since 1500. Marion, IN: Triangle
Publishing. ISBN: 97811931283168.This is the name of the book
rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.
To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…
Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation
Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.
Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.
difficult to provide a definition to discourse analysis in reference to its use as a research tool. Instead of being a formalized methodology, it is more of a mind-set or epistemological approach. In this sense, Discourse Analysis is neither a qualitative nor a quantitative research method, but a manner of questioning the basic assumptions of quantitative and qualitative research methods. Discourse Analysis does not provide a tangible answer to problems based on scientific research, but it enables access to the ontological and epistemological assumptions behind a project, a statement, a method of research, or - to provide an example from the field of Library and Information Science - a system of classification[footnoteRef:1]. Furthermore, it challenges the assumptions that the scientific method places upon research. Generally this method questions the entire essence of the research problem itself and the inherent assumptions that it makes. [1: (Palmquis)]
History and Development
Boettcher, S. "The Linguistic Turn." Writing Early Modern History. n.d.
Clark, S. Thinking with Demons. London: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Lingual Links. "What is conversation analysis?" N.d. Lingual Links. Online. 29 December 2013.
Palmquis, U. "Discourse Analysis." N.d. University of Texas. Online. 29 December 2013.
Explain why science is of central importance to Locke's theory of knowledge. (Make sure that you explain Primary and Secondary qualities... And their relation to science and knowledge.)
Science, and scientific knowledge gleaned from empirical observation is key to Locke's theory. Locke did not believe all things were or could be subject to doubt. Unlike Descartes, who believed that the truth of existence was manifest in the human mind, and the ability of the human mind to think, Locke believed in the truth of exterior, scientific observation and empirical knowledge, and thus the scientific method had validity as a source of real, certain knowledge.
But Locke, conversely, did not take a position on the opposite extreme of Descartes and state that merely because observations and truth outside of the realm of the self and the mind was verifiable as knowledge, there was no such thing as subjective perception. There were…
The emic view engages descriptions, dialogue and meanings identified by the participant that are important. In the discussion of terrorism, the emic view would be the view of the terrorist. This view may be opposed to the view of those who attempt to understand terrorism.
With terrorism the emic view is particularly important because there may be cultural differences between the terrorist and those who attempt to study terrorism. This difference is even larger is the researcher is from the West. Countries in the West view the actions of terrorists as inherently heinous and "evil." This view often does not give any credence to the meanings that terrorist give to their behavior. Thus the emic view or the insider view is critical to understanding and predicting patterns of terrorism. When the West is understood to the eyes of the "terrorist" existing behaviors and cultural norms are often seen as unacceptable…
The book discusses the prevalent impression of oneself as a separate ego covered in a bag of skin that is similar to a hallucination that accords neither with experimental philosophy nor with the religions of the east, more specifically Hinduism. This hallucination undermines the use of technology and of formal education in general, because of its involvement in the destruction of humanity. atts favors the kind of education that gives us a sense of existence.
Allan atts, in his book: "On the Taboo Against Knowing hom you are" starts by questioning the amount of knowledge that a young person is supposed to seek in order to be in the know. He suggests the presence of some inside information and some special taboo on life that most teachers and parents have not taught. Culture plays a crucial role in the education of the young people through offering a platform for cultural…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the idols. Trans.Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale.
London: Cambirdge university press, 1895. Retrieved from http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/GotDamer.html
Plato. The Republic. Trans. B. Jowett. London: Cambridge University press, 1998. Retrieved
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…
Brady, J. (2003). Critical literacy, feminism, and a politics of representation. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 142-153). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths -
Freire, P. (1970, 1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
Giroux, H. (1983). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.
Gaudino, E.G. And de Alba, A. (2003). Freire -- present and future possibilities. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 123-134). Retreived
SENSIBILITY AND PAUL DE MAN "CONCLUSIONS"
Despite the fact that De man was not a trained philosopher his post war theoretical work is majorly concerned with the nature of the subject and the language in addition to the role played by language and subject in the larger epistemological question of how and what one can claim to know. As a scholar in the field of literature, however, he often took his departure from, and kept returning to, the problems that mostly affect literature in terms of language and criticism. De man did some work in literary theory and criticism dating back to 1950s, although this work cannot be associated with any previous school of criticism that were flourishing during that era. (De man 567)
What major theme does Austen bring about in her book 'sense and sensibility'
What styles does she use to build on the major theme?…
Moore, Lisa L. Dangerous Intimacies: History of the British Novel. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2000.
O'Farrell, Mary Ann. The Nineteenth-Century English
Novel and the Blush. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1995.
Stoval, Bruce. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. 4th Ed.
Ex-hypothesi, however, this is impossible, and thus you are unable to know that you have two hands (and much else besides) (Pritchard 2007).
Indeed, Moore's common sense approach to the problem is far too limited. It needs further elucidation in order not to appear suspect to the skeptic.
Suppose one were to attempt an evidential form of Mooreanism, such as in the following example (Pritchard 2007):
If I know E, then my evidence for E. favors E. over the known to be incompatible BIV hypothesis.
My evidence for E. favors E. over the known to be incompatible BIV hypothesis.
This argument surpasses the common sense approach taken by Moore, and thus requires further elucidation. Once you claim that you have evidence in favor of one hypothesis over another, then such simple formulations as expressed above will not do.
Pritchard thus brings in other forms of anti-skepticism in his…
Pritchard, D. (2005). Epistemic Luck. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pritchard, D. (2007). "How to be a Neo-Moorean," Internalism and Externalism in Semantics and Epistemology, (ed.) S. Goldberg. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gerl (2010) points out in his advocacy of metaphysics as a way of approaching the philosophy of special education that this helps to construct a legal perspective which is evolving in a way that is consistent with the evolution of ethical perspectives of human dignity, individual rights and the treatment of those with disabilities. hile this strikes as relevant, Gerl even concedes that one may not be suited for the metaphysical philosophy of special education law "if a lack of ambiguity appeals to you." Indeed, in a sense, traditional civil rights case law in combination with the ideals delivered by an axiology discourse should serve to effectively address the need for the evolution in ethical perspective. And quite simply stated, the philosophical underpinnings of Logic are problemetized in the educational context by the sheer force and divergence of opposing political, ideological and economic priorities. Therefore, the idea of constructing logical…
Gerl, J. (2010). The Metaphysics of Special Education Law. Special Education Today.
Gordon, M. (1994). Toward a Complete Axiology of Classroom Practice. Boston University.
Kozleski, E. (2005). Logic Model for Whole School Educational Reform. National Institute for Urban School Improvement.
Silverman, J.C. (2007). Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 42-51.
From an epistemological perspective the focus on reporting and analysis, control and management that were the initial design goals of these systems led to an overly-reliant mindset on historical data. As a result, a posteriori knowledge was deficient in the first decades of these systems being used.
The need for explaining and analyzing the epistemological structure of these systems' transitions from being entirely a priori centric to seeking to integrate a posteriori intelligence and knowledge changed the theory of how enterprise systems contribute to knowledge management and creation. The concepts of a posteriori analysis, more reliance on constructivist approaches to analyzing the performance of enterprise systems served as a catalyst for increased use of analytics, metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs). Paradoxically as constructivism became more prevalent as a means to explain the value of information systems and their associated technologies, a priori analysis also became more granular, quantified and…
" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)
According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)
It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…
Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information. http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm
Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.
Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.
Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Plato and the Platypus
Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…
Cathcart, Thomas and Klein, Daniel. Plato and a Platypus Walk Into A Bar: Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes. New York: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Defining Post positivism:
definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society
Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how…
Moya, Paula. Learning from Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles. University of California Press, 2002.
Sleeters (2009) research helped to indentify and address some important issues within the realm of education, and specifically addressed the challenges and biases that these teachers hold when developing curriculum for the students. The purpose of this article review is to account for the arguments presented in the aforementioned article and develop some independent analysis that can be helpful in applying the data in more a practical and localized fashion. This essay will first describe the topic and then explain how this topic was scientifically explored through the positing of certain ideas and premises. The essay will then examine the procedures that the research undertook to realize the result. The conclusions will then be discussed to determine the results, validity and applicability of the work before offering a final summary relating the work to today's situation and how it may best applied in a real world situation.
The main thrust…
Sleeter, C. (2009). Developing teacher epistemological sophistication about multicultural curriculum: A case study. Action in Teacher Education, 31(1), 3-13.
As with water methods of visually perceiving patterns, divination serves as a literal mirror for the cosmos. The visual cues of divination such as cowry shells or the patterns made by mice sometimes serves as a pictorial language spoken between nonhuman and human participants. That language is not one used in human communications, even though it may inform human social order and modes of cognition.
The language of divination represents communication between human and super-human forces. A diviner acts much like a translator would, communicating the perceived patterns of cosmic order to an individual or to the community. Divination is integral to all traditional African religions as well as to the religions of most other cultures. The function of divination is artistic, epistemological, and expressive. Divination also creates, maintains, and interprets social and spiritual order.
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African…
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African Arts. Summer 2002. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0438/is_2_35/ai_94010411/?tag=content;col1
"Exploring Africa." African Studies Center. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m14/activity2.php
Peek, Phillip M. African Divination Systems. Indiana University Press, 1991.
Pemberton, John III. "Divination in Sub-Saharan Africa." Art and Oracle: African Art and Rituals of Divination. 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/oracle/essayPemberton.html
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
This object, though, sets in human consciousness in many divergent ways -- perception, memory, retention, etc. Depending on the manner in which the idea is intentional, the object may be identical but interpreted different and thus a divergent sense of reality for individuals. Opposite of Descartes and Kant, there is no one finite way of describing this object and it is entirely dependent upon the method of reduction and interpretation in which we find meaning. hen we reference a thing, this object, then, we are closer to representing a Platonian version of forms or ideas in that thing -- the thing's essence or idea. Some say that when we describe an identical thing as what we really "see" or measure, it does not mean that this is the entirety of the thing. The ultimate goal of phenomenology, then, is to understand how these different aspects are merged into the actual…
Phenomenology. (2008). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology/
Annas, J. (2003). Plato: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Audi, R., ed. (1999). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, C. (January 12, 2008). Remarks on Simone Weil's Mysticism. Retrieved from:
Gifts of the Jews
Thomas Cahill's book The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the ay Everyone Thinks and Feels demonstrates what happens when a great idea is ultimately brought down by a lack of critical and rhetorical rigor. This is not to suggest that The Gift of the Jews is not worth reading, or that its insights are not valuable, but rather that every surprising fact or remarkable contribution is lessened somewhat by a longing for what the book could have been, had Cahill simply been more precise in his language and extensive in his sourcing. As it is, The Gifts of the Jews is an entertaining, surprising examination of Jewish history and culture, albeit one whose evidence ultimately falls short its boldest claims. By examining the book's central thesis regarding the Jewish contribution to the conception of time and historicity alongside the more…
Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews. New York: Anchor Books, 1999.
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
Student Technology Teachers' Values and Assumptions: How They Impact on Teaching Practice" by endy J. Dow. The study that Dow conducted involved a phenomenological evaluation of student teachers' experiences of learning which led to her conclusions about the fixed nature and structure of knowledge. Even though the study methodology was unorthodox and limiting in some respects, the study findings appear to support Dow's conclusions regarding teacher education courses.
The study methodology departed from the norms that typically use in-depth semi-structured interviews or pencil and paper measures to explore epistemological beliefs. Instead, the study used in-depth analysis of third-year students' reflective journals over the course of a university term. hile this departure from the accepted methodology had the benefit of accessing a record of the students' independent and voluntary reflections on their progress or lack thereof, it raises questions about the study findings. The article does not present enough information on…
Dow, W.J. (n.d.). Student technology teachers' values and assumptions: how they impact on teaching practice. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2011 from: http://www.iteaconnect.org/Conference/PATT/PATT19/Dowfinal17.pdf
adical behaviorism is a branch of psychological study that postulates that human "behavior" is at the integral part of psychological study. Unlike other disciplines such as cognitive psychology that concentrates on internal factors such as thoughts or rather obsessive preoccupations, behaviorism theory only considers the "observable" factors of the outside environment. In this paper, I analyze the strengths and weaknesses of radical behaviorism in light of cognitive psychological theory.
Skinner who relied on Behaviorist evolution advanced the theory that preceded philosophical argument that was presented by Watson. Fuentes (2000) traces the philosophical origin of the Skinner theory to empiricism and positivism. On the other hand, he argues out that its epistemological paradigm bear direct relationship to objectivism where reality dwells from without the individual, and knowledge is simply an illusion of reality (Fuentes, 2000).
Skinner's adical Behaviorism was anchored in the notion that learning is a product of change that…
Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(1), 63-90.
Funtes, B.F. (2000). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan
Russell, J. & Cohn, R. (2012). Radical Behaviorism. Hoboken: Book on Demand
Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.
With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.
J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.
2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
To resolve this conflict in the situation where demographic and experiential differences are found qualitative researchers, such as those studying different cultures, might employ guides, interpreters and/or other "native" individuals to introduce and help them assimilate into the culture, in order to observe it or in some cases they use time as their tool, immersing for longer periods of time with limited or no interruption to eliminate any bias that might occur in research results because of his or her presence. Even among researchers this is not seen as a perfect set up but it can help resolve some of the intrusion challenges associated with diversity.
One of the major problems, as qualitative researchers see it in historical research is the fact that the researcher has often been seen and thought of as holding a position of authority over the subjects being studied. This idea of "social capital" is pervasive,…
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field/. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Finkleman, J.M. (2007) Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation: The Dysfunctional Side of Diversity. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (4) 254 -- 260
Pugh, S.D. Dietz, J. Brief, a.P. & Wiley, J.W. (2008) Looking Inside and Out: The Impact of Employee and Community Demographic Composition on Organizational Diversity Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6) 1422 -- 1428.
Merchant, B.M. & Willis, a.I. (Eds.). (2001). Multiple and Intersecting Identities in Qualitative Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This will reveal the bias of the West and how it has come to embrace the stereotypical imagery and ideas of the Oriental.
In conclusion, the essay will briefly recount the points made throughout the essay overall, but will also offer analytical ideas as to how, understanding Orientalism as a product of the colonial and post colonial West, how the East and the West might move forward and achieve the cultural equality necessary to build a safe and productive global community and environment of co-existence through mutual respect, understanding, and equality.
It is only in conjunction with other works which specifically address the subject of Orientalism that one begins to identify markers of Orientalism in Captain Sir Richard Burton's interpretation of the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (Burton, ). Works by authors like Edward W. Said, who spent much of his life studying and…
In addition to this, the epistemic area of concern dealing with how knowledge is formed will be another arena to explore. By understanding this area, I will be better able to determine how certain groups were able to portray stereotypes as knowledge. In addition, I will be able to explore whether the process of forming knowledge is different for members of different cultures and groups, which might explain how these stereotypes were able to be marketed as knowledge. Finally, the area of epistemic concern regarding whether humans can, indeed, have knowledge is unrelated to my study. Obviously, my area of interest comes with a presupposition that humans can, indeed, have knowledge. To discuss whether or not humans can, indeed, have knowledge will not be relevant to my study because if it is held that they cannot, my study is irrelevant.
Thus, epistemology, or the study of knowledge, is an important…
Moser, P.K. And vander Nat, a. (2003). General Introduction: "Human Knowledge: It's
Nature, Sources, and Limits." In Moser, P.K. And vander Nat, a. (Ed.) Human Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Approaches, (pp.1-28). New York: Oxford University.
Instead, he challenges the reliability of the person who claims knowledge, by asking him for a definition that would hold for all circumstances. The point is not to ascertain whether he is right in this case, but to see whether his claim could hold for every case. This is close to the skeptical issue, but deceptively so."(Benson, 87) in the Socratic view therefore, knowledge is perceived as the greatest possible virtue of the soul. Thus, it is through knowledge that a person may distinguish between right and wrong and thus act virtuously. The process of attaining knowledge is nevertheless an arduous one, not being easily available to its seekers. The role of philosophy is thus central to the proper functioning of the human society since it is comparable to the practice midwifery in that it helps to deliver man from perplexity and allow truth to be born in the mind.…
Benson, Hugh H. Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Plato. The Republic. London: Oxford University Press,1945.
The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters, ed. By Edith Hamilton and Hungtinton Cairns. New York: Pantheon Books, 1961.
Socrates (c. 470 B.C.-399 B.C.)." DISCovering Biography. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003
The more that your questions are descriptive or explanatory the more that the case study method will be relevant;
How should I select the case to be studied?": According to Yin: "you need sufficient access to the potential data, whether involving people to be interviewed documents or records to be reviewed, or observations to be made in the 'field'. Given such access to more than a single candidate, you should choose the one(s) that best illuminate(s) your research questions. Absent such access, you should consider changing your research questions, hopefully leading to new candidates to which you do have access."
I am studying a school. What is my case: Is it the teachers? The reading program? The whole school?: Yin states: "The specific definition of your case again depends upon your research question(s). The least desirable question is to want to know "everything that happened." Your literature review should help…
Audet, Michael (2005) Teacher Professional Growth Plans: A Case Study of the Chilliwack School District. 21 April 2005. Online available at http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/retrieve/2221/etd1914.pdf
Creswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lenz, Pamela A. (2005) Perceived Influence on School Effectiveness: Chapters I-III. January 2005. Online available at http://www.education.duq.edu/pdf/Talking_Paper-Lenz.pdf
Yin R.K. 1994: Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Second Edition, Sage Publications London
Therefore, these strategies identify the problems of contemporary science resulting from male bias. Longino acknowledges that such approach is descriptively adequate to a certain extent, but she demonstrates that it falls short of normative adequacy.
The third section of the article takes into account another strategy used by feminist epistemology, termed multiplying subjects. The strategy is based on the ideal of unconditioned subject. Traditionally it has been acknowledged that individual subjectivities are conditioned, and the unconditioned subjectivity is an achievement; the methods of natural sciences and the scientific methodology in general are the means to that achievement.
The nature of the relationship between observation, data, and theory, which represent scientific discourse have been considered arguments against unconditioned subjectivity and empiricism. The arguments rely on the fact that if the scientific knower is considered an individual who should be freed from external influences in order to produce acceptable knowledge the puzzles…
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
The problem of consciousness, in short, is that there is a gap between any posited physical explanation and the actual subconscious or immaterial experience of the phenomena, i.e. Of the subconscious act itself. The one does not adequately lead onto, or conclusively latch onto, the other, but once one recognizes this problem one may conclude as McGinn (1989) does that our human mind is unable, due to its limitations, to deal with this quandary and we may be reluctant to pursue it further. Offering a way out, Chalmer, therefore, recommends adopting a nonreductive explanation where a naturalistic account of consciousness based on principles of structural coherence and invariant organization as well as a double-aspect view of information may pose as more insightful explanations for the why's and wherefores of consciousness.
The problem of consciousness involves the following: the brain is reducibly matter as so is the other organs…
Fausch, K., Torgerseon, C., Baxter, C., & Li, H. (2002). Landscapes to Riverscapes:
Bridging the Gap between Research and Conservation of Stream Fishes BioScience, 52, 1-16