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Equal Rights Amendment and its what its impact and chances for ratification might be if brought before the legislators today. The author argues that many political changes have taken place and the ERA might not be as well received, however, it would still be needed.
THE SAME NEEDS FR DIFFERENT REASNS
The Equal Rights Amendment assures that everyone will be treated fairly and equally. This was a needed amendment at the time of its inception for several reasons. At the time, there was gender discrimination in the workforce as well as other types of discrimination. Employers routinely refused to hire women or minorities. If they did, they paid them a lower wage than they paid to the white male employees. For many years this was an accepted practice and the ERA Before the ERA was put into affect people were at the mercy of the will of authority in work…
One of the reasons the ERA may not pass today is that we have made the changes the ERA demanded we make. So much has happened politically and socially because of the strong arm of the ERA, that we now see the benefit of diversity and equality. Without the ERA ever being implemented, we would not be in the same place as we currently are. In addition, if we were by some avenue to reach this point and the ERA was introduced, we would ratify it because there are still areas that need the foundational support and protection. While we are basically a society that does not discriminate, there are still some who will if given the opportunity. We see news shows weekly about someone who has been discriminated against due to their skin color or gender. Lawsuits ensue and eventually the injured party prevails. However, if we did not ratify the ERA today, we would be sending a message to the world that discrimination was acceptable to us and it would most likely grow in its existence.
Our economic and political systems have changed drastically since the 1970's. These changes might affect a current attempt to ratify the ERA. Before its existence layoffs were conducted with women and minorities being the first to go. The premise was that white fathers had to support their families. Today there are many single parent homes. This means that the single parents are supporting the families and the non-custodial parents need the job to pay their child support obligations. Our society is much different today than it was three decades ago. The ERA would have a tougher time passing but in the end it would be ratified because we have the same needs even if for different reasons.
The Equal Rights Amendment came at a time in which America was evolving by leaps and bounds. Today we would not recognize what were considered accepted practices back then. However, the amendment still serves and will always serve to protect people against discrimination, therefore would indeed be ratified if it were to appear today.
he one group of people in American society that has been systematically denied equal rights has been women. Women comprise half the population, but only received the right to vote in 1920. wo specific actions that have been taken to help women overcome inequity has been the suffragist movement, which helped lead to the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, and also the National Organization for Women (NOW). Second and third wave feminism has helped, from Gloria Steinem to Beyonce, but Americans have a long way to go. Although American society has become more egalitarian, there are still problems with gender inequality. Women can vote and hold public office, and yet there has yet to be a female president, most lawmakers remain men, and most people in positions of power in all sectors are also men. Men head corporations and thus control the genuine power in the country. here…
The government plays an active role in economic affairs, from the creation and maintenance of the Federal Reserve to the free trade agreements that govern international tariffs. Two specific actions that have addressed problems with the nation's economy have been the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed in response to the growing concern over how monopolization of the market by mega-corporations was hurting, rather than helping, the economy. Economic growth depends on competition, which is why the government decided to step in and regulate business in an unprecedented way. The FDIC was also revolutionary in that the government offers protection to both business and consumers who rely on banks. Fewer people would use banks were it not for the FDIC.
Theme 14: Presidential Decisions
All presidents make at least one major decision during their tenure in office. One of the most important presidential decisions over the past 100 was Roosevelt's New Deal. The New Deal was a collection of programs and initiatives designed to respond to the crisis of the Great Depression. Programs included the Works Progress Administration and most importantly, Social Security. These measures helped individual Americans and the long-term economic growth of the company. The New Deal also inspired a new era in infrastructure development throughout the country. Another important decision was the Civil Rights Act of 1964, passed by President Johnson. This Act was long overdue, and had been drafted long before. However, Johnson made the ultimate executive decision to pass the Civil Rights Act, which made it more difficult for racists to get away with practices that were keeping the country down.
Gabrielle Jamela Hosein6(2002), on the other hand, holds that this is mainly a question of perspective.
5. In Community Activism and Feminist Politics edited by Nancy a Naples. outledge.
6. What Does Feminism Mean to Young Women? CAFA. http://www.cafra.org/article353.html
For some young women, according to this author, feminism means survival and a fundamental recognition of themselves as women with rights that are equal to those of men. This group of young women understand the need to struggle for their right to exist on their own terms. These women strive for equality under patriarchal and oppressive regimes, or even in Western societies where supposedly subtle forms of oppression are all too apparent.
On the other hand, there are the group of young women who see feminism itself as a mode of oppression or indeed a type of violent anti-oppression movement and therefore to be avoided. This demonstrates a fundamental misconception of…
Bulbeck, Chilla. 2008. Equality - Do today's young women and men want it? University of Adelaide. http://www.equalopportunity.wa.gov.au/pdf/speech_iwd08.pdf
Dailard, Cynthia. 2001. Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, Vol. 4, No. 1. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/04/1/gr040109.html
Equality Now. http://www.equalitynow.org/english/index.html
Hosein, Jamela Hosein. 2002. What Does Feminism Mean to Young Women? CAFRA. http://www.cafra.org/article353.html
Elsie Hill defines equality broadly, to include all manner of equal protections under the law and equal access to opportunities and legally ensconced freedoms. According to Hill, women are not entitled to control over their own earnings and even over their own children. Women are also excluded from serving in public office, even though they are taxpayers. Hill calls for the removal of any and all forms of discrimination. The author proposes the Woman’s Equal Rights Bill, which would create a federal standard for gender equality, thereby precluding the rights of states to perpetuate their own misogynistic laws. Hill also claims that the passing of the Woman’s Equal Rights Bill would promote a parallel amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing the rights of women.
Florence Kelley, on the other hand, opposes the Woman’s Equal Rights Bill, claiming that women need different laws from men because they are biologically different. Kelley assumes…
ight to Privacy
Being a citizen of the United States comes with many benefits in comparison to citizenship in other countries. Through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of ights we are granted certain rights -- the right to free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly -- just to name a few. However, despite the 27 amendments the Bill of ights that guarantee American protections and liberties, there is no explicit law that guarantees protection to a citizen's right to privacy (Davis, 2009). It is more of an assumed protection, although most Americans do not realize it.
In 1928, Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis referred to the right to privacy as the "right to be left alone" (De Bruin, 2010). This assertion is often supported with a citation of the 14th amendment which states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which…
Cowan, J. (2010). Why we'll Never Escape Facebook. (Cover story). Canadian Business, 83(10), 28-32.
Davis, S. (2009). Is There A Right To Privacy? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. 90(4), 450-475.
De Bruin, B. (2010). The Liberal Value of Privacy. Law & Philosophy, 29(5), 505-534. doi:10.1007/s10982-010-9067-9.
Doyle, C., & Bagaric, M. (2005). The right to privacy: appealing, but flawed. The International Journal of Human Rights. 9(1), 3-36.
ight to Life
For all human beings death is one of the most intricate truths to cope with. In spite of this, people take decisions to finish their lives, which in turn result in ending their pain and suffering. This practice is known as euthanasia, or even commonly called as assisted suicide by those who are against the practice completely.
However, whatever term we may use to label it, it is an issue that society should become more familiar with. For instance few countries like Switzerland have legalized the practice and extend great support to those who want to end their lives so as to get away from the detriment of their disorders. However, this practice is only legal and offered only to those who are going through terminal illnesses or vegetative states. Although there are many controversies that surrounds euthanasia, there are numerous religious activists and humanitarian groups that…
Bright, S.B. 2009. Why the United States Should Join The Rest of the World in Abandoning Capital Punishment. The Right Thing To Do, Fifth Edition.
Derksen, J. 2010. The Latimer Case: The Reflections of People with Disabilities - Murdered in the Name of Kindness. Accessed 11-11-11 from: http://www.ccdonline.ca/en/humanrights/endoflife/latimer/reflections/kindness
Doerflinger, R. 1989. Assisted Suicide: Pro-Choice or Anti-Life. Accessed 11-11-11 from: http://www.jstor.org/pss/3561965
Thompson, J.J. 2005. The right thing to do.
Representative Rosa DeLauro first introduced an identical bill in the House of Representatives on the same day. These Congresswomen have introduced identical legislation in their respective chambers annually since 2005. The Act was most recently introduced on March 6, 2007. (Absoluteastronomy.com, n.d.)
The Congress did not ignore the EPA's economic consequences on the salaries and employment opportunities for both men and women. First, as an amendment of the FLSA, the EPA is part of the same legislative structure that houses the federal minimum wage laws. The EPA acts as a wage equalizer between men and women for equal jobs, and has the potential of acting as a price floor on the salaries of men or women for particular jobs. As such, the EPA had the potential of causing some of the same problems observed by minimum wage laws: unemployment, and additional discrimination. (Absoluteastronomy.com, n.d.)
From the EEOC's initial enforcement…
Absoluteastronomy.com. (n.d.). Equal Pay Act of 1963. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from Absolute Astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Equal_Pay_Act_of_1963
Brunner, B. (n.d.). The Wage Gap. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from Infoplease:
EEOC. (n.d.). Equal Pay and Discrimination. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from U.S. Equal
S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.
State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.
More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…
Buzuvist, Erin E. 2001. "A" for effort: evaluating recent state education reform in response to judicial demands for equity and adequacy. Cornell Law Review. Cornell University
Crofton, Ian. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia. Guiness Publication.
Education Quotes. (2006). Retrieved January 17, 2007, at http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_education.html
Gylfason, Thorvaldur. (2000) Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development.
g., juries that reflect the ethnic makeup of communities, another form of affirmative action). In the Crown Heights riots (1991) in Brooklyn, New York, Lemrick Nelson was on trial for violation of federal civil rights laws (he allegedly killed a Jewish student). The district court judge, Judge Trager, using "nontraditional" methods, attempted to create diversity on the jury by using ethnic criteria (blacks and Jews) in an attempt to reflect the actual ethnic makeup of Brooklyn (ilkenfeld, 2002). The Second Circuit Court, however, "struck down" judge Trager's construction of an ethnically reflective jury; the Second Circuit held that Trager's court "violated the Equal Protection Clause." The circuit explained that "...potential jurors' Fourteenth Amendment rights to be free from racially discriminatory state action preclude treating individual jurors differently based on a desire to maintain a certain aggregate jury composition" (ilkenfeld, 2002), according to an account in the Columbia Law Review.
Bressman, Jeremy. "A New Standard of Review: Craig v. Boren and Brennan's 'Heightened
Scrutiny' Test in Historical Perspective." Journal of Supreme Court History 32.1 (2007):
University of Minnesota Sociology Department. "Fullilove et al., Petitioners, v. Philip M.
Klutznick, Secretary of Commerce of the United States, et al." Retrieved November 25, 2008 at http://www.soc.umn.edu/~samaha/cases/fullilove_v_klutznick.html .
Equal Protection Clause of 14th Amendment
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment extended to protections of the Bill of ights to all Americans, including pregnant women. Therefore, it is fundamentally unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to criminalize pregnant women who take illegal drugs for fetal abuse or neglect without applying the same conditions on pregnant women who endanger their unborn child by drinking alcohol, smoking, or otherwise failing to provide the best possible nurturing environment for the fetus. This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature together with the precedential case law concerning these issues to support this view, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
A growing body of research concerning fetal development together with innovations in modern healthcare technologies have provided researchers with new insights about what can harm or nurture…
Blank, R.H. (2002). Mother and fetus: Changing notions of maternal responsibility. New York:
Flavin, J. (2009). Our bodies, our crimes: The policing of women's reproduction in America.
New York: New York University Press.
Indeed, the cantankerous and authoritarian general would operate with what was necessarily a sense of his individual capacity to lead his men into battle. To Patton, leadership does require some degree of extraordinary confidence, if not outright vanity, if one is to engage organizational goals with the sense of entitlement to exact decisions impacting the lives of so man. Such is also true if one is to contend with the constant challenges, setbacks and opponents inevitable when in command of so many people and policies. However, as his comments show, it is Patton's position that the leader should never view himself as removed from any degree of labor relevant to these goals. As it were, he suggests that the great and natural leader will take as much proprietary pride in getting his hands dirty as in offering administrative oversight. This is the equation that figures into the 'right stuff,' with…
Campbell, Al. (2006). Still Secure, Patton's Christmas Day Fair Weather Prayer of '44. General George S. Patton, Jr. Online at http://www.generalpatton.com/viewheadline.php?id=4164.
CMG Estates. (2006); Biography of General Patton. General George S. Patton, Jr. Online at http://www.generalpatton.com/biography.html.
Patton, George S.. (1947). War as I Knew it. Houghton-Mifflin.
Wolfe, T. (1979). The Right Stuff. Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the times when they were adopted, and the general objects they plainly sought to accomplish. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed. Discriminations against them had been habitual.
100 U.S. 303, 306).
Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. It held that:
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. Part III, p. 335 (Act of Mar. 1, 1875).
Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).
These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). ecause the company has been a leader in many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King).
Settlement terms included $23.7 million as back pay; $58.7 million as compensatory damages; and $10 million as promotional achievement award fund distributed to the complainants. A remaining $20 million went to attorney's fees and $36 million to the implementation of internal program reforms. Coca-Cola would also create an external, seven-member task force to insure that the terms were complied with and to oversee the company's diversity efforts (King).
According to Social Networks. - Connections in…
Bland, T. (1999). Equal pay enforcement heats up. 4 pages. HR Magazine: Society for Human
Bronstad, a. (2001). EEOC alleges Beverley Hilton discrimination. 2 pages. Los Angeles
Business Journal: CBJ, LP
Several justifications for the continuous disparity in wages have been explained. It is obvious that women usually receive less and the central issue is to find out the cause. Men have attempted since decades to provide a justification by the help of hypothesis of various academic qualifications achieved by men or the various occupational responsibilities or vocations controlled by women as against those controlled by men. One reason is that women are featured in the remuneration gap equation, and a lot of these women belonging to a bygone period that continue to be dependent on the behavior and circumstances prevailing in the yester years. (Nash, 68)
Adversaries of uniformity in remuneration assert that preferences and not inequity is responsible for the disparity in the remuneration gap. People who are not in support of bridging the gap in remuneration between men and women think that the gap is present due to…
Acker, Joan. Doing Comparable Work: Gender, Class and Pay Equity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Amott, Teresa. Caught in the Crisis: Women and the U.S. Economy Today. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.
Bellas, M.L. Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Salaries: Does Gender Bias Play a Role? Journal of Higher Education. Volume: 68; No: 3; 1997; pp: 299-321
Furchtgott-Roth, Diana; Stolba, Christine. Equal Pay for Equal Work. American enterprise. Volume: 12; No: 1; July 1999; pp: 37-42
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
To be an “experiencing subject of a life” means to be something that is here, now, alive, in this world, being part of the grand mystery that is life. So basically anything that exists has life—from people to birds to trees to grass to even water and rocks. There is a grace and power and beauty and soul that is woven through all of it. To disregard something as not worth our concern or as something that can be annihilated or abused is to be disconnected from this grand harmony.
However, I do not think that being the subject of a life means that one has equal inherent value. As a human being, I feel that we can derive a sense of our value from religious teachings—particularly the traditional Christian teachings that hold that we are created in the image and likeness of God. This teaching points to a special…
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…
"Fichte's Philosophy of Right and Ethics," forthcoming in Gunter Zoller (2007). The
Cambridge Companion to Fichte. New York: Cambridge University Press.
, 2005; Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009).
Human esources Implications of Equal Pay Concepts
While applicable employment legislation prohibits discrimination in compensation based strictly on gender, it does not necessarily require equal pay in circumstances where there are purely objective differences justifying those differences (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009). There are, in fact, numerous factors on the basis of which compensation differences may be permissible; for example, seniority, performance reviews, experience, the achievement of specific goals or objectives, and the objective overall quality of the work performed by respective employees may all be appropriate criteria for justifying unequal pay (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009).
In light of the applicable legislation and the nature of the appropriate criteria that justify differential compensation, promotion, and benefits, human resource professionals must establish very detailed position analyses and job descriptions (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009). This is the simplest and…
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-
Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., and Wright, P. (2009). Human Resource
Because of the fact that they ae Negos, they have been oppessed and intimidated on seveal occasions. Malcolm X also makes some histoical claims when demanding the civil ights. He states that Nego evolt has been going on since 1945 in the whole wold and in 1964 will see that it then emeges to be a black evolution. He claims that this evolution has been happening in Asia, Afica and Latin Ameica fo the not white individuals. The blacks who wee colonized by the Euopeans I Asia have been involved in the stuggle fo since 1945. Fo the Mexican-Ameican stuggle fo equality also involves some histoical statement especially in 1965 when efeing to Cesa Chavez who has had majo contibution fo the La Raza Unida quest fo the ights though non-violent means.
Reason fo the timing of the civil ights demands
In the Montgomey bus boycott, the people ae demanding…
references to his citizenship and the democracy. As for Malcolm the rights are also provided by the constitution. In the Mexican -- American, the rights are provided by the democratic system.
Consequence of failure
The civil rights activists for the Montgomery bus boycott are using non-violent approaches in demanding their rights. This is in line with the approach that Martin Luther King always uses therefore it's expected that the people will continue with the peaceful demonstration until their plights are heard. As for the Malcolm protesting people, they are at this moment peaceful. However if their rights i.e. voting rights are denied, the black man will start using the bullet as a new way to advocate for their rights. They will turn into violent movements and use violence so as to gain their rights.
The civil rights movements in the post was a reaction by most of the war veterans who came from the war hoping to be respected because of the sacrifice that they had given only for them to find that they are still stuck in a segregated and racist nation. This was also in sharp contrast to the freedom principals that they had fought for overseas. Therefore the civil rights seeds were sowed as the as demands were then put forth by the black leaders for equal rights. Martin Luther King was one of the leaders and in this instance he is seen leading the boycott of the Montgomery bus. He advocates for the equal rights of the blacks that they may be respected by their counterpart white citizens particularly in the bus stations. Malcolm X is also advocating for the civil rights of the black people in his expression of the ballot or the bullet. He is expressing the importance of the voting right to be granted because it will be useful in a bloodless revolution. He warns however that the failure to grant the right will lead to retaliation by violence of the bullets. The last incidents considered by the paper is the Mexican-Americans rights group through the faction called La Raza Unida. The members of this group seek to advocate the right of the Mexican-American having realized that there are no equal provisions of opportunities.
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
Jefferson Davis Views on State ights and Secession
Jefferson Finis Davis or more popularly known as "Jeff" Davis was born on June 3rd 1808 to the Kentucky couple Samuel and Jane Cook Davis. He passed away on December 6th, 1889 but not before he served as an American statesman and leader from the Confederacy throughout the American Civil War entire duration of the Civil War as well as the history that was made in that era. In his early life, he attended and graduated from the Transylvania University, and West Point which he followed up by fighting in the Mexican -- American War. He served as the colonel of one of the many volunteer forces fighting the war at the time. He followed that by serving the United States as the Secretary of War. He completed this tenure under the democratic governmental structure of President Franklin Pierce. He continued to…
Collins, Donald E. (2005). The Death and Resurrection of Jefferson Davis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Cooper, William J. (2000). Jefferson Davis, American. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Cooper, William J. (2008). Jefferson Davis and the Civil War Era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Peterson, Merrill D., ed. Thomas Jefferson: Writings. New York: The Library of America, 1984.
Further arguments that gay marriages do not contribute to the greater good are debatable, based largely on faith-based belief rather than empirical research.
In the 1930s, sociologist Edwin Schur wrote extensively about the idea of victimless crimes. For Schur, victimless crimes involve an exchange of commodities or services that are socially-disapproved. These exchanges are voluntary and do not cause anyone harm (Schur, 3).
Schur himself cited consensual homosexual unions as an example of victimless crimes. Schur writes that society has enacted laws against such deviant behavior based not on any harm these crimes cause, but because these crimes violate prevailing standards of socially acceptable behavior. These standards, however, are fluid and subject to change. Given this, Schur argues that laws against homosexuality, for example, penalize people who should not be labeled as criminals in the first place. Their actions meet the criteria of non-coercion and no harm. Therefore, no one…
Battles, Kathleen and Wendy Hilton-Morrow. "Gay characters in conventional spaces: Will and Grace and the situation comedy genre." Critical Studies in Media Communications, 19, March 2001: 87-105.
Clinton, Bill. "Congress Should Ban Antigay Job Discrimination." In Discrimination. Mary E. Williams, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal." In Gay Marriage. Kate Burns, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press, 2005.
Gallagher, John. "Homosexuals Seek Equal Rights, Not Special Rights." In Homosexuality Helen Cothran, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
Universal Human ights
A very highly contested issue in international political theory is the issue of universal human rights and its interpretation is dependent on the manner in which particular theorists understands it and the moral obligations related to it as well as international laws and the manner in which the two concepts of obligations international laws relate to one another. The fundamental interpretations about what is right and the extent to which the existing rights tend to be accepted and enjoyed by everyone forms that basis of the philosophical debate about whether human rights are universal or not (Kessler). The variant transition of value systems that result from the philosophical theories and practical politics when examined makes the debate more complex.
Debates have been surrounded around the issue of universalization of human rights within the world that has numerous independent systems that are diverse and sometimes of…
"The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.." Un.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 31 Mar. 2016.
Baylis, John, and Steve Smith. The Globalization Of World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Baylis, John, and Steve Smith. The Globalization Of World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Donnelly, Jack. Universal Human Rights In Theory And Practice. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003. Print.
The closest thing to a universally-accepted definition of human rights comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human ights (OHCH). That body's definition is founded on the principle that human rights are inalienable and universal. That is, they apply to all human beings and that all are entitled to these rights without discrimination. The UN definition also holds that human rights are "interrelated, interdependent and indivisible" (OHCH, 2016). The OHCH cites such rights as the right to work, the right to self-determination, to social security and education, to equality before the law and to freedom of expression (OHCH, 2016). How these broad concepts are to be operationalized is not specified by the OHCH. Indeed, there are some inherent contradictions immediately apparent between the definition set forth by the OHCH and the Universal Declaration of Human ights, the foundational document for the modern neoliberal concept. As an example,…
Abu-Lughod, L. (2011). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. Ethics Forum: September 11 and Ethnographic Responsibility. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://internationalhumanrightslaw.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Do-Muslim-Women-Really-Need-Saving-Anthropological-Reflections-on-Cultural-Relativism-and-Its-Others.pdf
Baghramanian, M. & Carter, J. (2015). Relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#CoVarDef
Basnet, G. & Albalooshi, M. (2012). Human rights debate: Universalism versus relativism. Eurasia Review. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.eurasiareview.com/27062012-human-rights-debate-universalism-versus-relativism-oped/
Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Furthermore, this brief introduction details the different types of legislation regarding men and women that Wollstonecraft supported. Next, this chapter moves onto Wollstonecraft's own life and actions, as well as a brief description of the time period in which she lived. These descriptions allow the reader to understand how Wollstonecraft was both revolutionary and conventional, in addition to how society encouraged and discouraged her various roles. Furthermore, I introduce these ideas to personify the struggle in which Wollstonecraft operated every day. It is this struggle that I emphasize during this chapter, giving the reader an idea of the challenging nature of Wollstonecraft's life because of it, in addition to its contribution to her struggle on paper. This chapter also introduces the reactions that others had to her work, as well as a tribute to its lasting contributions. I remark that Wollstonecraft is a strong voice among other female writers and…
3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis)
In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be represented through any kind of pain and regardless of its form. The best representation of suffering can be presumably felt when a change from a state of happiness to a state of unhappiness occurs.
The cause of suffering (duhka-samudaya) states that most of the suffering that humans feel is because of their desires. Most humans are inclined to wish for something that they believe would grant them happiness. However, in most cases, the goal set by some might not have the desired effect on them once it has been achieved. In order for people to leave suffering behind, they would need to understand that the human nature does not necessarily depend on granted wishes.
The cessation of suffering (duhka-nirodha) refers directly…
2. Keown, Damien V., Prebish, Charles S., Husted, Wayne R.. 1998. HUMAN RIGHTS and UNIVERSAL RESPONSIBILITY. Curzon Press.
2. Sundaram, P.K. Om Sakthi Spiritual Movement. Available from: http://www.omsakthi.org/essays/buddhism_peace.html
3. Tenzin Gyatso, H.H. The XIVth Dalai Lama. His Hollines, the 14th Dalai Lama. Available from: http://www.dalailama.com/page.233.htm
4. Traer, Robert. Religion and Human Rights. Available from: http://religionhumanrights.com/Religion/Buddhist/buddhist.fhr.htm
Women winning the right to vote, far too long after the founding of America, was of course an important 'first step' in ensuring that women become full participants in the American experiment. But understanding the subtle cultural discrimination, as manifest in John Adams' treatment of his wife, and the subsidiary complaints of Stanton, Wollstonecraft, and Woolf also demonstrate that simply passing a law is not enough to change the rights of women. Women have been treated as children, and also viewed as incapable of truly realizing their dreams because of their capacity to be mothers. This has remained unchanged in the cultural discourse and memory in a way that affects all of our perceptions, male and female, and unless we remember this, we may be too easily seduced by the achievements, however remarkable, of a few talented women who have been able to chip away at the 'glass ceiling.'
eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.
Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.
Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.
Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .
Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.
Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.
Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…
Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.
Barry, B. Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.
Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. Web. April 2013. .
In the United States of American court systems, juvenile courts still proposes juvenile delinquents in aspects that are more paternal other than diagnostic. The adult counterparts cannot access such diagnostic processing as juveniles do. Adults are treated separately unlike juveniles within the jury and the constitutional accordance that assures the difference has been assured to the individuals.
The IV Amendment Search and Seizure Clause
The Fourth Amendment is one of the most prolific archives of constitution litigation in the United States of America. The application to the state through the process of Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is unique and comprehensive to the American court systems dealing with juveniles. This amendment is depicted by issuance of connotation that protected individuals from unnecessary seizures and searches while in court proceedings. The amendment has much respect to juveniles and juvenile courts since most juveniles do not have to be apprehended…
Bueren, G.V. (1998). The international law on the rights of the child. Dordrecht [u.a.: Nijhoff.
Detrick, S. (1999). A commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff Pub.
Kumar, a. (2006). Human rights and sustainable development. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
Siegel, L.J., & Welsh, B. (2012). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice, and law. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Human Rights, eyond Intervention
The true civilization is where every man gives to every other every right he claims for himself.
There is a modern debate that is ongoing between different views of human rights and law in contemporary society. Essentially the debate has two fundamentally opposing points-of-view. On the one side are those who view certain human rights as intrinsic to the meaning of being human and inalienable for all humanity, regardless of any external social, political or legal influences. This is generally referred to as natural human rights. On the other hand there is a general and opposing viewpoint that human rights are not essential or intrinsic, but rather socially and legally created and determined. To complicate the debate there are various stances and points-of-view that include elements of both these arguments.
Central to this debate is another more subtle debate that underlies the different views…
Adler M. On Inalienable Rights. The Mortimer J. Adler Archive
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Grant R. The Social Contract and Human Rights.
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
WOMEN'S IGHTS: EQUALITY IN THE WOKFOCE, EQUAL PAY
Women's ights: Equality in the Workplace, Equal Pay
Legislative background. The word "sex" is always an attention-getter, and when used in legislation, it can be polarizing. Public Law 82-352 (78 Stat. 241) was passed by Congress in 1964 as a civil rights statute. The Law made it a crime to discriminate in all aspects of employment on the basis of race and sex. epresentative Howard W. Smith (D-VA) added the word "sex" at the eleventh hour (O'Neill, 2011), reported to keep the bill from being passed. As a conservative Southerner, Smith was seen as an opponent of federal civil rights legislation. But Smith defended his action, explaining that he had amended the bill because of his work with the National Women's Party and his efforts to support Alice Paul. The effort to retain the word "sex" in the bill was led by…
About NOW, National Organization of Women. Retrieved http://www.now.org / organization/info.html
About Us, Women's International Forum. Retrieved http://www.iwf.org/
About Us, WorkLife Law. 2011. A Center of UC Hastings College of the Law. Retrieved http://www.worklifelaw.org/ProveitAgain.html
Thomas, M. 2011. Another equal pay day. Really? Ms. Foundation for Women. Retrieved http://ms.foundation.org/
Human Rights: Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Human Rights
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2007 by the United Nations General Assembly after disability rights organizations pushed to petition the Assembly to recognize disability as a human rights issue. Today, the Convention serves as the primary reference point for identifying and safeguarding the rights and freedoms of persons with disabilities. This text identifies the basic rights protected under the Convention, and the various measures that states have put in place to safeguard the same.
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been selected for analysis in this assignment. It basically is a civil rights treaty designed to ensure that persons with disabilities are treated with dignity and that they receive equal treatment…
California Department of Justice. "Legal Rights of Persons with Disabilities." California Department of Justice, last modified 2006. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.ag.ca.gov/consumers/pdf/disabled.pdf
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. "Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2015. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRPD/Pages/ConventionRightsPersonsWithDisabilities.aspx#16
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. " Monitoring the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2010. Accessed November 9, 2011. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/Disabilities_training_17EN.pdf
United Nations. "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." The United Nations, 2006. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/convention.shtml
Women Voting Rights
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief essay that centers on a few particular topics as it relates to women and their place and function within the suffrage movement as well as other pushes for equal rights including in the military, the workforce and so forth. The particular events and topics that will be touched upon will include women and work, women's new deal, working for victory: women and war, women in the military and working women in war time. While women are still facing equality-related struggles now, it was much worse for them in the 1800's and beyond and even into some of the 1900's.
When it comes to women and work, the reasons for their slow progress over the duration of the existence of the United States as well as beyond that is not hard to figure out. Indeed, women…
S. history would not have been fought if it had already been established that human beings were entitled to certain rights and not subject to enslavement.
3. Despite being a woman in a very male-dominated world, it is fair to say that Eleanor Roosevelt was absolutely instrumental in getting the UDHR passed. One of the goals in establishing the United Nations (UN) was to guarantee some type of protection for human rights; the problem was that the UN charter did not define human rights. Furthermore, there was no global consensus regarding the definition of human rights. Eleanor Roosevelt became chairman of the committee to draft the UDHR. Though Roosevelt was a well-respected and admired woman, who had political experience from her years as First Lady, she had no official diplomatic experience. Therefore, some questioned whether she was up to the task of engaging in such large-scale diplomacy. However, she proved…
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…
Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html
Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/
Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
Racism in Israel: Israeli Jews to Ethiopian Jews
What is considered to be the main cause of the selected political issue (i.e., history, culture, etc.)?
With the high rise of racism throughout the world, Israel has contributed to the racism towards the influx of Ethiopian Jews migrating to their alleged homeland. Ethiopians had little to no exposure to Jews outside of Ethiopia; hence, were not educated of the other Jews in the world. This caused differences with the basic practices of both Israeli and Ethiopian Judaism. During the immigration period, the Ethiopians were named ‘Beta-Israel’ and were considered outsiders for centuries in their homeland of Ethiopia, because they were Jews. The religious discrimination is what caused the immigration to Israel in the 1980s. Majority of Ethiopian immigrants appeared in two groups to Israel. The first was called ‘Operation Moses’ in 1985-6, while the second was ‘Operation Solomon’ which was in…
Women Activists Dilemma to support or Oppose the 15th Amendment as evidenced by the split in the Women’s suffrage Movement
After the Civil war, three amendments were passed which massively transformed the women’s rights movement. These were the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. The thirteenth amendment approved in the year 1865 declared slavery illegal (Parker, 1849). Thus, all the women who were previously enslaved became free and acquired protection by human rights. The fourteenth amendment declared that everyone born in the U.S was a legal U.S citizen and should not be deprived off their rights including all slaves. Moreover, the law added that all male American citizens had the right to vote (Anderson, 590).
Finally, there was the controversial Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870. The amendment granted black American men the right to vote by stating that the rights of U.S citizens to participate in elections must not be…
U.S. AFTER 1865
DYNAMICS OF GENDER POLITICS IN THE 1910S AND 1920S
In the period during World War 1, the place of the women was in chemical plants, steel foundries, and munitions factories as a way of serving their country. After the creation of the Army Corps of Nurses, many women went abroad as nurses, and this gave them strong moral arguments for their voting rights. Women tactics and immoral way of treatment forced the Congress to act on the issue, and it was on August 26, 1920, that President Wilson declares his favor on women suffrage. From this day on, the style of women changed and between 1910 and 1920, many women were present in the labor force. Moreover, a notable difference was also evident in the kind of works the women engaged in, and this led to the decrease in the number of female household servants, dressmakers, farmhands,…
National omen's Rights Convention of 1850 in orcester, Massachusetts, a convention dedicated to rallying important voices around the country for the cause of social reformation regarding the position of women. That the Convention took its name for the women's rights movement is indicative of the major compelling force behind that the new "idea" of womanhood had roused, not just among women but also among men of important social standing. omen were finding their voices and advocating social reform on a variety of levels -- a point reflected by the newspapers and commentators of the day -- and men were showing their support by joining in at the Convention and advocating for social change alongside their female "counterparts." Yet, not everyone viewed the Convention in the same light. This paper will show how the omen's Rights Convention served as a lightning rod of "controversy," indicating that midway through the 19th century…
"A Convention." U.S. Women's History Workshop. Web. 7 October 2015.
Blackwell, Elizabeth. "Editorial Note." Pioneering Work in Opening the Medical
Profession to Women: Autobiographical Sketches by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell. NY: Longman, Green, 1895. Web. U.S. Women's History Workshop. 7 October 2015.
"Grand Demonstration of Petticoatdom at Worcester -- The 'Woman's Rights'
Freedom and Equality in the 20th century
AN UN-ENDING FIGHT
Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies
The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).
The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…
AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/oc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership
Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights.101/erexpanded.html
Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html
In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.
Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…
The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." Infoplease.com. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858852.html
Aberman, Samara. "The War on Drugs." PBS NewsHourExtra. 2001. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drug_war.html
Dirks, Tim. "Film History of the 1970s." The History of Film. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.filmsite.org/70sintro.html
Halber, Deborah. Seventies oil crisis was a 'perfect storm' for U.S. MIT. March 23, 2007. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/jacobs.html
[James fieser] We also have to assess the 'proportionality of happiness' factor in determining if capital punishment is justifiable in a particular case. That is to say that if the execution of a prisoner will save the lives of many people capital punishment can be approved in such cases. Let us for instance take the example of a captured terrorist or a suicide bomber. In this case it is fairly obvious that the destructive potential of these people would be greater and consequently their execution entails greater safety, protection and happiness for the society. Under these circumstances capital punishment stands clearly justified. Finally, the cost factor is also used by abolitionists in supporting their argument. While the legal cost of executions maybe high they are insignificant when compared with delivering justice.
The deontological theory on the other hand is concerned only with the rightfulness of an act irrespective of its…
1) James Fieser, "Capital Punishment," Accessed on 3rd June 2007, available at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/c/capitalp.htm
2) Dudley Sharp, "Death Penalty as a Deterrent," Accessed on 3rd June 2007, available at http://www.dpinfo.com/death_penalty_as_a_deterrent.htm
3) Kenneth Cauthen, " Capital Punishment," Accessed on 3rd June 2007,
Available at, http://www.frontiernet.net/~kenc/cappun.htm
Examples of successful women abound in recent history, evidenced by the recognition of Oprah infrey as one of the wealthiest and most powerful individuals in the entertainment/news industries, Venus illiams as one of the highest paid tennis professionals-male or female-in the world, and the countless examples of prominent women in medicine, law, business and more. An interesting aside to the consideration of infrey and illiams, as well as Dr. Rice, however, is the fact that they are not only women, but they are also African-American women, a key distinction that deserves closer discussion. These women have blazed a trail for the advancement of the women's movement without a doubt, but also, they have opened many doors for minorities, which is perhaps an even larger tribute to them and more evidence of their exceptional abilities and talent to overcome adversity and excel. hether they are evaluated simply as successful women, or…
Biography of Dr. Condoleeza Rice." July, 2004, White House Online. Retrieved May 17, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/ricebio.html .
Feifer, Megan. "The History of Black Feminism and Womanism." University of Wisconsin at Madison, 2004. Retrieved May 16, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.uwm.edu .
Secretary Rice's International Debut." Manila Bulletin 15 Feb. 2005: NA. Questia. 17 May 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008648125 .
Whitaker, Charles. "The Changing Role of Black Women." Ebony Mar. 2001: 108. Questia. 17 May 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000958776 .
Universal Health are for America:
How a Socialist Model an Work in a Democratic ountry
The possibility of a universal health care system in the United States seems distant at times. Yet as more and more youths graduate college, and as more and more adults lose positions they have held for decades, one finds oneself wishing that the United States would at least secure this basic right for such individuals, many of whom have few prospects for immediate hire and remain without health insurance coverage. The political situation often does not match social reality, especially with respect to universal health care.
Though President Obama has taken measures to ensure that the health care system is at least reformed a little, the path to a future vote for universal health care remains long and arduous. Sadly, few can envision a socialist model of healthcare working in America, and content…
The health care debates should not focus around political ideologies or other political issues. Instead, our nation's leaders ought to realize that obtaining medical services should not be privilege and this is exactly what private corporations have made it now. Instead, this should be a right, that each American can have, and each American should exercise his or her democratic right and be able to bring this to fruition by campaigning for it alongside other supports. This paper has given a history of the health care system in the United States, and has provided alternatives and possibilities of implementing these alternatives in order to make this country a better place for all.
A universal, even socialized health care system in the United States should not mean that this country is compromising any of its values; instead it should make note of the fact that such a system, tailored to fit this country as mentioned above, would enable all to have a better way of life and perhaps an even longer life. In order to attain this we must fight as Americans for a basic right. Such statements as "Nearly 50 million Americans are currently without health insurance, and many with insurance are still struggling to pay their medical bills" or "The United States spends an estimated $2 trillion annually on healthcare expenses, more than any other industrialized country" should not be statements that we can utter. This country is great, and has been able to reform everything in its history, and health care should be no different. [21: "Should the U.S. have Universal Health Care?"(2011). Opposing Views. Retrieved July 4, 2011, < http://www.opposingviews.com/questions/should-the-us-have-universal-healthcare >.] [22: Johnson, T. "Health Care Costs and U.S. Competitiveness." (2010). CFR.org. Retrieved June 4, 2011, < http://www.cfr.org/health-science-and-technology/healthcare-costs-us-competitiveness/p13325 >.]
ights Accused 1.Fully defined due process origins, Completed 90-100% accuracy, 2.Fully explained due process protects accused abuses federal government. Complete 90-100% accuracy, thoroughness, logic, Used (3) reference directed.
Due process was one of the first rights that were created in the U.S. constitution. The history of due process comes from the year 1355 when the phrase was coined at the time when there was the first government. The Great Charter of the Liberties of England statute stated that no man would be imprisoned or prevented from enjoying their freedom or liberty or be outlawed or exiled unless by lawful judgment that is passed or by the law of the land. Several years later in the 28th year of the reign of King Edward III, it became a declaration that no man was allowed to be deprived of their property, be imprisoned, disinherited or killed without being charged by the due…
Holmes, N.J., & Ramen, C. (2011). Understanding the Rights of the Accused. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing Group.
Israel, J.H., Kamisar, Y., & LaFave, W.R. (2003). Criminal Procedure and the Constitution: Leading Supreme Court Cases and Introductory Text. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Nicholaidis, N. (1989). Sixth Amendment Right to a Speedy and Public Trial. American Criminal Law Review, 26(4), 1489-1505.
Right and rong ay of Doing Something:
Making chocolate chip cookies
Everyone loves chocolate chip cookies. However, not everyone knows how to make good chocolate chip cookies the right way. People who are good bakers seem to have a mysterious power. hat is their secret? Did they learn their recipes at their grandmothers' knees? Do they have a special gift? The answer to all of these questions is 'no.' Instead, by following some simple steps, it is very easy to make a bakery-worthy chocolate chip cookie.
The first step is to lay out the necessary ingredients to make the cookies, to ensure that all of the components of the cookie are in the cupboard. A bad baker begins sifting flour haphazardly without checking to make sure that all of the ingredients are present. Baking is chemistry, not an art, and substitutions usually do not end happily unless the cook knows…
"Chocolate chip cookie ingredients." Cookie Smart. [19 September 2012]
"Easy cookie baking tips." Cookie Smart. [19 September 2012]
Equal Pay Act: Difficult but Essential to Enforce
According to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009, women made about 80% of what men of the same race performing the same jobs did. Historical data from the BLS (and this is consistent with other sources) demonstrate that things have improved little in terms of pay equity for women over the past half century or so (Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost ). This is true despite the fact that in 1963, the Pay Equity Act became federal law in 1963. It is nearly impossible not to consider this law a failure in its effects given that so little has changed. (One might argue that things might have gotten worse for women absent this law, but this argument seems at least primarily specious.)
Congress enacted the law, which amended the Fair Labor Standards Act, for a number of reasons, including the…
AFL/CIO, "Pay Equity," retrieved 5 February 2010 from http://www.aflcio.org/issues/jobseconomy/women/equalpay/ ).
Bureau of Labor Statistics, retrieved 4 February 2010 from http://data.bls.gov/cgi -
One of the primary arguments he asserted in the article is the concept of special over universal rights. For him, the right to a decent minimum should be given to people who have had experienced 'injustice' from American society historically, such as the black…
Buchanan, A. (1999). "The right to a decent minimum of health care." In Beauchamp, T. And L. Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. (5th ed.). CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
right" embodies the notion that one has the sovereignty to act without obtaining the permission of others (Lea, 2004). This concept carries an implicit unstated postscript with it in that one may exercise one's rights as long as one does not violate the individual rights of others. Individual rights pertain to the rights that are deemed universal to all people regardless of any group affiliations they may have. For example freedom of speech is considered a universal individual right in many societies. Governments are formed to protect the individual rights of all, but at the same time restrict some rights to ensure equality.
Collective rights refer to the rights that groups have, or to the rights held only by those individuals within a specified group (Lea, 2004). For instance, a certain group of indigenous people may lay claim to certain rights such as the right to live on native lands…
Lea, D. (2004). Individual autonomy: Group self-determination and the assimilation of indigenous cultures. North Australian Research Unit. Discussion Paper No. 18, 1-17.
Tsey, K. & Every, A. (2000). Evaluating Aboriginal empowerment programs: the case of family well-being. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(5), 509-514.
added for a few specific points. Otherwise it can be assumed that I have added my thoughts about what the authors have said. In Part Two, I have included other sources and cited them properly.
Equal Treatment the eal Issue
In this piece the author assumes a basic fact: that because something is essentially a fundamental right at least at some point it becomes necessary for our social institutions (including government and possibly religious ones) to protect the use of the activities the rights allow for. This is what the U.S.A. Today article meant in paragraphs 4, 5, and 6, for example. ights, after all, would be useless if there were all type of obstacles put in their way of their actually being exercised. History and the law have placed themselves on the administrative side of this argument by allowing for the creation of a number of their own institutions…
Frank, N. (2010). What Does the Empirical Research Say about the Impact of Openly Gay Service on the Military? Palm Center. Retrievable from http://www.palmcenter.org/publications/dadt/what_does_empirical_research_say_about_impact_openly_gay_service_military .
Hunter, P. (1994). Homosexuality: The paradox of evolution. Retrievable at http://www.adherents.com/misc/paradoxEvolution.html .
Random History (2011). Same-Sex Unions throughout Time: A History of Gay Marriage. RandomHistory.com. Retrievable at http://www.randomhistory.com/history-of-gay-marriage.html.
Burke likes order and social order, while Paine cries out for equality and social justice. Burke believes there should be an elite, and they should never lower themselves to a common status, while Paine believes there should not be an elite class, and that all men are created equal.
This is an inherent difference in philosophy and in government. It is the reason that some English citizens felt the need to break away and travel to a new land. It is the reason that the oppressed and intimidated in other countries of the world still seek freedom and independence. Burke argues that the state is a permanent contract, not to be bent for trivial concerns like "pepper and coffee" (Burke 112). However, Paine's arguments resonated with the "common man," someone who Burke seems to ignore in his arguments. Paine seems more understanding of the "times that try men's souls" (Editors…
Editors. Anthology of British Literature. pp. 105-112, and 121-128.
Amendments to the Constitution
In any criminal cases, the individual will be arraigned before the judge. This is when they will be informed about the charges and given the chance to enter a plea. Once this takes place, is the point a preliminary hearing is scheduled. It focuses on the evidence and if there is enough to warrant a trail. If the judge is convinced there is enough evidence, they will schedule a date and time for a jury trial. This is when there will be series of hearings challenging the discovery process, the evidence and any that could have been collected in violation of the Constitution. In these situations, the judge will rule on the evidence and determine which items can be included at trial. During the process, both sides will call witnesses and try to prove their case. (Hess, 2014) (Parpworth, 2012)
At the heart of these issues…
Hess, J. (2014). Constitutional Law and the Criminal Justice System. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Parpworth, N. (2012). Constitutional and Administrative Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stering, R. (2004). Police Officers Handbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Strauss, D. (2010). The Living Constitution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Economic Motivators for Employers on Employment ates for People With Disabilities in Atlanta
Definition of Disability
Statistics for Individuals with Disabilities
Effects Of ADA On Persons With Disabilities
Economic Motivators for Employers Hiring People with Disabilities
Factors Affecting Economic Motivators for Employers
Lack of Information and Knowledge egarding Economic Motivators
Misconception about Individuals with Disabilities
Inaccessible Hiring Strategies
Conflicts with Existing Programs
Lack of Appropriate Planning and Difficulties in implementations Economic Incentive Programs
Unemployment Among People with Disabilities
CHAPTE III: METHODOLOGY
Selection of Participants
Complete description of the esearch Participants
Type of Sampling
Appropriateness/rationale for use in the study 53
Ethical Consideration 54
Data Analysis 55
Qualitative esearch Analysis 55
Quantitative esearch Analysis 57
The esearcher's ole 58
Andrew, D. P. S., Pedersen, P. M., & McEvoy, C. D. (2011). Research Methods and Design In Sport Management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Arthur, S., A. Corden, A. Green, J. Lewis, J. Loumidis, R. Sainsbury, B. Stafford, P. Thornton, & R. Walker, R .(1999). New Deal for disabled people: Early implementation, Research Report No 106, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.
Ashworth, K., Hartfree, Y & Stephenson, A. (2001). Well, enough to work? Research Report No. 145, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.
Baker, M. & Tippin, D. (2003). More than just another obstacle: Health, Domestic Purposes Beneficiaries, and the transition to paid work, paper presented at the Social Policy, Research and Evaluation conference Connecting Policy, Research and Practice, 29-30 April, Wellington.
As a part of its responsibility to monitor federal agency compliance with Section 501, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) collects and compiles data regarding agencies' hiring and advancement of workers with disabilities. At the time of hiring, federal agencies provide employees the opportunity to self-disclose that they have a disability, on a Standard Form 256 (SF-256); the numbers of people who so identify are reported to the EEOC. In1979, EEOC officially designated certain disabilities as targeted disabilities in its Management Directive 703 issued on December 6, 1979, which in 2003 was superseded by Management Directive 715. MD 715 defines targeted disabilities as "Disabilities that the federal government, as a matter of policy, has identified for special emphasis in affirmative action programs. They are: 1) deafness; 2) blindness; 3) missing extremities; 4) partial paralysis; 5) complete paralysis; 6) convulsive disorders; 7) mental retardation; 8) mental illness; and 9) distortion…
Supreme Court Decisions Interpreting the Americans with Disabilities Act, subpart
II (J)(1), at http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/2002/supremecourt_ada.htm , quoting the National Council on Disability, TOWARD INDEPENDENCE, app., at a-15 & a-37 (1986).
Robert L. Burgdorf Jr., "Substantially Limited" Protection from Disability
Discrimination: The Special Treatment Model and Misconstructions of the Definition of Disability, 42 Villanova L. Rev. 409, 529 -- 533 (1997)
A third approach in this area is the establishment of new co-pay programs which force patients to bear the costs of more procedures and treatments. This theory tends to shift part of the blame for over treatment back on the patient. Doctors claim that they order additional treatments because their patients insist on them. Forcing patients to share a greater portion of the costs of these additional treatments should arguably result in their being less demanding about receiving them.
Bureaucracy and overhead created in the delivery of health care and the administration of insurance benefits has also contributed to the substantial increase in health costs (Woodhandler 2003). The health insurance industry has campaigned to reduce health care costs but, in the process, has created a bureaucratic system that has effectively contributed to the problem. Additionally, compliance with governmental regulations has contributed to the bureaucratic difficulties as well. Practicing physicians and…
Avraham, Ronen. The Impact of Tort Reform on Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Premiums. Research, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
Bodenheimer, T. "High and rising health care costs ." Annals of Internal Medicine, 2005: 932-937.
Davis, K. Mirror, mirror on the wall: an international update on the comparative performance of American health care. Research Study, New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 2007.
Epstein, Arnold M. "Health Care in America - Still too Separate, Not Yet Equal." New England Journal of Medicine, 2004: 603-605.
Eason Jordan made what he defined as a "life and death" decision to withhold information that might get his informants killed in Iraq. "It's very simple," he said. "Do you report things that get people killed? The answer is no.," (cited by Rutenberg, 2003). Jordan's decision is a little bit surprising, considering the media's generally ruthless approach to journalism: such as the push to get the story first, or to glean information before competitors in the industry. Journalism is cutthroat enough on an individual level: leading reporters on the ground and editorial boards to make decisions that are in the best interest of the company, but which are not necessarily ethical.
In the case with Eason Jordan, however, it seems that the editorial choice might have been the ethical one. Although "several journalism professors and commentators said Mr. Jordan had compromised CNN's journalistic mission so the cable network could continue…